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The Modern Cook, 1846

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TITLE: The Modern Cook
AUTHOR: Charles Elme Francatelli
PUBLISHER: This edition by TL White, New Orleans, USA
DATE: 1846, this edition 1859
THIS VERSION: This text prepared from the version at archive.org, digitized from an edition in the collections at the Kelly Library of the University of Toronto. This is an Optical Character Recognition scan, it has been partly edited, but still contains very significant errors.

Of Italian ancestry, Francatelli was, very briefly, chief cook to Queen Victoria, and later, like Soyer, at the Reform Club.



THE MODERN COOK;

A
PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE CULINARY ART
IN
ALL ITS BRANCHES,

COMPRISING,
IN ADDITION TO ENGLISH COOKERY, THE MOST APPROVED- AND RECHERCHE SYSTEMS OP FRENCH, ITALIAN, AND GERMAN COOKERY;
ADAPTED AS WELL FOR THE LARGEST ESTABLISHMENTS AS FOR THE USE OF PRIVATE FAMILIES.

By CHARLES ELME FRANCATELLI,
PUPIL TO THE CELEBRATED CAREME, AND LATE MAITRE-D'HOTEL AND CHIEF COOK TO HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN.

TO

THE RIGHT HON. THE EARL OF ERROL.

My Lord,

The honor conferred on me in being permitted to dedicate the following pages to your Lordship, presents an opportunity, of which I gladly avail myself, to express publicly my grateful acknowledgments for the liberal encouragement and uniform kindness I have ever experienced, since I had the good fortune to come under your Lordship's notice.

If my anxious endeavor to produce a useful treatise on the art I profess, worthy of public favor and of the distinguished patronage I have received, shall be successful, the satisfaction this will give me will ever be associated with a grateful recollection of the many facilities afforded me for acquiring additional practical knowledge and experience,, while in Her Majesty's service as Chief Cook and Maitred'Hotel, in which office I had the advantage to act under the liberal and judicious directions of your Lordship, when Lord Steward of the Household.

I have the honor to be, My Lord, With the greatest respect, Your Lordship's most obedient and very humble servant,
Charles Elme Francatelli.

PREFACE TO THE NINTH EDITION.

In introducing the present Edition of The Modern Cook to the public, I beg to return my thanks for the patronage that has been awarded to former Editions, by the public at large, as well as by the profession, of whose approbation I feel most proud. Indeed, I am so conscious of the value of the good opinion of these competent judges, that I do not hesitate to ascribe the steady demand with which the Work has hitherto been favored to their liberal support.

So gratifying an appreciation of my endeavors • has naturally prompted me to render the present Edition in all respects worthy of a continuance of their patronage. I have in all cases most strictly studied economy, - by retrenching, as far as it appeared to me consistent with propriety, all unnecessary and too expensive accessories to the more costly kinds of dishes. The whole work has been entirely revised with scrupulous care and attention; and upwards of eighty entirely new dishes, principally belonging to the Second Course department, have been added. I have also enlarged the glossary of technical terms: - and, in order to render the Work of easier reference to the public, as well as to the practitioner, no trouble has been spared to improve the Index.

I have nearly doubled the original number of Bills of Fare; and have added many of dinners served to Her Majesty the Queen.

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22 PREFACE,

And now, generous and gentle patrons, I once more respectfully take my leave of you for a while; and to you, Gentlemen of the Public Press, I beg to return my most sincere thanks for the handsome and kindly manner in which you noticed my earnest efforts to assist my English brethren to outrival their hitherto successful foreign competitors for fame in the Culinary Art.

But T should not do justice to my own feelings if I omitted on this occasion to offer my special thanks to the Author of the admirable little work, entitled " The Art' of Dining, or Gastronomy and Gastronomers," for the very flattering terms in which he has spoken of my professional labors.

C. E. FKANCATELLI.

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

In his present undertaking, the Author's object has been to produce a treatise which may be useful, not only to cooks themselves, but also to those who employ them. He has, accordingly, been as sparing as possible of the use of technical terms, and has endeavored, at the same time, to be concise as well as explicit in his directions.

Judicious economy being at all times a great desideratum, the Author has studied to apply its practice in the composition of every recipe contained in his book. Many dishes are obviously expensive, and can only be indulged in by the wealthy epicure;- but even here, the cost may be reduced by avoiding waste, and by turning to account ingredients carefully reserved for the purpose by the aid of foresight and economical habits. In large establishments, when properly conducted, there is, indeed, less relative waste than in the kitchen of a small private family, under the management of an ordinary cook.

It is necessary to remark, that throughout this work, the Author has supposed the various dishes and preparations are required to be made for a large number of guests, with the usual resources at hand in a well-appointed kitchen; perfection and economy can only be fully attained under such circumstances. The variety and quantity of the ingredients recommended to be used will probably often appear lavish, therefere, to those whose culinary practice is limited, and who are, nevertheless, desirous of combining comparative success with moderate means.

For persons so situated, when desirous of indulging occasionally in dishes of a sumptuous character, no written directions would probably suffice;, the only sure method in such cases is to resort to professional aid. But, in the majority of instances, the Author's instructions will be found generally practicable; common sense, aided by some experience, will suggest the employment of available substitutes, when costly sauces and other recherche preparations are directed to be used.

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24 PREFACE.

Simplicity is as essential an element in cookery as it is in other arts: the Author, therefore, particularly cautions the inexperienced practitioner from attempting too much. Excess in the quantity and variety of spices and condiments - the bane of English cookery - is especially to be guarded against. Nothing vitiates the palate more than a superabundant use of such stimulants. In the preparation of soups and sauces, this rule must be constantly borne in mind.

In a treatise professing to treat of cookery as an art, by which refined taste is to be gratified rather than a coarse appetite satisfied, it would be out of place to attempt to translate its rules into the hackneyed terms employed in "Guides" and "Oracles" for economical makeshifts.

Such attempts, too frequently made by English writers on gastronomy, at once betray their origin. The greater part of these authorities are persons who, having neither studied the rudiments nor practised the art to any extent, take upon themselves to instruct the public, not from the fulness of their knowledge, but either as a pecuniary resource, or to gratify an idle whim. Need it be wondered at, while we possess in England a greater abundance of all kinds of food, generally of far better quality than is to be found elsewhere, that our cookery, in theory and practice, has become a by- word of ridicule, and that we should be compelled to have recourse to foreigners, ignorant for the most part of our tastes and habits, to prepare our feasts ? " They manage these things better in. France:" cookery is there considered as an important art, and its successful endeavors are regarded with a due appreciation. In Paris its great professors have achieved an almost historical celebrity, and their school of cookery has become pre-eminent. This can only be attributed to their assiduous study of its elementary principles, which, when properly understood, will be fouud to conjoin the highest enjoyment with due attention to the preservation of health.

The palate is as capable and neai'ly as worthy of education as the eye and ear.

A large proportion of the dishes contained in this work are quite new to the public, not merely as regards their names, but as respects their composition. This will be found to be the case, particularly with the soups, dressed Fish, Removes, Entrees, Hors-d'oeuvres, and dressed Vegetables. The second course, moreover, is treated at greater

PREFACE. 25

length, and with more care than has hitherto been the case in English Cookery Books.

A copious and varied collection of Bills of Fare, adapted to every season of the year, has been added as an essential accompaniment to the work. In connection with this subject, the Author ventures to offer a few suggestions for the consideration of Epicures..

In the first place, the English custom of dividing a grand dinner into several courses is an error quite at variance with common sense and convenience. It is a needless complication that necessarily leads to useless profusion, and much additional trouble. Our neighbors across the Channel - the best authorities in all gastronomic questions - allow of two courses only in the largest dinners. With them, Fish and Hors-d'oeuvres, - such as patties, croquettes, &c, form part of the First Course, and not a distinct course, as they are considered east of Temple Bar. The French, too, regard the dessert as a mere delassement after dinner, intended rather to propitiate than to thwart digestion.

The great and increasing intercourse between this country and the Continent, as well as the probable relaxation of the duty on foreign wines, will tend naturally to extend our use of many kinds especially appropriate to the dinner-table. On this head, the Author, without pretending to give any elaborate or detailed instructions respecting the service of wines at dinner, cannot refrain from alluding to an injudicious habit, frequently adopted at English tables - that of introducing sweet Champagne in the First Course. This wine, from its sweetness, naturally counteracts the flavor of savory dishes - there is a mutual repulsion between them. Madeira, Sherry, and Burgundy are better suited to the First Course; their stimulating and generous qualities tending considerably to assist digestion. In France, sweet Champagne is not introduced until the latter part of the Second Course: by that time, the palate has become more fit to appreciate the delicate bouquet of this delicious and exhilarating beverage.

The Author begs further to add, that the ordinary practice in London of servi ig Turtle and Venison indiscriminately, as mere accessories to recherche dinners, is, in his opinion, most injudicious. Turtle and Venison being generally reckoned by us as the best of good cheer, it follows that when they form part of a dinner, the Removes and Entrees are comparatively neglected. Very light Entrees should only be served with these; and on such occasions, indeed it would be

i

26 PREFACE.

preferable to arrange the dinner in the Russian fashion - placing the dessert upon the table at first, while the whole of the dinner is served from the side tables. By this means, two advantages are gained: a less number of dishes are required - especially in the First Course; and the dinner has a better chance of being served hot - an indispensable requisite to its due enjoyment. In pursuance of this recommendation, a series of Bills of Fare, after the Russian mode, has been included with the others.

A copious Index, together with a Glossary of French terms, will, it is hoped, augment the utility of the work.

The Author hopes he shall be excused for alluding to himself, and his pretensions for writing a book of this kind. Although bearing a foreign name, he is happy in being an Englishman. He received his professional education in Paris, and acquired a knowledge of his art in some of the most celebrated cuisines of that capital, and was so fortunate as to become a pupil of the renowned Careme. Qualified under such favorable auspices, he has subsequently served - he hopes with satisfaction to his patrons - some of the most distinguished bons mvants among the British aristocracy and gentry. He has had the good fortune to be Chef-de-cuisine to the Earl of Chesterfield; Lord Kinnaird; and to Sir W. Massey Stanley, Bart., and Rowland Errington, Esq., at Melton Mowbray; and he shall ever consider it the greatest honor to which he could aspire, to have served as Chief Cook and Maitre-d'Hotel to Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen.

CONTENTS.

Glossary.

Common Stock and Stock Sauces.

Grand Sauces: Espagnole, Veloute, Bechamel, and Allemande.

Special Sauces.

Cold Sauces.

Purees of Vegetables for garnishing.

Vegetable Garnishes.

Essences, Gravies, and prepared Savory Butters for finishing Sauces.

Ragouts and Garnishes in general.

Broths and Consommes.

Medicinal Do.

Braizes, Poeles, Mirepoix, Marinades, and Roux.

Quenelle Forcemeats.

Clear Consomme Soups.

Purees of Vegetables for Sonps.

Soups made with Rice or Pearl-barley.

Bisques of Crayfish, and other Shellfish Soups.

Fish Soups and Water-souchets.

English Soups.

Foreign National Soups.

Italian Soups.

Panadas and light Soups for Infants, &c.

Dressed Fish.

Removes- Beef. Veal. Lamb. Calves'-heads. Ox-cheek. Pork and Sucking pig. Braized Hams. Venison, Red-deer &c Turkeys and Capons. Chickens, Goose and Cygnets. Pheasants. Partridges Meatpies. Meat-puddings. Black Game and Grouse.

Entrees - Pates chauds, or raised Pies. Vol-au-vents and Tourtes. Timbales. Macaroni and Casseroles. Ornamental borders of Potato-paste. Chartreuses of Vegetables. Forcemeat Chartreuses. Ornamental croustades, Turbans and Mazarines. Beef. Ox-cheek dressed. Oxpalates. Ox-piths. Ox-tongues. Mutton. Mutton Cutlets. Scollops. Carbonades. Fillets. Sheep's Tongues. Sheep's Heads and Kidneys. Veal. Fricandeaux. Noix, &c. Heart and throat Sweetbreads. Calf'sears, feet, liver, and brains. Lamb. Lamb's-head, ears, and feet. Pork. Venison, Roebuck, and Poultry. Quenelle forcemeat of Fowl.

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28 CONTENTS.

Pigeons and Ducklings, Quails. Larks. Rabbits. Hares. Pheasants. Partridges. Boudins, Quenelles, and Soufflees of Partridges. Woodcocks and Snipes. Wild-fowl. Ortolans and Wheatears. Dressed fish.

Second Course Roast* - Game, Poultry, Wild-fowl, &c.

Vegetables for Entremets.

Entremets of Eggs, Macaroni, &c.

Cold Entrees for Ball Suppers, &c.

Cold Raised Pies and Preserved Game.

Different kinds of Paste.

vol-au-vent and tourte cases.

Croustade and Timbale Cases.

Cakes in General.

Small Pastry.

Fritters.

Iced Puddings and Ornamented Entremets.

tlmbales and cakes of macaroni, nouilles, &c.

Souffles.

Puddings.

Jellies.

Creams.

Mincemeats.

Bills of Fare.

Index.

f

f

GLOSSARY.

Alt.emanhe. Reduced or concentrated white veloute Sauce, thickened with cream and yolks of eggs, and seasoned with nutmeg and lemon-juice.

Angelica is a plant, the tender tubular branches of which, after being preserved in syrup, are used for the purpose of decorating entremets, &e.

Baba, a kind of very light plum-cake.

Bechamel is velottte Sauce boiled down with cream in equal parts. This Sauce takes its name from a celebrated cook.

Bisque. A Soup generally made with shell-fish.

Blanch. To parboil: to scald vegetables, &c, in order to remove their hulls or skins, such as almonds, &c.

Boudix. A delicate kind of eutree. prepared with quenelle force-meat or mince.

Bouquet (garnished), or faggot, consists of a handful of parsley, six green onions, a small bay-leaf, and a sprig of thyme, neatly tied together with. twine.

Bkaize, mirepoix, marinade, poele, blanc, are various kinds of compounds used for imparting flavor to braized meats; and also for keeping Calves'Heads, Poultry, &c, white, while they are being braized.

Braizing signifies a slow process of simmering or stewing over a smothered charcoal-fire.

Brioche. A species of light spongy cake, resembling Bath-buns.

Caramel. Burnt sugar, occasionally used as a make-shift for coloring.

Charlotte consists generally of vei-y thin slices of bread, steeped in clarified butter, and placed in symmetrical order in a plain mould garnished with fruit or preserve.

Chartreuse of Vegetables. A mixed preparation, consisting of vegetables symmetrically and tastefully arranged in a plain mould, the interior of which is garnished with either game, quails, pigeons, larks, fillets, scollops, tendons, c.

Chartreuse a la Parisienxe, &c. An ornamental entree or side-dish, composed chiefly of quenelle force-meat; the interior being garnished with ragouts, scollops, Ace.

Compote generally means confectioned fruits, preserved in syrup, or apple and any other kind of fruit jelly; this word is also used to designate certain savory dishes, prepared with pigeons, quails, or larks, mixed with peas, or mushrooms, &c.

Consomme. Clear strong broth, much used in the preparation of Soups, Sauces, &c.

Coxtise. When small scollops of truffles, red tongue. &c., are inlaid, as ornaments, by incision in fillets of any kind, they are said to be conti.u'x.

Croquettes and Rissolks. A preparation of mince, with a bread-crumbed coating. These words both signify something crisp.

Croquantes. A bright mixture of fruit ami boiled sugar.

Ciioustadks. Pates-chacds, Tourtes, Timbales, Casseroles of Rice. Various ornamental pie-cases, made either of paste or prepared rice.

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30 GLOSSARY.

Croutons. Sippets of bread of various sizes and shapes, fried in clarified butter, and used to garnish salmis, fricassees, dressed vegetables, &c.; they are also served with certain Soups, chiefly with purees.

Cold Entries. These consist of fricassees, salmis, cutlets, ham, tongue, fillets of game, poultry, and fish, aspics, salads of poultry, fish, or shell-fish; Boars '-heads, potted meats, &c. They are appropriate for ball suppers, public breakfasts, and upon all occasions where a cold collation is served.

Entrees. A conventional term for Side-Dishes, comprising cutlets, fricassees fricandeaux, fillets, scollops, salmis, boudins, sweetbreads, pdte's-chauds, chartreuses, &c.

Extremets, or second-course side-dishes, consist of four distinct sorts, namely, cold entries; dressed vegetables; scolloped shell-fish and dressed eggs; and lastly of the infinitely varied class of sweets, consisting of puddings, gateaux timbales, sweet croquettes, charlottes, croquantes, pastries, jellies, creams, fritters, &c.

Espagnole and Veloute. The two main Sauces from which all others are made; the first is brown and the other white.

Faxciioxettes and Florentines. Varieties of small pastry meringued over.

Farce. Is a coarse kind of forcemeat used for raised pies and gratins.

Flans, Darioles, and Mirlitons. Varieties of French cheese-cakes.

Fricandeau and Grenadixs consist of the primest parts of veal, or fillets of poultry, &c, smoothly trimmed, larded, and brightly glazed with a concentration of their own liquor; they are served as side-dishes.

Fricassee consists of chickens cut in pieces, and prepared in a white sauce, with truffles, mushrooms, cocksy-combs, &c, as accessories

Gauffres. A light spungy sort of biscuit.

Glace. Any thing iced. This word is also sometimes used figuratively, by French cooks, to signify a smooth glossy surface.

Gratins. A term applied to consolidated soups and sauces; also to certain dishes of high character, consisting of game, poultry, fish, vegetables, or macaroni, &c, improved by great care and finish, through the use of concentrated sauces or gravies.

Hors-d'oeuvres ("Hot). A species of very light entries, such as patties of all kinds, rissoles, croquettes, scolloped fish, shell-fish, macaroni, poultry, game, sweetbreads, brains, ox-piths, horh s of fish, poultry, or game, &c.

Hors-d'oeuvres (Cold). These should be eaten immediately after the soup

• and fish; they are considered as appetisers, or whets to the appetite, and consist of sardines, anchovies, tunny, Dutch herrings, savory butters, oysters, oiled salads.

Jardiniere. A mixed preparation of vegetables, stewed down in their own sauce.

Luting. A paste made of flour and water, and used for fastening the lids on to fire-pans when preserving game, &c, in order to prevent evaporation.

Macedoine of vegetables is a jardiniere, with the addition of some kind of white sauce.

Macedoine of fruit. A kind of jelly.

Madeline. Resembling queen-cake.

Matelotte, a dish of mixed fresh-water fish, sometimes of one kind only, as

Eels.

Meringues. A kind of light trifle.

Mignionnette Pepper, A preparation from either white or black peppercorns; which, after being broken, chopped, or ground coarse, so as to resemble mignionnette seed, should be sifted in order to remove the dust.

Nougat. A mixture of almonds and sugar.

Nouilles. A kind of vermicelli.

Paner, to bread crumb.

GLOSSARY. 31

Paxure. Culets, scollops, croquettes, or any other entrie that is bread-crumbed.

Piping. A kind of decoration made of icing used for ornamenting cakes. pastry stands, small pastry, &c.: it is thus effected: - Take a short funnel or conically-shaped instrument of tin, and insert the same within a largersized and similarly-shaped paper funnel or cornet, the pointed end of which must be cut off so as to allow the tin instrument to protrude: place the icing or glazing (a mixture of finely-pounded sugar and white of egg worked into a smooth and firm paste) in the cornet or forcer, the upper part of which must be completely closed; the glazing is then forced out at the point by pressure of the thumb on the upper part of the cornet.

Pluciie, or plushe, the leaves of parsley, chervil, tarragon, lettuce, or sorrel, snipped or cut small; these are used, mixed or separately, according to directions.

Peofitkolles. A light kind of pastry, creamed inside.

Puree. A kind of pulpy maceration of roasted meats, and of vegetables, or fruits, finished by being passed through a tammy or sieve.

Quenelle. A delicate sort of forcemeat, used in the preparation of entrees, &c.

Ragout. A rich compound, consisting of quenelles, mushrooms, truffles, fat livers, &c, mixed in a rich sauce, and used for garnishing highly-finished removes and entries.

Releves ok Removes. The top and bottom dishes (as they are designated in England), serve to replace the soup and fish on ordinary tables. These usually consist of roast joints, turkeys, capons, highly or plain dressed fillets, or rolls, &c, of beef, calves'-heads, &c.

Roux. A mixture of fresh butter and flour, which, after being baked, is used for thickening^ sauces.

Salmis. A highly-finished hash, made with game or wild-fowl, cut up and prepared in either a rich gravy or sauce.

Saute. Cutlets, scollops of game, poultry, or fish, &c, lightly fried in butter.

Souffles. The word souffle' means strictly something puffed up, and is generally applied to a light kind of pudding, served as a remove to secondcourse roasts; it is made with any kind of farinaceous substance, and may be flavored either with fruits, liqueurs, or essences.

Trifle, a second-course dish, composed of sponge-cake, macaroons, fruitjams, custard, whipped cream, brandy, and other liqueurs.

Turbans and Mazarines. Ornamental entries, made of forcemeats, and fillets of either game, poultry, or fish.

Vol-au-vent. A figurative expression applied to puff-paste of the lightest kind.

m



FRANCATELLFS MODERN COOK.

COMMON STOCK AND STOCK SAUCES.

1. COMMON STOCK, OR GRAND STOCK FOR GENERAL PURPOSES.

When about to prepare for the reception of company, it is advisable to begin, if there be sufficient time, two days beforehand in summer, or three days in winter, by getting ready the grand stock - an article so essential to all the after preparations, that it may be looked upon as the basis of operations.

The meat required for this purpose should be sent in the over night if possible. The quantity to be ordered, must of course depend upon the extent of the dinner-party, and the number of entrees. For a dinner of twelve entrees, two legs of white veal (about forty pounds weight), the same quantity of gravy beef, and forty pounds of leg of beef and knuckles of veal, would be required.

First take the legs of veal in hand, and cut out the noix or fricandeau pieces, which is that part adhering to the udder; set these pieces apart to be used either for fricandeaux, grenadins, or noix, for removes or entrees, as the case may be. Cut all the meat away from the bones, keeping the veal separate from the beef. Break up the bones, and put them, - together with the inferior pieces of beef, - into a large stock-pot half full; fill this up with cold water, set it on the fire to boil; skim it well, garnish it with carrots, turnips, celery, and leeks; avoid the use of spices or herbs, and use salt sparingly. When the broth has boiled gently for seven hours, strain it through a broth napkin into large kitchen basins to cool, and place them in the larder for the next day's use.

In connection with this subject, I will now describe the preparation of the two grand stock sauces, Espagnole and Veloute, as these, being the basis of the various special sauces used in modern cookery, should, together with the grand stock, be first attended to.

2. STOCK SAUCES, BROWN AND WHITE*

The first thing to be attended to on the following morning is to " mark off," or prepare the stock sauces, viz.: the Espagnole or brown sauce, and the Veloute or white sauce, in the following manner:

Take two large stewpans, well tinned and thoroughly clean; spread

* Although great care and watchful attention are requisite in every branch of the culinary art, the exercise of these qualities is most essential in the preparation of the grand stock sauces. If the first process which these undergo be not successfully effected, no subsequent care will remedy the mischief.

2 . (33)

34 STOCK SAUCES.

the bottom of each with fresh butter, over which lay about one pound of lean ham cut in slices; then add the finest pieces of the veal in equal proportion to each stewpan. In that intended to be used for the brown sauce put two or three whole wild rabbits (or the mere carcasses may suffice); put into the stewpan marked for the white sauce, two old hens, or carcasses of fowls. Pour into each pan a sufficient quantity of grand stock to reach the upper surface of the veal; place the pans with their covers on, on brisk fires, and let thein boil sharply till the broth is nearly reduced to a glaze; then take them off the fire immediately, and slacken the stoves, by putting on some charcoal ashes to decrease their heat; after which, replace the pans on the fire, adding to the brown sauce, one pound of glaze, to be reduced together with the stock, by which it will acquire a redder hue; it will also accelerate its progress, - a point of great importance; for if sauces or broths remain too long on the fire, the delicacy of their flavor is sure to be impaired.

As soon as the broth of the white sauce is reduced to the consistency of pale glaze,* fill it up with some grand stock; garnish it with a good-sized carrot, one onion, four cloves, a blade of mace, and a garnished fagot or bouquet, made of parsley, green onions, a bay-leaf, and thyme, tied together neatly. Set it on the stove to boil; skim it well, and then place it to simmer gently at the side of the stove. Pay strict attention to the brown sauce, in order to prevent the possibility of its being caught by the fire in the least degree. Such an accident always tends to lessen its unctuousness. Ascertain when the brown sauce is sufficiently glazed, by dipping the end of a knife into it, twirling the handle round in the hand, so as to take up a quantity of the glaze on the point of the blade; if you can then roll it into a ball without its sticking to the fingers, and it is of a beautiful brown -red color, you may proceed to fill it up in exactly the same manner as described for the white sauce.

About two hours after the above-mentioned operations have been attended to, pass the broths through napkins into large kitchen basins. Then pour the roux or thickening into the large stewpans to be used for mixing each of these sauces; take off all the fat, and pour the brown broth upon the brown roux, and the white broth upon the white rovx. While the sauces are being mixed they should be well stirred. When thoroughly mixed, they must be kept sufficiently liquid to enable them (after boiling on the stove-fire, and while they are simmering on the side) to throw up the whole of the butter with which the roux was made, together with the skum, by which means they assume a velvety appearance, and from which the white sauce takes its name Veloute.

Finally, add a large ladleful of white chicken broth to the white sauce, and the same quantity of consomme to the brown sauce; let them clarify for about twenty minutes longer; and then, if sufficiently reduced, pass them through the tammy cloths into white basins, and put them away in the larder for future use.

* When time presses, or tbe veal used- for this purpose is not white, the process of boiling down to a glaze recommended above, may be dispensed with; and, consequently, the white broth or water added at once.

35

SAUCES IN GENERAL.

GRAND SAUCES.

COMPRISING

Espagnole,* or Brown Sauce. Cream Bichamel.

Velouti,* or White Sauce. Alhmande Sauce.

Bechamel Sauce.

3. ESPAGNOLE, OR BROWiN" SAUCE.

Let the stock Espagnole (No. 2) be turned out into a large stewpan, adding thereto some essence of mushrooms, and sufficient blond of vea] to enable the sauce to clarify itself; stir it over the fire till it boils, and then set it down- by the side to continue boiling gently. When the sauce has thoroughly cleared itself, by gentle ebullition, and assumes a bright velvety smoothness, reduce it over a brisk fire, to the desired consistency, and then pass it through a tammy for use.

4. WHITE VELOUTE SAUCE.

To finish this sauce, proceed in every respect the same as for the Espagnole, substituting white consomme of veal or fowls, for the blond of veal, in order to clarify it; and the essence of mushrooms must be white, in order to prevent the sauce from taking a dark hue, contrary to its special character.

5. BECHAMEL SAUCE.

Divide the Veloute sauce (according to the quantity required) into three parts; put one-third into a stewpan, and having reduced it, add thereto a quart (more or less) of boiling cream: - after allowing the sauce to boil a few minutes longer, stirring it the whole time, pass it through the tammy into a basin, or bain-marie,^ for use.

6. CREAM BECHAMEL SAUCE.

Put six ounces of fresh butter into a middle-sized stewpan; add four ounces of sifted flour, some nutmeg, a few peppercorns, and a little salt; knead the whole well together; then cut one carrot and one onion into very thin slices, throw them into the stewpan, and also a bouquet of parsley, thyme, and half a bay-leaf, tied together; next moisten these with a quart of white broth and a pint of cream; and having stirred the sauce over the stove-fire for about half an hour, pass it through the tammy into a basin for use.

This sauce is not expensive, neither does it require much time or trouble to make. It is very useful as a substitute for Veloute, or other white sauces, as also for many other purposes, as will be shown hereafter.

* These two grand sauces differ from the stock Espagnole and Veloute, in being worked or finished sauces.

f This is a French term for a distinct set of copper saucepans, tinned both inside and outside, and used only for the Special Sauces, when finished.

36

SAUCES.

7. ALLEMANDE SAUCE.

Reduce the quantity of white Veloute sauce intended for the AUemande, over a brisk stove-fire, adding a little essence of mushrooms or some mushroom trimmings; when the sauce is sufficiently reduced, take it oif the stove, and incorporate with it a leason* of yelks of eggs (in the proportion of four yelks to a pint), a little nutmeg, cream, a pat of butter, and a little lemon-juice; set the leason in the sauce, by stirring it over the fire until it simmers; it must then be quickly stirred to keep the sauce from boiling, as, in that case, the yelks of eggs would be liable to curdle, which would considerably deteriorate from its quality. When the leason is set, pass the sauce through a tammy into a basin, or bain-mane, for use.

This sauce is in much request, as the foundation of many others, especially fish sauces.

SPECIAL SAUCES.

COMPRISING

^

Financilre Sauce. Turtle do. Salmis do. Do. d I'aneienne. Brown Italian Sauce. White Italian do. Fine Herbs do. Pascaline do. D' Uxellea do. Poor-man's do. Piquante do. Gherkin do. White liavigotte do. Green do. do. Tomata do. PSrigueitx do. Lyonnaise do. Provencale do, Venetian do. Bretonne do. Bouryuignotte do. Poivrade do. GSnoise do. Matelotte do. Norman matelotle do. Bigarrade do. Aromatic do. Russian do. Atelets do. Polish do. Butter do.

Sauce for asparagus. Anchovy Sauce. Plain lobster do. Shrimp do. Supreme do. Do. of Game.

Aurora Sauce.

Dutch do.

Maitre d'hdtel do.

Do. cold.

Princess Sauce.

Albert do.

Indian curry do.

Cardinal do.

Regency do.

White oyster do.

Brown oyster do.

Muscle do.

Shrimp do.

Crayfish do.

Lobster do.

Sturgeon do.

Bordelaise do.

Gasconne do.

Richelieu do.

Robert do.

Claremont do.

Portuguese do.

Sicilian do.

German sweet do.

Cherry do.

Napolitain do.

Cherry do., d la Victoria.

Red currant jelly Sauce for Venison.

Black currant jelly Sauce for Venison.

Fennel Sauce.

Parsley do.

Ravigotte do.

Plain Dutch do

Bread do.

Fried bread do.

Brown gravy Sauce for roast veal.

Cream Sauce for roast neck of do.

* From the French liaison, which here means a binding or tLickening.

SPECIAL SAUCES. 37

Parisian Sauce. Caper Sauce for fish.

Mustard do. Do. for boiled mutton.

Plain curry do. Cream Sauce for salt fish.

Wastre ische do. Orleans Sauce.

Flemish do. Devil's do. Egg do.

8. FINANCIERE SAUCE.

Put one glass of sherry or madeira into a stewpan with some essence of truffles and a little cayenne; reduce these to half their original quantity, then add a ladleful of finished Espagnole sauce; let it boil for five minutes longer, and pass the sauce through a tammy into a bain-marie for use.

9. TURTLE SAUCE FOR CALF'S HEAD.

Put one glass of madeira into a stewpan with a spoonful of red tomata sauce, and a little cayenne; reduce these to half their quantity, then add a ladleful of Espagnole or brown sauce, and some esseuce of mushrooms; having stirred this over the fire until it boils, set it by the side to clarify; skim it thoroughly, and reduce it to a proper consistency; pass it through a tammy into a bain-marie; and just before using this sauce, mix in two anchovies (that have been pounded with a very small piece of fresh butter, and passed through a tammy) with a little lemon-juice.

10. SALMIS SAUCE.

Place the trimmings of the birds of which the salmis is to be made, in a stewpan with a tablespoonful of salad-oil, four shalots, one bay-leaf, and a sprig of thyme; pass these on the stove-fire for five minutes; add two glasses of any sort of good white wine; reduce this to half its quantity, add a ladleful of Espagnole and some mushroom trimmings or essence; set the sauce to boil, and then put it by the side of the stove to clarify. Having well skimmed it, pass the sauce through a tammy into a bain-marie, pouring a small portion of the sauce ou the members of the birds to keep them moist, and to warm them in.

11. SALMIS SAUCE A L'ANCIENNE.

Chop off the trimmings of the birds that have been roasted for an entree (woodcocks or snipes are generally chosen for this purpose); place the trimmings in a stewpan, with six shalots, a little thyme, a bay-leaf, and half a bottle of red wine (claret is preferable); simmer these over the fire for ten minutes, add a ladleful of essence of game, and a gravy-spoonful of reduced Espagnole sauce; stir this on the fire until it boils, and then place it by the fire to clear itself; ten minutes after, skim it thoroughly, and having reduced it to the consistency of a thin glaze, pass it through a tammy on to the members of the birds. Just before dishing up, add a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley.

12. BROWN ITALIAN SAUCE.

Chop four shalots very fine, place them in a corner of a clean napkin, securing them tightly, and immerse them in cold water to

38 SAUCES.

extract their acrid taste; squeeze out the water and put them into a stewpau with a handful of white mushrooms chopped very fine, some thyme, a bay-leaf, and a tablespoonful of salad-oil; pass these on the fire for five minutes, add two glasses of white wine, and, when this is reduced to half its quantity, then add a small ladleful of finished Espagnole and a little blond of veal; set the sauce to boil; and having freed it from the oil, take out the thyme and bay-leaf; reduce it to the consistency of other sauces, and pour it into a bain-mane, to be kept for use.

13. WHITE ITALIAN SAUCE.

The preparation of this sauce differs from the preceding only in substituting Veloute sauce for Espagnole.

11. FINE HERBS' SAUCE.

Chop, separately, a large gravy-spoonful of prepared white mushrooms, three shalots, and a handful of parsley; place these in a stewpan with an ounce of fresh butter, a pinch of minionette pepper, a little grated nutmeg, and salt; pass the whole on the fire for five minutes, add a small ladleful of finished Espagnole or Veloute sauce (according to the color required); boil it quickly, finish with a little lemon-juice, and pour it into a bain-marie for use.

15. PISCALINE SAUCE.

Chop a handful of white mushrooms very fine, and place them in a small stewpan with a small piece of butter; stir them on the fire for three minutes; add a glass of French white wine, and after allowing these to simmer on the fire a little while, add a small ladleful of white sauce and a little essence of fowl; reduce the sauce quickly, and then take it off the stove and mix in a leason of three yelks of eggs, and a small pat of butter; set the leason in the sauce over the fire, and then pour it into a bain-marie for use. Just before using the sauce, add to it a tablespoonful of chopped and blanched parsley, and the juice of half a lemon.

16. d'uxelles SAUCES.

Chop, separately, half a pottle of mushrooms, a handful of parsley, six shalots, and two ounces of truffles; place these in a stewpan with two ounces of fat bacon scraped into a kind of pulp, a pat of butter, some pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg; then stir the whole on the fire for five minutes; add two glasses of French white wine, reduced by boiling to half the quantity; and then a small ladleful of white sauce; reduce the whole quickly on the fire, and mix in a leason of six yelks of eggs; finish with the juice of a lemon. Set the leason in the sauce by stirring it again on the fire; place the sance in a small basin, and keep it for the purpose of covering all those entrees denominated d la D'Uxelles, previously to bread-crumbing them.

17. POOR MAN'S SAUCE.

Chop an onion very fine, put it into a stewpan with a small piece of butter, and gently fry the onion on the fire until it assumes a lightbrown color; then add a tablespoonful of white wine vinegar, and a pinch of minionette pepper; allow these to simmer for three miu

SPECIAL SAUCES. 39

ufces, and then add a small ladleful of blond of veal or consomme; let the whole be reduced to half the original quantity; and just before using the sauce, throw in a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley.

18. PIQUANTE SAUCE.

Chop, separately, six shalots, as many green gherkins, and a tablespoonful of French capers; place these in a small stewpan with a gill of French vinegar, some thyme and a bay-leaf, and a good pinch of mignionette pepper; set the whole to boil on the fire till the vinegar is reduced to a third of its original quantity; then add a small ladleful of finished Espagnole sauce, and a little blond of veal: let the sauce boil gently on the side of the stove-fire to clear itself; skim it well, take out the thyme and bay-leaf, and pour it into a small bainmarie for use.

19. GHEEKIN SAUCE.

Take six green gherkins; cut them into very thin slices; place them in a small stewpan with a little PYench vinegar and mignionette pepper; allow these to simmer quickly for a few minutes on the fire, then add a small ladleful of brown sauce and a little blond of veal; stir the sauce on the stove till it boils, then set it by the side to clear itself, skim it, and pour it into a bain-marie for use.

20. WHITE EAVIGOTTE SAUCE.

Put into a small stewpan two tablespoonfuls of Chili vinegar, the same quantities of tarragon vinegar and of Harvey sauce; reduce these, by boiling, to half the quantity; then add a small ladleful of good Bechamel sauce, or, if not at hand, the same quantity of white sauce; finish by mixing in two pats of fresh butter, and just before using the sauce, throw in a tablespoonful of chopped and blanched parsley.

When white sauce is used instead of Bechamel, a little cream must be added.

21. GEEEN EAVIGOTTE SAUCE.

Wash and blanch some chervil, parsley, tarragon, and chives (of each a small handful), and also a little burnet; cool these in fresh water as soon as they are blanched, and thoroughly extract the water by pressing them in a napkin; pound the herbs, thus prepared, in a mortar, with two pats of butter; after which rub them through a fine sieve with a wooden spoon, and place the residue in a small basin, to be kept on ice, or in a cool place.

About five minutes before requiring the sauce for use, put into a small stewpan a ladleful of Allemande, and, when thoroughly warmed, mix in with it the prepared Ravigotte, in sufficient quantity to give a bright green color to the sauce; add a tablespoonful of Tarragon vinegar, and the same quantities of Chili vinegar and of Harvey sauce, previously reduced, by boiling, to half the quantity.

This sauce is very generally used for fillets of fish.

22. TOMATA, OE LOVE-APPLE SAUCE.

Procure a dozen fine ripe tomatas, and, having first picked off the stalks, extract the seeds and watery parts, by squeezing them separately

40 SAUCES.

in the hand; then place them in a stewpan, containing four ounces of raw ham cut into dice, a few shalots, a bay-leaf, and thyme, fried in a little butter until they become brown; put the tomatas with these on the fire until they are melted; then, after having passed them through the tammy into a puree, mix the produce with a little Veloute sauce, a small piece of glaze, and a little consomme; stir the sauce on the fire till it boils, and then set it by the side of the stove to continue boiling gently, that it may clear itself; skim it thoroughly, and pour it into a bain-marie for use.

It is, perhaps, needless to observe, that, when the ready-prepared tomata sauce, as sold by oilmen, is used, as must be the case when tomatas are not in season, it will be necessary only to attend to the latter part of the foregoing directions.

23. PERIGUEUX SAUCE.

Chop six or eight truffles exceedingly fine, put them into a stewpan with two glasses of white wine, a little lean ham, some thyme, and a bay-leaf; set these to boil gently on the stove-fire for a few minutes, then add a ladleful of brown sauce and a little consomme; stir the sauce on the fire till it boils, and then set it by the side to clear itself; skim it well, take out the ham, the bay-leaf, the thyme, and, after reducing it to a proper consistency, pour it into a bain-marie for use.

Just before dinner-time, add a small piece of butter, to soften the flavor.

24. LYONNAISE SAUCE.

Peel four Portugal onions, cut them in halves, trim off the ends, so as to leave the onions an inch and a half thick; slice them across, that the pieces may separate at the junction of the several folds, or layers, of the onion; fry them in a deep sauta-pan, in half a pint of salad-oil; as soon as they assume a fine light color, drain them on a hair-sieve, and afterward lay them on a napkin, in order to extract all the oil; after which put them into a small stewpan, with a good pinch of minionette pepper, a very small ladleful of reduced brown sauce, and a piece of glaze; set the sauce to boil gently for a quarter of an hour, and finish by adding a little lemon-juice.

25. PROVENCALE SAUCE.

Cut two ounces of the lean part of a ham into very small dice, place them in a small stewpan, with two tablespoonsful of salad-oil, four cloves of garlic, some thyme, a bay-leaf, a spoonful of capers, the pulp of a lemon cut into slices, a good pinch of minionette pepper, and a few parsley stalks; stir these on the stove-fire for five minutes, then add a small ladleful of reduced brown sauce, and a piece of glaze. Boil the sauce on a quick fire for a few minutes longer, and then pass it through a tammy as you would a pur&e; remove it into a stewpan, add a little consomme, and set it to boil gently by the side of the stove for a few minutes, skim it, and pour it into a bain-marie, finish by adding a little anchovy butter.

26. VENETIAN SAUCE.

Prepare a sufficient quantity of AUemande sauce for the purpose

SPECIAL SAUCES. 41

required, and, just before dinner-time, add a good spoonful of tarragon leaves, cut into diamond-shapes, and blanched green, a pat of butter, a little nutmeg, and a spoonful of tarragon vinegar.

27. BRETOXNE SAUCE.

Cut two large onions into thin slices; fry them of a light brown color, in a little butter; then add sufficient brown sauce, according to the quantity required, a little consomme, and a pinch of pepper; boil the sauce gently for a quarter of an hour, and then pass it, as you would a puree, through the tammy, and put it into a bain-marie for use.

28. BOURGUIGNOTTE SAUCE.

Put four shalots, two cloves, a blade of mace, thyme, and bay-leaf, together with three glasses of red wine and some mushroom-trimmings, into a stewpan, on the fire, there to boil for five minutes; add a small ladleful of brown sauce and a little consomme; stir the sauce on the fire till it boils, and then set it on the side to clear itself; skim it, reduce it to its proper consistency, and then pass it through the tammy into a bain-marie.

29. POIVEADE SAUCE.

' Take a carrot, an onion, and a head of celery; cut them into very small dice, and place them in a stewpan, with two ounces of raw lean of ham cut similarly, some thyme, and a bay-leaf, a blade of mace, a few peppercorns, and some parsley; fry these with a little butter, of a light brown color; moisten with two glasses of sherry and one of French vinegar; reduce the above to one half its quantity, and then add a small ladleful of brown sauce and a little consomme; stir the sauce till it boils, and then set it by the side to clear itself; skim it, and pass it through a tammy into a bain-marie for use.

30. GENOISE SAUCE.

Cut some ham, carrot, celery, onion, parsley roots, and mushrooms, into very thin slices; place these in a stewpan with a little butter, some thyme, and a bay-leaf, a blade of mace, and two cloves, and fry them on the stove for a few minutes; moisten with half a bottle of red wine (claret suits best). Boil the whole for five minutes; add a small ladleful of brown sauce and a little consomme; stir the sauce on the fire till it boils, and then set it to clarify by the side of the stove-fire; skim it, and pass it through a tammy into a bain-marie for use. Just before dinner-time, add a piece of anchovy butter, a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley, a little grated nutmeg, and lemonjuice.

31. MATELOTTE SAUCE.

Take the wine in which the fish has been stewed, and add to it a ladleful of brown sauce, and some trimmings or essence of mushrooms; stir this on the fire till it boils, and then set it by the side to clear itself; skim and reduce it, and then pass it into a bain-marie; finish by adding a little anchovy butter, grated nutmeg, and a pinch of suuar.

42 SAUCES.

32. NORMAN MATELOTTE SAUCE.

Reduce some white Veloute sauce with some essence of mushrooms, three glasses of French white wine, and the liquor from the muscles and oysters used for the malelotte: add a leason of four yelks of eggs, a pat of butter, some nutmeg and lemon-juice; and pass the sauce through a tammy into a bain-marie. Just before using the sauce, add a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley.

33. BIGARRADE SAUCE.

With the carcasses of two or more roasted ducks, make an essence; clarify it, and reduce it to half glaze. To this add a small ragoutspoonful of worked Espagnole, the juice of one orange, and the rind of two others entirely free from any portion of the white pith; and having cut the rind into diamond shapes, blanch these pieces for three minutes in boiling water, and then put them into the sauce, which, after boiling for five minutes, pour into a bain-marie for use.

34. AROMATIC SAUCE.

Put into a small stewpan a few sprigs of winter-savory, of sweet basil, and lemon thyme; six leaves of sage, and two bay-leaves, two shalots, some nutmeg, and pepper, and a ladleful of good consomme; boil this quickly on the fire for ten minutes; pass it through a sieve into a stewpan, and reduce it with an equal proportion of white sauce; add a leason of four yelks of eggs, and pass the sauce into a bain-marie, containing two dozen stewed morels. Just before using this sauce, add a pat of butter, some lemon-juice, and a spoonful of chopped and blanched tarragon and chervil.

35. RUSSIAN SAUCE.

Having chopped and blanched some tarragon, chervil, and parsley, in equal proportions, put these iuto some reduced Veloute sauce thickened with two yelks of eggs. Just before using the sauce, add a little grated horseradish, a pinch of sugar, some pepper, lemon-juice, and a little mustard.

This sauce is eaten with braized beef.

36. ATELETS SAUCE.

Cut two ounces of raw lean of ham into very small mince-meat; put it into a small stewpan with half a bay-leaf, a sprig of thyme, one shalot chopped, a little nutmeg, and minionette pepper; moisten with a few spoonsful of consomme, and set the whole to simmer on the fire for ten minutes; after which, add a small ladleful of white sauce, and having reduced it to a proper consistency, mix in a leason of six yelks of eggs, and a pat of butter; finish with a little lemon-juice, and pass the sauce through a tammy into a basin.

This sauce is used for covering all preparations for those entree* denominated d la Villeroi, or d la Dauphine, previously to their being dipped in the beateu egg for the purpose of being bread-crumbed.

37. POLISH SAUCE.

Scrape a stick of horseradish, and put it into some Allemande sauce with a dessert-spoonful of pounded sugar, the grated rind of

SPECIAL SAUCES. 43

one lemon, nutmeg, pepper, lemon-juice, a piece of glaze, and a little salt. Previously to using the sauce, add a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley and fennel.

This sauce is eaten with roast veal.

38. SUPREME SAUCE.

There are two methods by which this sauce may be made with equal success: that most generally adopted is, to use reduced Velovte sauce which has been worked with some essence of mushrooms and white consomme of fowls, and finished by adding a little boiling cream at the last stage of reduction; the sauce should be then passed through a tammy into a bain-marie, and just before using it, a small piece of chicken glaze, a pat of fresh butter, and a little lemon-juice must be added.

The other method, and which I prefer to the former, is to put a sufficient quantity of Allemande sauce into a bain-marie, and finish it for the purpose, by mixing in a piece of chicken glaze, a pat of fresh butter, and a little lemon-juice; care must be taken that the Supreme sauce be not thick.

39. SUPREME OF GAME.

This is made like the previous sauce, except that, according to the first method, some essence of game must be used instead of the chicken consomme, and in the second recipe, the Allemande sauce used for the purpose should be worked with an essence of game (pheasaut or partridge), and also finished with a piece of game glaze.

40. PARISIAN" SAUCE.

Put some Allemande sauce into a bain-marie, add thereto a spoonful of essence of truffles, a piece of game or chicken glaze, according to the purpose for which the sauce may be required, whether for an entree made of game or poultry; add some crayfish butter in sufficient quantity to color it of a pinky tint, a little cayenne and lemonjuice; when these ingredients are well mixed in the Allemande, add two dozen small truffles cut in the shape of small olives.

41. AURORA SAUCE.

Put some Bechamel sauce into a bain-marie, and just before the sauce is required for use, mix in a small piece of lobster butter, a leason of three yelks of eggs, a tablespoonful of tarragon-vinegar, and a little cayenne.

42. DUTCH SAUCE.

Put the yelks of six eggs, a small piece of glaze, six ounces of fresh butter, a spoonful of white sauce, some nutmeg, minionette pepper, and salt, into a small stewpan; stir these quickly with a wooden spoon, over a slow fire, or else immerse the bottom of the stewpan into a deep sauta-pan half full of boiling water, which must be kept over a slow fire, while the sauce is worked: as soon as the sauce assumes a smooth compact body, take it away from the fire, work it smartly, and then pass it through a tammy into a bain-marie for use. If the sauce should appear to curdle or decompose, add a spoouful of any white sauce nearest at hand, which will set it right again.

44 SAUCES.

Dutch sauce may be flavored with various sorts of vinegar, horseradish, or lemon-juice, according to fancy, or as the case may require.

43. MAITRE D'HOTEL SAUCE,

Put some Bechamel sauce into a stewpan, make it boil, and incorporate with it six ounces of fresh butter, some chopped and blanched parsley, pepper, salt, and lemon-juice.

44. COLD MAITRE D'HOTEL SAUCE.

Put about six ounces of fresh butter on a plate, knead it together with some chopped parsley, pepper, salt, and lemon-juice.

This butter is chiefly used for French beefsteaks, for broiled mackerel, and other sorts of broiled fish, as will be shown hereafter.

45. PRINCESS SAUCE.

Put into a small stewpan the rind of one lemon, and half a stick of horse-radish, both grated; a little nutmeg, pepper, and two tablespoonsful of French vinegar; simmer these on a slow fire for a few minutes, and then add a small ladleful of Allemande sauce; stir the whole on the fire till it boils, then pass it through a tammy into a bain-marie. Just before using the sauce, add a pat of fresh butter, and a tablespoonful of chopped and blanched parsley. This sauce will prove an excellent accessory, to be served with any entree of poultry or game, when dressed a la Dauphine, or a la Villeroi; as also for fillets of dressed fish, bread-crumbed, and denominated d la Princess; in which case, a little anchovy butter may be added.

46. ALBERT SAUCE.

Grate three large sticks of horse-radish, put them into a stewpan with a pint of good broth; let this simmer gently on a moderate fire for half an hour, then add a little white sauce and half a pint of cream; reduce the whole over a brisk fire, and pass the sauce through a tammy as you would a puree, and put it into a bain-marie. Just before using the sauce, make it hot, and mix in a little French vinegar, a dessert-spoonful of mixed mustard, some salt, a tablespoonful of chopped and blanched parsley, and two yelks of eggs.

This sauce is well adapted to be eaten with braized fillet of beef, garnished with potatoes cut into the shapes of olives, and fried in butter.

47. INDIAN CURRY SAUCE.

Take two large onions, one carrot, and one head of celery, and slice them very thin; place these with two ounces of fresh butter in a stewpan, and fry them over a slow fire till the onions are nearly melted, but without becoming brown; add three blades of mnce, some thyme, and a bay-leaf, a bouquet of parsley, and two tablespoonsful of Cooks or Bruce's meat curry paste, a tablespoonful of curry powder, and as much roux or flour as may be required to thicken the quantity of sauce needed; moisten with some good broth or consomme, and stir the sauce on the fire till it boils; then set it by the side to clear itself of the butter, &c. Having skimmed and reduced the sauce to a proper consistency, pass it through a tammy

SPECIAL SAUCES. 45

(extracting the parsley), as for a puree, and take it up into a bainmarie, or add it to whatever kind of meat is prepared for the curry; observing that the broth thereof should be used for making the sauce.

48. CARDINAL SAUCE.

Put some reduced Veloute sauce into a stewpan, add some essence of mushrooms, lobster butter, a little essence of anchovies, lemonjuice, and cayenne; work these well together, and pass the sauce through a tammy into a bain-marie for use.

Observe: that for whatever kind of meat or fish this sauce may be intended, the essence or liquor of the meat or fish should be first reduced to glaze, and then incorporated into the sauce, iu order to give it a characteristic flavor.

49. REGENCY SAUCE.

Cut an eel of a pound weight into thin slices, and place them in a stewpan with six cloves, two blades of mace, some thyme, a bayleaf, sweet basil, a carrot, mushrooms, an onion, and a little salt; moisten with three parts of a bottle of good claret, and put the whole to boil gently on the fire for half an hour; after which pass the essence thus obtained through the tammy with pressure, so as to extract every particle. Then mix the produce with a ladleful of reduced Espagnole sauce, and having boiled, skimmed, and reduced it, finish by working into it some essence of truffles, anchovy butter, nutmeg, lemon-juice, and a small pinch of sugar.

This sauce is peculiarly well adapted for every sort of colored fish, either fresh-water or salt.

50. WHITE OYSTER SAUCE.

Put the oysters into a stewpan, and set them to boil for five minutes on the stove-fire, drain them on a sieve (saving their liquor in a basin), wash and beard them, taking care to cut off the tendons, as that part when eaten is troublesome to the teeth, and put them into a bainmarie - reserving only the fat part; then put four ounces of butter (more or less, according to the quantity of sauce) into a stewpan with two ounces of flour, cayenne pepper, and salt; knead these well together, and moisten with the oyster liquor, some cream, and a piece of glaze; stir the sauce on the fire, keeping it boiling for ten minutes; then pass it through a tammy upon the oysters. Just before sending to table, add a little lemon-juice.

51. BROWN OYSTER SAUCE.

Prepare this precisely as the last sauce, but instead of the cream, use an equal quantity of brown gravy. Brown oyster sauce is a very desirable accessory to beefsteaks, beef pudding, beefsteak pie, broiled slices of codfish, and various other plain dressed dishes.

52. MUSCLE SAUCE.

Cleanse, wash, beard, and blanch or parboil two quarts of muscles; take all the white fat muscles out of the shells, and place them in a bain-marie, reserving their liquor in a basin. Then knead four ounces of butter with two ounces of flour, some nutmeg, pepper, and salt;

46 SAUCES.

add the liquor from the muscles, a piece of glaze, and half a pint of cream; stir the whole on the stove fire till it boils, and keep it boiling for ten minutes: - then add a leason of four yelks of eggs, and pass it through a tammy on to the muscles. Just before sending the sauce to table, throw in a tablespoonful of chopped and blanched parsley, and a little lemon-juice.

This sauce is well adapted for broiled whiting, turbot, cod, haddock, and gurnet.

53. SHEIMP SAUCE.

To about half a pint of melted butter, add a little lobster coral, cayenne, some pickled shrimps, a little essence of anchovies, and lemon-juice.

54. CRAYFISH SAUCE.

Boil thirty crayfish in the usual manner, trim the tails, and with the bodies and shells make some crayfish butter (No. 184), which incorporate into about half a pint of reduced Veloute sauce; add a little essence of anchovies, cayenne, and lemon-juice, and pass this sauce through a tammy ou to the crayfish tails.

55. LOBSTER SAUCE.

Cut the fleshy part of a lobster into small square pieces; reserve the spawn and coral, and pound it with two ounces of butter, and pass it through a sieve. Then put about half a pint of melted butter, or the same quantity of reduced Veloute sauce, into a stewpan, incorporate therewith the lobster butter, a small piece of glaze, cayenne, and lemon-juice, add the pieces of lobster, and send to table.

56. STURGEON" SAUCE.

Take some of the liquor in which the sturgeon has been braized, and having reduced it to one third of its quantity, add half a bottle of claret or port, a ladleful of worked Espagnole sauce, and some essence or trimmings of mushrooms; allow the sauce to clear itself by boiling gently on the side of the stove fire, skim it, reduce it, and then pass it through a tammy into a bain-marie. Just before using the sauce, mix in a pat of butter, some nutmeg, cayenne, essence of anchovies, and lemon-juice.

57. BORDELAISE SAUCE.

Mince two ounces of lean ham, and put it into a stewpan with two cloves of garlic, a few peppercorns, a blade of mace, some thyme, and a bay-leaf, some sprigs of tarragon, and half a pint of claret; set these to simmer gently on a slow fire for twenty minutes, then add a piece of glaze about the size of a walnut, a small gravy-spounful of worked Espagnole sauce, and a little blond of veal; having allowed the sauce to boil gently by the side of the stove-fire to clear itself, pass it with pressure through a tammy into a bain-marie for use. This sauce must be kept rather thin, and to be perfect, should be bright and wholly free from grease; it is especially adapted, by its flavor and character, for being served with broiled meats and fishes generally. When this sauce is served with broiled fish, add to it, just before sending to table, a little essence of anchovies, cayenne, and lemon-juice.

SPECIAL SAUCES. 47

58. CLAREMONT SAUCE.

Cut two or more large onions into halves, pare off the ends, cut them into thin slices, and fry them in a stewpan with some butter, of a fine yellow color; drain off the butter, add a pinch of minionette pepper, with a little brown sauce and consomme; set this to boil gently by the side of the stove fire, skim it, and then, when sufficiently reduced, pour it into a bain-marie for use. This sauce, as well as sauce a la BrHonne, is well calculated for making an excellent hash, either with beef, veal, or mutton.

59. PORTUGUESE SAUCE.

Grate the rind of a lemon, and put it into a small stewpan with a few bruised peppercorns, some mace, six cloves, thyme, and a bay-leaf, with half a pint of sherry; simmer the whole on a slow fire for ten minutes, then add a small ladleful of worked brown sauce, and a little consomme; set this to boil gently by the side of the stovefire, skim it, reduce it, and pass it through a tammy into a bain-marie for use.

This sauce is used for a braized fillet of beef, or minced fillet of beef au gratin a la Portuguaise.

60. SICILIAN SAUCE.

Chop two truffles, four shalots, a dozen mushrooms, and some parsley, separately; put them into a small stewpan with thyme, and a bay-leaf, one clove of garlic, and a little cayenne; moisten with two glasses of sherry, set the whole to simmer gently on a slow fire for ten minutes; add a sufficient quantity of Allemande sauce for the purpose required, reduce it to its proper consistency, and then put it into a bain-marie for use.

Just before using this sance, add a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley, the rind of two oranges - pared extremely thin, cut into fine shreds, and blanched - some lemon-juice, and a little pounded sugar.

61. GERMAN" SWEET SAUCE.

Stew six ounces of dried cherries in two glasses of red wine, together with some bruised cinnamon, cloves, and lemon peel, for twenty minutes on a slow fire; pass the whole through a tammy into a puree, and put it into a stewpan with a little reduced brown sauce and six ounces of stewed prunes.

This sauce is in great request for German dishes; it improves the flavor of braized venison in its varied forms of preparation, and is preferred by many for that purpose to Poivrade or Piquante sauce.

62. CHEERY SAUCE.

Put a pot of black currant jelly into a stewpan, together with six ounces of dried cherries, a small stick of cinnamon, and a dozen cloves tied up in a piece of muslin; moisten with half a pint of red wine, and set the whole to simmer gently on a slow fire for ten minutes; then take out the cinnamon and cloves, and send to table.

This kind of sauce is well adapted for roast hare or venison

48 SAUCES.

63. NEAPOLITAN SAUCE.

Scrape a stick of horse-radish quite clean, grate it, and place this in a small stewpan with two ounces of glaze, a small pot of currantjelly, half a pint of red wine, and a spoonful of worked brown sauce; boil the whole gently on a stove-fire for twenty minutes, then pass the sauce through a tammy as you would a puree, and put it into a bainmarie for use.

This kind of sauce is generally used with larded fillets of beef. It may also be served with entrees of venison.

64. CHERRY SAUCE A LA VICTORIA.

Put a small pot of red currant-jelly into a stewpan, together with a dozen cloves, a stick of cinnamon, the rind of two oranges, a piece of glaze, and a large gravy-spoonful of reduced brown sauce; moisten with half a pint of Burgundy wine, boil gently on the fire for twenty minutes; pass the sauce through a tammy into a bain-marie, add the juice of the two oranges, and just before sending to table boil the sauce. .

This sauce is especially appropriate with red deer or roebuck, when prepared in a marinade and larded.

65. RED CURRANT-JELLY SAUCE FOR VENISON.

Bruise one stick of cinnamon and twelve cloves, and put them into a small stewpan with two ounces of sugar, and the peel of one lemon pared off very thin, and perfectly free from any portion of white pnlp; moisten with three glasses of port wine, and set the whole to simmer gently on the fire for a quarter of an hour; then strain it through a sieve into a small stewpan containing a pot of red currant-jelly. Just before sending the sauce to table, set it on the fire to boil, in order to melt the currant-jelly, so that it may mix with the essence of spice, &c.

66. BLACK CURRANT-JELLY SAUCE FOR VENISON.

This sauce is made exactly in the same manner as the foregoing - substituting black currant-jelly for red; it is preferred by many to the other, as it possesses more flavor.

67. SAUCE A LA ROBERT.

Peel two large onions and cut them in halves, pare off the ends, and cut them into very small dice in the following manner: - hold the half onion in the left hand, set it firmly on the table with the cut side downward, then with a knife held in the right hand horizontally, apply the edge of the point, and cut the onion into slices parallel with the surface of the table, without drawing the knife quite through; then turn the piece of onion half round and cut it nearly through in a vertical direction; this will form the whole into small dice like pieces. Next, put these into a small stewpan with about an ounce of fresh butter, and fry them of a light yellow color; then drain the butter, and add two tablespoonfuls of French vinegar: set this on the fire to simmer, and when the vinegar is nearly reduced, add a small ladleful of Espai nole sauce, and half that quantity of consomme; stir this on the fire till it boils, then set it on

SPECIAL SAUCES. 49

the side to continue gently boiling that it may clear itself; skim it thoroughly, and having reduced it to a proper consistency, pour it into a bain-marie, and finish it by mixing in two teaspoonsful of French mustard and a little minionette pepper.

This sauce is peculiarly adapted, from its piquante, full, yet delicate flavor, for entrees of broiled pork.

68. SAUCE A LA GASCONISTE.

Take a small spoonful of French capers, with about an ounce of truffles, and chop each separately, very fine; put these into a smalt stewpan, together with one clove of garlic, a tablespoonful of salad oil, some pepper, and nutmeg; fry them lightly on the stove-fire for two or three minutes; moisten with a glass of French white wine, set the whole to boil on the stove-fire for three minutes; then add a small ladleful of white Veloute sauce, a bay-leaf, and a sprig of thyme; stir the sauce on the fire till it boils, then set it by the side to continue boiling gently; skim it well, and after having added another glass of wine, reduce the sauce and thicken it with a leason of three yelks; pour the sauce into a bain-marie, and just before using it mix in a spoonful of chopped and blanched chives, parsley, and tarragon, a pat of anchovy butter, and some lemon-jnice.

69. CHEVKEUIL OR PIQUANTE SAUCE FOR ROEBUCK.

Chop four ounces of lean ham, and put it into a stewpan, with a good pinch of minionette pepper, some thyme, and a bay-leaf, a few green onions, and some sprigs of parsley; moisten with a gill of French vinegar, boil the whole on the fire till reduced to half its original quantity, and then add a small ladleful of brown sauce, a small tumblerful of red wine, and a little consomme; stir this on the fire till it boils, and after having cleared and skimmed it in the usual manner, reduce it to a proper consistency, and finish by adding a spoonful of red currantjelly and the juice of an orange.

70. BUTTER SAUCE.

Butter sauce, or, as it is more often absurdly called, melted butter, is the foundation of the whole of the following sauces, and requires very great care in its preparation. Though simple, it is nevertheless a very useful and agreeable sauce when properly made; so far from this being usually the case, it is too generally left to assistants to prepare as an insignificant matter; the result is therefore seldom satisfactory.

When a large quantity of butter sauce is required, put four ounces of fresh butter into a middle-sized stewpan, with some grated nutmeg and minionette pepper; to these add four ounces of sifted flour; knead the whole well together, and moisten with a pint of cold spring water; stir the sauce on the fire till it boils, and after having kept it gently boiling for twenty minutes (observing that it be not thicker than the consistence of common white sauce), proceed to mix in one pound and a half of sweet fresh butter, taking care to stir the sauce quickly the whole time of the operation. Should it appear to turn oily, add now and then a spoonful of cold spring water; finish with the juice of half a lemon, and salt to palate; then pass the sauce through a tammy into a large bain-marie for use. 3

50 SAUCES.

Note. - This kind of sauce should not be made above twenty minutes before it is wanted, as, from its particular delicacy, when exposed much longer to heat of any kind, it is liable to be decomposed; should this occur, it may be remedied by simply adding a little cold spring water in winter, or a small piece of clean ice in summer; and then working the sauce briskly together with a spoon. This method is efficacious in restoring any sort of butter sauce, when turned or become oily, to its original smoothness.

71. BUTTER SAUCE FOR ASPARAGUS.

Prepare some sauce as directed in the foregoing recipe, and add a little double cream, with a teaspoonful of French vinegar.

This sauce is also served with cauliflower, brocoli, seakale, salsifis, &c, &c.

72. ANCHOVY SAUCE.

Prepare some butter sauce, add a sufficient quantity of essence of anchovies to give flavor, and a little lemon-juice.

73. PLAIN LOBSTER SAUCE.

Cut all the fleshy part of the lobster into small square dice, place them in a bain-marie with sufficient butter sauce (No. 70), a little cayenne, and lemon-juice, and also some lobster coral forced through a hair-sieve; stir the sauce with a spoon on the fire till it boils, and send to table. The coral may also be pounded with a little butter, and after being rubbed through a sieve or tammy, worked into the sauce. Either method may be adopted, but the latter is generally preferred.

74. PLAIN SHRIMP SAUCE.

Take half a pint of pickled shrimps, half a pint of butter sauce (No. TO), a little essence of anchovies, cayenne, and lemon-juice; stir these together in a small stewpan over the fire, and serve.

75. FENNEL SAUCE.

Chop and blanch sufficient fennel to color the sauce of a bright green, and put it into a bain-marie, containing half a pint of butter sauce; add a little pepper, salt, and lemon-juice.

76. GOOSEBERRY SAUCE.

Let a pint of green young gooseberries be well picked, throw them into an untinned sugar-boiler, containing sufficient boiling water to blanch them in; boil them quickly on the stove-fire for ten minutes (more or less), but observe that the gooseberries be thoroughly done; drain them on a sieve, remove them into a small - stewpan, and bruise them with a wooden spoon. The gooseberries after being boiled may be rubbed through a sieve or tammy into a puree, which has the effect of giving a smoother appearance to the sauce. This sauce is served with plain boiled mackerel.

77. PARSLEY SAUCE, USUALLY CALLED PARSLEY AND BUTTER.

Put a tablespoonful of chopped and blanched parsley into half a pint of good butter sauce; and just before sending to table add a very little lemon-juice.

SPECIAL SAUCES. 51

78. PLAIN" RAVIGOTTE SAUCE.

Take one tablespoonful each of tarragon-vinegar, Chili ditto, and Harvey's sauce; put this into a small stewpan, and set it to boil down to half the quantity; then add about half a pint of good butter sauce (No. 70), and a tablespoonful of chopped and blanched tarragon, with chervil, chives, burnet, and parsley, in sufficient quantity to give a bright color to the sauce; stir the whole well together and serve.

This sauce is proper for boiled fowls or chickens, dressed fillets of various sorts of fish, when a plain dinner is served. If a small piece of glaze be added it will tend much to improve the quality of all plain sauces.

79. PLAIN DUTCH SAUCE.

Pour a large gravy-spoonful of melted butter into a small stewpan, add four raw yelks Of eggs, a little grated nutmeg, some minionette pepper, two ounces of fresh butter, and a little salt; stir the sauce briskly on the fire in order to set the yelks in it, and then pass it through a tammy into a bain-marie; previously to using it add a little tarragon-vinegar or lemon-juice.

80. BREAD SAUCE.

Put a gill of cream and a little milk into a small stewpan with a large gravy-spoonful of bread-crumbs, a small onion, some peppercorns, and a little salt; stir the sauce on the fire until it has boiled ten minutes, then take out the onion, work in a pat of fresh butter, and serve.

81. FRIED BREAD SAUCE.

Mince a little lean ham and put it into a small stewpan with one chopped shalot, some grated nutmeg, minionette pepper, and half a pint of good gravy; simmer the whole on the stove-fire till reduced to half, then strain it with pressure through a tammy into another small stewpan, containing four tablespoonsful of fried bread-crumbs of a light-brown color, and some chopped parsley; and a little essence of chicken and the juice of half a lemon; stir the sauce till it boils, and serve.

This kind of sauce is appropriate for all small birds, such as wheatears, ortolans, ruffs and reeves, &c, &c.

82. BROWN GRAVY FOR ROAST VEAL.

Place four ounces of fresh butter in a stewpan and knead it with a good tablespoonful of flour; add a ladleful of good brown gravy, some essence of mushrooms or mushroom catsup, a little grated nutmeg, and minionette pepper; stir the sauce on the stove, and keep it gently boiling for ten minutes. If it becomes too thick add a little more gravy, so as to keep it of the same consistency as any other sauce; finish with a little lemon-juice.

If there is no gravy or essence of mushrooms at hand, use, in their stead, a ladleful of water, a piece of glaze, some mushroom catsup, and a little Indian soy; these will answer nearly the same purpose.

52 SAUCES.

83. CREAM SAUCE FOR ROAST NECK OF VEAL.

Knead four ounces of fresh butter with two ounces of sifted flour; add half a pint of good cream and a small ladleful of white consomme, a little nutmeg and minionette pepper, some essence of mushrooms, and a garnished parsley -fagot; stir the sauce till it boils, and keep it gently boiling for twenty minutes; then extract the onion and fagot, and pass the sauce through a tammy into a bain-marie for use.

84. EGG SAUCE.

Boil some eggs hard; when cold, break and pick off their shells, and then cut them up into square dicelike pieces, and put them into some good melted butter, with a little pepper and salt; stir gently on the fire till the sauce is hot, and then serve.

85. EGG SAUCE, ANOTHER METHOD.

Boil four eggs hard, take the yelks out, and cut the whites into small shreds and put them into a stewpan; place a wire sieve over a clean plate, and rub the yelks through it on to the plate, keeping the vermicellilike substance which the operation will produce as whole as possible; pour some good butter sauce on to the shred whites of eggs, adding thereto a teaspoonful of English mustard, a little pepper and salt, and lemon-juice; just before serving, warm the sauce, and mix in lightly the vermicellied yelks of eggs, and serve.

86. SAUCE MOUTARDE, OR MUSTARD SAUCE.

Into about half a pint of good butter sauce, mix two tablespoonsful of prepared English mustard and one of French ditto; make the sauce hot, and serve.

This sauce is seldom used for any other dish than broiled herrings.

87. PLAIN CURRY SAUCE.

Put two ounces of fresh butter into a stewpan, together with rather more than an ounce of flour and a good tablespoonful of curry-paste or powder; knead these well together, then add a little shred carrot, celery, and onions; moisten with about a pint of good strong consomme; stir the sauce on the fire until it boils, and, after having kept it boiling for about twenty minutes, pass it through the tammy, as for a puree; then remove the sauce iuto a bain-marie or stewpan, to be used wheu required.

This economical method of making curry sauce should only be resorted to in cases of emergency or necessity, otherwise it is desirable to follow the directions contained in No. 47.

88. WASTREFISH SAUCE, FOR BOILED FRESH-WATER FISH.

Cut into small shreds the rind of an orange, the red part of a carrot, a handful of parsley-stalks, and an equal proportion of parsley-roots; blanch these, and, having drained them on a sieve or napkin, place them in a small stewpau, containing about half a pint of Dutch sauce, with the addition of two spoonsful of reduced essence of fish, a little cayenne, and lemon-juice; stir the sauce on the fire without allowing it to boil, and serve it with perch, or,

SPECIAL SAUCES. 53

indeed, with any other sort of plain boiled fresh-water fish, for which purpose the ingredients it contains render it peculiarly fitted.

89. FLEMISH SAUCE.

Knead two ounces of fresh butter with an equal quantity of flour, to which add an onion, some sprigs of parsley, a little shred carrot, and a sprig of thyme, a blade of mace, and a little minionette pepper; moisten with half a pint of cream and the same proportion of good consomme. Stir the sauce on the fire until it boils, and, after having kept it boiling for twenty minutes, pass it through the tammy into a bain-marie, containing the red part of a carrot, some parsleystalks and roots, and some horse-radish, the whole of which should be previously cut into small diamonds and blanched; finish by mixing in a small spoonful of tarragon-vinegar and three or four green Indian gherkins cut into shreds; make the sauce hot, and serve.

90. CAPER SAUCE, FOR FISH.

Knead two ounces of fresh butter with one ounce of flour, a very little grated nutmeg, and minionette pepper; to these add a tablespoonful of capers, a piece of glaze, and a little essence of anchovies; moisten with about half a pint of good consomme; stir the sauce on the fire until it begins to simmer, then take it off; add a little lemonjuice, and serve.

This kind of sauce is peculiarly adapted for broiled salmon.

91. CAPER SAUCE, FOR BOILED MUTTON.

To about half a pint of good butter sauce, add a tablespoonful of capers, with a little pepper and salt.

92. CREAM SAUCE, OR BECHAMEL, FOR SALT-FISH.

Place four ounces of sifted flour in a stewpan, with an equal quantity of fresh butter; knead them together well with a wooden spoon; add an onion, a carrot, a head of celery - the whole cut up thin - some branches of parsley, a sprig of thyme, and half a bay-leaf, two cloves, a blade of mace, and a few peppercorns; moisten with about a pint of good white consomme and half a pint of cream, adding a little salt; stir the sauce on the fire until it boils; let it continue to boil for twenty minutes, stirring it the whole time; then pass it through a tammy into a bain-marie, to be kept for use.

93. BEURRE NOIR, OR BLACK BUTTER SHARP SAUCE.

Place about six ounces of good fresh butter in a small stewpan, put it on the fire to melt, and then allow it to fritter, so as to acquire a light brown color; then take it off the stove, skim it, and quickly pass it through a sieve, into a stewpan containing four tablespoonsful of French vinegar, a dessert-spoonful of chopped capers, ditto Harvey's sauce, ditto mushroom catsup, and a piece of glaze the size of a walnut, and sufficient pepper and salt to season the sauce; boil the whole well together, and use it for boiled skate or broiled mackerel. With whatever kind of fish this sauce is served, fried parsley forms an indispensable adjunct.

54 COLD SAUCES.

93a. orleaxs sauce.

Take the red part of a boiled carrot, the fillets of six washed anchovies, the white of two eggs boiled hard, and six green gherkins; cut these into small square dicelike shapes, and place them in a small bain-marie, add half a pint of Poivrade sauce, boil together gently for five minutes, and use this sauce for braized meats.

93 b. devil's sauce.

Chop three shalots fine, aud place them in a small stewpan, with -two tablespoonfuls of French vinegar, and a pinch of cayenne pepper; boil these together for three minutes; then add half a pint of thin strong JSspagnole sauce, and a tablespoonful of tomata sauce; boil again, and finish by stirring in a small pat of anchovy butter (Xo. 179). This sauce is most appropriate for broiled meats.

COLD SAUCES.

COMPRISING

Cambridge Sauce. Mayonnaite Sauce of savory jelly.

Remoulade do. Provencale Sauce.

Tartar do. Cold Poivrade do.

Mayonnaise do. Wild Boar's Head do.

Green do. do. Brawn do. Bed, or Coral do. do.

94. CAMBRIDGE SAUCE.

Take the yelks of six eggs boiled hard, the fillets of four anchovies, cleaned, and put them into a mortar, with a tablespoonful of French capers, some tarragon, chervil, chives, and a little burnet, blanched; pound these well together with a teaspoonful of English mustard, the same quantity of French, and some pepper and salt; moisten with good salad-oil, and a little tarragon-vinegar, taking care that the sauce be kept rather thick. Having sufficiently moistened the sauce, take it out of the mortar into the tammy placed over a dish for that purpose, and proceed to rub the sauce through the tammy in the same manner as a puree; pass the back part of a knife along the under part of the tammy, in order to detach therefrom any adhesive particles; take the sauce up into a small basin, to be kept on the ice till wanted for use, and just before sending it to table add some chopped parsley. Observe that this sauce be kept about the same degree of thickness as reduced Veloute sauce; salt must be used in moderation, owing to the presence of anchovies in the composition.

95. REMOULADE SAUCE.

Blanch some tarragon, chervil, chives, burnet, and parsley; extract the water and pound these herbs together, with four yelks of hard eggs; moisten with a gill of salad-oil, and a tablespoonful of tarragonvinegar, and season with pepper and salt. Pass the sauce through a tammy as for a puree, and then take it up into a small basin; keep it on the ice till it is required for use.

COLD SAUCES.

96. TARTAR SAUCE.

55

Place a round-bottomed basin in a deep sauta-pan containing some pounded ice, put two raw yelks of eggs into the basin with a little pepper and salt, and with a wooden spoon proceed, with the back part of the bowl, to work the yelk of eggs, dropping in, at intervals, very small quantities of salad-oil, and a little tarragon-vinegar, until a sufficient quantity of sauce is produced; bearing in mind, that the relative quantity of oil to be used in proportion to the vinegar is as five to one. When the sauce is finished, add some chopped tarragon and chervil, and half a shalot.

In making this sauce, should it decompose through inattention, it may instantly be restored to its proper consistency by mixing in it a good spoonful of cold white sauce.

97. MAYONNAISE SAUCE.

Place two raw yelks of eggs in a round-bottomed basin, and set this in a deep sauta-pan containing some pounded ice; add a little pepper and salt to the yelks, and proceed to work them quickly with the back part of the bowl of a wooden spoon, moistening at intervals with salad-oil and French vinegar, which must, however, be sparingly used at first, and gradually increased as you proceed, until, by this means, the quantity of sauce desired is produced; add a little lemon-juice to make the sauce white. Previous to using the sauce, add a little aspic-jelly (No. 1218), which must be just barely melted before incorporating it with the Mayonnaise, as in the case of its being made warm it might have the effect of turning and decomposing the sauce.

98. GREEN MAYONNAISE SAUCE.

Blanch some tarragon, chervil, a little burnet, and some parsley; extract the water therefrom; pass the Ravigotte thus produced through a sieve, and proceed to incorporate it with some Mayonnaise, prepared according to the foregoing instructions.

This sauce is usually colored with spinach-green (No. 286).

99. RED OR CORAL MAYONNAISE SAUCE.

Pound some lobster coral, pass it through a sieve, and mix it in with some Mayonnaise sauce; add a little cayenne pepper and a spoonful of mustard.

This sauce should be used exclusively for lobster and fish salads.

100. MAYONNAISE SAUCE OF SAVORY JELLY.

Set a round-bottomed basin in some pounded ice, place therein half a pint of light-colored aspic-jelly, a little pepper and salt, a gravy-spoonful of salad-oil, and a tablespoonful of tarragon-vinegar; whip this mixture quickly with a whisk, adding, from time to time, some oil and vinegar in the same proportions as heretofore directed; by whipping briskly, you will find the sauce assume a white, smooth appearance; add a little lemon-juice, to whiten it, and some chopped tarragon and chervil; or, if preferred, this sauce may be used without the latter. This kind of Mayonnaise sauce is considered as being the most delicate, and is particularly adapted for aspics of fillets of fowls, or any sort of white fish.

56 COLD SAUCES.

This sauce may also be colored, by using for that purpose either some pounded lobster coral, or extract of spinach (No. 286).

101. PROVENCALE SAUCE.

Pound four yelks of hard-boiled eggs, together with four anchovies, a spoonful of capers, some tarragon, chervil, burnet, parsley, a clove of garlic, pepper and salt, a gill of salad-oil, and a tablespoonful of tarragon-vinegar; rub the whole through a tammy with a wooden spoon as for a, puree: add a little lemon-juice and serve.

This kind of sauce is well adapted to be served with broiled eels or fowls, and more especially with fish salads; in which case, a spoonful of chopped parsley should be added.

102. COLD POIVKADE SAUCE.

Put a good spoonful of brown sauce into a round-bottomed basin, add thereto four tablespoonsful of salad-oil, one of Chili vinegar, a little tarragon-vinegar, pepper, and salt; work the whole well together with a whisk, then add a tablespoonful of chopped parsley and a little shalot.

This sauce is good with plain boiled artichokes, and also for brawn, by adding a little sugar for the brawn.

103. boar's HEAD SAUCE.

Grate a stick of horse-radish, and place it in a basin with four ounces of red currant-jelly, a spoonful of mixed mustard, the grated rind of an orange and lemon, together with the juice of both; two ounces of pounded sugar, a tablespoonful of French vinegar, and two tablespoonsful of salad-oil; mix these ingredients thoroughly together, and serve.

104. ANOTHER METHOD FOR MAKING BOAR'S HEAD SAUCE.

Pare the rind off two Seville oranges, free from any of the white pith, cut it into fine shreds, parboil this, and drain it on a sieve; then put it into a small stewpan containing the juice of the two oranges, together with one pound of red currant jelly, half a pint of port wine, and half a teaspoonful of cinnamon powder; simmer the whole together in a stewpan, and serve when cold.

105. BRAWN SAUCE.

Mix together one tablespoonful of moist sugar, two of French vinegar, three of salad-oil, a teaspoonful of mixed mustard, some pepper and salt, and serve.

PUREES OF VEGETABLES. 57

PUREES OF VEGETABLES FOR GARNISHING,*

COMPRISING

Puree of Peas.

Puree

of Artichokes.

»

Windsor Beans.

»

Asparagus.

»

Carrots.

»

Onions a la Soubise.

»

Turnips.

5!

Tomatas.

»

Celery.

»

Truflies.

Cauliflowers.

t

Mushrooms.

)

Spinach.

»

Brussels Sprouts.

Sorrel.

»

Cucumbers.

yy

Endive.

l

French Beans.

jf

Chestnuts.



Jerusalem Artichokes.

*

Potatoes.

»

Seakale.

106. PUREE OF PEAS.

Boil a quart of marrowfat, or Prussian-blue peas, in the usual manner, with some mint, a few green onions, and a handful of parsley; strain off the water, and pound the whole thoroughly in a mortar; then take this up into a stewpan, and after adding a little sugar, a gravy-spoonful of good white sauce, make it hot, and pass it through a tammy as usual; put the puree into a small stewpan, in which it must be warmed before using it: mix in a small piece of glaze, and a pat of fresh butter.

107. PUREE OF WINDSOR BEANS.

Procure a quart of young Windsor beans, and boil them with a handful of parsley, a few green onions, and a little winter savory; drain them and pound the whole together in a mortar: take them up into a stewpan, add a gravy-spoonful of good white sauce, and make the puree warm. Rub it through the tammy with a wooden spoon; then take it up into a stewpan, and just before using it make it sufficiently hot; mix in a small piece of glaze, a pat of butter, a little sugar, and some spinach-green (No. 285).

108. PUREE OF YOUNG CAREOTS.

Clean a bunch of young carrots, slice them up thin, wash and drain them in a sieve; then place them in a stewpan, with two ounces of fresh butter, a little salt, grated nutmeg, and sugar; sweat them on a slow fire, turning them over now and then. When the carrots begin to get colored, moisten with a ladleful of good broth, and set them on the fire; allow them to boil down gently to a glaze, then pound them in the mortar, and rub them through the tammy into a puree; put this puree into a small stewpan, and when required for use, add a spoonful of thick Allemande sauce, a pat of fresh butter, and a pinch of sugar.

109. PUREE OF TURNIPS A LA CREME. Peel and wash a dozen good turnips, cut them into small square

* All the purees here described being intended for entries, should be kept firm, that they may stand up well when placed in the centre of an entrie.

58 PUREES OF

pieces, or slices; first blanch, and then drain them on a napkin, and afterward place them in a stewpan with two ounces of fresh butter, a little sugar and salt; let them stew gently on a slow fire to extract the moisture, turning them occasionally, and taking care that they do not become at all colored. When the turnips are nearly melted, add a small ladleful of Veloute or Bechamel sauce; stir the puree with a wooden spoon on the fire, in order to reduce it to the consistency of a soft paste; then add half a pint of double cream; reduce the puree still further, then rub it through a tammy, next' remove it into a small stewpan, and previously to usiug it, make it sufficiently hot, mixing in a pat of fresh butter, and serve.

110. PUREE OF CELERY.

Cut the white part of six or eight heads of celery into half-inch lengths, boil these in water for five minutes, plunge them in fresh water, and drain the celery in a napkin; then place them in a stewpan with two ounces of butter, some white broth, a little sugar, and grated nutmeg; cover the celery thus prepared with a round of buttered paper, place the lid on the stewpan, and set it on a slow fire to extract the moisture and melt the celery, taking care that in the course of process it does not color: when the celery is melted or softened, moisten with a ladleful of white sauce, and half a pint of cream; reduce quickly on the fire, stirring the puree the whole time with a wooden spoon. As soon as the puree is reduced to its proper consistency, proceed immediately to rub it through the tammy, after which take it up into a small stewpan; previously to using it, make the puree hot, and mix with it a little double cream and a pinch of pounded sugar.

111. PUREE OF CAULIFLOWERS.

Cut two or more heads of white fresh cauliflowers into small pieces, and after trimming these, boil them in some boiling water with a little salt, iniuionette pepper, and a pat of butter; when done drain them on a sieve, and afterward place them in a deep sauta-pan, with a large gravy-spoonful of reduced Allemande, or white sauce; stir the puree on the fire with a wooden spoon, and keep it boiling until reduced to the consistency of a soft paste. Then instantly rub it through a tammy, remove the puree into a small stewpan, and previously to using it make it hot, and mix in a little grated nutmeg, a pinch of sugar, and a little double cream to whiten it and make it more delicate.

112. PUREE OF SPINACH.

Pick, wash, and boil a small dish of spinach, refresh it in cold water, squeeze it thoroughly free from water, examine it carefully by separating it with the point of a kuife on the chopping-board, so as to remove any straws, &c, left in it; next pound it well in the mortar, and then take it up in a deep sauta-pan, add a small ladleful of good white sauce, a little grated nutmeg, salt, and a pinch of sugar; reduce the puree over a brisk fire to preserve its color; rub it through a tammy, and remove it into a small stewpan; just before using it make it warm, and add two pats of fresh butter and a small piece of glaze.

VEGETABLES FOR GARNISHING. 59

113. PUREE OF SORREL.

Pick, and well wash the sorrel in several waters; drain off the water, and place the sorrel in a large stevvpan on the fire, stirring it the whole time with a wooden spoon; as soon as the sorrel is melted, and has boiled a few minutes, turn it out on to a large hair-sieve, there to remain until the water has run off. Next, cut two large onions into thin slices, place these in a stewpan, with two ounces of fresh butter, and put them to fry of a light color on the stove-fire; after which, add a good tablespoonful of flour, some grated nutmeg, a teaspoonful of sugar, some minionette pepper, and salt; moisten with a gravy-spoonful of sauce, either white or brown, then add the sorrel, prepared as above directed, and reduce the puree over a brisk fire, stirring it the whole time with a wooden spoon; when the sorrel is sufficiently reduced, rub it instantly through a tammy, and place it in a small stevvpan. Previously to using the puree, make it hot; add a pat of butter and a piece of glaze.

114. PUREE OF ENDIVE.

Trim off all the outside leaves of a dozen full white-heart endives; wash them thoroughly, and carefully remove all insects, &c.; throw the endives into a stewpan of boiling water, and, after allowing them to remain boiling for the space of twenty minutes, immerse them in cold water. When thus cool, squeeze each endive separately, entirely extracting the water; then cut off the root end from each endive, and after first chopping the leafy portion, place them in a stewpau with two ounces of fresh butter, nutmeg, sugar, and salt; stir the whole over a stove-fire with a wooden spoon for five minutes, moisten with a ladleful of white broth, then cover with a round of buttered paper, place the lid on the stewpan, and set it on a slow fire to continue very gently simmering for half an hour; next add a small ladleful of white sauce and half a pint of cream, and reduce the puree quickly on a brisk fire; as soon as it is reduced to its proper consistency, instantly remove it into a small stewpan for use.

This kind of puree is usually rubbed through a coarse hair-sieve in preference to a tammy.

115. PUREE OF CHESTNUTS. Slit the husks of fifty chestnuts, and place them in a stewpan with a piece of butter; put the lid on the stewpan, and set it on a slow fire, taking care, now and then, to toss up the chestnuts, so that they may get an equal degree of heat; in about twenty minutes the husks will easily peel off, and should then be removed. Put the chestnuts into a clean stewpan with a ladleful of good consomme, and place the lid thereon; set them to simmer gently on the corner of the stove; when they are done, pound them in a mortar, take them up into a deep sauta-pan, and a little sugar, nutmeg, and half a pint of cream; reduce the puree, and rub it through a tammy on to a dish; remove it into a small stewpan; and just before using it, make it hot, mix in a small pat of butter and a piece of glaze.

116. PUREE OF POTATOES. Peel and wash eight potatoes, cut them into slices, and place them in a stewpan with two ounces of butter, some minionette pepper,

60 PUREES OF

salt, and a little nutmeg; moisten with a pint of white broth, put the lid on the stewpan, and set it to boil on the fire. By the time the broth is reduced, the potatoes will be done; then add half a pint of cream, and with a wooden spoon reduce the purGe on the fire to the usual consistency of mashed potatoes; rub the puree through the tammy on to a dish, and then remove it into a small stewpan; previously to using it, add a pat of butter.

117. PUREE OF ARTICHOKES.

First, pick off the outer leaves of six young full-grown artichokes; then turn, or pare off with a knife, the whole of the outer green pare of the bottom of the artichokes, so as to leave it white; when this is finished, rub each artichoke thus turned with a piece of lemon, and put them directly into a pan of water with a little vinegar in it. Then place the artichokes in a stewpan with boiling water, a little butter, lemon-juice, salt, and minionette pepper; after three-quarters of an hour's gentle boiling, take the artichokes up, extract the fibrous interior from each, and place them in a deep sauta-pan with a ladleful of white sauce, half a pint of cream, nutmeg, a little salt, and a teaspoonful of sugar; reduce the puree quickly over a brisk fire, stirring it the whole time with a wooden spoon, and then rub it through a tammy; after which remove it into a small stewpan; finish with a pat of butter, and a small piece of glaze.

118. PUREE OF ASPARAGUS.

Break off the tender portions of a bundle of sprue asparagus, wash them in a large pan, with a good handful of green onions and double that quantity of picked parsley; set these on the fire to boil in an untinned pan half full of boiling water, and throw in a spoonful of salt; as soon as the asparagus are done, drain them in a sieve, and remove all the water. Put the asparagus, parsley, and green onions, altogether into a deep sauta-pan, with a small ladleful of white sauce, the crumb of a French roll (that has previously been soaked in water, and afterward pressed in a napkin to remove the moisture), some grated nutmeg, a little salt, and a teaspoonful of sugar; reduce the puree quickly on the fire, rub it through a tammy on to a dish, and from thence remove it into a small stewpan, and keep it in the cool until wanted for use. Finish by adding a pat of fresh butter, a piece of glaze, and some spinach-green, if required, to give it a brightgreen color.

119. PUREE OF ONIONS A LA SOUBISE.

Peel and cut into slices eight large onions, parboil them in water for five minutes, drain them on a sieve, immerse them in cold water, and press them in a napkin to extract the water; place them in a stewpan with two ounces of butter, nutmeg, minionette pepper, a little salt, and a spoonful of white broth; put a round of buttered paper on them, and cover the stewpan with its lid; and set it on a very slow fire to simmer gently for half an hour. Then turn the onions out into a deep sauta-pan, moisten with a small ladleful of good white sauce, and half a pint of cream, reduce the pur&e quickly on a sharp fire, rub it through a tammy on to a dish, and take it up into a small stewpan. Just before using it, add a pinch of sugar.

VEGETABLES FOR GARNISHING. 61

When this puree is required to be made very firm and thick, it is necessary to increase the quantity of onious used for the purpose, and to add a couple of hot mealy potatoes.

120. PUREE OF TOMATAS.

Cut four ounces of raw ham into small pieces, and place them in a stewpan with two shalots, a bay-leaf, a sprig of thyme, two cloves, a blade of mace, and a few peppercorns; add a small piece of butter, and fry these ingredients on the fire of a light color; to this add either a dozen squeezed ripe tomatas, or a sufficient quantity of preserve of tomatas, and a small ladleful of Veloute sauce; reduce the puree thus prepared on a quick fire; then rub it through a tammy, and place it in a small stewpan for use. Finish by adding a little glaze and a small piece of fresh butter, just before sending to table.

121. PUREE OF TRUFFLES.

First peel and then pound ten ounces of truffles; put them into a stewpan with a pat of butter, half a bay -leaf, a sprig of thyme, some grated nutmeg, and a very small clove of garlic; set these on the stove to simmer for a few minutes, then add a small ladleful of brown sauce and a small piece of glaze; reduce the puree quickly, and rub. it through the tammy on to a dish; remove it from thence into a small bain-marie for use.

Omit the garlic, should its flavor be objectionable.

122. PUREE OF MUSHROOMS.

Clean a pottle of white button mushrooms, chop them up, adding meanwhile the juice of half a lemon to prevent them from turning black; when chopped fine, place them in a deep sauta-pan with a pat of butter, and with a wooden spoon stir them on the fire for five minutes; moisten with a ladleful of good white sauce, reduce the puree quickly, and then add half a pint of double cream; stir the puree on the fire for five minutes longer, rub it through a tammy on to a dish, and from thence remove it into a small stewpan for use.

123. PUREE OF BRUSSELS SPROUTS.

Boil a good plateful of Brussels sprouts, place them in a deep sauta-pan with a ladleful of good white sauce, nutmeg, minionette pepper, a little salt, and a pinch of sugar; reduce the whole on a brisk fire, stirring all the time with a wooden spoon; rub the puree through a tammy in the usual manner, and afterward put it into a small stewpan; previously to using the puree, add a little spinach-green, a pat of butter, and a piece of glaze.

124. PUREE OF CUCUMBERS.

Mince two ounces of lean ham, place it in a small stewpan with a pat of butter, a little nutmeg, and a few peppercorns; to these add four cucumbers, trimmed and cut up for the purpose; set the stewpan on a slow fire, there to simmer for twenty minutes, at the expiration of which time add a small ladleful of white sauce; reduce the puree quickly on a brisk stove, and when it assumes the appearance of a soft paste, pour in half a pint of good sweet double cream and a teaspoonful of sugar; reduce the puree for five miuutes longer on the fire, and

62

GARNISHES

then rub it through the tammy in the usual manner, and take it up into a small stewpan for use.

125. PUREE OF FRENCH BEANS.

Shred a good plateful of French beans, boil them quickly of a green color, taking care to boil with them a handful of picked parsley and a few green onions; when they are done, drain the whole on a sieve, and afterward place them in a deep santa-pan with a gravy-spoonful of good white sauce, a piece of glaze, and a little sugar; reduce the puree on the fire, and then rub it through a tammy, take it up into a small stewpan, and just before using it mix in a small pat of butter and a little spinach-green.

126. PUREE OF JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES.

This puree is made exactly in the same manner as the puHe of potatoes, merely substituting Jerusalem artichokes for potatoes.

127. PUREE OF SEAKALE.

Boil a punnet of good white seakale, and drain it on a napkin; cut it into half-inch lengths,; and place it in a stewpan with two ounces of fresh butter, some minionette pepper, nutmeg, salt, a little sugar, and some white broth; place thereon a round of buttered paper, and cover the stewpan with its lid; set it on a moderate fire to simmer for twenty minutes, then add a small ladleful of good white sauce; reduce the puree quickly to the condition of a soft paste, and then add half a pint of cream; after reducing it five minutes longer, rub the puree through the tammy, and take it up into a small stewpan for use.

VEGETABLES FOR GARNISHING,

COMPRISING

Garnish of Truffles in Glaze.

„ d la Parisienne.

„ in Supreme.

„ of whole Truffles.

„ Mushrooms d V Allemande.

„ do. in Enpagnole.

„ of young Carrots. „ Carrots cut in fancy shapes.

„ Turnips.

„ Carrots and Turnips d la At vcrnaise. „ Cucumbers in scollops.

„ Cucumbers farcis,

„ Celery d la crime.

„ Celery d V Espagnole.

,, Young Carrots d la Flamande.

„ White Macidoine of vegetables.

„ Brown do.

„ Green Pens.

,, Stewed Peas.

Garnish of Asparagus-heads.

„ Asparagus Peas.

„ Button Onions, for matelotte.

„ White Button Onions.

„ Windsor Beans.

„ French Beans.

„ Artichoke Bottoms.

„ Glazed Onions.

„ Brocoli, or Cauliflower.

„ Brussels Sprouts.

„ Chestnuts for roast Turkey.

„ Jerusalem Artichokes.

„ Cloves of Garlic.

„ White Haricot-Beans.

„ Red Haricot-Benns.

„ Braized Cabbage Lettuces.

„ Braized Cabbages.

„ Stewed Red Callages.

„ Sauerkraut.

„ Sauerkraut d la Francait*.

OF VEGETABLES. 63

128. GARNISH OF TRUFFLES IN GLAZE.

Cut about one pound of truffles in various fancy shapes, such as small round balls, olives, or like quarters of orange, small pillars, and circular scollops; place them in a small stewpan, with a little fresh butter, a pinch of salt, and a piece of glaze; put on the lid of the stewpan, and set it on a slow fire to simmer for five or ten minutes; toss the truffles thus prepared in their glaze, and use them to garnish the centre of an entree, or for any other appropriate purpose.

129. GARXI3H OF TRUFFLES A LA PARI3IEXXE.

Prepare the truffles as directed in the foregoing case, and, having boiled them down in their glaze, add a good ragout-spoonful of Parisian sauce (Xo. 40).

130. GARXI3H OF TRUFFLES WITH SUPREME SAUCE.

Prepare the truffles in fancy shapes, simmer them with a small quantity of butter and glaze, and boil them down in their glaze; then add a spoonful of Supreme sauce. This garnish may be served with all entrees, fillets of poultry, or game.

131. GARXISH OF WHOLE TRUFFLES.

Brush and clean any quantity required of fine fresh truffles, boil them in a wine mirepoix (for making which see Xo. 23C) - one hour's gentle boiling will suffice; just before using them, take the truffles out of the mirepoix, glaze them, and dispose them round or about the entree or remove in a circle or in groups.

132. GARXISH OF MUSHROOMS IX ALLEMAXDE SAUCE.

Clean and turn a pottle of mushrooms, put them into a small stewpan with an ounce of butter, a little salt, the juice of a lemon, and about two tablespoonsful of water; boil them quickly on the fire for five minutes, drain the mushrooms, and put them into a bain-marie containing a large ragout-spoonful of Allemande sauce; reduce the liquor the mushrooms were boiled in, and add it to the mushrooms. This garnish is proper for all white entrees, and especially for entrees of game or fowl a la Dauphine or a la Villeroi.

133. GARNISH OF MUSHROOMS IX ESPAGXOLE SAUCE.

Prepare the mushrooms as directed in the foregoing recipe, drain them on a napkin, and place them in a stewpan or bain-marie, with sufficient finished Espagnole sauce, according to the quantity required, adding the essence of the mushrooms, cleared from the butter, and reduced. This sauce is appropriate for every kind of brown entree.

134. GARXISn OF YOUXG CARROTS.

Turn a bunch of young carrots, keeping them in their own shape, as far as may be consistent with uniformity of size; boil them in water for three minutes, drain them on a sieve, place them in a stewpan with an ounce of sugar, a pat of butter and a little salt; moisten

* This is the foundation of all garnishes of truffles and mushrooms: an infinite vnriety may be made by adding to the truffles prepared as above some special sauce, the addition of which will then give its name to the garnish.

64 GARNISHES

with a pint of broth or consomme, and set them to boil on the stovefire; when they are done, boil them down quickly to a glaze, roll the carrots in this glaze, and use them to garnish the intended dish.

135. GARNISH OF CARROTS IN OLIVES, ETC.

Scrape and wash four good carrots, cut the red part, either with a small root-knife, vegetable scoop, or cutter, into various fancy shapes, as olives, small round balls, pillars, half-moons, diamonds, or fluted shapes; parboil, drain, and prepare them as directed above; finish them in the same manner, and, having run them down in ther own glaze, either use them as they are, or else add a ragout-spoonful of Allemande, Bechamel, Supreme, or, indeed, any other kind of sauce that may be appropriate for the dish they are meant to garnish.

136. GARNISH OF TURNIPS.

Peel four turnips, cut or turn them into fancy shapes, as directed in the preceding article, boil them for three minutes, drain them on a napkin, place them in a stewpan, with a little sugar, salt, and a small pat of butter; moisten with some white broth, put them on the stove, and, when they are nearly done, boil them down quickly in their glaze, without allowing them to acquire much color. These turnips may be used for a garnish, merely rolled in their own glaze, or a spoonful of either Allemande, Bechamel, Supreme, or finished Espagnole sauce may be added.

137. GARNISH OF CARROTS AND TURNIPS A LA NIVERNAISE.

Cut or turn the red part of three carrots into the shape of small olives or round balls, place these in a small sauta-pan, with a little clarified butter and a teaspoonful of pounded sugar; fry them on the stove-fire, so as to give them a light color, then place them on a sieve to drain off the butter, and put them into a small stewpan, with a piece of fresh butter, a little sugar, and salt; moisten them with some consomme, and set them to boil gradually until nearly done, when they must boil rapidly to glaze. Having thus disposed of the carrots, prepare an equal quantity of turnips, cut in a similar shape, and boil them down to a glaze, similarly to the carrots, and when both are done, mix them together, and use them for entrees of braized mutton, beef, or any sort of cutlets.

138. GARNISH OF CUCUMBERS IN SCOLLOPS.

Cut three cucumbers into inch lengths; divide each piece, lengthwise, into two or more pieces, according to the size of the cucumber, so that, when trimmed, they should be rather larger in size than a shilling; in trimming them, first scoop out the seedy part with a small root-knife, then peel off the green rind and pare away the angles slightly, so as to give them a somewhat rounded appearance. Next, place them in a basin, with two spoonsful of French vinegar aud one of salt, and allow them to remain in this pickle, or marinade, for about a couple of hours, then drain them on a sieve, and place them in a stewpan, with a pat of butter, a lump of sugar, and a ragout-spoonful of white consomme; set them on a slow live to simmer gently for half an hour, when they will be nearly done; boil them down quickly to a glaze, and keep them separately until they

OF VEGETABLES. 65

are wanted for immediate use; then set them on the fire to boil, in order to absorb any moisture they may have thrown out, previously to adding a ragout-spoonful of Allemande, Bechamel, Supreme, or brown sauce, as the case may require. *

139. GARNISH OF CUCUMBERS FARCIS.

Cut three or more cucumbers into two-inch lengths, with a vegetable cutter, scoop out the seeds and peel off the green rind, pare away the sharp angles at the. ends, and then parboil them in water for three minutes, plunge them in cold water, and put them to drain on a napkin; then fill up the cavities with some quenelle force-meat of fowls. Next garnish the bottom of a deep sauta-pan with some thin layers of fat bacon; place therein the cucumbers thus prepared, and in the centre put a fagot of parsley and green onions; cover the whole with layers of fat bacon, and moisten with some white consomme of chicken. Let them simmer very gently on a slow fire for about an hour, aud just before the cucumbers are wanted for use, drain them on a napkin, and then put them into another sauta-pau with their own liquor, freed from all grease, and afterward reduced to a demi-glaze; just roll the cucumbers lightly in this glaze over a sharp fire, so as to cause the glaze to adhere to them, and thus give them a bright appearance.

This kind of garnish of cucumbers is frequently used for whole entrees and removes, such as larded entrees of sweetbreads,. Wcanc7eaM#, fillet of beef, carbonades, fowls, &c, &c.

140. GARNISH OF CELERY A LA CREME.

Trim and well wash six heads of full-sized white celery, cut them into half-inch lengths, boil these in water for five minutes, drain them on a sieve, and immerse them in cold water: then place them on a napkin. Next, put the celery in a stewpan with a lump of sugar, a pat of butter, a little salt, and grated nutmeg; moisten with a ladleful of white consomme, and set it to boil gently on a stove-fire for about an hour; as soon as the celery is well done, boil it down in its glaze, and then add a spoonful of good reduced Bechamel sauce.

When this garnish is required as a sauce for fowls, &c, it will be necessary to increase the quantity of Bechamel sauce, and also to add a little cream.

141. GARNISH OF CELERY A L'ESPAGNOLE.

Prepare the celery as directed in the foregoing article, and when it is thoroughly done, add a ragout-spoonful of finished Espagnole sauce and a small piece of glaze.

142. GARNISH OF YOUNG CARROTS A LA FLAMANDE.

Turn a bunch of young carrots into the shape of small pears, boil them in water for three minutes, drain them on a napkin, and then place them in a stewpan with a pat of butter, one ounce of sugar, a little salt, and grated nutmeg; moisten with a ladleful of consomme, and set them to boil gently on a stove-fire for half an hour; as soon as they are done, boil them down to a glaze, and then add a ragoutspoonful of good Allemande sauce, and a spoonful of blanched parsley 4

66 GARNISHES

leaves. This kind of garnish is very appropriate for braized beef, lamb, and hams.

143. WHITE MACEDOINE OF VEGETABLES.

Prepare some carrots and turnips in fancy shapes of small size, let each sort be separately boiled down to a glaze in a little broth, with the addition of a little sugar and salt, and a very small piece of butter; when done, put the whole together in a small sauta-pan; to these add a cucumber cut up and prepared for the purpose in scollops, a spoonful of boiled green peas, a spoonful of French beans cut in the shape of diamonds, a spoonful of asparagus heads boiled green, and also some very small flowrets of boiled cauliflower; add a gravy-spoonful of Allemande, Bechamel, or Supreme sauce, a little nutmeg and sugar; shake the whole lightly together over the stove-fire, and use this garnish for the entree intended.

144. GARNISH OF BROWN MACEDOINE.

Prepare the vegetables for the Macedoine according to the directions given in the preceding recipe; when nearly ready, use some finished Espagnole sauce, instead of the other sauces there mentioned.

145. GARNISH OF GREEN PEAS.

Boil about a pint of young peas, drain them, and place them in a sauta-pan, then add a spoonful of Bechamel sauce, a pinch of sugar, a little chopped and blanched mint, some nutmeg, a pat of butter, and a piece of glaze; shake the whole up well together over the fire, and serve them in the centre of an entree.

146. GARNISH OF STEWED PEAS.

Put a quart of young peas into a stewpan with four ounces of fresh butter, on these pour a quart of cold spring water, and commence kneading the peas and butter -together, with the hand, in the water; as soon as all the butter adheres to the peas, pour the water off, and then add a dessert-spoonful of sugar, a little salt, an onion, and a fagot of parsley, and green onions; set the peas to stew on a moderate fire; when they are done, set them on a brisk fire to boil quickly, in order that they may, by this means, absorb all their moisture; then add a spoonful of Bechamel sauce, with a pat of butter, and dish them up in the centre of an entree.

147. GARNISH OF ASPARAGUS HEADS.

Trim and cut the heads of as many asparagus as may be required, boil them green, and drain them on a napkin, then place them in a sauta-pan with a spoonful of Allemande sauce, a little sugar, nutmeg, and a piece of glaze; toss them gently over the fire, and serve.

148. GARNISH OF ASPARAGUS PEAS.

Cut a bundle of sprue asparagus into peas, boil them green, and follow the directions contained in the foregoing article.

149. GARNISH OF BUTTON ONIONS FOR MATELOTTE.

Peel a pint of small button onions, . boil them in water for five minutes, drain them on a napkin, and afterward place them in a small

OF VEGETABLES. 67

stewpan with some clarified butter and a little pounded sugar; then place the stewpan on a slow fire, and fry the onions of a light-brown color, taking care to toss them up now and then that they may be equally colored; when sufficiently colored they will be nearly done. Then place them on a sieve to allow the butter to drain, and put them in a small stewpan with a lump of sugar and a little consomme; lastly, set them on the fire and boil them down to a glaze.

150. GARNISH OF WHITE BUTTON ONIONS.

Peel and blanch a pint of small button onions, put them into a stewpan with a pat of. butter, a lump of sugar, a little salt, and a ladleful of white broth; set them on the fire to boil gently for half an hour, then boil them down quickly to a glaze, and finish by adding a spoonful of Allemande sauce.

151. GARNISH OF WINDSOR BEANS.

Boil a quart of young Windsor beans, peel off their husks, and place them in a sauta-pan with a little pepper, salt, and nutmeg, a pat of butter, and a spoonful of Bechamel sauce; throw in a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley, "and a little winter savory; shake the whole well together over the fire, and place them in the centre of an entree.

152. GARNISH OF FRENCH BEANS.

Cut a plateful of French beans into the shape of diamonds, boil them green, drain them on a napkin, and then put them into a sautapan with a pat of butter, a little pepper and salt, a spoonful of white sauce, and S, little lemon-juice; toss them well together on the fire, and serve.

153. GARNISH OF ARTICHOKE BOTTOMS.

Remove the outer leaves from four artichokes, pare off with a knife the green surface from the bottom of the artichokes, so as to render them smooth and white; rub over each artichoke as it is finished with lemon-juice, and instantly throw it into a basin of water in which a little vinegar has been mixed; then boil thera in a stewpan containing hot water, a piece of butter, minionette pepper, salt, and a little lemonjuice. When they are done, take them out, and after allowing them to cool, extract the hay or inside fibres; trim them, and divide each artichoke into six pieces. Then place them in a sauta-pan with a spoonful of Supreme sauce, a pat of butter, a little cream glaze, nutmeg, and sugar; toss them gently on the fire, and when the whole is well mixed, serve.

154. GARNISH OF GLAZED ONIONS.

Peel eighteen onions, of a similar size, with a small vegetable cutter, scoop out the heads of their roots - perforating the onions through - and extracting the centre from each; boil them from three to five minutes in water, drain them on a napkin, and then place them in a sautapan well buttered, add a little sugar, and sufficient broth to cover the onions; set them on the stove to boil, and afterward remove them to a slow fire, or place them in the oven, to simmer gently down to a glaze. Take care to turn the onions over in their glaze occasionally, so that they may become equally colored.

68 GARNISHES

155. GARNISH OF BROCOLI OF CAULIFLOWERS.

Cut one or more heads of cauliflower or brocoli into small buds, trim these and boil them in a stewpan with some butter, salt, and a little minionette pepper, in the water; when they are done, drain them on a sieve, put them into a stewpan with a little Allemande or Bechamel sauce and serve.

156. GARNISH OF BRUSSELS SPROUTS.

Boil a plateful of Brussels sprouts, drain them well, and put them into a stewpan with a spoonful of white sauce, two pats of butter, salt, nutmeg, minionette pepper, and lemon-juice; toss the whole well together over the fire, and serve.

157. GARNISH OF CHESTNUTS FOR ROAST TURKEY.

Slit the husks of fifty chestnuts, and put them into a stewpan with a little clarified butter, fry them on a slow fire until the husks easily peel off from the chestnuts; clean them thoroughly, and place them in a stewpan with two lumps of sugar, a little salt, a pat of butter, and a ladleful of good consomme; set them to boil, and then place them by the side of the fire to continue boiling gently until they are nearly done; then boil them down to a glaze; occasionally tossing them over, so as to cover them with their own glaze, and give them a bright shiny appearance.

158. GARNISH OF JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES.

Peel a dozen Jerusalem artichokes, and then turn or cut them into the shape of olives, small pillars, cloves of garlic, half moons, round balls, quarters of orange, or diamonds; first wash them, place them in a stewpan with a little sugar, salt, a pat of butter, and a ladleful of white broth; set them to boil on the fire for about twenty minutes; when they are nearly done, boil them down in their glaze, add a little Allemande or Bechamel sauce, toss them together over the fire, and serve.

159. GARNISH OF CLOVES OF GARLIC.

Peel as many heads of garlic as will produce a pint of cloves,* boil these for ten minutes in plenty of water, drain them on to a sieve, and then place them in a stewpan with a pat of butter, some minionette pepper, a little salt, and a ladleful of consomme; boil them gently until they are nearly done, then let them boil down quickly to a glaze; add a spoonful of Allemande or Espagnole sauce (according to the color of the entree), and a little lemon-juice; toss them up over a stovefire, and serve.

160. GARNISH OF WHITE HARICOT BEANS.

Fresh white haricot beans, in their proper season, form a very excellent change among the more ordinary vegetables. Its cultivation is, however, much neglected by gardeners in England.

When fresh haricot beans are not procurable, get a pint of dried haricot beans, and steep them in cold water for twelve hours; let them be washed and placed in a stewpan with a pat of butter, miu * A head of gnrlic contains within its outer husk, or skin, a number of triangular seeds, usually called cloves of garlic.

OF VEGETABLES. 69

ionette pepper, salt, and two quarts of cold water; set them to boil gently by the side of a stove for about an hour; when done, drain them on to a sieve, place them in a clean stewpan with a pat of butter, a gravy-spoonful of white sauce, a little pepper and salt, lemon-juice, and a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley; shake them well together over the fire, and serve.

161. GARNISH OP BED HARICOT BEANS.

These should be prepared exactly in the same manner as the white beans. There is, also, a species of small brown peas, called lentils - to be had of all oilmen, which may be prepared after the same method as the haricot beans. They are useful in the winter season, when there is a scarcity of fresh vegetables.

162. GARNISH OF BRAIZED CABBAGES.

Trim, wash, and thoroughly cleanse four good Savoy cabbages, cut them in halves, and boil them in water for a quarter of an hour; refresh them in cold water, drain them, and place them on a napkin; cut the stalks away, season them with salt and minionette pepper, tie them up with a string - joining two halves together; cover the bottom of a stewpan with thin layers of fat bacon, place the cabbages in it; add a carrot, an onion stuck with three cloves, and a fagot of parsley, thyme, and bay-leaf; moisten with sufficient broth to cover the cabbages, and spread a buttered round of paper over the whole; then set them on the fire to boil, place the lid on the stewpan and allow it to remain gently boiling on a very slow fire for about an hour, when they will be done. Then drain the cabbage on to a sieve, remove the strings, press it in a napkin so as to be able, afterward, to cut it into square, oblong, round, or oval shapes, according to taste; and therewith garnish the entree or remove it is intended for.

163. GARNISH OF STEWED RED CABBAGES.

Trim, wash, and quarter a couple of red cabbages, shred them as yon would if about to make pickled cabbage; then put about four ounces of butter at the bottom of a stewpan, and place the shred cabbages in it; season with minionette pepper and salt, and half a gill of French vinegar, cover the stewpan with its lid, and set it on a moderate fire to stew gently; take care to stir it occasionally with a wooden spoon. When the cabbage has, by melting, been reduced to half its original quantity, moisten with a large-sized ladleful of topping from the boiling stockpot, to nourish the cabbage; allow it to simmer gently on a slow fire for an hour longer; then drain the cabbage on a sieve, afterward press it in a napkin to extract the butter, &c, and use it for the purpose of garnishing the entree or remove for which it has been prepared.

164. GARNISH OF BRAIZED CABBAGE LETTUCES.

Trim, wash, and blanch a dozen full white-heart cabbage lettuces; drain them on a napkin, cut and spread them open, season with pepper and salt, tie them up with a string, and place them in a stewpan on thin layers of fat bacon; add a carrot, a fagot of parsley and green onions, and an onion stuck with two cloves; cover with a buttered round of paper, and moisten with the toppings of white stock. Allow them to

70 GARNISHES.

boil gently by the side of the fire for an hour, drain them on a sieve, remove the strings, press them neatly in a napkin, and open each lettuce with a knife; then smooth the inner part, and with the knife turn the ends of the leaves under so as to give to the lettuce a smooth rounded end; cut off the stalk neatly, and place each lettuce successively in a clean santa-pan; next pass their liquor through a sieve into a stewpan, remove every particle of grease, and boil it down to the consistency of half-glaze; add it to the lettuces, cover them with a buttered paper, and a quarter of an hour previously to their being required for use, set them in the oven to get warm.

165. SAUERKRAUT.

Procure two pounds of fresh imported sauerkraut, wash it thoroughly in several waters, and then drain it in a colander. Next, put it into a stewpan with oue pound of parboiled streaky bacon, one pound of German sansage, two carrots, two onions stuck with two cloves each, and a garnished fagot of parsley; cover with a round of buttered paper, and moisten with a quart of stockpot toppings. Braize the sauerkraut for about three hours over a slow fire; and when done, drain it in a colander, remove the bacon and German sausage, throw away the carrot, onion, aud fagot; then put the sauerkraut into a stewpan with a gravy-spoonful of Poivrade sauce, toss it over the fire, and use it to garnish the intended dish.

166. FRENCH SAUERKRAUT.

Split four white-heart cabbages into quarters, remove the cores, and shred them up fine; wash them thoroughly in several waters, then drain them in a colander. Next, place the shred cabbages in a large earthen pan, throw in a good handful of salt and one pint of viuegar; toss tlie cabbage in this, and allow it to steep for three hours; then wash and drain it, and put it into a large stewpan, season with half a pound uf butter, some minionette pepper, a little salt, and a gill of French vinegar; place on the top one pound of streaky bacon, and one pound of German sausage, moisten with a quart of good stock, cover the whole with buttered paper, and then set the sauerkraut to braize very gently over a slow fire for two hours; and when it is done, proceed in the same manner as directed in the previous article.

71

ESSENCES, GRAVIES, AND PREPARED SAVORY BUTTERS FOR FINISHING SAUCES, &c,

COMPRISING

Essence of Shalots. Essence of Sage and Onions for geese and „ Truffles. ducks.

„ Mushrooms. „ Onions for broiled pork.

„ Fine Herbs for broiled meats., , Anchovy butter.

„ Orange for wild fowl. Ravigotte butter.

„ Aspic-jelly. Prnvenf;ale do.

„ Woodcocks. Lobster do.

,, Game for broiled partridges, &c. Montpellier do.

„ Garlic for broiled fowls, &c. Crayfish do.

„ Anchovies for broiled steaks, Green ravigotte do.

&c. Epicurean do.

167. ESSENCE OF SHALOTS.

Peel a dozen shalots, cut them into thin slices, and place them in a small stewpan with two tablespoonsful of French vinegar; set them to simmer gently on the fire until the vinegar is nearly boiled down; then moisten with a pint of consommH, set the essence on the fire to boil, and when it is reduced to half its original quantity, strain it with pressure through a napkin into a bain-marie, and keep it hot till wanted.

168. ESSENCE OF TRUFFLES.

Chop or pound four ounces of truffles - or if you have any trimmings, use them instead; place them in a small stewpan with half a bay-leaf, a sprig of thyme, and a very small quantity of bruised garlic; moisten with a glass of French white wine, and allow the whole to simmer on the fire till the wine is nearly boiled down; add half a pint of good consomme; set the essence to boil gently on the side of the fire for ten minutes, and then pass it with pressure through a napkin or tammy into a small basin or stewpan.

This essence will be found extremely useful for flavoring sauces and ragouts, in which the flavor of truffles should predominate.

169. ESSENCE OF MUSHROOMS.

Chop any quantity of mushrooms, place these in a stewpan with a little lemon-juice and a small piece of butter, simmer them on the fire for two or three minutes, and then moisten with a ladleful of white broth; set the essence to boil gently on the stove for ten minutes, and then pass it with pressure through a sieve into a basin for use.

This essence is useful for flavoring sauces.

170. ESSENCE OF FINE HERBS FOR BROILED MEATS, ETC.

Chop six shalots, a handful of mushrooms, and the same quantity of parsley, each separately; place these in a small stewpan with a sprig of thyme, half a bay-leaf, and a small piece of butter; put the whole on the fire to simmer gently for two or three minutes, stirring the ingredients with a wooden spoon; moisten with the juice of half a

72 ESSENCES AND GRAVIES

lemon and a ladleful of strong consomme; add a little minionette pepper, and then set the essence to boil gently on the side of the fire till it is reduced to half its original quantity; then pass it with pressure through a sieve, and use it as a gravy for plain broiled bread-crumbed entrees.

171. ESSENCE OF ORANGE FOR WILD FOWL.

Chop two shalots and put them into a small stewpan with the rind of an orange, quite free from the white or pith, and a little chopped lean of raw ham and cayenne pepper; moisten with two glasses of port wine and a little strong gravy; set the essence to simmer gently on the fire for about ten minutes, then add the juice of the orange with a little lemon-juice, and pass it through a silk sieve.

172. ESSENCE OF ASPIC-JELLY.

Put the following ingredients into a small stewpan: a few branches of green tarragon, a little chervil, a handful of chives, a bay-leaf, and sprig of thyme, mignionette pepper, a blade of mace, and a little chopped raw lean of ham; moisten with a large ladleful of good consomme; set the essence to boil gently by the side of the fire for about ten minutes. Next, take it off the stove, proceed to clarify by mixing with it half the white of an egg whipped up with a spoonful of water; add a spoonful of tarragon-vinegar, and place it on the fire to boil, whipping it with a wire whisk the while; as soon as it boils up, remove it on the side, to continue boiling gently in order to set the es:a; then strain it through a napkip, and use it for braized fowls or chickens a VEstragon or d Vlvoire.

173. ESSENCE OF WOODCOCKS.

Chop up any carcasses of woodcocks or snipes that may be left from the previous day's dinner, place them in a small stewpan with four shalots, a bay-leaf, and a sprig of thyme, mignionette pepper, a little mace, and a small piece of butter; fry the whole on the stove-fire till the ingredients become lightly colored; moisten with a small glass of white wine; and after allowing it to boil down to a glaze, add a ladleful of good consomme, and set the essence to boil gently on the side of the five for half an hour; skim and strain it through a silk sieve, and finish by adding a little lemon-juice.

This essence or gravy should be sent to table with roasted woodcocks or snipes; it will also be found useful for making a light hash of remnants of woodcocks or snipes, for breakfast.

174. ESSENCE OF GAME FOR BROILED PARTRIDGES, ETC.

This essence is prepared in the same manner as the preceding, substituting the remnants or carcasses of pheasants or partridges, for woodcocks.

175. ESSENCE OF GARLIC FOR BROILED FOWL.

Chop a little raw lean of ham, some parsley, thyme, and a bayleaf; place these in a small stewpan with a blade of mace, two pounded anchovies, and six cloves of garlic; moisten with two teaspoonsful of French vinegar, and set the whole on the fire to simmer gently for five minutes; add a small piece of glaze and a ladleful of

FOR FINISHING SAUCES. 73

good blond of veal, and allow the essence to boil gently by the side of the fire for a quarter of an hour; reduce it to half its original quantity, and then strain it through a tammy into a small stewpan; finish by adding a little lemon -juice and cayenne pepper.

176. ESSENCE OF ANCHOVIES FOR STEAKS, ETC.

Wash and clean six anchovies, pound them in a mortar, with a tablespoonful of capers and two shalots; place these in a small stewpan with thyme and a bay-leaf, mace, minionette pepper, and two tablespoonsful of mushroom catsup; set these ingredients on the fire to simmer gently for five minutes, and then moisten with a ladleful of good consomme; boil the whole till reduced to half its original quantity, then strain it with pressure through a tammy into a small stewpan; finish by adding a small piece of glaze and a little lemonjuice.

177. ESSENCE OF SAGE AND ONIONS FOR GEESE AND DUCKS.

Chop two large onions and a dozen sage-leaves separately, put them into a small stewpau with a pat of butter, some pepper and salt, and fry them on a slow fire; as soon as the onion begins to get lightly colored, moisten with a ladleful of blond of veal, and allow the essence to boil on the fire till reduced to half the quantity; strain it through a tammy into a small stepwan for use.

This gravy may also be used for bread-crumbled entrees of broiled pork.

178. ESSENCE OF ONIONS FOR BROILED PORK.

Cut three onions into slices, and fry them in a small stewpan with a little butter, pepper, and salt; when they are of a light color, moisten with a ladleful* of blond of veal; reduce the essence by boiling to half its quantity, and strain it into a bain-marie for use.

179. ANCHOVY BUTTER.

Wash and wipe dry six anchovies, separate the fillets from the bones, and pound them in a mortar, with two pats of butter and a little cayenne pepper; rub this mixture through a hair-sieve, gather this up and keep it in a small basin for use, in a cool place.

180. RAVIGOTTE BUTTER.

Wash and wipe four anchovies, blanch a good handful of green tarragon, chervil, burnet, chives, and parsley; press these in a napkin to expunge the water; and put the anchovies, herbs, two pats of butter, a spoonful of capers, a little cayenne pepper, and a pinch of salt, into a mortar, and pound them well together; then rub the mixture through a hair-sieve, gather it up, and keep in a small basin on the ice for use.

181. PROVENCALE BUTTER.

This is prepared in the same manner as the preceding, adding, however, four cloves of garlic to the other ingredients.

* Whenever the term ladleful occurs in the course of this work it refers to a bowlshaped spoon, capable of holding about a pint.

74 ESSENCES AND GRAVIES.

182. LOBSTER BUTTER.

Procure some lobster spawn or coral, and pound it with twice as much butter, one anchovy, and a little cayenne pepper; rub it through a hair-sieve, collect it into a small basin, and keep it in a cool place till wanted for use.

183. MONTPELLIER BUTTER.

Blanch some tarragon, chervil, burnet, chives, and parsley, a handful of each; expunge the water, and pound them with the yelks of six boiled eggs, six cleaned anchovies, two tablespoonsful of French capers, and half a dozen green gherkins; when these ingredients are thoroughly pounded together, mix in six ounces of fresh butter, then add, by degrees, two tablespoonsful of Tarragon-vinegar, and six of salad-oil; season with pepper and salt; rub the butter thus prepared through a sieve or tammy, color it with some spinach-green, and keep it in a basin on the ice till wanted for use.

184. CRAYFISH BUTTER.

Remove the shells from three or four dozen crayfish, place them on a baking-sheet in the oven to dry; let the shells cool, and then pound them in a mortar, with a little lobster coral and four ounces of fresh butter; thoroughly bruise the whole well together, so as to form them into a kind of paste, put this into a stewpan, and then set it on the stove-fire to simmer for about five minutes; then rub it through a tammy with considerable pressure into a basin containing some cold water, with a piece of ice in it; as soon as the colored crayfish butter is become set, through the coldness of the water, take it out, and put it into a small basin in a cool place till wanted for use.

185. GREEN RAVIGOTTE BUTTER.

Blanch a handful of tarragon, chervil, burnet, chives, and parsley; press them in a napkin, and pound them with four ounces of fresh butter, cayenne pepper and salt; rub the butter through a hair-sieve, aud keep it on the ice in a small basin for use.

186. EPICUREAN BUTTER FOR THE TABLE.

Pound four cleaned anchovies, a few chives, a good teaspoonful of green tarragon-leaves, four green West India gherkins, two boiled yelks of eggs, three ounces of butter, and a good teaspoonful of French mustard; mix thoroughly, season with little salt, and rub the butter through a hair-sieve; gather it up into a small basin, make it sufficiently firm by keeping it on the ice, and mould it into pats for the purpose of being sent to table to be served with the cheese.

75

RAGOUTS AND GARNISHES IN GENERAL,

COMPRISING

Toulouse ragout. Ragout of soft roes of mackerel.

Financxire do. Cardinal ragout.

Calf's head do. d la Tortue. Ragout of scollops of soles.

Ghipolata do. Do. of salmon or trout.

Strasbourg do. of fat livers. Parisian ragout.

PSrigueux do. Ragout of scollops of game, «GC.

Matelotte do. Do. of larks.

Do. Normande do. Do. of cock's kernels, d la Soubise.

Rourguignotte do. Richelieu ragout.

Crayfish do. Ragout of chicken's wings.

Rouinaite do. Do. of ox palates.

Ragout of scollops of sweetbreads. Do. of sheep's tongues, d Vicariate. Regent's ragout.

187. TOULOUSE EAGOUT.

Prepare some fine large white cocks' combs and kernels, button mushrooms, small scollops of sweetbread, and a proportionate quantity of truffles turned in the shape of scollops or olives; place these in a small stewpan, and add thereto a small ladleful of Allemande or Supreme sauce; toss the whole together over the fire a few minutes, it will then be ready for use.

188. FINANCIERE RAGOUT.

Place in a stewpan a similar ragout to the foregoing, with an equal portion of small quenelles, and add a small ladleful of well-finished Financiere sauce; allow the whole to boil slightly on the fire. Use this ragout for garnishing the remove or entree, as the case may be.

189. calf's head ragout a la tortue.

Put a large gravy-spoonful of fine white cocks' combs into a bainmarie Or stewpan, a similar quantity of cocks' kernels, small truffles, button mushrooms, quenelles, and green gherkins, cut into the shape of olives; to these add a sufficient quantity of Turtle sauce (No. 9) for the purpose, and set the whole on the fire to boil for a minute or two, and serve.

190. CHIPOLATA RAGOUT.

Twist one pound of pork sausages into small round balls, separate these, fry them, and when they are cold, trim and put them into a bain-marie containing a proportionate quantity of cocks' combs and kernels, button mushrooms, truffles, quenelles, carrots, and turnips, turned in the shape of olives, and boiled down in their own glaze, also some round balls of braized streaky bacon, and an equal proportion of chestnuts, pealed and boiled in consomme; add a ladleful of Financiere sauce (No. 8), a little essence of truffles and mushrooms; then set the ragout on the fire to boil for two minutes, and serve.

Note. - The above is the simplest mode fur preparing this ragout; it is far better, however, that the whole of the ingredients of which this very rich and popular ragout is composed should be kept sepa

76 RAGOUTS.

rately in small stewpans, and be placed alternately in groups about the dish they are meant to garnish and ornament; then the boiling sauce should be poured over the turkey, capon, or poulards, when ready to serve.

191. STRASBOURG RAGOUT OF FAT LIVERS.

Braize a fat liver in some mirepoix (No. 236), take it out to cool, cut it into scollops, and trim them neatly; put them into a small stewpan with some of the mirepoix freed from every particle of fat, add a proportionate quantity of scolloped truffles, and just before using these, set them on the stove and boil them down to a glaze; add a sufficient quantity of Financiere sauce, and serve.

192. PERIGUEUX RAGOUT.

Prepare some scollops of fat livers and truffles, as for the foregoing ragout; to these add some small quenelles, cocks' combs and kernels, and some button mushrooms; then add a ladlcful of Perigueux sauce (No. 23), and boil the whole together for two or three minutes.

193. MATELOTTE RAGOUT.

Peel and blanch half a pint of button onions, fry them of a lightbrown color over a slow fire; when done, drain them on to a sieve, in order to free them from the butter, and place them in a bain-nairic with an equal quantity of white button mushrooms, crayfish tails, and small quenelles of whiting; to these add a ladleful of Matelotte sauce (No. 31), and after allowing the ragout to boil for two or three minutes, use it for garnishing the MateloUe, or any other dressed colored fish it is intended for.

194. MATELOTTE NORMANDE RAGOUT. Prepare thirty crayfish tails, and place them in a stewpan with about half a pint of muscles, three dozen of parboiled oysters, and an equal proportion of white button mushrooms; to these add a ladleful of Matelotte Normande sauce (No. 32), allow the whole to boil up a minute or two on the stove, and use the ragout to garnish soles or other fish for which it is prepared.

195. BOURGUIGNOTTE RAGOUT.

Peel and blanch half a pint of small button onions, put them into a stewpan with a lump of sugar, a little grated nutmeg, and a pat of butter, moisten with half a pint of good broth, and set the onions to stew gently on a moderate fire; when nearly done, boil them down to a glaze, and add them to an equal quantity of white button mushrooms and very small quenelles; to these put sufficient Bourguignotte sauce (No. 28) for the purpose required; allow the ragout to boil up on the stove-fire for a minute or two, and use it to garnish the entree it may be intended for.

196. CRAYFISH RAGOUT.

Take out and trim the tails of thirty crayfish; with the bodies and shells make some crayfish butter (No. 184), to be used in coloring some quenelles of whitings, afterward moulded with teaspoons, poached, and placed with the crayfish; to these add some Allemande

RAGOUTS. 77

or Supreme sauce, with which mix in a little of the butter made with the shells of the crayfish, and serve the ragout with the dish it is meant for.

197. EOUEXAISE RAGOUT.

Prepare an equal proportion of the following shell-fish - oysters, muscles, and shrimps; to these add some button mushrooms and quenelles of lobster, and moisten the ragout with a sauce made in the following manner: reduce some of the liquor of the muscles, oysters, and mushrooms, with two glasses of French white wine, and the addition of a small ladleful of Veloute sauce; finish by mixing in four yelks of eggs, a pat of butter, and a little cream: stir the sauce on the stove-fire till it boils, and then pass it through a tammy on to the ragout. Before sending it to table, add a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley, and the juice of half a lemon.

About a dozen smelts, trussed in the same manner as whiting for frying, and boiled in a little salt and water, and afterward skinned and glazed, should be prepared to garnish round the fish with which the Rouenaise ragout is served.

198. EAGOUT OF SCOLLOPS OF SWEETBREADS.

First blanch, and then braize, a little white broth, three or more throat sweetbreads, for about twenty minutes; then take them up on a plate, and allow them to cool; cut them into neat scollops and place them in a small stewpan with a small ladleful of any sort of sauce appropriate to the entree which this ragout is intended to garnish.

A similar kind of ragout may be prepared with lambs' sweetbreads, calf's, sheep's, or lamb's brains.

199. EAGOUT OF SOFT EOES OF MACKEEEL, OE OTIIEE FISH.

Parboil the soft roes of six mackerel or carp, in a little boiling water mixed with two spoonsful of French vinegar and a little salt; drain them on a napkin, and put them into a sauta-pan containing some Allemande or Supreme sauce; add some chopped and blanched parsley, and a little nutmeg and lemon-juice; toss the whole gently together over the fire, taking care not to break or bruise the roes, and place them in the centre of the fillets of fish prepared to receive them.

200. CAEDIXAL EAGOUT.

Prepare two dozen small quenelles of lobster, which place in a stewpan, with thirty picked and trimmed prawns' tails, two dozen button mushrooms, and a similar quantity of small round truffles; to these add a sufficient quantity of cardinal sauce for the remove or entree; then boil the ragout for three minutes on the fire, when it will be ready for use.

201. EAGOUT OF SCOLLOFS OF SOLES, ETC.

Fillet two pairs of soles, or a proportionate quantity of any other sort of fish, place them in a sauta-pan with some clarified butter, pepper, salt, and lemon-juice; cover them with a round of buttered paper, and set them in the oven for about ten minutes; when they are done, drain them on a napkin, and afterward place them on a

78 RAGOUTS.

dish to put them in the larder to cool; next cut them into neatlytrimmed scollops, and put these into a stewpan; add either some Allemande, Bechamel, Supreme, or Dutch sauce, whichever is most suitable for the kind of fish these scollops are intended to garnish.

202. RAGOUT OF SCOLLOPS OF SALMON OR TROUT.

These scollops should be prepared in every respect in the same manner as the foregoing, except that, previously to adding the sauce a little lobster butter, cayenne, and lemon-juice should be mixed in.

203. PARISIAN RAGOUT.

An equal quantity of trimmed crayfish tails, button mushrooms, small round truffles, and cocks' kernels should be put into a stewpan containing some Parisian sauce (No. 40); make the ragout hot previously to using it.

204. RAGOUT OF SCOLLOPS OF POULTRY OR GAME.

Fillet one or more heads of poultry or game, according to the quantity of ragout required; trim, and place them in a sauta-pan with a little clarified fresh butter, season with a little salt, cover them with a buttered paper, and set them over a moderate fire to simmer; as soon as they become firm and white on the under side, turn them over that they may be effectually done through, taking care that they do not become brown; then drain them on a napkin, and cut them on the slant into scollops, trim them neatly, and put them into a stewpan with some Allemande, Bechamel, or Supreme sauce, previously reduced with either an essence of fowl or game, as the case may be, according to the nature of the scollops, whether of poultry or game.

205. RAGOUT OF SCOLLOPS OF LARKS.

Cut out, trim, and slightly simmer, in a little butter, the fillets of two dozen larks; drain them on a napkin, and place them in a small stewpan, with a sauce made as follows: Fry the carcasses of the larks in a stewpan, with a pat of butter, one shalot, half a bay-leaf, and a sprig of thyme, a little salt and grated nutmeg; when they are of a lifjht-brown color, moisten with three glasses of French white wine; allow the carcasses to stew gently on a moderate fire for half an hour; pound the whole thoroughly, and rub it through a tammy into a puree; take this up into a small stewpan, add a little reduced brown sauce, and pour it on to the scollops; warm them with care, for if they be allowed to boil, it will spoil the look of the puree, and reuder it rough.

206. RAGOUT OF COCKS' KERNELS A LA SOUBISE.

Put about half a pound of cock's kernels, with cold water, into a stewpan, let it stand by the side of a slow fire to remove the little blood they contain, taking care that the water does not become too warm; as soon as they whiten, drain them on a sieve, and put them into a small stewpan, with a pat of butter, the juice of a lemon, ami a little salt, toss them over the fire for two or three minutes, moisten with a little white chicken broth, and set them to simmer gently on a slow fire for about ten minutes longer; they will be then done. Drain them on a napkin, put them into a small stewpan, with a

RAGOUTS. 79

ragout-spoonful of Soubise sauce and a little Allemande sauce, toss them gently over the fire till they are hot, and place them in the centre of an entree of fillets of fowl d la Marechale, a la TfUxelles.

207. RICHELIEU RAGOUT.

Prepare some quenelle force-meat of chicken, and before moulding the quenelles, incorporate with it two spoonsful of brown puree of onions (of which there must be prepared a sufficient quantity for the sauce of the ragout); mould two dozen small quenelles, poach them, and, after draining them on a napkin, put them into a small stewpan, with a dozen white cocks' combs and a few scollops of fat livers; to these add the remainder of the brown puree of onions, which must be no thicker than sauce.

This ragout may be used for garnishing boudins a la Richelieu, or any entrees of poultry or game that are bread-crumbed and broiled.

208. RAGOUT OF CHICKENS' WINGS.

This ragout is only to be recommended when it happens tliat a number of fowls or chickens have to be cut up for other purposes; in such case, save the wings, which cut off close to the breast, bone them neatly, without tearing or cutting the skin, and fill up the cavity occasioned by taking the bone out with some quenelle forcemeat of fowl; shape them neatly and parboil them, immerse them in cold water, then drain and trim them. Line a stewpan with thin layers of fat bacon, place the wings therein with a fagot of parsley, rhyme, a bay-leaf, and an onion; moisten with white broth, cover them with a round of buttered paper, and set them to boil gently by the side of the stove for about twenty minutes, when, if the fowls are young, the wings will be done. Then drain the wings on a napkin, and, when trimmed, put them into a small stewpan with some Allemande sauce.

This ragout is more generally made use of for filling vol-au-vents, casseroles of rice, and chartreuses; it is also useful, as an accessory, for garnishing large removes.

209. RAGOUT OF OX-PALATES.

Steep six ox-palates in water for several hours, keeping the vessel that contains them near the stove-fire, so that the water may become gradually tepid, which materially helps to cleanse them; then scald and scrape them clean, trim, wash, and set them to braize in some blanc or poele (No. 230); about four hours will suffice. When the palates are done, drain and put them in press between two dishes; when cold, shape them out with a round cutter an inch in diameter, and place them in a stewpan with a sufficient quantity of either of the following sauces: Allemande, Bechamel, Supreme, Italienne, Financier e, Poivrade, or Tomata. This ragout is strictly appropriate only for garnishing pates-chauds and vol-au-vents, but it may, in cases of emergency, be served as an entree garnished round with croquettes, of potatoes or jleurons of pastry.

210. RAGOUT OF SHEEP'S TONGUES A L'ECARLATE.

Boil and press eight sheeps' tongues that have been cured with saltpetre; trim and cut them into round scollops, and then put these

80 BROTHS.

scollops into a small stewpan, with any kind of sauce that may be suitable for the entree they are meant to garnish.

211. regent's ragout.

Fillet an eel, cut it into scollops, and simmer these iji a stewpan with a little butter, chopped parsley, lemon-juice, pepper, and salt; when done, drain the scollops on a napkin, and then put them into a stewpan containing an equal proportion of white button mushrooms, cocks' combs, small round truffles, and small quenelles of whiting colored with lobster coral; to these add a small ladleful of Regency sauce (No. 49), then allow the ragout to boil up on the stove-fire, and use it for garnishing the dressed fish it is intended for.

BROTHS AND CONSOMMES IN GENERAL, FOR SOUPS,

&c,

COMPRISING

Nutritive Soup. White ConsommS of fowls.

Empotage or Consommi for soups in gen- „ „ pheasants or part eral. ridges.

Brown ConsommS of fowls. Brown extract of larks, Ac.

„ „ pheasants or part- „ „ hare or rabbit,

ridges. Common gravy.

„ „ rabbits. Blond of veal, or veal gravy.

212. NUTRITIVE SOUP.

Into a three-gallon stockpot, put a knuckle of veal, six pounds of the shoulder part of beef (commonly called the gravy piece), and a bone of roast beef or mutton. Fill the stockpot with cold water to within two inches of the brim, and set it upon a stove-fire to boil, taking care not to hurry its ebullition, but allow it to take place gently, so that it may have time to throw up its skum; this should be removed, as it rises to the surface, and a little cold water should be thrown in occasionally to effect that purpose.

When the stock has thrown off all its skum, which will easily be perceived by the water becoming clear again, lift it off the stove, and put it by the side. Then proceed to garnish it with four leeks and two heads of celery, trimmed and tied together, two good-sized carrots, two turnips, and two onions, into each of which two cloves have been inserted; add one good tablespoonful of salt, and let the whole boil gently for about three-quarters of an hour. During this time, an old hen and a partridge should be partially roasted, and then put into the stock; this should continue to boil during five hours unremittingly: care being taken that the stockpot be kept full.

Previously to the soup being served, take off every particle of fat that appears on the surface, with a ladle; take out the vegetables - carefully placing them on a napkiu, then remove the fowl and the partridge from the stock: these operations should be so managed as not to disturb the brightness of the broth. Cut the fillets of the fowl and the partridge into slices, and place them in the soup-tureen,

AND CONSOMMES. 81

and upon these put some of the vegetables (which have been drained on the napkin) neatly cut with a vegetable cutter a quarter of an inch in diameter; then pour in the broth, to which add a little brown consoiione of veal to give it color. Let it be sufficiently seasoned with salt and a few grains of minionette pepper, then serve.

213. EMPOTAGE, OR CONSOMME FOR SOUPS IN GENERAL.

When preparing for company, take about thirty pounds of gravy beef, and a similar quantity of knuckles of veal, together with four wild rabbits, and put the whole into a large stockpot which has been previously spread with butter, add common broth in sufficient quantity so as nearly to cover the meat. Put the stockpot on the stovefire to boil until the broth is reduced to a light-colored glaze; then fill it up with the remainder of the grand stock, and after it has boiled and been skimmed, garnish it with carrots, turnips, leeks, onions, and celery; add also two blades of mace and six cloves. In all cases be sparing of salt, especially in the first stages of preparation. Allow the broth to boil gently on the side of the stove for six hours, and then pass it into kitchen pans for further use.

In connection with this subject, I may here point out that, if it be contemplated to have as one of the removes a piece of beef braized, a saving provision may be effected by using, in the first instance, instead of about thirty pounds of stock beef, only ten pounds of that quality in preparing the grand stock; the deficiency being made up by twenty pounds of sirloin. This latter must be boned, and the fillet taken out, either to be used to ornament the remove, or for an entree, as occasion may require; the meat must then be rolled up tightly and strung round in the manner of Hambro' beef. This will thus answer the double purpose of giving strength to the consomme, and of serving afterward as a remove.

When the beef thus prepared has boiled gently in the stockpot for about five hours, take it out and put it in press between two dishes till wanted; it must be then trimmed, and placed in a long braizingpan with a little good stock to warm it in; glaze it nicely, and having dished it up, garnish the remove with such vegetables as have been prepared for the purpose.

214. CONSOMME OF FOWLS FOR SOUPS.

Take two or more fowls, according to the quality of broth required; roast them before a brisk fire until half done; and then put them into a small, well-tinned stockpot, nearly filled up with water, and place this on the fire to boil; skim the consomme, and then add one good-sized carrot, two turnips, one onion, one head of celery, two cloves, a small piece of mace, and a little salt. Set the stock on the side of the stove to boil gently for about two hours, and then strain it off for use.

This kind of consomme is admirably adapted for persons of delicate health as a restorative. It is also very serviceable in imparting delicacy of flavor to all clear soups.

215. BROWN CONSOMME OF PHEASANTS OR PARTRIDGES.

Roast off two pheasants, after having taken out the fillets for the purpose of making them into an entree, or four partridges may be 5

82 BROTHS

u«ed, (removing the fillets in the same way); put them into a stockpot with a small knuckle of veal, and about one pound of lean of ham; fill up with water, then set it on to boil on the stove-fire. Meanwhile slice up a carrot, an onion, two turnips, a head of celery, and a leek: fry these roots in a stewpan, with a small piece of butter, till they become slightly browned, then throw them into the consomme, after having previously well skimmed it. Add three cloves, a piece of mace, and a little salt; let it boil gently about three hours, and then strain it off for use.

This preparation will serve for all kinds of clear consomme soups, such as au Chasseur, or a la Desclignac, &c.

216. BROWN CONSOMME OF RABBITS.

Take three or four wild rabbits, cut them up in pieces, and put them into a small stockpot with five pounds of knuckle of veal which has been roasted enough to color it; fill up with light broth or water, then set it on the stove to boil, skim it well, and garnish with carrot, onion, and celery, two cloves, a piece of mace, and a little salt. Let this boil gently for three hours, and then strain it off for use.

This consomme is very essential in clarifying Espagnole or brown sauce, and is also serviceable for all soups in which quenelles of game are served.

217. WHITE CONSOMME OF FOWLS.

Take two or more old hens or fowls, or, in their stead, the carcasses of fowls, or any other sort of poultry you may have. Let them steep in cold water to cleanse them from any blood they may contain; then drain and put them into an appropriate-sized stockpot or stewpan, and fill it up with common broth or water; garnish with celery, onions, tnrnips, carrots, and leeks. Set it to boil gently by the fire for two hours, if made with carcasses, but if old hens are used, it will require at least an hour longer. When done, skim off the fat and pass the consomme through a napkin into a basin for use.

This consomme may be considered as the proper basis of all white soups, and is most useful in clarifying and flavoring all white sauces.

218. WHITE CONSOMME OF PHEASANTS OR PARTRIDGES.

The same process is to be followed in making this consomme, as the foregoing, substituting, of course, game for poultry.

This consomme, after being partially reduced to glaze, is used for the purpose of imparting the flavor of game to any white sauce, such as Supreme, Allemande, Bechamel* Veloute, or white Italian sauce. It is also useful for mixing white purees of game.

219. BROWN EXTRACT OF LARKS OR QUAILS.

After having filleted the larks or quails, and removed the gizzards from the trail of the larks, put a stewpan on the fire with an ounce of fresh butter in it; when the butter begins to fritter, put the bones or carcasses of larks or quails into the stewpan and fry them brown. Then add half a bay-leaf, a sprig of thyme, two shalots, and two

* So called after the celebrated cook Bfichamel, who lived in the reign of Louis XIV.

AND CONSOMMES. 83

glasses of sherry or Madeira. Let these simmer gently for five minutes, after which add one quart of common broth. Allow the extract to boil slowly by the side of the fire for three quarters of an hour, pass it through a lawn sieve into a basin, and reserve it for working the sauces intended for gratins of quails or larks, and also for fumet sauces for pdtes-chauds of either of the forementioned small birds.

Extract of woodcocks or snipes is obtained in a similar manner.

220. EXTRACT OF HARE OR RABBIT.

This is made by putting the bones or carcasses of either into a stewpan with two or three glasses of any sort of white wine, a bay-leaf, a sprig of thyme, and two shalots; and then submitting it to the action of a rather slow fire, until the liquid becomes reduced to a glaze, when a quart to three pints of common broth should be added. Put it on a brisk fire to boil, skim it well, and then put it by the side of the stove to simmer gently for an hour and a half; after which time pass it through a napkin into a basin, and keep it for use as occasion may require.

221. COMMON GRAVY.

Spread the bottom of a middle-sized stewpan with butter, and cover it with thin slices of beef suet; place some slices of onions over this, and then add six pounds of gravy-beef cut into thick slices, and any trimmings of meat there may be to spare; moisten with a quart of common broth, and set the stewpan over a brisk stove-fire to boil. When the broth is reduced to glaze, slacken the heat of the stove, by partially smothering it with ashes, and allow the gravy to acquire a deep red brown color; then, fill the stewpan up with common broth or water, garnish with two carrots, two heads of celery, six cloves, two blades of mace, and a few peppercorns, and, if the gravy has been filled up with water, add a spoonful of salt. Put the gravy to boil on the stove-fire, skim it thoroughly, then remove it to the side to continue gently boiling for about three hours; next, strain it through a broth-cloth into another stewpan, and proceed immediately to clarify it, in the following manner: whisk up three whites of eggs with a little spring water, and, after having removed all the grease from the surface of the gravy, incorporate the whites of eggs in with it; whisk it over the stove-fire until it is nearly boiling, and then set it to simmer by the side for a quarter of an hour, and strain it through a broth-cloth into a basin for use.

222. BLOND DE VEAU, OR VEAL GRAVY.

Having first well buttered a large stewpan, lay therein one pound of the lean of a York ham cut in slices, a knuckle of veal, and the under part of a leg of veal; to these add an old hen and a couple of wild rabbits. Pour three pints of common broth over the meat, &c, and after putting the cover on the stewpan, place it on the stove-fire to boil down to a glaze; then slacken the heat so that it may gradually become browned. When the glaze darkens to a deep red tinge, fill it up with common broth or water, and set it on the stove; as soon as it boils, skim it thoroughly, garnish with carrots, turnips:, onions, celery,

84 MEDICINAL BROTHS, ETC.

three cloves, and a blade of mace; and after it has boiled gently by the side of the stove-fire for three hours, strain it through a napkin into basins for use.

This consomme is used for clearing and working the grand Espagnole sauce, for coloring clear soups, and also for finishing some of the special sauces.

MEDICINAL BROTHS AND CONSOMMES FOR INVALIDS,

COMPRISING

Plain chicken broth. Crayfish broth.

Pectoral do. do. Decoction of snails.

Mutton do. Mucilaginous chicken broth. Beef tea.

223. PLAIN" CHICKEN BROTH.

Cut a young fowl or chicken into four parts, wash these well in cold water, and put the pieces into a stewpan with one quart of spring water, and a very little salt; set it to boil on the stove-fire, skim it well, and then add the heart of a white cabbage lettuce, and a handful of chervil j boil the broth for about an hour, and then strain it through a napkin into a basin.

224. PECTORAL CHICKEN BROTH.

Cut up a young fowl into several pieces, put them into a stewpan with three pints of spring water; set it on the stove-fire to boil; skim it well, and add a little salt. Take two tablespoonsful of pearl barley, wash it in several waters, and add it to the broth - together with one ounce of marsh-mallow roots cut into shreds, for the purpose of better extracting its healing properties. The broth should then boil one hour, and be passed through a napkin into a basin, to be kept ready for use.

225. MUTTON BROTH.

Take three pounds of the scrag-end of a neck of very fresh mutton, cut it into several pieces, wash them in cold water, and put them into a stewpan with two quarts of cold spring-water; place the stewpan on the fire to boil, skim it well, and then add a couple of turnips cut into slices, a few branches of parsley, a sprig of green thyme, and a little salt. When it has boiled gently by the side of the stove for an hour and a half, skim off the fat from the surface, and then let it be strained through a lawn sieve into a basin, and kept for use.

226. BEEF TEA.

Take two pounds of the lean part of the gravy piece of beef, and carefully pare away every portion of fat, skin, or sinew; cut this into small square pieces the size of a nut; put the beef iuto a stewpan capable of containing two quarts, and pour three pints of boiling water upou it; add a little salt, put it on the stove-fire, and as soon

MEDICINAL BROTHS, ETC. 85

as it boils skim it, and then remove it to the side of the stove, to continue boiling gently for an hour, after which the beef tea should be strained through a napkin for use.

227. CRAYFISH BROTH, FOR PURIFYING THE BLOOD.

Take two pounds of the lean part of very white veal, cut it into small pieces, and pound it well in a mortar; to this add three dozen crayfish and a handful of green chervil, and pound these together so as to thoroughly bruise the crayfish. Then remove the whole into a stewpan, and pour upon it three pints of cold spring water; add a little salt, and place the stewpan on the stove to boil; after which set it by the side of the stove-fire, and keep it gently simmering for three quarters of an hour; it may then be strained through a napkin for use.

This kind of broth, in order to promote the desired effect, should be taken by the convalescent upon an empty stomach.

228. DECOCTION OF SNAILS FOR INVETERATE COUGHS.

Take two dozen garden snails, add to these the hind quarters only of two dozen stream frogs, previously skinned; bruise them together in a mortar, after which put them into a stewpan with a couple of turnips chapped small, a little salt, a quarter of an ounce of hay saffron, and three pints of spring water. Stir these on the fire until the broth begins to boil, then skim it well, and set it by the side of the fire to simmer for half an hour: after which it should be strained by pressure through a tammy-cloth into a basin for use.

This broth, from its soothing qualities, often counteracts, successfully, the straining effects of a severe cough, and alleviates, more than any other culinary preparation, the sufferings of the consumptive.

229. MUCILAGINOUS BROTH FOR PERSONS IN DELICATE HEALTH.

Take a young fowl, cut it into several parts, and wash them thoroughly; put these into a stewpan capable of containing three quarts of water, add thereto three pounds of the lean of very white veal, a couple of turnips, one carrot, and one head of celery - the whole to be cut into small pieces; fill up the stewpan with spring water, and put it on the stove to boil, taking care to remove the scum as it rises to the surface. After the broth has thrown off the albumen of the meat in the shape of scum, add to it two ounces of Previte's preparation of Ceylon moss, taking special care to well mix the preparation with the broth. Keep the pan gently boiling by the side of the stove-fire for one hour and a quarter; then pass the broth through a napkin into an earthen vessel, and put it by for use.

This broth is nutritious and cooling, and its use in cases of sore throats will often prove beneficial.

86 BRAIZES, POELES,

BRAIZES, POELES, MIREPOIX, ETC.,

COMPRISING

Braize for general purposes. Blanc or White Braize for dressing calves,

White poele for poultry. heads.

Frying batter for fillets of fish, Ac. Mirepoix, or Braize for truffles.

Bo. for fruit fritters. White roux for thickening sauces.

Boiled Murimide, or pickle. Brown roux for do.

Cold Marinade.

230. BRAIZE FOR GENERAL PURPOSES.

Take two pounds of fillet of veal, one pound of fat Yorkshire ham, two heads of celery, and the same number of onions and carrots; cut all these into small square pieces, add a bay-leaf, thyme, parsley, one clove of garlic, two blades of mace, and a dozen cloves; throw these ingredients into a middle-sized stewpan in which has been melted down a pound of fresh butter; put the stewpan on the stove-fire, stirring its contents frequently with a woodeu spoon, while the vegetables, &c, are frying. When this mixture becomes slightly browned, pour into the pan half a pint of Cognac brandy, allow it to simmer for five minutes, and then add three quarts of common broth. Keep the braize gently boiling for an hour and a half, then strain it off through a tammy cloth (using considerable pressure) into a kitchen-pan, and put it away in the larder, to be used for purposes that will be hereafter explained.

231. WHITE POELE FOR POULTRY.,

Cut into dice-shaped pieces two pounds of beef suet, an equal quantity of veal, and the same kind of vegetables, &c, as described in the above-mentioned braize; to these add the pulp of two lemons, removing the pips; put these ingredients into a middle-sized stewpan with half a pound of butter, and stir them on a slow fire until the suet is quite melted; then add three quarts of common broth, and keep the poele gently boiling for an hour; it should then be passed through a sieve into an earthen pan, and reserved for the purpose of braizing poultry in.

Note. - The two foregoing preparations, although very desirable in imparting a rich succulent flavor to poultry, game, &c, are nevertheless to be regarded rather as luxurious than essential. Good white or brown stock, as the case may require, can be used as economical substitutes.

232. FRYING BATTER FOR FILLETS OF FISH, POULTRY, GAME, ETC., A LA HORLY, OR A LA ROYALE.

Put into a two-quart basin three-quarters of a pound of sifted flour, a little salt, two yelks of eggs, and two ounces of fresh butter previously melted in a small stewpan; to these add gradually about half a pint of tepid water, and stir the whole together with a wooden spoon until the butter has acquired the consistency and appearance of rich-looking double cream; it may then be put aside in the larder until within half an hour of its being wanted, when the whites of

MIREPOIX, MARINADES, ETC. 87

two eggs, well whisked into a snowlike froth, should be incorporated with it.

233. FRYING BATTER FOR ALL SORTS OF FRUIT FRITTERS.

Put into a basin three-quarters of a pound of sifted flour, three ounces of fresh butter (melted), one wine-glassful of Curacoa, and a very little salt; mix these gently together with a wooden spoon, gradually pouring into the basin about half a pint of bitter ale. When the batter becomes mixed to the thickness of double cream, set it aside while you whisk the whites of three eggs into a substantial froth, and instantly incorporate this with it.

Many prefer such fritters as pineapple, peach, apricot or plum, fried with a plainer kind of batter, in making which, water is substituted for ale.

234. BOILED MARINADE.

Cut into slices, and put into a stewpan, four carrots, the same number of onions, and two heads of celery, to which add parsley, four bay-leaves, thyme and sweet basil, a dozen cloves, a few blades of mace, two cloves of garlic, and one pound of raw ham (cut into small square pieces), a tablespoonful of peppercorns, and half a pound of butter. Stir these ingredients together over the fire until they become lightly browned; then pour over them a quart of French white wine vinegar, and let the marinade boil quickly for five minutes, then add two quarts of common stock; allow the whole to boil gently for one hour; strain it off through a tammy-cloth (using considerable pressure), into a kitchen pan, and reserve it for use.

This marinade is used for the purpose of preserving larded beef, mutton, venison, or roebuck, as well as to braize either of these in, when it is wished to dress them d la Chevreuil or roebuck fashion.

235. COLD MARINADE OR PICKLE.

Take a large earthen vessel capable of containing whatever joint is intended to be marinaded or pickled; then cut into very thin slices or shreds, four carrots and as many onions; add to these, cloves, mace, peppercorns, thyme, bay-leaves and basil, and a handful of salt; after having mixed all these together, pour in, according to the quantity of marinade that may be required, cold spring water and vinegar in the proportion of two-thirds of the former to one-third of the latter; keep the pan (containing the marinade) covered with its lid in a cool place, for the purpose of pickling therein, joints of red deer, roebuck, mountain hares, fillets of mutton or beef, &c.

In Scotland, this sort of marinade will prove very serviceable, especially if cooking for a shooting-party, and when the larders are well supplied with moor and Highland game.

236. BLANC OR WHITE BRAIZE FOR CALVES' HEADS OR EARS, AND ALSO LAMBS' FEET OR EARS.

Chop one pound (more or less, as occasion may require) of beef suet, and the same quantity of fat bacon; put these into a stewpan together with a garnished* fagot of parsley, a couple of carrots and

* A garnished fagot of parsley, consists of a handful of parsley, half a dozen green onions, and a bay-leaf and sprig of thyme tied together neatly with twine.

88 BRAIZES, ETC.

onions, inserting four cloves into one of the latter; add the pulp of two lemons, a teaspoonful of whole pepper, and a little salt, place the stewpan on the stove-fire for about ten minutes, carefully stirring the ingredients the whole time, in order to prevent them from acquiring a brown color; then pour in a sufficient proportion of water to produce the quantity of blanc required. Allow the blanc to boil one hour, then strain it through a hair-sieve, and use it for the purpose intended.

237. MIREPOIX FOR BRAIZING LARDED FILLETS OF ROEBUCK,

ETC.

Take two pounds of veal, one pound of fat bacon, and one pound of lean ham, four carrots, four onions, a pottle of mushrooms, six shalots, a clove of garlic, two bay-leaves, some sprigs of thyme, six cloves, two blades of mace, and a teaspoonful of peppercorns; cut these ingredients up into small square pieces, and put them into a stewpan with half a pound of butter, and fry them brown; then add a bottle of Madeira or sherry, and a quart of good broth; boil the mirepoix by the side of a stove-fire for about an hour and a half, and then strain it through a tammy (with considerable pressure, to extract all the goodness) into a basin, to be kept for such purposes as will be hereafter directed.

238. WHITE ROUX OR THICKENING FOR SAUCES.

Take some fresh butter - say one pound, put it into a stewpan on a moderate fire to clarify; skim it, and then pour it off into a thickbottomed stewpan, care being taken that none of the milk be allowed to mix with the butter. Fill the butter up with sifted flour in sufficient quantity to form a paste requiring some strength to work it with a wooden spoon; the roux should then be placed on a moderate fire, and continually stirred with the spoon until it becomes somewhat softer; then take the spoon out, wipe the sides of the stewpan, put the lid on it, and place it in a moderately-heated oven, and there let it remain for about three-quarters of an hour - taking care to stir it every ten minutes, and to watch it closely, in order to prevent the possibility of its getting burnt or colored, an accident which would render it useless for white sauce. At the expiration of the time above-named, or before, if the roux be sufficiently done, (which may easily be ascertained by its becoming thinner), it should be taken out of the oven, and put aside until wanted for use.

This roux is used for thickening Velouie or white sauce.

239. BROWN ROUX, OR THICKENING FOR BROWN SAUCE.

This is made exactly in the same way as the white roux with the exception that it should remain longer in the oven, to allow it to acquire a fawn or buff color, before it is taken out. When the rov.r is considered to be done, three or four shalots should be thrown in, in order to diminish the action of the heat of the copper stewpan on its contents, and for the purpose of imparting flavor to it.

This roux is used to thicken Espagnole or brown sauce.

QUENELLE FORCE-MEATS. 89

QUENELLE FORCE-MEATS IN GENERAL, AND FORCEMEATS FOR GRATINS,

COMPRISING

Bread Panada for quenelles. Quenelle of Hare.

Pate d choux Panada. Do. of Rabbit

Preparation of Calf's Udder. Do. of small Birds.

Quenelle of Chicken or Fowl. Do. of Fish or Lobsters. Do. of Pheasant or Partridge.

240. BREAD PANADA FOR QUENELLES.

Take the crumb of two new French rolls, and steep it in tepid water for ten minutes, then put it into a napkin and wring it tightly, in order to remove the water from the bread. Put the crumb into a stewpan with two ounces of fresh butter, a little salt, and two spoonsful of white broth. Put these on the stove-fire, continuing to stir the panada the whole time with a wooden spoon, until it assumes the appearance of paste, and no longer adheres to the bottom of the stewpan, then add three yelks of eggs, and turn it out on a plate, smooth it over the surface with the blade of a knife, and having covered it with a round piece of buttered paper, place it in the larder until required for use.

241. PATE A CHOUX PANADA*

To half a pint of white chicken broth add four ounces of fresh butter and a little salt; put the stewpan containing these on the fire; as soon as it begins to simmer, mix in with the fore-mentioned ingredients five ounces of sifted flour, and by continuing to stir this batter on the fire for five minutes, it will become a delicately firm paste, which must be worked over the fire until it freely leaves the sides of the pan. Then take three yelks of eggs and quickly mix them in the batter; put it on a plate, cover it with a buttered paper, and keep it in the cool till wanted for use.

This kind of panada is preferred by some cooks to bread panada; being considered by them more delicate and less liable to produce fermentation in warm weather; however, bread panada has the advantage of not collapsing, as is the case with the pate a choux panada, if prepared some time before the quenelle in which it is used be eaten.

242. PREPARATION OF CALF'S UDDER.

The udder is an elongated piece of fat-looking substance attached to the inner part of a leg of veal. It is easily separated from the meat by a knife, and should then be bound round with twine in the shape of a sausage, so as to prevent it from falling to pieces on taking it out of the stockpot; the udder so tied up is then put into the stockpot to boil. Having allowed the dressed udder time to cool and get firm, either on the ice or otherwise, pare off" the outside with a knife, cut it into small pieces, and pound it in a

• Anglicfi, " pretty shoes."

90 QUENELLE FORCE-MEATS.

mortar; then nib it through a wire sieve with a wooden spoon, and put it on a plate upon the ice to cool, in order that it may be quite firm when required for use.

Note. - The two foregoing preparations being the basis of a great variety of force-meats, it is essential that they should be well understood before attempting the following more complicated amalgamations.

It should also be observed that all meat and fish intended for quenelles must be forced through a wire-sieve by rubbing it vigorously with the back of a wooden spoon, and then be kept on ice till used.

243. QUENELLE OF FOWL.

Take of panada and prepared udder, or fresh butter, half a pound of each, to these add ten ounces of prepared fillets of chicken, as directed above, and pound all three together in a mortar; when they are well mixed, add salt, and as much grated nutmeg as will cover a sixpence, a little pepper, and one egg; ponnd the whole together till thoroughly mixed, then add another whole egg and two yelks, and a tablespoonful of Bechamel or Supreme sauce. Pound the whole thoroughly and quickly, and after having taken the force-meat out of the mortar and put it into a kitchen basin; keep it in a cool place until wanted for use.

Previously to taking the quenelle np out of the mortar, its consistency should be thus ascertained. Take a piece of the force-meat the size of a large nut, roll it with a little flour into the form of a round ball, put it into a small stewpan half full of boiling water; place it by the side of the fire to simmer for three minutes, after which take it out and cnt it in halves; taste it in order to ascertain if it be correctly seasoned, and see, that when cut asunder, the inner part presents a smooth, light, compact surface.

244. QUENELLE OF FILLETS OF GROUSE, PHEASANT, OR PARTRIDGE; QUENELLE OF RABBIT, OR HARE.

The process for making these is precisely similar to the foregoing, substituting, of course, the respective sort of game required, for fowl. It requires, however, the addition of a tablespoonful of strong essence of game and mushrooms, and a little Allemande sauce; which not only imparts a richer flavor to the quenelle, but also renders it smoother.

245. QUENELLE OF FILLETS OF SMALL BIRDS.

Take the fillets of such a number of small birds (as quails, snipes, larks, plovers, and dottrel) as are likely to weigh about three-quarters of a pound. Prepare them just as directed in the process for making quenelle of fowl-adding a little glaze made from their carcasses, and reduced with a small quantity of Allemande sauce.

246. QUENELLE OF WHITINGS.

Fillet four large whitings, after having previously skinned them; pound them in a mortar, and force the produce through a wiresieve with a wooden spoon. To this substance add equal proportions of bread panada and fresh butter; pound these effectually, so as to mix them well together; add two whole eggs, and the yelks of

QUENELLE FORCE-MEATS. 91

two others gradually; season with pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg. Mix well by pounding the quenelle vigorously, and then take it up into a basin for use as required.

Quenelle of every sort of delicate fish is prepared in a similar manner to the above.

247. QUENELLES OF LOBSTERS.

Take the meat of two or more hen lobsters, cut this into thin slices, and pound it thoroughly with two ounces of fresh butter; force it through a wire sieve with a wooden spoon, and add two-thirds of its quantity of panada, and a similar proportion of fresh butter. Pound these well together, adding, by intervals, three whole eggs and a spoonful of Allemande sauce, a little cayenne pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg; mix well together by pounding, and then take the quenelle up into a basin for use.

248. FORCE-MEAT OF LIVER AND HAM, FOR RAISED PIES.

Take the whole or part of a light-colored calfs liver, or several fat livers of any kind of poultry, if to be obtained. If calPs liver be used, cut it into rather small square pieces, and, if time permit, steep them in cold spring water, in order to extract the blood, so that the force-meat may be whiter. Take the pieces of liver out of the water, and place them upon a clean rubber to drain the water from them. Meanwhile cut some fat ham or bacon (in equal proportion to the liver) into square pieces, put them into a sauta-pan on a brisk fire to fry, after which add the pieces of liver, and fry the whole of a light brown color; season with cayenne pepper and salt, and a little prepared aromatic spice (No. 1250), some chopped mushrooms, parsley, and three shalots. After this, take the pieces of liver and ham out of the pan, lay them on a chopping-board, and chop them fine; then put them into a mortar with the remaining contents of the pan; pound the whole thoroughly, and rub it through a wire sieve on to an earthen dish.

This kind of force-meat, or farce, is an excellent ingredient in making raised pies.

249. FORCE-MEAT, OR FARCE, FOR PRESERVING GAME IN.

To six pounds of boned game, of the kind intended to be preserved, add four pounds of fat bacon or ham, and two pounds of fat livers (or, failing these, calf's liver); cut the whole into small square pieces, and proceed as follows: First fry the pieces of bacon in a large sauta-pan, and when they become slightly browned, throw in the game and livers; season with pepper and salt, aromatic spices, chopped mushrooms, and three or four shalots; fry the whole till the game is thoroughly done; then chop and pound all these ingredients together; and afterward rub them through a wire sieve; after which put the farce into a clean pan, and keep it covered over with buttered paper. It should be used the same day that it is made, for the sooner preserves are out of baud the better.

The use of this farce will be shown in its proper place.

Note. - When about to preserve game in earthen pans for the spring or summer season, great care should be taken in selecting fresh game for that purpose, as when preserves are made with stale game,

92 FORCE-MEATS FOR GRATINS.

the preparation will most likely not bear keeping so as to be eatable when opened for use.

250. FARCE OF FAT LIVERS FOR GRATINS.

If the farce be required for turbans or fillets of fowls or rabbits, -or pates-chauds of game or small birds, it should be made of fat livers or leg of veal, and prepared in exactly the same manner as directed for making farce of livers for game pies, excepting that, to finish it for use, it is necessary to add one-third the quantity of well-made bread panada, and an equal proprotion of raw eggs to bind it, and give it body.

In order to ascertain whether this farce is perfect, roll a small quantity in a little flour on a plate, then put it on a small baking sheet in the oven for five minutes; when done through, cut it asunder, and if it preserves its shape and remains firm to the touch, it may be used with safety; but if it appears to shrink or melt in the oven, then a little more panada and another egg must be added, which will render it more compact.

251. GODIVEAUX IN GENERAL.

To one pound of either veal, fillets of fowls, pheasants, partridges, &c, chopped exceedingly fine and smooth to the touch, add one pound of beef suet, two whole eggs, the crumb of one French roll soaked in water and well wrung in a napkin, grated nutmeg, pepper, and salt. Chop these ingredients until thoroughly mixed, then pound them in a mortar until the whole presents the appearance of a compact body. Then place the substance upon a plate, cover it with buttered paper, and set it upon ice to cool for a couple of hours.

After the godiveau has been cooled, put it in the mortar again and pound it with considerable force, taking care to mix in with it, by degrees, about three-quarters of a pound of clean washed rough ice. This last process will cause it to resemble somewhat the quenelle of fowl. Put it away in a basin in a cool place till wanted for use.

Godiveau of any kind, when well made, is very delicious eating, and is not so expensive to make as quenelle. It is used for garnishing vol-axi-vents, pates-chauds, tourtes a la ciboulette, and also for stuffing calfs' heads, as a substitute for quenelle force-meats.

93

CLEAR CONSOMME SOUPS IN GENERAL,

COMPRISING

Spring Soup.

Do. d la Vertpri.

Julihme Soup.

Jardiniere do.

Chiffonade do.

Nivernaise do.

Javier do.

Dauphine do.

Barley do. a la Princesse.

Quenelles of fowl in consomme'.

Vermicelli clear Soup.

Macaroni do. do.

Indian Paste Soup.

Lasagnes do.

Clear rice do.

Do. with asparagus points.

Chicken and rice Soup.

Cocky Leeky Broth.

Scotch Broth.

Hodge-podge.

Knuckle of veal and rice Soup.

Brunoise do.

Lettuce and whole pea do.

Flemish do.

Sportsman's do. clear.

Soup d la Disclignac.

Partridge Soup d la Chasseur.

Paysanne Soup.

Tendons of veal d la Jardiniere.

Do with peas and lettuces

Ox-tail Soup.

Soup of gratinated crusts d la D'OrUans.

Do. a la Princesse.

Do with lettuces.

Do d la Rfgence.

Do d la Paysanne.

252. SPRING SOUP.

Take four carrots and as many turnips scraped and washed, scoop them into the form of small olives or peas, with a vegetable scoop of either shape; add the white part of two heads of celery, twenty-four small onions (without the green stalk), and one head of firm white cauliflower cut into small flowerets. Blanch or parboil the foregoing in boiling water for three minutes, strain them on a sieve, and theu throw them into three quarts of bright consomme of fowl; let the whole boil gently for half an hour by the side of the stove-fire; then add the white leaves of two cabbage-lettuces (previously stamped out with a round cutter the size of a shilling), a handful of sorrel-leaves, snipped or cut like the lettuces, a few leaves of tarragon and chervil, and a small piece of sugar; let these continue to boil gently until done. When about to send the soup to table, put into the tureen half a pint of young green peas, an equal quantity of asparagus-heads boiled green, and a handful of small croutons a la duchesse, prepared in the following manner: - Cut the crust off a rasped French roll into strips; stamp or cut out these with a round tin or steel cutter, into small pellets about the size of a shilling, and dry them in the oven to be ready for use.

Before sending the soup to table, taste it to ascertain whether it be sufficiently seasoned.

253. SPRING SOUP A LA VERTPRE.

This is prepared in the same manner as the foregoing - except that the croutons a la duchesse are omitted, and in their stead a, puree of green spinach, in sufficient quantity to thicken and color the soup, should be added.

94 CLEAR CONSOMME

254. JARDINIERE SOUP.

Prepare the same vegetables as for spring soup, boil them in a strong consomme, and just before sending the soup to table add to it a pint of puree of green peas.

255. JULIENNE SOUP.

Take three red carrots of a large size, as many sound turnips, and the white parts of the same number of leeks, heads of celery and onions. Cut all these vegetables into fine shreds an inch long. Put them into a convenient-sized stewpan with two ounces of fresh butter, a little salt, and a teaspoonful of pounded sugar. Simmer these vegetables on a slow stove-fire, taking care they do not burn; when they become slightly brown, add three quarts of blond de veau or light-colored consomme; let the soup boil, skim all the butter off as it rises to the surface, and when the vegetables are clone, throw in the leaves of two cabbage-lettuces and a handful of sorrel, shred like the carrots, &c, add a few leaves of tarragon and chervil; boil the whole for ten minutes longer, taste the soup in order to ascertain whether the seasoning is correct, and serve.

256. CHIFFONADE SOUP.

Truss two spring chickens, and boil them in some good white consomme. When done and cooled, cut them into small members, paring off the skin; put these into a well-tinned stewpan, together with the stock they were boiled in, which should be clarified, if it be not sufficiently bright. Set the stewpan on the stove-fire to boil, and then add the white leaves of four cabbage-lettuces, a small handful of sorrel, a little tarragon and chervil, and one head of celery shred fine. See that the soup be perfectly seasoned and of delicate flavor, and send to table.

257. NIVERNAISE SOUP.

Take four turnips, cut them into the form of small cloves of garlic, fry them in a little butter and sugar in a stewpan over the fire to give them a light brown color, then drain them upon a sieve and put them into a soup-pot. Scoop out the red part of two large-sized red carrots, blanch or parboil these for ten minutes, and, when strained, add them to the turnips; then pour upon the vegetables three quarts of strong bright consomme, and set the soup to boil gently by the side of the stove-fire until the vegetables are thoroughly done, taking care to skim off the butter as it rises to the surface. Ten minutes before dinner-time, throw into the soup, while boiling, some very small Brussels sprouts that have been previously parboiled: and just before sending this soup to table, add to it about two or three dozen very small quenelles of pheasant.

258. XAVIER SOUP.

Mix wfth six ounces of sifted flour, half a pint of double cream, four ounces of fresh butter, and two ounces of grated Parimsan cheese, a little minionette pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg. When these ingredients have been thoroughly mixed together with a wooden spoon, put the stewpan containing them on the fire - stirring it quickly and continually, until it begius to thicken, when it should be

SOUPS IN GENERAL. 95

well worked with the spoon for about five minutes. By this time the batter will have assumed the appearance of a firm, compact paste; two whole eggs and two yelks should then be worked into it; then add a tablespoonful of chopped and blanched parsley.

When this paste is so far ready, make up two half-sheets of paper in the shape of a funnel, with a hole at the point, a quarter of an inch in diameter, and fasten them with a pin. Into each of these papers or forcers, put as much of the paste as will nearly fill it; close the large ends in the same way as you would a paper of brown sugar; and with gentle pressure force the paste out at the pointed extremity on to a large stewpan cover (previously buttered) in the shape of large peas; this is done with a sudden jerk of the wrist. When the stewpan lid is covered with these fragments of paste - which, however, must not be close enough to touch each other - prepare some boiling consomme in a stewpan over the fire, and shake off the peas into it (which will be easily effected by just passing the lid containing the fragments of paste over the fire), in order to detach them, and thus facilitate their slipping into the broth. Let these boil very gently for five minutes; strain them on a sieve, and then throw them into three quarts of strong bright consomme of fowl or game prepared for the purpose; allow them to boil again gently for five minutes; add a jrfuche of tarragon and chervil, and let these boil a short time previously to serving up the soup.

Send some grated Parmesan cheese on a plate, to be handed round simultaneously with this soup.

259. DAUPHINE SOUP.

Take half a pint of strong consomme of fowl, and pour it gradually into a stewpan containing eight yelks of eggs beaten up with a little salt, nutmeg, and pepper; when the egg is well mixed with the consomme, strain it through a sieve into a round plain mould, which should be previously buttered carefully for that purpose. Put the mould holding" the preparation into a large stewpan containing water, to the depth of about an inch, and cover the stewpan with the lid; let the water in it simmer - or gently boil - on the corner of the stovefire, so as to produce sufficient steam to set the custard. When this is done, take it out of the water; and after having allowed it time to cool, cut it into shapes resembling thick wafers, which put into two quarts of strong consomme of fowl, together with a pint of green asparagus heads, previously boiled for that purpose, a small piece of sugar, and a few tarragon-leaves. Allow the soup to boil very gently by the side of the stove-fire for about three minutes, and then send to table.

260. BARLEY SOUP A LA PRINCESSE.

Take half a pound of Frankfort pearl barley, wash and blanch it, and put it to boil in one quart of bright consomme of fowl. When the barley is sufficiently done, put it into the soup tureen with the members of two spring chickens (previously roasted and cut up for the purpose); to these add a sufficient quantity of consomme of fowl; ana after having tested the seasoning of the soup, send to table.

96 CLEAR CONSOMME

261. QUENELLES OF FOWL IN CONSOMME.

Mould three or four dozen of very small quenelles of fowl in the following manner: - Take up a spoonful of chicken force-meat, smooth it over with the blade of a small knife, which must be occasionally dipped in hot water, in order to prevent the quenelle from sticking to it; and with another teaspoon, dipped in hot water, scoop out the quenelle from the filled teaspoon, and drop it gently on the bottom of a buttered sauta-pan. When this part of the operation is completed, a stewpau cover is held with the left hand in a slanting direction toward the inner part of the edge of the sauta-pan; with the other band sufficient boiling water should be poured in to poach the quenelles: then set the sauta-pan by the side of the fire to simmer for about ten minutes, when the quenelles will be done. Take them out and lay them upon a clean cloth to drain; after which place them in the soup tureen, and having poured thereon two quarts of bright consomme of fowl, send to table.

262. CLEAR VERMICELLI SOUP.

Take half a pound of vermicelli, break it small and blanch it - by allowing it to boil three minutes in water - drain it on a sieve, and then put it into a stewpau with two quarts of strong bright consommv of fowl or game, or blond of veal, according to taste or circumstances. After allowing the soup thus prepared to boil up on the stove-fire, skim the froth from the surface, and set it to continue boiling gently on the corner of the stove till the vermicelli be sufficiently done. Then 'pour the soup into the tureen, and send to table with some grated Parmesan cheese on a plate, separately, to be handed round to the guests simultaneously with the soup. This should be observed as a general rule, in serving up all soups containing Italian pastes in any form.

263. MACARONI CLEAR SOUP.

Boil one pound of Naples macaroni in two quarts of water, an ounce of fresh butter, a little salt, and minionette pepper. When the macaroni is done, which will take about half an hour, drain it on a sieve, wash it in clear water, and then drain it upon a napkin, that it may be cut into pieces an inch long. Then put it into a soup-pot with two quarts of blond of veal, or consomme of fowl or of game, according to circumstances; let it boil ten minntes longer and serve.

264. ITALIAN PASTE SOUP.

Take half a pound of Italian paste, blanch or parboil it first, and afterward boil it in two quarts of bright strong consomme, as directed for vermicelli soup, and send to table.

265. LASAGNES SOUP.

Lasagnes are a kind of Italian paste resembling ribbons, and must be treated in exactly the same way as when using macaroni for soup, excepting that they do not require so much boiliug.

266. CLEAR CONSOMME WITH RICE.

Take half a pound of Carolina rice well picked and washed, blanch or parboil it for ten minutes, drain the water off; and after adding

SOUPS IN GENERAL. 97

two quarts of good clear consomme, boil it gently by the side of the stove-fire till the grains of the rice begin to feather or separate, when it will be ready to send to table.

Observe, that broths and consommes should be always stronger when used for soups containing Italian pastes of any kind, rice, or barley: as these farinaceous substances decrease the flavor and apparent strength of soups, and render them less acceptable to the palate of the epicure - unless counteracted by increasing the strength of the consomme.

267. CLEAR RICE SOUP WITH ASPARAGUS POINTS.

This soup is prepared in the same way as the foregoing - with the addition of one pint of asparagus points boiled green and thrown into the soup just before sending to table.

263. CHICKEN AND RICE SOUP.

Truss, boil, and cut into small members, two spring chickens; the skin should be removed, and. the pieces neatly trimmed and placed in the soup tureen, together with two quarts of clear rice soup, which .-mould be made with chicken broth or consomme, of a light color. The seasoning of this soup must be light.

269. COCKY-LEEKY SOUP.

Take two fowls, which truss, boil, and cut up as for the foregoing soup. To the broth they have been boiled in add two quarts of blond of veal, and in this boil (after having first parboiled them in water) the white part of a dozen leeks cut into lengths of about an inch, and these again cut lengthways into four. A 'hen the leeks have been boiled thoroughly soft in the broth, add the pieces of fowl; and after allowing the whole to boil ten minutes longer, send to table.

Xote. - This kind of sou]) is objected to by many who dislike the odor of leeks; it is considered, however, to be a fine restorative, and is especially recommended to the notice of sportsmen, after a hard day's riding with the hounds, or fagging over the moors.

270. SCOTCH BROTH.

Take a neck of fresh mutton, trim it the same as for cutlets; take the scrag and trimmings, with two carrots, three turnips, two heads of celery, two onions, a bunch of parsley, and a sprig of thyme, and with these make some mutton broth - filling up with either broth from the common stockpot, or with water. While the mutton broth is boiling, cut up the neck of mutton, previously trimmed for the purpose, into chops, which should have the superfluous skin and fat pared away, and place them in a three-quart slewpan, together with the red or outer part of two carrots, three turnips, two leeks, one onion, and two heads of celery - the whole of these to lie cut in the form of very small dice; add six ounces of Scotch barley previously washed and parboiled, and then pour on to the whole the broth made from the scrag, &c, when strained and the fat removed. Allow the soup thus far prepared to boil gently until the chops and the vegetables be thoroughly done. Five minutes before sending the soup to table throw into it a tablespoonful of chopped and blanched parsley. 6

98 CLEAR CONSOMME

Be sparing in the use of salt, so as not to overpower the simple bnt sweet flavor which characterizes this broth.

271. HODGE-PODGE*

Make the mutton broth as shown in the preceding directions, and in addition to its contents add a pint and a half of green peas (either marrow-fats or Prussian-blues). Allow the'soup to boil gently until the ingredients be thoroughly done, then mix in with them one pint of puree of green spinach and parsley: taste to ascertain that the seasoning be correct, and serve.

272. KNUCKLE OF VEAL AND RICE SOUP.

Take a good-sized knuckle of fresh veal, cut it into four pieces - sawing the bones through. Place the pieces in a small stockpot with two calfs-feet, a partridge (an old one will do) that has been roasted for a quarter of an hour; to these add three quarts of common broth or water. Put the soup on the stove-fire to boil, skim it well, garnish it with one carrot, one turnip, an onion in which has been inserted four cloves, and one head of celery; also a little salt and a few peppercorns. Having allowed the soup to boil gently by the side of the stove-fire for about three hours, proceed with care to take up the partridge, the calfs-feet, and also the glutinous pieces of veal, which place on a dish to cool in the larder. Then pass the broth through a napkin into a stewpan, and after having taken off every particle of fat, add to it half a pound of Carolina rice, which must be blanched or parboiled for the purpose. Allow the rice to boil gently in the broth till it is nearly done, then cut the fillet of partridges into pieces about an inch in length and a quarter of an inch wide, take the glutinous pieces of the veal and the inner tendons of the calfs feet, and cut these also in pieces in a similar manner to the partridge; put the whole into the broth with the rice, and after boiling them together for five minutes send to table.

This kind of soup may be also finished with the addition of a pint of green peas, which must be boiled a few minutes before serving up the soup, and placed in the tureen previously to pouring in the soup.

Asparagus points may be used for the same purpose.

273. BRUNOISE SOUP.

Take carrots, turnips, heads of celery, leeks, and onions, of each a couple; cut them into small dice and fry them in a stewpan, over a slow fire, with an ounce of fresh butter, a little pounded sugar, and a sprinkling of salt. When the vegetables have acquired a light brown color, pour into them three quarts of good strong bright consomme' or blond of veal, and put the soup on the stove to boil; skim it well, and then remove it to the side, there to continue gently boiling until the vegetables are thoroughly done. Add half a pint of greenpeas, a handful of French beans (cut into the form of diamonds), and half a pint of asparagus points (the whole having beeu previously boiled green for the purpose), also a few duchess' crusts; and having tested the flavor and seasoning of the soup, send to table.

* From the French, Hoche-pot.

SOUPS IN GENERAL. 99

274. LETTUCE AND WHOLE-PEA SOUP.

Pick, wash, and blanch, a dozen white-heart cabbage-lettuces; cut them open, and spread them on a clean napkin; season them with minionette pepper, and salt; then put two together, face to face, and proceed to tie them up with twine. Cover the bottom of a stewpan with thin layers of fat bacon, and place the lettuce thereon; pour upon them some broth from the boiling stockpot, over which lay a round of buttered paper; place the lid on the stewpan, start them to boil on the fire, and then place them on a slackened stove, to simmer gently for about an hour; after which, drain the lettuces on, a clean napkin, untie them, and after having cut them into inch lengths, lay them in the soup-tureen, together with a pint of young green peas boiled for the purpose, and a small pinch of minionette pepper. Take every particle of fat off the broth in which the lettuces have been braized, and add it to the lettuces and peas already in the tureen, over which pour two quarts of bright strong consomme of fowl; ascertain that the soup be palatable, and having thrown in a handful of duchess' crusts, send to table.

275. FLEMISH SOUP.

Take carrots, turnips, and cucumbers, of each two, and with a vegetable scoop cut them out into the shape of olives or pears. To the foregoing add the white parts of two heads of celery, and three leeks, which must be cut into thick shreds half an inch long; blanch or parboil these for five minutes; drain them on a sieve, and afterward place them in a small soup-pot capable of containing three quarts; add rather better than two quarts of good consomme, and set the soup on the stove-fire to boil, skim it, and place it by the side to boil gently until the vegetables are sufficiently done. While the soup is boiling, blanch the following vegetables, which, when done, put into the soup with the others: a handful of Brussels sprouts, half a pint of young peas, a few French beans cut small, and a handful of asparagus heads. Add a pinch of minionette pepper; allow the soup to boil three minutes longer, and having placed some duchess' crusts in the tureen, pour the soup upon them, and serve.

276. sportsman's clear soup.

With two teaspoons mould about four dozen very small quenelles of any sort of game; poach these in broth, and then drain them on a clean napkin, and afterward put them into a stewpan containing two quarts of strong bright consomme of game; place the soup on the fire, and allow it to boil very gently by the side for a few minutes; ascertain that the seasoning is correct, and send to table.

This soup takes its special title from the species of game of which it may chance to be made; as, for instance, Sportsman's Clear Soup of Pheasant, of Partridge, of Hare, &c. &c.

277. DESCLIGNAC, OR IMPERIAL SOUP.

Put eight yelks of eggs into a basin, with a little grated nutmeg and salt; beat them together, mixing therewith half a pint of strong consomme of fowl or game: strain this preparation through a hair sieve into a plain mould, which has been buttered for the purpose.

100

CLEAR CONSOMME

Steam this in the same way as you would any other custard; and, when done, put it to cool in the larder. Cut the custard, thus prepared, into fanciful shapes, and having placed them in the tureen, pour on gently two quarts of boiling, strong, bright consomme, of the same kind that is used to mix the custard with.

278. PAYSANNE SOUP. This is to be prepared in exactly the same manner as the Flemish soup, except that, instead of the Brussels sprouts, the following must be used: the leaves of two summer cabbages cut into pieces the size and shape of a shilling, the hearts of four lettuces slit into thick shreds, a few leaves of sorrel, tarragon, and chervil. After these have been boiled with the other vegetables ten minutes, add to them two dozen scollops of braized beef; season with a little minionette pepper, and serve.

279. SOUP OF GRATINATED CRUSTS A LA JARDINIERE. Foe a dinner of sixteen covers, order a dozen small rolls to be made

of the size and shape of an egg; rasp them, and take the crumb out carefully without disturbing the shape of the rolls. When the crumb is taken out, put the rolls or hollow crusts on a baking sheet in the oven, for the purpose of making them crisp, as well as to give them a light brown color.

An hour before dinner, put the crusts, thus prepared, into a deep silver dish, and pour over them a sufficient quantity of consomme of fowl to cover them. Place the dish, containing the crusts, on a trevet over a stove-fire of moderate heat, and there allow the crusts to become gratinated, that is to say, to acquire, by means of boiling down, a concentration of flavor, and that appearance of crispness, which is as alluring to the eye as it is savory to the palate. When the consomme is perfectly absorbed by the crusts, put them in the oven, in order to increase their crispness; but be extremely careful that they do not burn. Just before sending to table, pour on to the cr.usts, thus prepared, a jardiniere, composed of small pipelike pieces of carrots, turnips, celery, leeks, a few small button onions, green peas, French beans, asparagus-heads, and also a few flowerets of white cauliflower. Only a small quantity of consomme should be put with the crusts and Jardiniere,* as it is usual to serve up a tureen of clear consomme separately, from which the guests are served; a small ladleful of the gratinated crusts, &c, should be first put into the soup-plate, and some of the consomme added "afterward.

280. SOUP OF GRATINATED CRUSTS A LA PRINCESSE. Prepare the same number of rolls, according to the preceding

instructions.

A few minutes before dinner, add to the crusts three dozen small quenelles of chicken rolled into the shape of pieces of macaroni, an inch long, half a pint of asparagus-heads, and a little boiling consommts. Send up two quarts of consomme in a soup-tureen, and serve as described in the last-mentioned soup.

281. SOUP OF GRATINATED CRUSTS A LA ROYALE. Prepare the crusts as before stated, adding four ounces of grated

* This observation is applicable to all gratinated soups.

SOUPS IN GENERAL. 101

Parmesan cheese and a little rninionette. Just before dinner-time, lay upon the crusts (graduated in the usual way) some shapes of chicken custard, described in the preparation of Descliynac soup; and serve up according to the preceding detail.

282. SOUP OF GRATINATED CRUSTS A LA FERNEUSE.

Prepare the crusts as before described, cut three large sound turnips into small fancy shapes, fry them in a stewpan, with two ounces of butter, a teaspoonful of pounded sugar, and a little salt, over a slow fire, until they have gradually acquired a light brown color; then add a pint of consomme, and let them simmer gently by the side of the stove-fire until thoroughly done. When about to send the soup to table, pour the turnips thus prepared on to the graduated crusts, and to them add a pint of young peas boiled green, and a few white button onions boiled in broth. Serve as before stated.

283. SOUP OF GRATINATED CRUSTS A LA BEAUJON.

Prepare the crusts as before, and when they are gratinated, add a pint of reduced puree of young carrots, put these into the oven for ten minutes, and just before sending to table, pour over the crusts thus prepared half a pint of large heads of asparagus and some shreds of celery kept ready boiled in broth for the purpose, and serve with the consomme in a tureen separately.

PUREES OP VEGETABLES IX GENERAL FOR SOUPS,

COMPRISING

Purer; of Pea.- a I' Anglaise. Purie of Spinach a la Beauvauuc.

Do. of Green Split Pea.-. Do. of Peas a la Faubonne.

Do. of Red Haricot beans (i la Condi. Do. a la Ferney.

Do. of White Haric6t Beans. Do. d la Fabert.

Do. of Lentils d la Peine. Do. of Spring Herbs.

Do. of Lentils a la Soiibise. Do. a la Victoria.

Do. of Lentils « la Urdnoise. Do. « la Princesse.

Do. of Green Peas. Do. of Young Carrots d la Stanley.

Do. of Roots d la Croissy. Cricy Soup with whole Riee.

Do. of Carrots d la Crecy, Do. of Potatoes a la crime.

Brown puree of Turnips. Do. of Potatoes la Victoria.

White do. of Turnips. Quenelles of Potatoes.

Palestine Soup. Do. of Asparagus d la Condi.

Puree of Artichokes. Do. a In St. George.

Do. of Endive. Bonne Fettime Soup.

Brown puree of Chestnuts. Soup d la Hollandaise.

White do. of Chestnuts.

284. PUREE OF PEAS A L'ANGLAISE.

Take a epiart of yellow split-peas, wash them several times in water, drain them, and put them into a small stockpot with half a

pound of raw ham, two heads of celery, one carrot, and an onion with four cloves stuck in it, add three quarts of common broth, let

the soup boil, skim it well, and then set it by the side of the stove

102 PUREES OF VEGETABLES

fire to boil gently for about three hours. The peas having then become entirely dissolved, pass them through a tainmy-clpth with the aid of two wooden spoons, to be used in the following manner: spread the tammy-cloth over a large dish, pour the puree, or part thereof, into the hollow thus formed; then let two persons take hold firmly of each end of the tammy-cloth with the left hand, so as carefully to secure the puree against flowing over; then, with the right hand, they should work the edge of the spoon, the bowls being back to back, in the cloth, in regular time and with some force, until the whole of the puree is rubbed through: it will be, however, necessary to scrape off with the back of a large knife any portion that may adhere to the cloth. When this is done, hasten to remove the puree from the dish into a soup-pot of adequate size; add a large ladleful of consomme, carefully stirring the puree on the stove-fire until it begins to boil, then remove it to the side of the stove, to continue gently boiling until it has clarified itself by throwing up all the froth, which should be removed as it rises to the surface. Ascertain whether the seasoning be palatable, and send to table with some dried and sifted mint in a plate; and in another plate serve some Conde crusts, prepared as follows:

Take a piece of stale bread, pare away the crust, and then cut the crumb into very small square dice, fry these in fresh butter till they become slightly browned, then drain them on a sieve, and afterward place them on a sheet of paper, moving them about for a short time that the butter may be absorbed. Keep these croutons in a dry place until wanted. Just before dinner-time, they should be put inside the oven for a few minutes.

285. PUEEE OF GREEN SPLIT-PEAS.

Follow the foregoing instructions, taking care, however, to substitute green split-peas for yellow. When the puree is ready, in order to give it as much as possible the appearance of having been made with green peas, mix in with it some extract of spinach,* adding two small pats of butter and a little sugar. Serve separately some mint in powder, and Conde crusts on plates.

286. PUREE OF RED HARICOT BEANS.

Take one quart of red haricot beans, and having put them to soak the overnight, drain off the water on the following morning; put the beans into a small stockpot, with carrots, celery, an onion stuck with three cloves, and a knuckle of raw ham; add three quarts of good stock, and set the whole on the stove-fire to simmer gently for about four hours. Then remove the carrot, celery, onion, and the ham; drain off the broth from the beans, and pound them in a

* Extract of spinach is thus prepared: Wash and pound in a mortar a sufficient quantity of spinach for a small dish, until it assumes a pulpy appearance; turn it out upon a strong kitchen rubber, the opposite ends of which are to be gathered up and held in the left hand by two persons, who must take care to fold the extremity of the cloth firmly round tho handle of a wooden spoon, which will give them a strong purchase, acting as a windlass, and will enable them to wring the cloth so tightly as to express all the moisture of the spinach. To receive this extract, a stewpan should be placed ready; it should be held over the fire until it becomes coagulated, and must be put upon a hair sieve to drain off any remaining watery particles. Work tho spinach-green through the sieve with a spoon, and this will form the extract.

FOR SOUPS. 103

mortar, after which place them in a stewpan, add the broth, and then pass the puree through the tammy-cloth in the usual manner; it should then be poured into a soup-pot, and if too thick to clarify, a little broth should be added; stir it over the stove-fire until it boils, and then remove it to the side of the stove, to continue gently boiling until it becomes bright: of course all the scum must be carefully removed while boiling. Finish the soup by adding two small pats of fresh butter and a little pounded sugar. Conde crusts should be handed round with this soup.

287. PUREE OF WHITE HARICOT BEANS.

Is made like the preceding, except that white haricot beans must be substituted for red; moreover, in finishing this puree, in addition to the butter and sugar, half a pint of boiling cream should be poured in Serve with Conde crusts on a plate.

288. PUREE OF LENTILS A LA REINE.

Take one quart of reddish-brown lentils, prepare them exactly as described for the treatment of red haricot beans in making that puree; finish also in a similar manner, and serve with Conde crusts.

289. PUREE OF LENTILS A LA SOUBISE.

This is made like the foregoing, but there must be added a puree of four large onions, prepared in the following manner: - slice up the onions, fry them brown in a little butter, adding to them a little broth; having allowed them to simmer gently on the fire until done, pass them in the usual way through a tammy, and mix the puree thus obtained with the soup; and when it has cleared itself by boiling, taste it to ascertain its seasoning, and send to table with Conde crusts separately.

290. PUREE OF LENTILS A LA BRUNOISE.

This soup is recommended to be served when there happens to be in the larder any remaining stock of puree of lentils, or brunoise soup, which can be mixed for this purpose. The Conde crusts should be omitted,

291. GREEN-PEAS SOUP.

Take two quarts of green-peas, a double-handful of parsley, four stalks of green mint, and a good handful of green onions. Having put two quarts of common broth on the stove-fire, throw in the above ingredients as soon as it begins to boil; when the peas are thoroughly done, drain them and the other vegetables in a colander, then pound them well together; the puree thus far prepared should be put into a stewpan together with its own liquor, warm it until it becomes sufficiently dissolved, and then rub it through a tammy-cloth in the usual manner. Just before sending to table, warm the soup on a brisk stovefire, adding two pats of fresh butter and a little pounded sugar.

Send Conde crusts on a plate.*

* In order to avoid unnecessary repetition, it should be observed, that CnnrJe crusts must be served with the succeeding^in-ees of vegetables, except when otherwise directed.

104 PUREES OF VEGETABLES

292. PUREE OF ROOTS A LA CROISSY.

Cut into thin shavings six large carrots, and slice very small the same number of turnips, three onions, and three heads of celery; add a handful of sorrel, and a little chervil and tarragon; put these into a stevvpan with a quarter of a pound of fresh butter on a slow fire, and let it remain there until the vegetables are steamed sufficiently to reduce their quantity to one-half; then add two quarts of broth, and put the pan on the fire to boil; skim it, and remove it to the side to boil gently for about an hour and a half; after which, proceed to drain the roots from the broth in a colander, pound them in a mortar, and having mixed them with the liquor, warm the puree thus obtained, and rub it through the tammy-cloth in the usual way. Then put the puree into a soup-pot (with more broth if needed), and allow it to boil on the stove-fire; after this, place it by the side to clarify itself by gentle ebullition; and when it ceases to throw up any froth or scum, finish the soup by adding one pat of fresh butter and a little pounded sugar, and send to table.

293.. PUREE OF CARROTS A LA CRECY.

Shave off the red part of about twelve large carrots, add one head of celery and one onion; blanch these in boiling water on the fire for ten minutes; drain them in a colander, and afterward put them into a small stockpot with two ounces of fresh butter, an ounce of lump sugar, and a little salt. Set the carrots thus prepared on a slow fire to steam, and when they have become considerably reduced in quantity (without burning or acquiring any color) add to them two quarts of good broth, and let the carrots boil gently for an hour; then drain them - pound and rub thein through a tammy in the usual way, ami clarify the puree in the same manner as directed in the preceding article. Finish this soup by incorporating with it one pat of fresh butter and a little pounded sugar.

294. BROWN PUREE OF TURNIPS.

Slice up about eight large sound turnips, put them into a stewpan, into which a quarter of a pound of fresh butter has been previously melted, and add a tablespoonful of pounded sugar. Fry the turnips thus prepared over a rather brisk fire, in order to give them a light brown color; when this is effected, add two quarts of good stock, allow the soup to boil gently by the side of the stove-fire for about threequarters of an hour; then drain, pass, and proceed to clarify the puree in the usual manner.

Observe, that this kind of puree should not be thick.

295. WHITE PUREE OF TURNIPS.

Slice up a dozen large sound turnips, put them into a stewpan with a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, a tablespoonful of pounded sugar, and a little grated nutmeg. Put these to simmer on a slow fire, without allowing them to acquire any color. When the turnips begin to melt, add two quarts of white consomme of fowl; and having set the whole to boil gently on the corner of the stove for about three-quarters of an hour, proceed to drain, pass, and pound the turnips - reserving the broth they have been boiled in to clarify the

FOR SOUPS. 105

puree with; after it has boiled, skim off all the froth, and finish the soup by adding (just before sending to table) a pint of boiling cream and a pat of fresh butter, winch must be thoroughly incorporated with the soup

296. PALESTINE SOUP.

Cleanse, peel, wash, and slice up half a peck of Jerusalem artichokes; put them into a stew pan with four ounces of fresh butter, and allow them to simmer gently on a slow fire, until they are reduced in quantity and partially melted - taking care that they do not get colored in the process. Then add two quarts of strong white consomme of fowl, and after allowing it to boil gently for threequarters of an hour, proceed to rub the whole through a tammy-cloth in the usual way, and clarify the puree. Just .before sending to table, add a pint of boiling cream, a small piece of glaze, and a little pounded sugar.

A 297. PUREE OF ARTICHOKES.

Turn or peel the bottoms of a dozen fine artichokes, and, after taking out the fibrous part inside, cut each into four pieces; put them into a large stewpan previously welj buttered, and strewn with a little pounded sugar, - placing the pieces of artichokes closely beside each other, and then set them on a slow fire to stew very gently, that they may acquire a light brown color. Then proceed in every respect to finish this soup in the same manner as directed for Palestine soup.

298. PUREE OF ENDIVE.

This soup should be made only when endives are plentiful and of good quality, as in the autumn season, when they are full and white. Having trimmed away all the green and outer leaves of about three dozen endives, which should be thoroughly washed and examined in order to pick out any insects, blanch them in boiling water and a little salt for ten minutes; then take them out and throw them into cold water; drain them in a colander, and with both hands press all the water from them. Having so far prepared the endives, cut off the roots and put them into a stewpan with four ounces of fresh butter, a little grated nutmeg, salt, and a little sugar. With a wooden spoon, stir the endives over a slow fire for about ten minutes; then add a ladleful of good white consomme of fowl; allow this to continue gently simmering on a very slow fire, or in the oven, for an hour: and then pass the endives through a tammy as usual. To the puree thus obtained, add one quart of white consomme of fowl; clarify it according to custom, and just before sending the soup to table, mix with it a pint of boiling cream and a pat of fresh butter, and serve. .

This soup is recommended for its lightness and cooling effect.

299. BROWN PUREE OF CHESTNUTS.

Take a hundred chestnuts (Spanish or Lyons chestnuts are the best) cut off the points or slit them across to prevent them from bursting and flying about; put them in a stewpan with two ounces of fresh butter, and fry them on a moderate fire until they shed their husks readily; then peal them clean, aud put them into a stewpan

106 PUREES OF VEGETABLES

with a quart of veal gravy, and set them by the side of the stove to boil gently until they become quite soft to the touch; drain them from the liquor, and, after having first pounded, and afterward rubbed them through the tammy (pouring in the liquor reserved for the purpose to enable the puree to pass quicker), add another quart of veal gravy to clarify the puree, - this, after being set to boil on the stove, must be then removed to the side, there to continue gently boiling that it may throw up the butter to the surface, which must be removed with a spoon as it rises. Finish by mixing in with the puree a small pat of butter, a little sugar, and a small piece of glaze, and serve up.

300. WHITE PUREE OF CHESTNUTS.

Prepare a hundred large chestnuts as for the preceding soup, except that white consomme of fowls or rabbits must be used to boil them in, as well as to finish the puree with. When the puree has been clarified as directed above, just before serving it up add a pint of boiling cream, a pat of fresh butter, and a little pounded sugar.

301. PUREE OF SPINACH A LA BEAUVAUX.

Pick, wash, and boil a large dish, of spinach; chop it well and pound it into a soft paste, and then put it into a stewpan with four ounces of fresh butter, a little grated nutmeg, and salt; stir it on a stove-fire for about ten miuutes; then add a large soup-ladleful of Veloute sauce and about a quart of white consomme of fowl, or any other strong white broth at hand; warm the puree on the stove-fire, and rub it through the tammy.

Observe, that this puree must not be clarified, it should be kept in the coolest part of the larder until twenty minutes before sending it to table; it must then be made hot by stirring it on the stove-fire, and when just on the point of boiling, mix with it a pat of butter, a small piece of glaze, and a little pounded sugar.

302. SOUP A LA FAUBONNE.

This soup consists of a puree of green peas, made in the usual way, in which must be mixed, previously to serving it up, a pint of young peas boiled green, six cabbage-lettuces braized, and cut into pieces an inch long, and two cucumbers cut up into scollops, and afterward boiled in consomme.

There need not be any crusts sent to table with this soup, nor indeed is it customary to serve croutons or crusts of any sort for purees that contain a garnish of any kind.

303. SOUP A LA FERNEY.

This excellent soup is thus made: prepare twelve very small custards (made with consomme) in dariole moulds; cut three turnips into very small fancy shapes, and fry them in a little fresh butter and sugar until they become of alight brown color; a little consommi should then be added, and they must be allowed to finish simmering on a very slow fire, and when done, must be set to drain upon a clean napkin, and afterward put into a soup tureen with the small custards; to these add two cucumbers - cut into scollops and boiled in consmiiDir for the purpose; and lastly, pour some boiling puree of green peas on the above, and serve.

FOR SOUPS. 107

The puree in this and similar cases, should be kept rather thinner than when inteuded to be served without a garnish.

304. SOUP A LA FABERT.

Take six quails, draw, singe, and cut them into quarters, making two fillets with the pinion left on as for a fricassee, and bone the legs, leaving only sufficient length of the thigh-bone to give it the shape of a cutlet, rolling the skin round so as to give it a cushionlike appearance. Place these in a stewpan, the bottom of which has been covered with thin layers of fat bacon; take care to preserve the shape of the members, and braize them in a light wine mirepoix (No. 236).

Having thus prepared the quails, when done, drain and trim them, and afterward place them in the soup-tureen, together with their own stock, which when freed from every particle of fat, must then be clarified, and also a proportionate quantity of Julienne vegetables - prepared as for the soup bearing that name; and then, over these, pour a puree of green-peas nearly boiling, and send to table.

305. PUREE OF SPRING HERBS.

Take a double-handful of sorrel, three cabbage-lettuces, a handful of chervil, the same proportion of dandelion, and a little balm and burrage. Wash these thoroughly and place them in a stewpan with two ounces of fresh butter, and set the whole on the stove-fire to simmer, quickly stirring them the whole time; then add three pints of good consomme of veal or fowl; allow the soup to boil gently by the side of the fire for half an hour; and just before sending to table, finish the soup by mixing in it gradually, a leason* of six yelks of eirgs and half a pint of cream, a pat of butter, a little grated nutmeg, and pounded sugar. Put some duchess' crusts in the soup-tureen, pour the soup thereon, and serve up.

Be careful that the soup be not allowed to boil, as, in that case, the eggs would curdle, and thereby render the soup unsightly, if not unpalatable.

306. PUREE OF GREEN-PEAS A LA VICTORIA. Just before dinner-time, roast off two plump spring chickens; as soon as they are taken off the spit, cut the breasts and legs into small members, put them into the soup-tureen with two dozen small quenelles of fowl, and then pour on the whole a puree of green-peas nearly boiling and prepared in the usual manner, and send to table.

307. PUREE OF GREEN-PEAS A LA PRINCESSE.

Prepare a steamed custard in the manner following: - Take one pint of cream of rice (No. 317), mix gradually therewith eight yelks of eggs; pass this preparation through a tammy into a plain round mould - previously buttered for the purpose - and after having steamed it in the same way as you would any other custard, allow it to get cold, turn it out of the mould, and then cut it into small pillarlike shapes an inch long: put these into the soup-tureen with a little consomme, to prevent them from being clogged together, pour a boiling puree of green-peas on them, and send to table.

* From the French liainou, a connection or binding.

108 PUREES OF VEGETABLES

308. PUREE OF CARROTS A LA STANLEY.

Having prepared about two quarts of puree of young carrots, when ready to serve up, pour it boiling into the soup-tureen containing a pint of young peas boiled green, and three dozen very small quenelles of fowl.

309. CRECY SO.UP WITH WHOLE RICE.

Wash, blanch, and boil in consomme, half a pound of Carolina rice; add this to a sufficient quantity of Crecy or carrot soup, either prepared for the occasion, or reserved from the previous day's dinner. Mix these together gently, and take care not to break the grains of rice, nor to serve it too thick.

Note. - This may be varied by substituting macaroni, vermicelli, or any other kind of Italian paste for the rice. This rule is applicable to purees of vegetables in general.

310. POTATO SOUP A LA CREME.

Cleanse, peel, wash, and slice up about twenty large-sized, good potatoes. Put them into a stewpan with one large onion, and one head of celery - also sliced up; add four ounces of fresh butter, a little pepper, salt, aud grated nutmeg; set them to simmer on a slow fire,' stirring them occasionally, until they are nearly dissolved into a kind of puree. Then add to them three pints of good white comommi', and after having allowed the potatoes to boil gently by the side of a moderate fire for half an hour, pass them through the tammy, and having removed the puree into a soup-pot, add, if requisite, a little more consomme, and set the puree on the fire to boil gently by the side of the stove, in order to clarify it in the usual manner required for other purees of vegetables. Just before sending to table, add, pint of boiling cream, a pat of fresh butter, and a little pouuded sugar.

Serve the fried crusts with this soup.

311. POTATO SOUP A LA VICTORIA.

Prepare a puree of potatoes as directed above, and finish it in the same manner. When about to send to table, place three dozen of small quenelles of potatoes (No. 312) in the soup-tureen, with half a pint of large heads of asparagus boiled green, and the same proportion of French beans cut into diamond shapes and boiled, aud then pour the boiling puree thereon, and serve.

312. QUENELLES FOR POTATOES.

Bake six large potatoes, cut them into halves, scoop them out on to a wire sieve, and rub "them through it, on to a dish, with a wooden spoon; then put the potato thus obtained into a stewpan, with four ounces of fresh butter, half a pint of double-cream, a little grated nutmeg, pepper, and salt. Stir this on a rather brisk fire until the paste ceases to adhere to the spoon; then remove the potatoes from off the fire, and mix in with them the yelks of three eggs and also two whites of egg which have been whipped to a froth observing that this preparation must be kept of the same consis. tency as any other quenelles. Then mould the quenelles aceording u

FOR SOUPS. 109

the size and shape required, and poach them in boiling water with a little salt in it.

313. PUREE OF ASPARAGUS A LA COXDE.

Order two quarts of very young and green asparagus peas, or two large bundles of good sprue asparagus; break off the heads so far down to the foot of the stalks that they will readily snap off without resistance, which will prove them to be young and tender; throw these into a large pan of cold water, together with a handful of spinach, the same quantity of parsley and of green onions. Having got these ready, set a large stewpan on the fire half filled with boiling water, with a handful of salt in it . First drain the asparagus, &c, into a colander, and then put the whole into the stewpan on the fire to boil fast; when they are done, drain them again in a colander, let some cold water run over them for the purpose of retaining their greenness; and being well drained of the water, put them into a middle-sized stewpan, with a quart of good Veloute sauce (Xo. 4), a tablespoonful of pounded sugar, and a little grated nutmeg and salt. Stir the whole on a brisk lire until it has boiled about three minutes, when it must be passed through a tammy-cloth or sieve on to a large dish, and after being removed into a soup-pot, should be placed on the ice in the larder to keep cool, in order that it may the better retain its green color and delicate flavor. Ten minutes before serving up the sou}) to table, stir it on a brisk fire until it is nearly boiling, remove it from the stove, and, having mixed in with it a pat of butter and a small piece of light-colored glaze, send to table with a plate of croutons.

314. PUREE OF ASPARAGUS A LA ST. GEORGE.

Prepare a puree similar to the foregoing, place in the soup-tureen about three dozen very small quenelles of fowl, and about half a pint of small fillets or shreds of red tongue, cut in the same lengths and thickness as vegetables for Julienne soup; then, with a silver spoon, stir the above about gently in the tureen, so as to mix the ingredients with the puree (which must be poured on to them quite hot), and send to table.

315. BOXXE FEMME SOUP.

Trim and wash six cabbage lettuces; and having also well washed a double-handful of sorrel, shred these as you would do if they were intended for Julienne soup. Put two ounces of butter into a stewpan, and having melted it on the lire, add the lettuces and sorrel, and with a wooden spoon stir them over the stove until they are stewed, which will require about ten minutes; then add two quarts of good strong chicken consomme, and having allowed the soup to boil gently by the side of the stove-fire for about half an hour, take it off, in order that it may cool a little, and mix in with it a leason or binding of eight yelks of eggs, half a pint of cream, a small pat of butter, and a little pounded sugar to rectify the acidity of the sorrel. Stir the soup quickly on the fire, in order to set the leason in it, taking care that it does not curdle; add a small piece of glaze, pour the soup into the tureen upon some duchess' crusts, and serve.

110 SOUPS MADE WITH RICE

316. SOUP A LA HOLLANDAISE.

Peel three carrots, and an equal number of turnips and cucumbers; scoop these out into the shape of small olives, and, after blanching them, boil them in two quarts of good strong blond of veal; when the vegetables are done, remove the soup from the fire, and mix in with it a leason of eight yelks of eggs, half a pint of cream, a pat of butter, and a little sugar; set the leason by stirring the soup over the fire, and then pour it into the soup-tureen, containing about half a pint of young peas boiled green, and an equal proportion of French beans cut iuto diamonds, and serve.

SOUPS MADE WITH RICE OR PEARL-BARLEY,

COMPRISING

Cream of Rice d la Royale. Cream of Pearl-barley d la Reine.

Do. d la Victoria. Do. d la Printaniere.

Do. d la Cardinal. Do. d la Royale.

Do. d la Juvenal. Do. d la Princetse Alexandrina.

Do. d la Chatnenr. Do. d la Duchesse.

Cream of Pearl-barley d la Victoria.

317. CREAM OF RICE A LA ROYALE.

Wash and blanch one pound of Carolina rice, drain it from the water, and put it into a stewpan with about three quarts of white consomme of fowls; set it to boil on the stove, and skim it well, after which remove it to the side of the fire to boil gently until the grains of rice are thoroughly done; then rub the whole through a tammy, moistening with more broth, if necessary. When this is done, put the pur&e into a small soup-pot, to be clarified by ebullition, in the same manner as a sauce; and just on the point of sending it to table, add half a pint of boiling cream, and then pour the soup into the tureen containing a dozen small custards of chicken, made thus: -

Roast a young fowl, from which take the whole of the breast and all the white part of the legs; chop and pound them with a large spoonful of white sauce, then pass this through a tammy with the wooden spoons; put the puree thus obtained into a quart basin, together with eight raw yelks of eggs, a little grated nutmeg, and salt; having well stirred these together, mix with them half a pint of consomme of fowls, and then pour this preparation into twelve small dariole moulds, previously buttered for the purpose; set them carefully in a fricandeau pan, containing sufficient boiling water to reach half way up the moulds, put the lid en the pan, and place it either on a very moderate fire, or in the oven - observing, that in the former case some live embers of charcoal must be put on the lid. Abont ten minutes will suilice to poach the custards, when they must be turned out of the moulds on to a napkin, and afterward placed in the soup-tureen, previously to pouring the puree upon them.

OR PEARL-BARLEY. Ill

318. CREAM OP RICE A LA VICTORIA.

Prepare the cream of rice as above directed, and twenty minutes before sending to table add to it about a quarter of a pound of whole rice, well boiled in white consomme of fowls: this rice must be boiled in the puree for twenty minutes; and just before serving the soup, mix in with it a pint of boiling cream and a pat of fresh butter.

319. CREAM OP RICE A LA CARDINAL. Prepare a cream of rice in the usual way, and pour it into a

soup-tureen containing thirty tails of crayfish and three dozen very small quenelles of fowls. A good tablespoonful of crayfish or lobster butter, and the juice of half a lemon, should be mixed in with the soup previously to pouring it upon the crayfish tails, &c.

320. CREAM OF RICE A LA JUVENAL.

To a cream of rice prepared according to the instructions for making the cream of rice a la Royale, there must be added, with a leason of six yelks of eggs, half a pint of cream, and two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese; having thoroughly incorporated these, while stirring the soup over the fire (taking care that it does not boil), pour the soup into a tureen containing three dozen very small quenelles of fowls, colored with a little spinach-green (No. 285).

321. PUREE OF RICE A LA CHASSEUR.

Wash and blanch half a pound of Carolina rice, and after draining all the water from it, put it on to boil with a quart of consomme of pheasant or partridge. When the rice is sufficiently done, rub it through the tammy, and having clarified it in the usual way, by adding some of the same sort of consomme the rice is boiled in, about five minutes before sending the soup to table, mix in with the cream of rice the puree of one pheasant or two partridges (as the case may be).

Be careful not to allow the soup to get too hot after adding the puree of game to* it, as it would be sure to decompose, and become rough and unsightly. Should this accident, however, occur, it may be remedied by taking the soup away from the fire, putting a little consomme to it, and quickly rubbing it through the tammy again; by these means it will resume its proper smoothness.

This remedy will be found effectual for rectifying similar accidents, should they occur, with meat purees in general.

322. CREAM OF PEARL-BARLEY A LA VICTORIA. Wash a pound of pearl-barley in several waters, blanch, and drain it upon a sieve, and having allowed some cold water to run over it for a few minutes, put it into a stewpan with two quarts of white consomme of fowls, and set it to boil by the side of a slow fire for four hours. When the barley is sufficiently done to admit of its being bruised easily, set one-third of it apart in a small soup-pot, and immediately proceed to rub the remainder through a tammy; then mix the cream of barley thus obtained with the whole barley which has been set aside. Ten minutes before serving up this soup, add to it half a pint of boiling cream.

112 SHELLFISH SOUPS.

323. CREAM OF PEARL-BARLEY A LA REIXE.

The process for making this soup is exactly the same as that used for making the cream of rice a la Chasseur, barley being substituted for rice, and poultry for game: see No. 321.

324. CREAM OF PEARL-BARLEY A LA PRINTANIERE.

Having prepared a cream of pearl-barley as above directed, just before sending to table, pour it into a soup-tureen containing three dozen small quenelles of fowl, and half a pint of large heads of asparagus boiled green, and serve.

325. CREAM OF PEARL-BARLEY A LA ROYALE.

The puree of barley being prepared as described in the foregoing directions, and finished in the same manner, pour it into a soup-tureen containing two spring chickens, roasted for this purpose just before dinner-time, and cut into small members neatly trimmed.

326. CREAM OF BARLEY A LA PRINCESSE ALEXANDRIA.

To make this soup, white consomme of game should be used to prepare the cream of barley, the puree being finished according to the method observed in former cases; when about to send the soup to table, pour it into a tureen containing scollops of the fillets of three young red-legged partridges, roasted a few minutes previously for the purpose.

327. CREAM OF BARLEY A LA DUCHESSE.

Having prepared a steamed custard of fowl, as directed in the preparation for making Desclignac soup (No. 258), cut the custard thus made (allowing it time to become cold and firm) into small pillars an inch long, then place them carefully in the soup-tureen with a little consomme; proceed to pour on them a cream of barley prepared and finished in the usual way, and to which has been added a tablespoonful of lobster butter and a little cayenne pepper.

BISQUES OF CRAYFISH AND SHELLFISH SOUPS IN

GENERAL,

COMPRISING.

Bisque of Quails d la Prince Albert. Bisque of Crayfish d la Malmeobury. „ Rabbits au VelontL „ Crab d la Fitzhartlinge.

„ Snipes d la Bonne bouche. „ Lobsters i la Stanley.

„ Crayfish d VAncihme. „ Prawns d la Cerito.

328. BISQUE OF QUAILS A LA PRINCE ALBERT.

Fillet six quaiis, half of which must be made into force-meat quenelle, and kept in a cool place until wanted for use; reserve the remainder of the fillets to be lightly simmered in fresh butter, seasoned with a little salt, and eventually cut into scollops.

SHELFISH SOUPS. 113

Take the larger bones out of the carcasses of the quails, and having roughly chopped the latter, put them into a stewpan with two ounces of fresh butter, a small bay-leaf, a sprig of thyme, three shalots, a little grated nutmeg, and a pinch of minionette pepper; set these on a brisk fire, and pass or fry them brown, then add half a Lottie of chopped mushrooms and a bottle of Sauterne wine. Allow this to boil quickly for ten minutes, and then add about half a pound of rice, which has been partly boiled in broth, and a quart of blond of veal; after the fore-mentioned ingredients have been gently boiling for about an hour, drain them into a sieve, and pound the whole thoroughly in a mortar; then replace them in the stewpan, add the broth they were boiled in, stir the puree on the fire to warm it a little, and rub it through the tammy in the usual way. When this is done, place the puree in a well-tinned soup-pot, in a cool place. Just before dinner-time, warm the puree of quails, carefully observing that it does not get too hot; finish seasoning it by mixing in a little crayfish butter, a tablespoonful of partridge glaze, and a little salt if needed; pour the soup into a soup -tureen containing the fillets of quails cut into neatly-trimmed scollops, as well as three dozen very small quenelles made with the fillets kept in reserve for the purpose, and send to table.

329. BISQUE OR BABBITS AU VELOUTE.

Fillet two young rabbits, make half the fillets into force-meat for quenelles; pare off all the meat from the rabbits, and with the carcasses prepare a brown consomme in the usual manner. Put the remainder of the fillets and all the meat that has been cut from the rabbits into a stewpan, with two ounces of fresh butter, three shalots, bay-leaf, thyme, parsley, nutmeg, minionette pepper, and salt, and fry them brown. Then add two glasses of sherry; and after allowing the whole to boil briskly for about three minutes, pour in the consomme made from the carcasses. Let the stock thus far prepared boil gently by the side of a stove-fire for about an hour, then drain the contents of the stewpan into a sieve, pound them thoroughly, and after having mixed the produce with their own stock, rub the puree thus obtained through a tammy, together with a large ladleful of good Veloute sauce. The puree should then be put into a souppot, and kept in a cool place until within ten minutes of dinner-time, when it must be stirred over the fire to make it sufficiently hot; and after ascertaining that its seasoning is correct, pour the bisque into a soup-tureen containing three dozen small quenelles of rabbit, made with the fillets which have been reserved for that purpose, and serve.

330. BISQUE OR SNIPES A LA BONNE BOUCHE.

Procure six fat snipes, perfectly fresh and not fishy; fillet them, and follow the instructions given for making the bisque of quails a la Prince Albert (No. 328), but omitting the crayfish butter. Warm the puree of snipes just before it is wanted for table, pour it into a soup-tureen containing the scollops made from half the fillets, and three dozen small quenelles made from the remainder.

Send up with this soup, to be handed rouud, some croutons of fried bread cut in small circular pieces about the eighth of an inch 7

114: SHELLFISH SOUPS.

thick; a circular incision having been made on one side of the bread before it is fried, the inner part is afterward easily taken out, and in its place should be put a farce, made with the trail of half the snipes (the remainder should be used in the puree). This farce is to be prepared thus: -

Put the trail into a small stewpan with a little fresh butter, pepper, and salt, and after frjing it lightly on the fire for a minute or two, add a tablespoonful of good brown sauce, and then rub it through a hair-sieve with a wooden spoon. Fill the croutons with this farce, smoothing the surface with a small knife; and previously to serving them, put them on a sauta-pan in the oven for five minutes to warm them; serve them on a plate, to be handed round with the soup.

Take care not to throw the croutons into the soup, as that would destroy their crispness.

331. BISQUE OF CRAYFISH A L'ANCIEXXE.

To make soup enough for sixteen persons, procure sixty crayfish, from which remove the gut containing the gall, in the following manner:¦ - Take a firm hold of the crayfish with the left hand, so as to avoid being pinched by its claws; with the thumb and fore-finger of the right baud pinch the extreme end of the central fin of its tail, and, with a sudden jerk, the gut will be withdrawn. Then mince or cut into small dice, a carrot, an onion, one head of celery, and a few parsley roots; to these add a bay-leaf, a sprig of thyme, a little minionette pepper, and two ounces of butter. Put these ingredients into a stewpan, and fry them on the fire for ten minutes; then throw in the crayfish, and pour on them a bottle of French white wine. Allow this to boil, and then add a quart of strong consomme, and let them continue gently boiling for half an hour. Tlien pick out the crayfish, and strain the broth through a napkin by pressure into a basin, in order to extract all the essence from the vegetables. Pick the shell oft" fifty of the crayfish tails, trim them neatly, and set them aside until wanted. Reserve some of the spawn, and also half the body shells, with which to make the crayfish butter (No. 184) to finish the soup. Take all that remains, and add thereto six anchovies washed for the purpose, and also a plate of crusts of French rolls fried of a light brown color in butter. Pound all these thoroughly, and then put them into a stewpan with the broth that has been reserved in a basin, and having warmed the bisque thus prepared, rub it through a tammy into a puree. Then take the puree up into a soup-put: finish by incorporating therewith the crayfish butter, season with a little cayenne pepper and the juice of half a lemon. Pour the bisque quite hot into the soup-tureeu containing the crayfish tails, and send to table.

332. BISQUE OF CRAYFISH A LA MALMESBURY.

Cleanse thoroughly two quarts of muscles, steam them in a wellcovered stewpan, and then pick out all the white muscles from the shells, and put them into a stewpan with some of their own liquor. To these add forty tails of crayfish, and three dozen very small quenelles of whiting which have been mixed with sufficient chopped and blanched parsley to give them a green color. Just before din

SHELLFISH SOUPS. 115

ner-time, warm the muscles, &c, in a little consomme, put them into the soup-tureen, and then pour the bisque of crayfish quite hot on to them. Let the bisque be prepared in the same way as described in the bisque of crayfish a Vancienne. When there is not sufficient time for thickening the puree by the addition of the fried crusts of the Frence rolls, a little well-boiled rice, some reduced Veloute sauce, or even the crumb of two French rolls soaked in hot broth and pounded with the crayfish, may be used, but the fried crusts are to be preferred.

333. BISQUE OF CRAB A LA FITZHARDINGE.

Procure one large boiled crab, pick the white meat from the claws into shreds, and put it away between two plates in a cool place until wanted. Scoop out all the pulpy part of the crab, as well as all the white meat to be found in the shell, and pound these well, with about half the quantity of rice boiled in broth; dilute the whole with a quart of good consomme, and then rub it through a tammy into a puree, put it into a soup-pot, and keep it in a cool place.

Just before sending to table, stir the puree over the fire with a wooden spoon, taking care that it does not get too hot, as that would cause the soup to curdle. Finish seasoning the soup by mixing with the puree a pint of boiling cream and a little cayenne pepper; then pour the soup into a tureen containing the shredded meat taken out of the claws, previously made warm in a small quantity of consomme, and send to table.

334. BISQUE OF LOBSTERS A LA STANLEY.

Take all the meat out of two hen-lobsters, reserving the pith, coral, and spawn, separately. Cut the meat of the lobster into small pieces, and put them into a stewpan with two ounces of fresh butter, one head of celery, and a carrot, cut into small shreds, a small piece of mace, thyme, pepper, and a little salt; fry these over the fire for five minutes, and then, having moistened them with about a pint of Rhenish white wine, allow the wdiole to. boil smartly on the fire for about twenty minutes. Drain the lobster, &c, into a sieve, then pound this thoroughly in a mortar, and put it again into the stewpan with the pith or inside part reserved for the purpose, and also the broth, adding thereto about a quart of clarified and reduced Veloute sauce, and a pint of strong consomme, then rub the puree through the tammy; and after having taken it up into a soup-pot, place it in the cool until wanted.

Ten minutes before dinner-time, put the bisque to warm, stirring it the whole of the time, taking care to prevent its curdling. Finish seasoning it with some lobster butter, a little soluble cayenne pepper, the juice of half a lemon, and a piece of light-colored glaze, the size of a walnut. Pour the soup into the tureen containing fifty tails of prawns, with three dozen small quenelles of whiting, and serve.

335. BISQUE OF PRAWNS A LA CERITO.

Procure two pounds of fresh prawns, pick and trim fifty of the largest of them, which, when done, put into a small stewpan, to

116 FISH SOUPS.

remain in the larder until wanted. Then cut into small shreds or dice six young carrots, a little celery, and a few parsley roots; and having put these into a stewpan with two ounces of butter, a sprig of thyme, some minionette pepper, and a little salt, set the whole on the fire to be fried of a light color. Next, throw in the remainder of the prawns, as well as the bodies of those from which the tails have been taken; and then add a pint of Sauterne wine; allow these ingredients to boil for ten minutes, and then add a quarter of a pound of rice previously boiled in broth, and also a quart of strong white consomme of veal. Having allowed this to boil gently by the side of the stove-fire for half an honr, strain the whole into a sieve - reserving the broth in a basin. Then pound the prawns, rice, and vegetables all together in a mortar, dilute with the broth which has been reserved, and rub the whole through a tammy in the usual manner; put the -puree into a soup-pot, and keep it in a cool place until dinnertime, when, having made it sufficiently hot without allowing it to boil, finish it by mixing in with it some lobster coral butter, a little soluble cayenne pepper, and the juice of half a lemon. Pour the soup into the tureen containing the fifty prawns' tails, with three dozen small quenelles of trout, and serve.

FISH SOUPS AXD WATER SOUCHETS IX GENERAL,

COMPRISING

Oyster Soup d la Ple**y. Sturgeon Soup d la Chinoit*

Soup of fillets of Soles d la Bagration. Do. d V Indiinne.

Potage of Eels d la Richmond. Water-souchet of Crimped Salmon.

Do. of fillets of Flounders d VAnglaite. Do. of Plain Salmou.

Sturgeon Soup d V Amiricaine. Do. of fillets of Perch.

Do. d I'Anglaite. Do. of fillets of Soles.

336. OYSTER SOUP A LA PLESSY.

Four dozen of oysters will suffice for eight persons. Blanch or scald these by boiling them for a few minutes on the fire, drain them and save the liquor; wash the oysters, and pull off the beards and tendons, leaving only the delicate fat part of the oysters, which put into a basin with their liquor. Next, prepare some quenelles from the fillets of three whitings; put their bones and trimmings into a small stewpan with six flounders, an eel cut into pieces, some parsley roots, a carrot, one head of celery, a sprig of thyme, two blades of mace, and a few peppercorns. To these add a pint of French white wine and the liquor of the oysters; set the whole to boil briskly for ten minutes, then add six whole anchovies (washed for the purpose) and three pints of white consomme. Allow the stock thus prepared to boil gently for three quarters of an hour; then strain it off through a sieve into a stewpan, and thicken it with some white roux, and as soon as it has boiled, set it by the side of the stove to clarify itself in the usual way. When the body of the soup thus far prepared has been rubbed through a tammy, finish it for table, just before dinnertime, by mixing in with it a leason of six yelks of eggs, a gill of

FISH SOUPS. 117

cream, a little soluble cayenne pepper, and the juice of half a lemon; then pour the soup into the tureen containing the oysters reserved for that purpose, with about three dozen quenelles of whiting, and serve.

337. SOUP OF FILLETS OF SOLES A LA BAGKATION.

Fillet three large soles, and place the fillets lengthwise in a sauta-pan with about two ounces of clarified butter, season with a little pepper and salt, and some lemon-juice, cover them with a round of buttered paper, and set them in the oven, or on a stove-fire, for ten minutes, when they will be done. Take the fillets up, and set them in press between two dishes, and when cold, with a round tin cutter, stamp them out into small scollops, and place them in a small stewpan in the larder until wanted. Make some quenelle of the fillets of one large sole, color it with some lobster coral, and mould it with two teaspoons into very small quenelles, which, when poached, place with the scollops of soles; to these add about three dozen blanched muscles. Mix with these ingredients about two quarts of the same kind of soup-sauce as used for the preceding soup, and when about serving it up for table, place the scollops of soles, the muscles, and the red quenelles (first warmed in a small quantity of the soup) into the tureen, and then mix in with the soup a tablespoonful of chopped and blanched parsley, pour it on to the scollops, &c, and serve.

338. EEL SOUP A LA EICHMOND.

Fillet three Thames eels, and cut the fillets into small scollops; place these, in circular order, in a large sauta-pan containing about four ounces of clarified butter; season with cayenne pepper, salt, lemon-juice, and chopped parsley; set the covered sauta-pan on the stuve-fire to simmer gently for about twenty minutes, then add two glasses of sherry, after which let it boil sharply for a few minutes longer. Put the scollops of eels thus prepared into the soup-tureen, with three dozen tails of crayfish, and instantly pour over these a soup sauce, previously prepared according to the following directions:

Cut into shreds or dice, carrot, celery, parsley-roots, one shalot, and half a pottle of mushrooms. Put these into a stewpan with a sprig of thyme, a small bay-leaf, a little sweet basil, a few peppercorns, and one blade of mace. Fry these ingredients with four ounces of butter until they begin to be of a light brown color; then throw in the bones and trimmings of the eels, three dozen bruised crayfish, and a pint of Chablis wine. -Allow this to boil briskly on the fire for five minutes, then add three pints of blond of veal, and after it has boiled gently by the side of the stove-fire for three-quarters of an hour, strain the stock through a tammy-cloth with considerable pressure, in order to extract all the goodness from the vegetables, &c.

Put the broth thus prepared into a stewpan, and having thickened it with some white roux to the consistency of a thin sauce, work it according to the method observed for all sauces. Observe, that as this sauce is for soup, it should be lighter in substance. Finish with a leason of eight yelks of egg and season accordingly, and mix in with it a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley.

118 FISH SOUPS.

339. SOUP OF FILLETS OF THAMES FLOUNDERS A L AXGLAISE.

Fillet ten Thames flounders, simmer the fillets in a little fresh butter, seasoned with pepper, salt, and lemon-juice. When done, place them in the soup-tureen with three dozen quenelles of Spey trout, and pour on them a soup made according to the following directions:

Put the bones and the trimmings of the flounders and the trout, from which the small quenelles are to be made, into a stewpan with carrot, celery, parsley-roots, a sprig of thyme, and a few peppercorns. To these add three pints of common broth from the boiling stockpot (if possible) and a couple of glasses of Sauterne. When it has boiled for three-quarters of an hour, strain off the broth into a small souppot, and make it into a smooth white Veloute sauce; just before pouring it into the soup-tureen (containing the fillets of flounders and the small quenelles of trout already mentioned) finish it by mixing in with it a leason of six yelks of egg, a gill of cream, and a dessert-spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley, a little lemon-juice, and cayenne pepper.

340. STURGEON SOUP A L'AMERICAINE.

Procure six pounds of fresh sturgeon, one-third of which must be trimmed and tied so as to preserve it from falling to pieces while being braized, then put it in a stewpan, and cover it with some mirepoix (No. 236 or wine braize prepared as directed. Let it boil, and then set it in the oven for about an hour and a half, more or less, according to the size of the fish. When this portion of the sturgeon is done, let it be put away in the larder to get cold, in order that it may be afterward cut into scollops to be put into the soup.

While the above is in course of preparation, make a brown sauce with the remainder of the sturgeon, as follows:

Butter a large stewpan, then cut two onions in slices and strew them over the bottom; on these place the sturgeon cut in thick slices, also two old hens partly roasted, and well colored, a carrot, one head of celery, some parsley-roots, thyme, bay-leaf, six cloves, two blades of mace, and a dozen peppercorns; then add a large ladleful of good stock, and put the whole to boil briskly on the tire until the broth is nearly reduced; slacken the stove to prevent the glaze thus obtained from being burnt, by which the unctuousness would be lost. Then proceed with this sauce exactly as shown for the treatment of brown sauce or Espagnole. Having thus produced a bright, thin, brown sauce, finish the soup by mixing in a ragoutspoonful of puree of turtle herbs, a piece of anchovy butter, a little grated nutmeg, cayenne pepper, lemon-juice, and a glass of Madeira. Let the scollops boil a few minutes in the soup previously to adding the butter, &c. When about to serve up the soup, pour it into a tureen containing three dozen small quenelles of lobster, and send to table.

341. STURGEON SOUP A L'ANGLAISE.

Prepare the sturgeon for this soup in the same way as for the preceding, with the exception that the sauce must be white. Having made a thin while Veloute sauce, in sufficient quantity for the purpose, and seasoned it with the same ingredients as before-named,

FISH SOUPS. 119

add a ragout-spoonful of essence of turtle herbs, two glasses of sherry, a leason or binding of six yelks of eggs, a gill of cream, a little cayenne pepper and lemon-juice. When about to send the sou}) to table, pour it into the tureen containing the scollops of sturgeon cut into square pieces, three dozen small round pellets of yelks of eggs (prepared as for mock-turtle), and all the cartilaginous parts of the sturgeon cut into scollops also.

The pellets of yelks of eggs here alluded to are thus prepared: - Take the yelks of six eggs boiled hard, pound them in the mortar with a pat of fresh butter, a piece of bread-crumb twice the size of an eg r, soaked in milk, and afterward squeezed in a napkin to extract all the moisture from it; to these add a little nutmeg, pepper, and salt, and one whole Qgix. Mix the whole well together by pounding, and then proceed to mould this paste into small round balls or pellets, the size of a nut, and poach them as you would any other que wilts.

341a. sturgeon soup a la chixoise.

Procure the head of a large sturgeon, saw it in halves from the back of the head down to the snout; then saw the halves into pieces of the size of your fist, and place them in a large-sized pan with cold water to soak for several hours; taking care to wash them and change the water frequently. Next, put the pieces of sturgeon into a larire stewpan in plenty of cold water, and set them on the fire to boil gently until the husk or shell is easily detached from the pieces of cartilage or gristle; place the latter, when thoroughly freed from the meaty and fatty substances, in a large stewpan; moisten with good veal stock in sufficient quantity to make soup enough for the number of guests. Garnish with carrots, onions, celery, a fagot of parsley, y;vi- j onions, marjoram, thyme, and sweet basil, three blades of mace, twelve cloves, and twenty peppercorns; boil gently for about two hours. As soon as you find that the pieces of cartilage are become transparent and rather soft to the touch, they must be immediately drained upon a sieve, and the liquor placed in a clean stewpan and set beside a stove-fire, adding half a bottle of good sherry and a small pinch of cayenne. Allow the soup to boil gently by the side of the stove for about half an hour, taking care to remove all the scum and grease that rises to the surface; after which add the pieces of cartilage and the juice of a lemon, and serve. This soup is very strengthening; the wine, lemon-juice, and cayenne may be dispensed with for invalids. The head of the sturgeon forms an excellent substitute for turtle, and may be dressed after the same manner.

342. sturgeon soup a l'indienne.

Prepare the sturgeon consomme as for the preceding soups, bearing in mind that it should have no more color than it acquires from the roasted hens. Having strained the stock when done into a large basin, and preserved all the cartilaginous parts of the sturgeon, get a carrot, one head of celery, and two onions, cut these into thin slices, and put them into a stewpan with a quarter of a pound of butter, and half a pound of raw ham cut into small square pieces; fry the whole of a light brown color over a slow fire. When this is done, add to the fore-named ingredients some sifted flour, in suffi

120 WATER SOUCHETS.

cient quantity to thicken the soup, and stir it on the fire a few minutes longer; then take the stewpan off the stove and mix the sturgeon broth in carefully, so as to keep the sauce smooth. Add two tablespoonsful of Cook's or Bruce's Indian Curry Paste, and after allowing it to boil, lift it off the fire and set it by the side of the stove, there to throw up all the butter it contains, and to clarify itself in the usual way. When this is effected, rub the soup-sauce, including the vegetables, &c, through a tammy into a puree, which put into a soup-pot with the. scollops and the cartilaginous parts of the sturgeon; after boiling the whole together for a quarter of an hour, skim the surface, and finish by adding a teaspoonful of essence of anchovies and the juice of a lemon. Send to table with a plate of plain boiled Patna rice, to be handed round with the soup.

343. WATER SOUCHET OF CRIMPED SALMON".

Perfection in the preparation of this dish can only be attained by using the fish a few hours after it is caught. Moreover, those engaged in catching the fish should be instructed to cut it into slices half an inch thick, and to keep it in cold spring water for a couple of hours or so; when, as is well known, the salmon will acquire that degree of firmness peculiar to all crimped fish.

Place the slices of salmon in a stewpan with some shred parsley roots previously boiled for the purpose, and also the water they have been boiled in, some picked parsley leaves, minionette pepper, and sufficient salt to season it; moisten with some essence of fish, which should be made either from the inferior pieces of the salmon, or else with half a dozen flounders or slips. Let the water souchet thus far prepared boil briskly until the salmon be done, which will require about six minutes. It should be served quickly, but just before sending to table you may add a little bright consomme. Many, however, prefer the latter omitted, cousideriug that it dimiuishes the sweetness of the crisp creamy salmon.

With all water souchets send plates of brown bread and butter.

344. WATER SOUCHET OF PLAIN SALMON.

Trim and fillet the required quantity of plain salmon; place the fillets neatly side by side iu a stewpan, and put them by till dinnertime.

Meanwhile prepare the water souchet broth as follows: - Put the trimmings of the salmon into a stewpan, with carrot, celery, and parsley roots, the whole sliced up. Add a little minionette pepper and salt, and about two glasses of French white wine; fill up with water or weak broth, allow it to boil, and then set it by the side of the stove to continue gently boiling for half an hour; then strain the souchet off through a napkin on to the fillets of salmon, set them to boil briskly on the fire for about five minutes, add the shred parsley roots and picked parsley leaves; and when the whole has boiled together for three minutes, serve the water souchet in a deep silver dish or small soup-tureen.

345. WATER SOUCHET OF FILLETS OF PERCH.

Procure four good-sized perch, clean and fillet them. Place the fillets neatly in a deep sauta-pan, and put them in the larder until

ENGLISH SOUPS. 121

wanted. Meanwhile, with the bones and trimmings prepare the souchet broth according to the directions given for making the preceding souchet, and finishing in precisely the same manner.

346. WATER SOUCHET OF FILLETS OF SOLES.

Having filleted the soles and trimmed the fillets, take hold of each and fold one end over the other; batter the ends together with the handle of a knife, pare off any rough fragments that may remain about them, and place them in circular order in a stewpan; then pour over them the souchet prepared in the usual manner with the bones and trimmings, &c. Let the fillets thus arranged boil for five or six minutes; ascertain that they are done, and serve them in a watersouchet dish, with parsley roots and leaves, previously prepared for that purpose.

Water-souchets of fillets of trout, char, and indeed of almost every species of the more delicate kinds of fresh-water fish, are made according to the foregoing directions.

ENGLISH SOUPS,

COMPRISING

Turtle Soup. Calves'-feet Soup d la Windsor.

Do. clear. Hare Soup d I'Anglaite.

Mock-Turtle Soup. Do. d la St. George.

Do. clear. Leveret Soup d la Jlossie.

Mulligatawney do. Ox-cheek Soup.

Giblet Soup a I'Anglaise. Deer's-head do.

Do. d V Irlandaiae. Grouse do. d la Montagnarde.

Ox-tail Soup.

347. TUETLE SOUP.

Procure a fine lively fat turtle, weighing about 120 lbs.: fish of this weight being considered the best, as their fat is not liable to be impregnated with that disagreeable strong savor objected to in fish of larger size. On the other hand, turtle of very small size seldom possess sufficient fat or substance to make them worth dressing.

When time permits, kill the turtle overnight that it may be left to bleed in a cool place till the next morning, when, at an early hour, it should be cut up for scalding - that being the first part of the operation. If, however, the turtle is required for immediate use, to save time, the fish may be scalded as soon as it is killed.

The turtle being ready for cutting up, lay it on its back, and with a large kitchen-knife separate the fat or belly-shell from the back, by making an incision all round the inner edge of the shell; when all the fleshy parts adhering to the shell have been carefully cut away, it may be set aside. Then detach the intestines by running the sharp edge of a knife closely along the spine of the fish, and remove them instantly in a pail, to be thrown away. Cut off the fins and separate the fleshy parts, which place on a dish by themselves till wanted. Take particular care of every particle of the green fat, which lies chiefly at the sockets of the fore-fins, and more

122 ENGLISH SOUPS.

or less all around the interior of the fish, if in good condition. Let this fat, which, when iu a healthy state, is elastic and of a bluish color while raw, be steeped for several hours in cold spring water, in order that it may be thoroughly cleansed of all impurities.

Then, with a meat saw, divide the upper and under shells into pieces of convenient size to handle; and, having put them with the tins and head into a large vessel containing boiling water, proceed quickly to scald them; by this meaus they will be separated from tne horny substance which covers them, which will then be easily removed. They must then be put into a larger stockpot nearly filled with fresh hot water, and left to continue boiling by the side of the stove-fire until the glutinous substance separates easily from the bones. Place the pieces of turtle carefully upon clean dishes, and put them iu the larder to get cold; they should then be cut up into pieces about an inch and a half square, which pieces are to be finally put into the soup when it is nearly finished. Put the bones back into the broth to boil an hour longer, for the double purpose of extracting all their savor aud to effect the reduction of the turtle broth, which is to be used for filling up the turtle stockpot hereafter.

In order to save time, while the above is in operation, the turtle stock or consomme, should be prepared as follows:

With four ouuces of fresh butter, spread the bottom of an eighteengallon stockpot; theu place iu it three pounds of raw ham cut in slices, - over these put forty pounds of leg of beef and knuckles of veal, four old hens (after having removed their fillets, which are to be kept for making the quenelles for the soup); to these add all the fleshy pieces of the turtle (exceptiug those pieces intended for entrees), and then place on the top the head and tins of the turtle; moisten the whole with a bottle of Madeira and four quarts of good stock; add a pottle of mushrooms, twelve cloves, four blades of mace, a haudful of parsley roots; aud a good sized bouquet of parsley tied up with two bay-leaves, thyme, green onions, and shalots. Set the consomme thus prepared on a brisk stove-fire to boil sharply, and when the liquid has become reduced to a glaze, fill the stockpot up instantly, and as soon as it boils, skim it thoroughly, garnish with the usual complement of vegetables, and remove it to the side of the stove to boil gently for six hours. Remember to probe the head and fins after they have beeu boiled two hours, and as soon as they are done drain them on a dish, cover them with a wet napkiu well saturated with water to prevent it from sticking to them, and put them away in a cool place with the remainder of the glutinous parts of the turtle, already spoken of. The stockpot should now be filled up with the turtle broth reserved for that purpose, as directed above. When the turtle stock is done, strain it off into an appropriate-sized stockpot, remove every particle of fat from the surface, and then proceed to thicken it with a proportionate quantity of white roux to the consistency of thin sauce. Work this exactly in the same manner as practiced for Espagnole or brown sauce, in order to extract all the butter and scum, so as to give it a brilliant appearance.

One bottle of old Madeira must now be added, together with a puree of herbs of the following kinds, to be made as here directed:

Sweet basil must form one-third proportion of the whole quantity

ENGLISH SOUPS. 123

of herbs intended to be used; winter savory, marjoram, and lemon thyme, in equal quantities, making up the other two-thirds: add to these a double-handful of parsley, half a bunch of green onions, a handful of green shalots, and some trimmings of mushrooms; moisten with a quart of broth, and having stewed these herbs for about an hour, rub the whole through the tammy into a puree. This puree being added to the soup, a little crystallized soluble cayenne pepper should then be introduced. The pieces of turtle, as well as the fins, which have been also cut into small pieces, and the larger bones taken out, should now be allowed to boil in the soup for a quarter of an hour, after which carefully remove the whole of the scum as it rises to the surface. The degree of seasoning must be ascertained that it may be corrected if faulty.

To excel in dressing turtle, it is necessary to be very accurate in the proportions of the numerous iugredients used for seasoning this soup. Nothing should predominate, but the whole shold be harmoniously blended.

Put the turtle away in four-quart sized basins, dividing the fat (after it has been scalded and boiled in some of the sauce) in equal quantities into each basin; as also some small quenelles, which are to be made with the fillets of hens reserved for that purpose, and in which, in addition to the usual ingredients in ordinary cases, put six yelks of eggs boiled hard. Mould these quenelles into small round balls to imitate turtle's eggs, roll them with the hand on a marble slab or table, with the aid of a little flour, and poach them in the usual way.

When the turtle soup is wanted for use, warm it, and just before sending it to table, add a small glass of Sherry or Madeira, and the juice of one lemon to every four quarts of turtle.

The second stock of the turtle consomme should be strained off after it has boiled for two hours, and immediately boiled down into a glaze very quickly, and mixed in with the turtle soup previously to putting it away in the basins; or else it should be kept in reserve for the purpose of adding proportionate quantities in each tureen of turtle as it is served.

348. CLEAR TURTLE SOUP.

Proceed in the preparation of the turtle stock, in every respect, according to the preceding instructions.

The glutinous parts of the turtle having been cut into squares, select the dark-colored pieces proceeding from the back shell, and keep them for the clear turtle. When the turtle stock has boiled six hours, strain it off and divide it into two equal parts; the one to be finished in the usual manner, the other to be first freed from every particle of grease, and afterward clarified in the usual manner, with two whites of eggs whipped up with a little spring water, and the addition of a glass of French white wine, or the juice of a lemon; add a proportionate quantity of turtle herbs, to give the requisite flavor, and set it to boil on the stove-fire, whisking it the whole time. As soon as the egg begins to separate in the stock, l'emove it to the side of the stove, pour in half a bottle of Madeira, and allow the whole to simmer gently nntil the egg be thoroughly set. Then proceed to strain it through a napkin into a large stevvpan, in which

124 ENGLISH SOUPS.

afterward put the pieces of turtle selected for the pnrpose; boil them in it until they are sufficiently done, and then add a little crystallized soluble cayenne. pepper, and serve.

If considered desirable, a little lemon-juice and a few quenelles of fowl may be added, as also some of the finest pieces of the green fat.

Clear turtle soup is preferred by some epicures to that which is dressed in the usual way, from its bing free from the additional compounds used in the full-dressed turtle. It is, in consequence, much lighter, more delicate and pure, aud is unquestionably easier of digestion.

349. MOCK-TURTLE SOUP.

Procure a scalded calfs head, or, as it is sometimes called, a turtle-head; bone it in the following manner: - Place the calfs head on the table with the front part of the head facing you; draw the sharp point of a knife from the back part of the head right down to the nose, making an incision down to the bone of the skull; then with the knife clear the scalp and cheeks from the bones right and left, always keeping the point of the knife close to the bone. Having boned the head, put it into a large stewpan of cold water on the fire; as soon as it boils, skim it well, and let it continue to boil for ten minutes; take the calfs head out and put it into a pan full of cold water. Then get a proper sized stockpot, and after having buttered the bottom thereof, place in it four slices of raw ham, two large knuckles of veal, and au old hen partially roasted, moisten with two quarts of broth, and put the stockpot on the stove-fire to boil until the broth is reduced to a glaze, when instantly slacken the heat by covering the fire with ashes, and then leave the soup to color itself gradually. Allow the glaze at the bottom of the stewpan to be reduced to the same consistency as for brown sauce, and fill up the stockpot with water, leaving room for the calfs head, which separate into two halves, and pare off all the rough cuticle about the inner parts of the mouth, then place it in the stock, and after setting it to boil, and thoroughly skimming it, garnish with the usual complement of vegetables, six cloves, two blades of mace, half a pottle of mushrooms, four shalots, and a good bunch of parsley, green onions, thyme, and bay-leaf tied together, and a little salt. Set it by the fire to boil gently till the calf's head is done; then take the pieces of head out, and place them on a dish to cool, afterward to be cut into squares, and pnt into a basin till required for adding them to the soup. Strain the stock through a broth cloth, and thicken it with some light-colored roux, to the consistency of thin brown sauce; let it boil, and allow it to throw up all the butter, and clarify itself thoroughly; then add half a bottle of Sherry, about half a pint of puree of turtle herbs (Xo. 317) in which six anchovies have been mixed, a little crystallized soluble cayenne pepper, and the calfs head cut into squares, as also the tongue braized with it. Let these boil together for about ten minutes, then add three or four dozen small round quenelles and a little lemon-juice, and send to table.

350. CLEAR MOCK-TURTLE SOUP.

To make this soup, follow the instructions laid down for making clear turtle, merely substituting calf's head for turtle.

ENGLISH SOUPS. 125

351. MULLIGATAWXET SOUP.

Cut up two or more chickens as for fricassee, place them neatly in a stewpan, in which previously put carrot, onion, celery, parsley, thyme, bay-leaf, cloves, and mace; fill up with good veal broth, and when the members of chicken are nearly done, strain them off into a sieve, saving their broth in a basin. Cool the pieces of chicken in spring water, and then take them up on a clean napkin, trim them neatly, and place them in a soup-pot, to be put into the soup afterward. Then cut four large onions in halves, taking out the head or root part, and again cut these into slices; place them in a stewpan with four ounces of butter, a carrot, and two heads of celery cut small, and fry these over a slow fire until the onion is nearly melted, and become of a fine light brown color; then throw in as much flower as will suffice to thicken the quantity of soup you wish to make; stir this on the fire two or three minutes, and after adding a good tablespoonful of curry powder, and the same quantity of curry paste, proceed gradually to mix in with these, first the broth the chickens were boiled in, and afterward as much more consomme of veal as may be found requisite to produce the quantity of soup desired. Place this on the stove-fire, stirring it the whole time, and as soon as it boils, put it by the side of the stove to clarify itself in the usual way; then rub it through the tammy into a puree, and pour it upon the pieces of chicken. Half an hour before dinner-time, place the soup on the stove-fire, stir it till it boils, place it by the side to continue boiling gently for ten minutes, by which time the chickens will be done; skim the soup, ascertain that the seasoning be correct, and send to table with two plates of plain boiled Patua rice, to be handed round with the soup.

352. GIBLET SOUP A L'AXGLAISE.

Take four sets of giblets properly cleaned and trimmed, put them into a stewpan full of boiling water, to scald for five minutes; drain them in a colander, immerse them in cold water, and then place them on a napkin to drain. Singe the necks and wings over the flame of a charcoal fire, and carefully pick out all the stubble feathers, cut the giblets up into inch and a half lengths, place these in a stewpan with two heads of celery, carrots, onions, turnips, in equal proportions; also, four cloves, two blades of mace, and a bunch of parsley, with a moderate quantity of basil, winter savory, lemon-thyme, and green onions, a sprig of common thyme, and one bay-leaf. Fill the stewpan with four quarts of blond of veal, and after allowing these to boil gently by the side of the stove-fire till they are done (which will be seen when the pieces of gizzard are become tender), immediately drain them in a large sieve, pouring their broth into a basin. Immerse the giblets in cold water, then pick them out free from any particles of herbs or vegetables that may adhere to them; place them on a napkin, and when neatly trimmed, put them by in the soup-pot. Next, pour the giblet broth into an adequate-sized stewpan, and having thickenedit in the usual manner with a sufficient quantity of roux to the consistency of thin sauce, set it to boil on the stove-fire, and afterward place it by the side to clarify itself. When the sauce has been cleared of the butter, &c, add half a bottle of Sherry and a little cayenne, and then pass the sauce on to the giblets, and put the soup in

126 ENGLISH SOUPS.

the larder till dinner time; when, having allowed tlie giblets to boil in the sauce a few minutes, add a little lemon-juice, and send to table.

353. CLEAR GIBLET SOUP A L'iRLANDAISE.

Prepare the giblet broth in every respect as directed for making the foregoing soup, trim and put the giblets away in a soup-pot, skim off every particle of fat from the surface of the broth, and clarify it by incorporating therewith the whites of three eggs whipped up with a little cold water; set the consomme, thus prepared, on the stove to boil, then add to it half a bottle of Sherry; and as soon as it boils up again, place it by the side of the stove, there gently to simmer for twenty minutes, in order to set the eggs. Then strain the consomme through a napkin on to the giblets, reserving one quart of it in a stewpan, in which boil the white parts of three heads of celery, and four large leeks, cut into inch lengths, and shred as for Julienne soup, adding this to the giblets; ascertain that the seasoning be palatable, and send up to table.

354. OX-TAIL SOUP.

Procure two fresh ox-tails, cut each joint, after dividing them, into inch lengths with a small meat saw, steep them in water for two hours, and then place them in a stewpan with three carrots, three turnips, three onions, and two heads of celery, four cloves, and a blade of mace. Fill up the stewpan with broth from the boiling stockpot; boil this by the side of the stove-fire till done, drain the pieces of ox-tail on a large sieve, allow them to cool, trim them neatly, and place them in a soup-pot. Clarify the broth the oxtails were boiled in, strain it through a napkin into a basin, and then pour it into the soup-pot containing the trimmed pieces of ox-tails, and also some small olive-shaped pieces of carrot and turnip that have been boiled in a little of the broth, aud a small lump of sugar; add a pinch of minionette pepper, and previously to sending the soup to table, let it boil gently by the side of the stove-fire for a few minutes.

This soup may be served, also, in various other ways, by adding thereto a puree of any sort of vegetables; such, for instance, as a puree of peas, carrots, turnips, celery, or lentils.

355. calf's feet soup a la Windsor.

Place in a two-gallon stockpot a knuckle of veal, a pound of raw lean ham, two calf's feet, and an old hen minus the fillets, which reserve for making quenelle* with, for further use. To these add two carrots, two onions stuck with four cloves, celery, a bouquet of parsley, green onions, sweet basil, and lemon-thyme, tied neatly together; moisten with half a bottle of light French white wine, and put the stockpot on a moderate fire to boil for ten minutes or so; then till it up from the common stock, or any white broth you may have ready, set it to boil on the stove, skim it well, and after four hours' gentle ebullition, take the calf's feet out, and put them in water to clean them; then take all the bones out, and lay them on a dish to cool, to be trimmed afterward, so as to leave the inner part of the feet only, all the outer skin being thinly pared off, that the feet may

L

ENGLISH SOUPS. 127

have a more transparent appearance; cnt them into inch lengths, by half an inch in width, and put them by in a small soup-pot till required. Strain the consomme through a napkin, thicken it moderately with a little white roux (going through the regular process for making white Veloute), then add thereto a little essence of mushrooms, and finish by incorporating with the sauce thus prepared a leason of six yelks of eggs mixed with a little grated Parmesan and half a pint of cream; squeeze the juice of half a lemon into it, and season with a little crystallized soluble cayenne. Pour the soup into the tureen containing two dozen very small quenelles (made with the fillets of the old hen), some boiled macaroui cut into inch lengths, and the tendons of the calfs feet, previously warmed in a little consomme, with the addition of half a glass of white wine. Stir the soup gently in the tureen to mix these ingredients together, and send to table.

356. HARE SOUP A L'ANGLAISE.

Skin and paunch a hare, and cut it up as follows: - first take off the legs close to the loins, and divide them into three pieces, slip the shoulders off and cut them into two parts, cut the back into six pieces, and divide the head in halves. Next place a stewpan on the stovefire, containing four ounces of butter, a carrot, two onions, a head of celery cut into small slices, and fry these of a light color; then add the pieces of hare, over which, when also fried brown, shake a good handful of flour, and moisten with half a bottle of Port wine, at the same time adding a garnished bouquet, three cloves, a blade of mace, and two quarts of blond of veal; stir the whole on the fire until it boils, then take it off and set it by the side to boil gently for an hour and a quarter, taking care in the meantime to skim off the butter, &c, as it rises to the surface. Take out the pieces of hare when done, from the sauce, and place them on a dish; select the finest pieces of meat, remove the bones, and set these pieces aside in a soup-pot; clear the remainder of the meat from the bones, and pound it thoroughly, with the vegetables, from the sauce; when these are pounded, mix them again with the sauce, and pass the whole through a tammy into a puree, and pour it on to the pieces of hare reserved in the soup-pot.

Observe, that this soup must not be thick, consequently it may be necessary after passing it through the tammy to add a little blond of veal to thin it.

Just before sending it to table, make the soup hot, but be careful that it does not boil; ascertain that its seasoning be palatable, and serve.

357. HARE SOUP A LA ST. GEORGE.

Get two good-sized leverets and fillet them. Place the fillets in a small sauta-pan with a little fresh butter, pepper, and salt; cover them with a round of buttered paper, and put them in the larder till dinner-time. Reserve a sufficient quantity of the meat from the leveret's hind-quarters, in order to make some quenelles; cut the remainder into small pieces, and fry them exactly in the same manner as directed in the preceding soup; shake into them a sufficient quantity of flour to thicken the sauce of the soup, moisten with a bottle of Claret, and two quarts of blond of veal; add a garnished

128 ENGLISH SOUPS.

bouquet made with basil, marjoram, parsley, bay-leaf, and thyme, four cloves, mace, and four shalots. Let the sauce boil, skim it well, and when the hare is thoroughly done, pass the sauce through a tammy into a soup-pot; put this on the fire to throw off any remaining roughness, and that it may be reduced if necessary; and then pour it into the soup-tureen, which should contain three dozen small quenelles made with the meat reserved for that purpose, as before mentioned; also the scollops of hare prepared by lightly frying the fillets in the sauta-pau, and which must be afterward scolloped. Ascertain that the seasoning be correct, and send to table.

358. LEVERET SOUP A LA ROSSIE.

Get a good-sized leveret, cut it into pieces, and fry these in a stewpan with two ounces of butter; as soon as they are colored, moisten with half a bottle of Sherry, allow the wine to boil, then add two quarts ot consomme or blond of veal, garnish with carot, onion, and celery, mace, cloves, and peppercorns, a bouquet of bay-leaf, thyme, basil, marjoram, and winter savory; let these herbs be used in small quantities, in order that they may give flavor, without predominating. When the soup has boiled three-quarters of an hour, let the pieces of hare be drained on a sieve, and at the same time pass the broth into a basin; afterward place the pieces of hare on a napkin, and when neatly trimmed, put them into a soup-pot.

Next, clarify the consomme in the usual manner, and strain it through a napkin on to the pieces of leveret; and, just before sending to table, add to the soup three dozen very small quenelles of leveret, and some white celery cut into shreds and boiled in a small quantity of the soup.

359. OX-CHEEK SOUP.

Procure a fresh ox-cheek, and put it to braize in a small stockpot with a knuckle of veal and some roast-beef bones, fill the pot up from the boiling stockpot, or with water; garnish with the same complement of stock vegetables used for ox-tail soup (No. 354), adding six cloves, a blade of mace, and a few peppercorns. As soon as the ox-cheek is done, take the meat off the cheek-bone, and put it in press between two dishes. Strain off the broth, adding to it a ladleful of gravy to color it, and proceed to clarify it with a couple of whites of eggs. While the consomme is clarifying, trim the ox-cheek and cut it into neat scollops an inch square and half an inch thick; put these into a small soup-pot and add to them some small carrots and turnips cut in fancy shapes and boiled in a little broth, a lump of sugar, and also a dozen and a half very small white button onions. Strain the clarified consomme thus prepared into the soup-pot, and having allowed the soup to boil a few minutes by the side of the stove-fire, just before serving, add two dozen blanched Brussels sprouts, and a pinch of minionette pepper, and send to table.

360. deer's-head soup a la chasseur*

Procure a young deer's head, perfectly fresh, scald it and cleanse it thoroughly; proceed then to prepare the soup in exactly the same

* This will be found a very useful soup in those parts of the country where deer abound.

PUREES OF POULTRY. 129

manner as for mock-turtle; just before sending to table, add two dozen small quenelles made with deer's flesh, together with some small scollops of deer simmered in a little fresh butter and fine herbs.

Take care that the soup does not boil after the scollops are added to it.

361. GROUSE SOUP A LA MONTAGNARDE.

Roast off three brace of young grouse, take the whole of the meat from the bones, carefully cutting out the lower part of their backs, which being bitter, must be rejected. Set aside four of the fillets, cut them into scollops, to be put in the soup afterward. Put the carcasses and bones of the grouse into a stewpan with half a bottle of Sherry, a carrot, onion, celery, a few cloves, a couple of shalots, and a blade of mace; set these to simmer gently on the fire for ten minutes, after which add two quarts of good stock, and having allowed it to boil an hour and a half, strain it off into a basin. Pound the whole of the meat yielded by the grouse, excepting the four fillets before named, mixing with it a little rice boiled in broth; moisten with the grouse essence, and pass it through the tammy into a puree, and put it into a small soup-pot. Just before dinner-time, warm the puree, taking the usual precaution to prevent it from curdling, pour it into the soup-tureen containing the scollops of the fillets of grouse, and three dozen very small quenelles of the same.

PUREES OF POULTRY AND GAME,

COMPRISING

PurSe of Fowl d la Peine. Purie of Pheasants d la Dauphine.

„ „ d la Printanilre. „ „ d I'Anglaiae.

„ „ d la Prineesse. „ Partridges d la Beaufort.

„, , d la Celestine. „ „ d la Balzac.

„ Red-legged Partridges d la „ Hare d la Conti.

Conti. „ Rabbits d la Maitre d'hStel. „ Pheasants d la Royale. „ " d la Ghantilly.

362. PUREE OF FOWL A LA REINE.

Roast off two good-sized young fowls, clear all the meat from the bones, chop and pound it thoroughly with half a pound of boiled rice; dilute it with three pints of chicken broth, made with the skins and carcasses of the two fowls used for the puree, and rub it through a tammy with the aid of two wooden spoons, into a large dish. Take the puree up into a soup-pot, and put it away in the larder till dinnertime; then warm it, with the usual precaution to prevent its curdling; mix with it a pint of boiling cream, and having ascertained that the seasoning be correct, send to table,

363. PUREE OF FOWL A LA PRINTANIERE.

Prepare the puree of fowls as for the preceding soup; just before sending it to table, add the boiling cream, and then pour the purie into the soup-tureen containing a pint of asparagus-heads boiled green.

Send a plate of fried crjutons to be handed round to the guests.

130 PUREES OF GAME.

364. PUREE OF FOWL A LA PRINCESSE.

Prepare the puree of fowl in the usual manner, and having mixed the boiling cream in it, pour it into the tureen containing three dozen very small quenelles of fowl, and four ounces of Frankfort pearl-barley, well blanched and boiled for two hours in some white chicken broth. Ascertain that the seasoning be delicate, and send to table.

365. PUREE OF FOWL A LA CELESTINE.

Roast off two fowls; as soon as they are cold, pound the meat thereof in a mortar, together with six ounces of bleached Jordan almonds, and eight yelks of eggs, beginning with the almonds, then adding the yelks of eggs, and lastly, the fowl. Dilute with the chicken broth made with the carcasses of the fowl; rub the puree through the tammy, and put it into a soup-pot, to be kept in the cool till dinner-time; when, after having warmed it, add a pint of boiling cream, and send to table.

A plate of duchess' crusts should be sent to table with this soup, to be handed round.

366. PUREE OF RED-LEGGED PARTRIDGES A LA CONTI.

Roast off two brace of red-legged partridges; take the meat frorn^ them, make a consomme with their carcasses, pound the meat thoroughly, mixing therewith half a pound of barley boiled for the purpose; dilute with the consomme, rub it through the tammy, and having made the puree sufficiently hot (taking care that it be not too thick), send to table with a plate of Conde croutons, to be handed round.

367. PUREE OF PHEASANTS A LA ROYALE.

Roast off a brace of pheasants, take out the fillets and white part of the legs; make a consomme with the remainder. Pound the fillets, &c, with a proportionate quantity of boiled rice, dilute with the consomme, and rub the puree through the tammy; finish with a small piece of game glaze or essence, and serve.

The croutons to be sent in a plate as usual.

368. PUREE OF PHEASANTS A LA DAUPHINE.

Prepare a puree of pheasants as in the preceding case; when about to send the soup to table, pour it into a tureen containing four dozen small potato quenelles, and serve.

The potato quenelles should be prepared as follows: - Bake four large York potatoes, and rub the pulp through a wire-sieve; put this into a stewpan with two ounces of butter, half a pint of cream, pepper, salt, and nutmeg. Stir these on the fire until the mixture forms a compact paste; then take the stewpan off the stove, and proceed to incorporate with the paste three yelks and one white of egg; and then mould the small quenelles with teaspoons, and poach them as you would any others, in water or broth.

369. PUREE OF PHEASANTS A L'ANGLAISE. Prepare a puree of pheasant in the usual manner, and having finished it as in the foregoing article, pour it into a tureen containing the fillets of one pheasant cut into scollops, and serve.

PUREES OF GAME. 131

370. PUREE OF PARTRIDGES A LA BEAUFORT.

Prepare a puree of partridges in the manner described for making the puree of red-legged partridges; warm and finish the puree in the same manner, and just before sending to table, pour into the tureen containing three dozen small quenelles of partridges, the tails of three dozen crayfish, and half a pound of cocks kernels (previously simmered in a little white broth, with butter, lemon-juice, and salt), and serve.

371. PUREE OF PARTRIDGES A LA BALZAC.

Prepare a puree of partridges in the usual manner, and finish by incorporating with it two ounces of crayfish butter and a piece of game glaze; then pour the hot puree into a tureen containing three dozen crayfish tails, and three dozen quenelles of partridges - in the preparation of which two tablespoonsful of chopped truffles have been mixed, previously to moulding the quenelles; and send to table.

372. PUREE OF HARE A LA CONTI.

Skin, paunch, and cut up a hare into pieces. Put two ounces of butter into a stewpan with two shalots, a blade of mace, a sprig of thyme, and half a bay-leaf. When the butter has been made hot on the stove-fire, put the pieces of hare into the stewpan, and having fried these of a brown color, moisten them with a bottle of Sauterrie wine; when the wine has boiled ten minutes, add three pints of good consomme; and then, after allowing the hare to boil gently on the side of the stove-fire for about an hour and a quarter, strain the pieces of hare into a sieve, reserving the broth in a basin; and after having separated the meat from the bones, &c, pound it thoroughly with a little boiled rice; dilute it with the stock it was boiled in, and pass it through the tammy into a puree. Just before sending to table, make the puree sufficiently hot, and having tested its degree of seasoning, serve with a plate of fried croutons, to be handed round to the guests.

373. PUREE OF RABBITS A LA MAITRE D'HOTEL.

Roast off three good-sized young rabbits; and, while they are before the fire, season them with a little nutmeg, pepper, and salt, and baste with half a pint of cream mixed with two ounces of fresh butter and two ounces of flour. This batter should not be used until the rabbits have been roasted ten minutes, and care should be taken to make it adhere to the rabbits while they continue roasting; when they are done, clear off all the meat, and pound it in a mortar with four ounces of barley, previously boiled for the purpose; dilute with the consomme made from the carcasses, rub the whole through the tammy, and put this puree into a small soup-pot. Just before dinner-time make it hot, and incorporate therewith half a pint of cream and a pat of fresh butter; then pour it into a tureen containing three dozen small quenelles of rabbit, in preparing which a little grated Parmesan cheese, minionette pepper, and a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley must be added.

374. PUREE OF RABBITS A LA CHANTILLY.

Prepare a puree of rabbits as for the preceding soup, finish it by

132 NATIONAL SOUPS.

adding a pint of cream and a piece of glaze; then pour the hot soup into a tureen containing twelve small custards previously prepared for the purpose, in manner following: Pass eight yelks of eggs through a tammy into a stewpan, to these add a tablespoonful of spinach-green (No. 285), a little grated Parmesan cheese, nutmeg, pepper, and salt, some essence of game, and half a pint of cream; heat the whole well together, and pass this mixture through a tammy into a basin, and then pour it into twelve small dariole moulds (previously buttered), place them in a stewpan containing hot water to the- depth of an inch, and set them to steam by the side of the stovefire, taking care that the stewpan has the lid on, and some live embers of burning charcoal placed upon it. A quarter of an hour will suffice to steam these custards; when done, turn them out of the moulds with care, and place them instantly in the soup-tureen as directed.

NATIONAL SOUPS.

COMPRISING

Ravioli* d la Napolitaxne. Borsch, or Polish Soup.

Rice d la Florentine. Ouka, or Russian do.

Soup d la Piimontaise. Tschi, or Cabbage do., d la Russe.

Do. d la Biarnaise. Olla Podrida, or Spanish national do.

Bouillabaisse d la Provencal*. Turkish Pilaff, or Pilau.

375. RAVIOLIS A LA NAPOLITAINE.

Prepare a consomme gravy soup, in the following manner: Butter the bottom of a small stockpot, and place in it some slices of raw ham, three pounds of gravy beef, a small knuckle of veal, and either one old hen or two partridges. To these add two heads of celery, the same number of leeks and carrots, sprigs of thyme and winter savory, tied into a fagot with some parsley, cloves, mace, and peppercorns; moisten with a large ladleful of broth, and put the gravy, thus marked, on a stove-fire to boil down to a glaze, taking the usual precautionary measures to prevent it from burning. As soon as the glaze is sufficiently colored, fill the stockpot up with good broth; when it boils, skim it, and set it down by the side of the stove-fire to boil geutly for three hours; then strain off the consomme, clarify it with a couple of whites of eggs, and pass it through a napkin into a soup-pot, to be used as follows:

RAVIOLIS.

Mix half a pound of sifted flour with four yelks of eggs, a little salt, and half a pat of butter; let these ingredients be placed on a paste slab, putting the yelks of eggs, &c, in the centre of the flour; then knead them into a firm, smooth, compact paste; and after allowing it to rest in a damp cloth for half an hour, spread it out with the rolling-pin until it becomes nearly as thiu as a sheet of paper. Place the paste, thus rolled out, lengthwise on the slab, then, with the paste-brush dipped in water, moisten its whole surface,

NATIONAL SOUPS. 133

and lay thereon, about two inches apart from each other, some small ronnd balls of raviolis farce of the size of a cob-nut, in rows. This farce is prepared as follows: - Put the white parts of a boiled or roasted fowl, pheasant, or partridge, into a mortar; pound the meat thoroughly, and add thereto about four ounces of fresh-made curd, two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, two spoonsful of blanched spinach, pepper, salt, and nutmeg; moisten with four yelks of raw egcrs, and mix the whole well together into a smooth compact body, ready for use.

Wrap the outer part of the paste, when the raviolis farce has been laid on it, over the outer row of balls, cover them as if for making puffs, finish them by fastening down the paste with the thumb, and then cut them out with a small round fluted cutter into half-moons; and as they are cut out, place them on a large dish, there to be left for some time, in order to dry the surface, so that it may more resemble Italian paste. Having repeated this operation until you have made five or six dozen raviolis, after they have been dried in the larder, proceed to blanch them; this is done by throwing them into a large stewpan containing some boiling broth, and allowing them to continue boiling therein for a quarter of an hour; then drain the raviolis on to a napkin.

Next take the lining of a soup-tureen, butter it, place therein a layer of raviolis and a layer of grated fresh Parmesan cheese, and so on alternately, until the silver tureen-lining be filled; shake some grated cheese on the top, and moisten with two glasses of old Madeira, and a ladleful of the gravy made for the purpose, and then put the lining into the oven, or on a slow stove-fire, there to reduce the gravy to a gratinate. Brown the top over with the heated salamander, and send to table with the remainder of the clear consomme in the soup-tureen.

This soup should be thus served: With a gravy -spoon help a part of the gratinated raviolis, in a soup-plate, and add to these a ladleful of the consomme'.

376. EICE A LA FLORENTINE.

Prepare a thin puree of rice, and moisten it with consomme of fowls; finish by adding two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, a leason of six yelks of eggs, half a pint of cream, a pat of butter, and a little minionette pepper; then pour the soup thus prepared into the soup-tureen, and send to table with.two plates of very small croquettes of rice, which are to be handed round with the soup.

The croquettes of rice here alluded to, are thus made: - Wash and blanch half a pound of Carolina rice, and boil it in a little broth with two. ounces of fresh butter, and a pinch of minionette pepper, and a little salt; when done, add two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, and four yelks of eggs; work the whole on the stove-fire for five minutes, spread it on a plate, and when this paste is sufficiently cold, mould it into very small round balls. Just before dinner-time, dip these in some beaten egg, and roll them in flour; then put them into a large-sized parsley frier, and immerse them in a quantity of hot clean lard; fry them of a fine deep yellow color, and send to table in two hot plates, on napkins, to be handed round with the soup as before stated.

134 NATIONAL SOUPS.

377. SOUP A LA PIEMONTAISE.

Prepare a brown puree of turnips (No. 294), in which mix a large gravy-spoonful of tomatas; just before sending to table, incorporate with the soup a paste composed of four anchovies washed, filleted, and pounded, with a clove of garlic and a pat of butter, all passed through a fine hair-sieve; and pour the soup into a tureen containing four dozen very small quenelles of potatoes (Xo. 310), and a pliiche of chervil and tarragon (that is to say, the leaves of chervil and tarragon picked and parboiled green), and send to table with some grated Parmesan cheese on a plate, to be hauded round with the soup.

378. SOUP A LA BEAKSAISE.

Let a quart of garbancas, or large yellow Spanish peas, be put in soak the overnight, place them in a small stockpot with a piece of raw ham, and having filled up with common broth, set the stockpot on the stove-fire to boil; skim it well, and put it by the side to boil gently for four hours. Meanwhile, cut three large onions, one carrot, and two heads of celery, into small dice, put these into a stewpan with two ounces of fresh butter and two cloves of garlic; fry them of a very light brown color, and after adding half a dozen fresh tomatas. mix the whole in with the garbancas. As soon as the garbancas are done, pound and rub them through the tammy, diluting with good consomme; take the puree up into a small soup-pot, and clarify it in the usual manner, by allowing it to throw up its roughness while boiling gently by the side of the stove-fire: remember that this puree must be kept rather thin. During this process, cut a white-heart cabbage into quarters, removing the core, shred them as fine as possible, place them in a stewpan with two ounces of butter on a moderate stove-fire, and fry them as you would vegetables for Julienne soup. When they are considerably reduced in quantity, and become of a yellowish color, moisten them with a little broth; keep them gently simmering until they are thoroughly done; add them to the puree, together with a pinch of minionette pepper, and about half a pint of whole garbancas reserved for this purpose, and from which take off the hulls previously to putting them into the soup. When the cabbage has boiled a few minutes in the puree, pour the soup into the tureen, and send to table with an accompanying plate of grated Parmesan cheese, to be handed round with the soup.

379. BOUILLABAISSE OR PROVENCALE SOUP.

Cut four large Portugal onions into slices, and fry them in a gill of Lucca oil; when they begin to assume a light brown color, add thereto a sprig of thyme and two cloves of garlic, and shake in a good handful of flour; stir this on the stove-fire for a few minutes. moisten with half a bottle of Sauterne wine, and add three pints of good consomme; stir this sauce on the fire till it boils, then set it by the side to continue gently simmering for half an hour, and rub it through the tammy like any other puree; then take it up and pour it into a small soup -pot Just before dinner-time, make the soup hot. and finish by incorporating with it a leason of six yelks of eggs, a little cayenne, the juice of a lemon, and two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese; pour the soup into the tureen containing a plateful of

NATIONAL SOUPS. 135

scollops of any sort of fish (crimped cod or whiting is the best for the purpose) prepared as follows: cut two slices of crimped cod into small scollops, and put them into a deep sauta-pan with a little Lucca oil, minionette pepper, and a little salt, some chopped tarragon and chervil, and the juice of half a lemon; fry these on the fire, put them into the soup-tureen, and when the soup is poured on them, throw in a small plateful of duchess' crusts fried in Lucca oil, and send to table.

380. BORSCH, OR POLISH SOUP.

Place in a good-sized stockpot a large knuckle of veal, an old hen, partially roasted and colored, a couple of marrow-bones, one pound of streaky lean bacon (trimmed and parboiled for the purpose), two carrots, two heads of celery, and two onions stuck with six cloves; also a large fagot of parsley and green onions tied together with a little thyme, sweet basil, bay-leaf, and mace; then add a teaspoonful of white peppercorns. Fill the stockpot up with prepared juice of beet-root,* set it upon the stove-fire to boil, and after being skimmed, let it boil gently by the side of the fire for an hour; then add a fowl, a duck, a partridge (trussed for boiling), and six pork sausages. Observe, that the foregoing articles be not overdone, and be careful to take them up directly they are sufficiently braized; then place them on a dish, and set them in the larder to get cold.

While the stock is in preparation, peel two raw beet-roots, and shred them, also two onions, and an equal quantity of the white part of two heads of celery, as if for Julienne soup; fry these vegetables in a little butter^ of a light color, moisten with a quart of broth from the boiling stock, and having gently boiled them down to the consistency of a demiglaze, set them by in a soup-pot in the larder. Then chop four ounces of fillet of beef with the same quantity of beef suet, add a little pepper, salt, and nutmeg, and two yelks of eggs; pound this force-meat thoroughly, and use half of it to make thirty small round quenelles, by rolling them with a little flour on the table; poach these in a little broth, and having drained them upon a napkin, add them to the shred vegetables put by in the soup-pot. With the remainder of the forcemeat make the same number of very small oval quenelles, which, after being rolled with flour, set in a small sauta-pan to be fried of a light color, just before dinner-time. Boil four eggs hard, cut them in halves lengthwise; take the yelks out and pound them with two raw yelks of eggs, a little grated horse-radish, chopped parsley, nutmeg, pepper, and salt; fill the eggs again with this farce, and having replaced the halves together, dip them in a beaten egg, and then roll them in breadcrumb, and set them aside to be fried at the same time as the small quenelles before mentioned. After five hours' boiling, strain off the stock-pot; when every particle of fat is removed, clarify it in the usual way, and then keep the consomme boiling, in order to reduce it to the quantity required for the soup.

* The beet-root to be used in the borsch is thus made; - Procure two dozen fine beetroots, scraped and washed, bruise them in a mortar, and place them in a large-sized earthen pan, into which throw in a pailful of water, and two pounds of bread-crumb. Cover the pan witli the lid, carefully cementing it down with a paste of flour and water, in order to exclude the airj and .*etthe pan in a moderately warm place, so as to accelerate the fermentation. Ten daft will suffice to produce the desired result; on uncovering the pan, it will be found to contain a bright red, acidulated liquor.

136 NATIONAL SOUPS.

In the meantime, trim the meat off the fowl, duck, and pheasant, into neat scollops; cut the bacon and sausages into small round balls, and carefully place all these ingredients in the silver lining of a souptureen, keeping the shreded vegetables andibraized beef quenelles on the top; put them in the hot closet until dinner-time. Then grate or pound a couple of beet-roots, place this in a stewpan on the fire, and boil it up for a few minutes, extract the juice by strong pressure through the tammy-cloth, and use it to color the consomme, so as to give it the appearance of claret. Just before sending to table, pour the boiling consomme to the ingredients contained in the soup-tureen, adding a pinch of minionette pepper; send up the fried eggs cut in halves, and also the fried quenelles, in a plate, to be handed round with the borsch.

381. OUKA, OR RUSSIAN SOUP.

Place in a stockpot a large knuckle of veal, about a pound of raw ham, and two old hens, roasted for the purpose; fill up with common broth, set it to boil, and having skimmed it, garnish it with the usual vegetables, adding thereto either a handful of parsley-roots or a couple of parsnips. After five hours' boiling, strain off the consomme, and clarify it in the usual manner; strain it again through a napkin into a soup-pot, to be set aside until wanted to finish the soup. While the stock is boiling, take two pounds of crimped salmon, two large live perch, a Thames eel, and two fine mullets; fillet and cut these into scollops, placing them neatly in a deep santa-pan; season with a pluche of picked parsley, chervil, and tarragon leaves (the latter in a small proportion), some boiled shred parsley-roots, minionette pepper, grated nutmeg, salt, and the fourth part of a bottle of Chablis or Sauterne; having first allowed these scollops to boil on the stove for five minutes, moisten with a quart of essence of fish (made with the carcasses and trimmings of the fish used for the scollops), let them boil quickly for ten minutes longer, and then pour the consomme' to them; after they have boiled together two or three minutes, pour the soup into the tureen containing three dozen small quenelles of whiting, in which some lobster coral and puree of mushrooms have been mixed. Ascertain that the seasoning is appropriate, and send to table.

This soup is a species of souchet, and may be varied by using different kinds of fish. It is much esteemed by those who are fond of fish.

381A. TSCHI, OR CABBAGE SOUP A LA RUSSE.

First, cut four onions into small dice, and fry them with a little butter in a stewpan over a slow fire, and when they assume a light yellow-brown color, add to these a white-heart cabbage which has been previously shred fine for the purpose, and, after having continued to fry this also with the onions for about ten minutes, two tablespoonsful of flour should be added; stir the whole well together, moistening with three pints of good consomme, season with a little nutmeg and minionette pepper, and when, after the soup has boiled gently by the side of the stove for about an hour, in order to clarify it, let it be well skimmed; and previously to sending the soup to table, add a plvche of tarragon leaves and some lemon-juice. Previously to pouring the Tschi into the soup-tureen, place therein

NATIONAL SOUPS. 137

about three dozen small sausages made in manner following, viz.: - To four ounces of lean fillet of beef, add an equal quantity of beef suet; first chop, and then pound these well together in a mortar, season with grated nutmeg, pepper, and salt, and some chopped parsley; add three yelks of eggs, mix well together by pounding the whole ten minutes longer, after which proceed to roll the sausage meat into small round or oval shapes the size of a cob-nut; and, after frying these of a light color in a little clarified butter use them as directed above.

382. OLLA PODRIDA, OR SPANISH NATIONAL SOUP.

Place some slices of raw ham at the bottom of the stockpot, add five pounds of gravy beef cut in slices, and a roasted old hen; garnish with the usual vegetables, two cloves, and mace; moisten with a quart of broth, set the stockpot on the fire, and let the broth be reduced to a glaze; fill it up with water as soon as it boils, skim it, and then set the stock to boil gently by the side of the stove. When the consomme has boiled two hours, throw in a large fowl and two partridges trussed for boiling, six pork sausages, and two Spanish savaloys (which are to be had at all the first-rate Italian warehouses), watch the braizing of these, to prevent their being overdone; take them out when they are sufficiently braized, place them upon a dish to get cool, then divide the fowl and partridges into small members, trimming them neatly, and cut the sausages and savaloys also into small round balls, and place all these in a soup-pot, together with three carrots and as many turnips cut into the form of rather large-sized olives, and some shred celery and leeks, previously boiled in consomme with a small lump of sugar; to these must also be added some boiled yellow Spanish peas (garbancas) free from their hulls. After four hours' boiling, strain the stock off, clarify it, and strain it again through a napkin; add it to the fore-named ingredients with a pinch of miuionette pepper; boil the whole for ten minutes, and send to table.

383. TURKISH PILAFF, OR PILAU.

Place a knuckle of veal on some slices of raw ham in a stockpot, also a roasted shoulder of lamb and a large fowl trussed for boiling; fill up with common broth or water, and having skimmed the broth, garnish with the usual vegetables. As soon as the fowl and lamb are done, take them up, and when cold cut the meat off the shoulder of lamb into small cutletlike pieces, and the fowl into neatly-trimmed members. Place these in a small soup-pot with half a pound of Carolina rice, boiled in some of the consomme, after it has been clarified and seasoned with an infusion of rather less than a quarter of an ounce of hay saffron, and cayenne; and then having reduced the consomme to two-thirds of its original quantity, pour it upon the foregoing ingredients, adding six ounces of dried cherries or Sultana raisins; boil these together for a quarter of an hour, and send to table.

This kind of soup is very nutritious, and, from the cayenne and saffron contained in it, is calculated to give tone to the stomach.

138

ITALIAN SOUPS,

COMPRISING

Macaroni Soup d la Royale. Semolina Soup d la Palermo.

„ „ d la Medicos. „, , d la Venitiemie.

„ „ d la St. Pierre. „ „ d la Piaane.

384. MACARONI SOUP A LA ROYALE.

Boil ten ounces of Naples macaroni in two quarts of boiling water, with two ounces of fresh butter, a little rninionette pepper, and salt. When the macaroni has boiled half an hour, drain it off upon a sieve, cut it into half-inch lengths, and boil it in two quarts of good chicken or game consomme for ten minutes; take it off the stove and mix with it a leason of six yelks of eggs, half a pint of cream, two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, and a little rninionette pepper; set the leason in the soup by stirring it on the stove-fire for three minutes, and send to table.

Vermicelli or any other Italian paste may be substituted for the macaroui. This soup is sometimes designated "a Vltalienne."

385. MACARONI SOUP A LA MEDICIS.

Boil ten ounces of Naples macaroni, and cut it into inch lengths; at the same time trim the tails of thirty crayfish, and the same number of quenelles of fowl, colored with crayfish butter; place these in the silver lining of a soup-tureen according to the following directions: -

Butter the bottom of the lining and spread thereon a layer of macaroni, then a layer of grated Parmesan cheese, after which place a layer of crayfish tails; repeat the layer of grated cheese, and place on that a layer of small quenelles: and thus proceed until the several articles prepared for the purpose are disposed of. Then add a pint of strong consomme, and cover the top with grated cheese; melt a small pat of fresh butter over the fire, and sprinkle it on the top of the whole preparation; then set the tureen lining thus filled to gratitude in the oven, which will require about half an hour. Lastly, place the lining ou a dish to be served from the side-table, while the bright clear consomme is to be sent up in another tureen.

In helping the soup at table, first put a small ladleful of the preparation of macaroni, &c, on a soup plate, and add to it a ladleful of the consomme - .

386. MACARONI SOUP A LA ST. PIERRE.

Cut some macaroni that has been boiled, into inch lengths, place them in a stewpan with four ounces of lobster-coral butter and a little cayenne, simmer it gently on the fire for ten minutes, and then place a fourth part in a silver soup lining; on this sprinkle some grated Parmesan cheese, then put a layer of blanched soft roses of mackerel, over which place some grated cheese, again cover this with some prepared scollops of salmon; and thus repeat the foregoing instructions until the ingredients are all used up, finishing this part

ITALIAN SOUPS. 139

of the operation by sprinkling over the whole some grated cheese, and adding a pint of good consomme; lastly, place the lining in the oven to gratinate, which must be carefully attended to. Send the soup to table with another tureen of clear bright consomme, to be served to the guests in the same manner as described in the preceding article.

387. SEMOLINA SOUP A LA PALERMO.

Mix four ounces of wheaten flour with the same quantity of Turkish wheat flour, place these on the paste-board or slab, and having made a hollow in the centre, place in it four yelks of eggs, a little cream, pepper, salt, and nutmeg; proceed to work these into a firmly-kneaded paste. Spread this out very thin with the aid of a rolling-pin, and having cut it into bands an inch wide, shred these so as to resemble vermicelli. Strew these shreds on a large baking sheet covered with paper, and put them to dry for four hours in the hot closet. A quarter of an hour before dinner-time, throw the shreds thus prepared into two quarts of boiling game consomme; skim this, and place the stepwan containing the soup by the side of the stove-tire, to continue gently boiling until the time for serving; then, after adding a pinch of minionette pepper, send to table with some grated Parmesan cheese on a plate, to be handed round with the soup.

388. SEMOLINA SOUP A LA VENITIENNE.

Throw six ounces of semolina into two quarts of boiling consomme of game; after boiling gently by the side of the stove-fire for a quarter of an hour, add a glass of Madeira, two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, half a pint of cream mixed with four yelks of eggs, a little crystallized soluble cayenne, and the juice of half a lemon. Set this preparation on the stove-fire, taking care not to let it curdle, then pour the soup into a tureen containing the fillets of two dozen larks which have been simmered with fine herbs. Stir the soup gently into the tureen, in order to mix the scollops with the semolina. In Italy, the fillets of a small delicious bird, called Beccaficas, are used instead of larks.

389. SEMOLINA SOUP A LA PISANE.

Bone and braize two calf's feet, and having pressed them between two dishes, cut them out into round pieces the size of a shilling, with a tin cutter; place these in a stewpan together with three dozen very small quenelles a la Xavier (No. 257) and a glass of Madeira; allow them to simmer on the fire for five minutes, and add them to a similar quantity and description of soup as directed in the preceding article, but omitting the fillets of larks, and send to table.

Note. - The foregoing soups may be prepared, witn equal success, by using any of the numerous sorts of Italian pastes, instead of keeping to those described for the purpose. The soups may also be infinitely varied by changing tbeir garnishes.

140

PANADAS AND LIGHT SOUPS FOR INFANTS AND

INVALIDS,

COMPRISING

Chicken Panada. Nutritious liquid custards of chicken. Pheasant or Partridge Panada. „ „ game.

Chicken or game custards Ceylon moss gelatinous chicken broth. Venison Panada.

390. CHICKEN PANADA.

Roast off a young fowl, take all the white parts and pound them with the crumb of a French roll soaked in broth; dilute these with a little chicken broth (made from the remains of the roasted fowl) to the consistency of a soft batter or creamy substance; pass it through a tammy as in preparing any other puree. Previous to serving this panada, it should be moderately warmed, and put into custard cups. In the composition of every sort of dietetic preparation for the use of infants and invalids, it is strictly necessary to avoid the use of herbs, vegetables, and spices; even salt should be used sparingly.

391. PHEASANT OR PARTRIDGE PANADA.

Pheasant or partridge panada is prepared in the same manner as described for making the chicken panada; game being substituted for poultry.

392. CHICKEN OR GAME CUSTARDS.

Cut a young fowl into quarters, take the lungs away from the backbone, wash the fowl, and then place it in a stewpan with a little parsley, chervil, half a head of celery, and a turnip. Fill the stewpan with three pints of cold water, place it on the fire, and as soon as it boils, skim it thoroughly, and set it by the side of the fire to remain boiling for an hour; after which strain the broth into a basin through a napkin, and use it in the following manner: -

According to the number of custard-cups required to be filled, place so many yelks of eggs in a basin; to these add the same number of custard-cupsful of prepared chicken broth, and with a spoon or fork, beat these together, in order to mix them thoroughly; then pass them, by pressure, through the tammy, fill the custard-cups, steam them in the usual manner, and send them up quickly.

These custards should be eaten very soon after being made, as they become heavy when warmed a second time.

393. VENISON PANADA.

Take a pound (more or less) of the lean part of either a roasted haunch or neck of venison, mince it, and then pound it with the crumb of a French roll which has been soaked in good broth; dilute with a little consomme', and pass the panada through a tammy as usual. Just before sending this panada up, warm it carefully, so as not to allow it to get too hot, as it would then be liable to become somewhat decomposed and rough, and rather indigestible for a delicate stomach.

PANADAS AND LIGHT SOUPS. 141

394. NUTPJTIOUS LIQUID CUSTARD OF CHICKEN".

Prepare the chicken broth as directed for making chicken custards, take half a pint of this, and mix it thoroughly with two yelks of newlaid ecji's; stir it over the stove-fire, or, if practicable, over the heat of steam, until the mixture becomes somewhat thickened, assuming a soft creamy appearance; pour it into a broth basin or caudle-cup, and let it be instantly served.

895. NUTRITIOUS LIQUID CUSTARD OF GAME.

This sort of custard is prepared similarly to the foregoing, substituting pheasant or partridge for poultry.

896. CEYLON MOSS GELATINOUS CHICKEN BROTH.

Cut a fowl into four parts, take out the lungs, and wash it thoroughly, place it in a stewpan with four ounces of prepared Ceylon moss, adding three pints of water and a little salt; having boiled the broth for threequarters of an hour by the side of a stove-fire, pass it through a napkin, and serve it in a caudle-cup to the invalid.

142

DRESSED FISH IN GENERAL.

TURBOT AND BRILL,

COMPRISING

Turbot, plain boiled. Turbot, d In Marichale.

„ d la Pnrisihine. Fillets of Turbot, d I'Indiemie.

„ broiled d la Proven vale. „ „ d la Ravigotte.

„ d la Careme. „ „ d la Vertpri, or green.

„ d la Vatel. „ „ Rabigotie.

„ d la creme au gratin. „ „ d I'ltalienne.

„ in Matelotte. Normande. „ „ i la Cardinal.

„ d la Bichamel. Brill, - John Dory.

397. PLAIN BOILED TURBOT OR A L'ANGLAISE.

Procure if possible u tnrbot conveyed by land-carriage, of moderate size: the larger fish are never delicate; choose it thick and plump, open it to ascertain that the back-bone is free from color, as when it has a reddish appearance, although perfectly fresh, it is sure to boil of a bad color. Wash the turbot, wipe it dry, and rub it over with the juice of a lemon and a little salt; put it into a fit-sized turbotkettle, add a sufficient quantity of spring-water to cover the fish, then throw in a good handful of salt, and set the turbot on the stove to boil; as soon as the water begins to simmer, skim it thoroughly, and lift the kettle from the fire down by the side, there to remain gently boiling for half an hour, more or less, according to the size of the fish. When the turbot is done, lift it out of the water with the drainer; slip it carefully on to a dish prepared to receive it, and send it to table with two sauce-boats filled with lobster and Dutch sauces (Nos. 42 and 55).

398. TURBOT A LA PARISIENNE.

Choose a turbot weighing about 4 lbs., trim the fins off close, make an incision in the back from head to tail, and, inserting the knife on either side, detach the fish from the bone right up to the fins; then cut the back bone through, close to the head and tail, and carefully separate the under part of the fish from the bone, so as not to run the knife through; bone the turbot in this manner, wipe it with a clean cloth, season it inside with a little pepper and salt, and spread a layer of quenelle force-meat of whitings, mixed with a spoonful of chopped fine herbs, inside. Then butter a large baking-sheet, and place the turbot upon it, with the white side uppermost; moisten with a bottle of French white wine, some essence of mushrooms, and oyster liquor; season with a little pepper and salt, place a buttered paper over the whole, and set the fish to boil on the stove; next put

TURBOT AND BRILL. 143

it in the oven to simmer gently for about three-quarters of an hour, taking care to baste the turbot with its liquor every five minutes, so that it may thus be made to absorb the greater portion while stewing. When the turbot is done, drain it from its liquor on to a large earthen dish, and put it to cool in the larder, reserving the liquor in which it has been stewed to be reduced and mixed with a sufficient quantity of Parisian sauce (No. 40;, to be used for garnishing the turbot when dished up. When the turbot is cold, place it on a buttered baking-sheet, and spread it over with a thin layer of reduced Alleinande sauce, over which shake some very finely-sifted bread-crumbs, fried of a light color; moisten the fish with a little consomme and wine, and put it in the oven about twenty minutes before sending it to table, that it may get thoroughly warm through; when about to dish it up, slide it gently off the baking-sheet on to a dish, and sauce it round with part of the Parisian sauce prepared for the purpose; garnish it round with groups of crayfish tails, muscles, oysters, button-mushrooms, and small round truffles, tossed in a little glaze to give them a bright appearance. Send up the remainder of the sauce in a boat.

399. BOILED TURBOT A LA PROVENCALS.

Procure a small plump turbot, make an incision in the back, and, with a strong knife, cut away an inch of the spine, trim the fins close, score it rather deep on the back, and then place it on an earthen dish to steep for four hours in a marinade made of the following ingredients: sliced carrot, onions, sprigs of parsley, bay-leaf and thyme, three cloves of garlic, pepper and salt, the juice of a lemon, and a gill of salad-oil. Let the turbot be frequently rubbed and turned in this marinade, that it may be thoroughly impregnated with its flavor. About three-quarters of an hour before dinner, remove every particle of vegetable from the turbot, place it, with the white side under, on a gridiron (previously rubbed with chalk of whiting), and set it to broil on a clear fire, of moderate heat: twenty minutes will suffice to broil it on one side; it must then be carefully removed on to a deep baking-sheet, upon its back, first placing the whole of the marinade in the baking-sheet or dish; moisten with half a bottle of light white wine, and then put the turbot in the oven to bake; observing that it must be basted every five minutes with its liquor. When the turbot is done, lift it carefully on to its dish, put the whole of the marinade in which it has been baked into a stewpan with the remaining half bottle of wine; boil the whole together for five minutes, strain it with pressure through a tammy into a stewpan, and reduce it with some Allemande sauce: add a pint of anchovy butter, some chopped and blanched parsley, a spoonful of capers, and a little cayenne; garnish the turbot round with this sauce, adding groups of muscles fried in batter, and some lobster cut into neat scollops, and tossed in lobster-coral to give them a scarlet hue. Send some of the sauce to table in a boat.

400. TURBOT A LA CAREME.

Prepare a turbot according to the foregoing directions, omitting the garlic; when it is done, reduce the liquor, and incorporate it it in a sufficient quantity of Dutch sauce, having Supreme sauce for

144 DRESSED FISH IN GENERAL,

its foundation; add some lobster butter, cayenne, and lemon-jaice; work the sauce well together over the fire, and pour it round the turbot; glaze the fish lightly, garnish it with groups of fine large crayfish and quenelles of whiting colored with some green Bavigotte (No. 185). Serve the remainder of the sauce in a boat.

400a. turbot a la vatel.

Prepare and dress a turbot according to the directions given for turbot a la Parisienne (No. 398); when done, drain and place it on a dish, reduce the liquor in which it has been baked, and incorporate it with some Supreme sauce, finished with green Bavigotte butter (No. 185); add two dozen oysters, some button mushrooms, and thirty crayfish tails, lemon-juice, and cayenne. Cover the turbot with this sauce, and garnish it round with fried smelts, trussed with their tails in their mouths, (and previously boned and stuffed), with an inner row of small fillets of soles, which have been contises, one-half with truffles, and the other with thin scollops of the red part of the tail of a lobster turned round, and simmered in "a little butter in a sauta-pan. Serve as usual some of the sauce in a boat.

401. TURBOT A LA CREME AU GRATIN. Boil a turbot, drain it on a dish, and while it cools, prepare some cream Bechamel sauce (No. 5); reduce it, and add the yelks of four eggs, four ounces of grated fresh Parmesan cheese, a little minionette pepper, grated nutmeg, and lemon-juice. With a spoon cut the turbot into flakes, and put them in the sauce, taking care to waste none of the delicate meaty part of the fins, the cheeks, and the glutinous membranes of the fish. Stir the whole lightly together, and pile it neatly in the shape of a dome on the dish; cover it thoroughly and smoothly with some finely-sifted bread-crumbs fried and mixed with a fourth part of grated Parmesan cheese; garnish round with fried croquettes of potatoes; and twenty minutes before sending to table, put the turbot thus prepared into the oven to gratinaie; pass the redhot salamander over it to melt the cheese, and pour round the inner circle of the croquettes some Bechamel sauce made with good rich cream. Send up some of the sauce in a boat.

401A. TURBOT A LA CREME AU GRATIN, ANOTHER WAY.

This, as well as the foregoing, may be prepared from the remnants of a previously-dressed fish, as follows:

Place the flakes of turbot in a stewpan with a sufficient quantity of cream Bechamel sauce (No. 6), pile it up in the centre of the dish, shake some grated Parmesan cheese on the surface, pour some double cream over this, and having placed the dish over a moderate stovefire in order to gratinaie the fish slightly, at the same time hold a redhot salamander over it to give the surface a very light brown color; which, when satisfactorily terminated, some potato croquettes, or pastry fieurons, should be neatly placed round the edge of the dish and immediately served.

402. TURBOT AS MATELOTTE NORMANDE.

Prepare a small plump turbot in every respect according to the directions given for dressing a turbot d la Parisienne (No. 398);

TURBOT AND BRILL. 145

when done, drain and place it on a dish; reduce the liquor, add to it some Allemande sauce, in which mix two pats of butter, some chopped and blanched parsley, the juice of a lemon, and a little cayenne; work the sauce well together on the fire, and then add two dozen buttonmushrooms, the same quantity of blanched oysters or muscles, and an equal proportion of very small quenelles of whiting-; cover the turbot with the sauce, and garnish it round with some trimmed large crayfish and glazed croutons of fried bread.

403. TURBOT A LA BECHAMEL.

Prepare some good rich cream Bechamel sauce (Xo. 6), put the Hakes of some boiled turbot in it, toss them lightly together on the (ire, serve the turbot piled up on the dish in the form of a dome, and garnish it round with potato croquettes, jleurons of puff paste, or croutons of bread.

This method of dressing turbot, as well as turbot a la creme au gratia, is generally had recourse to for the purpose of turning the previous day's fish to a good account; nevertheless the sauces, in both cases, really deserve that the turbot should be boiled for the express purpose.

Turbot dressed as above may also be served in a vol-au-vent.

404. TURBOT A LA MARECHALE.

Prepare a turbot as for Matelotte Norma nde (Xo. 402), drain it, and set it on a dish to cool; then spread it over on both sides with some reduced Allemande sauce; shake some fine bread-crumbs over this, and after dipping it in some eggs seasoned with a little salt, and whipped up in a dish for the purpose, bread-crumb it over again thoroughly. About twenty minutes before dinner, place the turbot on a wire receiver, and fry it in a convenient-sized pan, containing some clean hog's lard, heated to a proper degree. As soon as the coating on the turbot is colored of a very light brown color, take the fish out of the fat on to a cloth, press it lightly with a clean napkin, in order to absorb any grease there may be on it, and placing it on a baking-sheet, keep it in the hot closet till required to be dished up, put the turbot then on a dish, and pour round the following sauce: -

Reduce the liquor in which the turbot has been baked, and add to it some Allemande sauce, and mix in a pat of anchovy butter, some green Bavigotte, lemon-juice, and cayenne. Next, garnish round with quenelles of whiting shaped with two dessert-spoons, one-half of which must be colored with lobster-coral, and the other with some black truffles chopped very fine, and mixed in the quenelle force-meat previously to their being shaped. Send to table some of the sauce as usual in a boat.

405. FILLETS OF TURBOT A L'iNDIENNE.

Cut a small turbot into neatly-trimmed fillets or scollops, set them carefully in a deep sauta-pan with a little fresh butter, and two spoonsful of Cook's excellent fish curry paste; put the lid on tiie sauta-pan, and place it on a slow fire, or in the oven, to simmer gently for twenty minutes; then take it out, and add thereto some Veloute 9

146 DRESSED FISH IX GENERAL.

sauce (No. 2), and set the whole to boil together a few minutes on the stove; then dish up the fillets, one overlaying the other - in a circle; pass the sauce through a tammy, make it hot, and mix in a pat of butter; mask the fillets with the sauce, and serve.

406. FILLETS OF TURBOT A LA RAVIGOTTE.

Prepare the fillets of turbot as directed in No. 405, place them in a sauta-pan with some fresh butter, seasou with pepper and salt, and lemon-juice; ten minutes before dinner set them on a moderate fire, and when sufficiently simmered on one side, turn them carefully on the other, so as not to break them; when done, drain the fillets on a napkin, and dish them up, overlaying each other - so as to form a close circle; sauce them with some white Ravigotte sauce (No. 20), and send to table.

407. FILLETS OF TURBOT A LA VERTRE.

Prepare the fillets as for the previous entree, and dish them up in a similar manner; fill the centre with thirty crayfish tails; pour some sauce d la Ravigotte (No. 21), over the fillets, and serve.

408. FILLETS OF TURBOT A L'lTALIENNE.

Prepare, -dress, and fish up the fillets of turbot as in the previous case, and sauce the entree with some brown Italian sauce (No. 12), in which incorporate a pat of anchovy butter and a teaspoonful of chopped capers.

•409. FILLETS OF TURBOT A LA CARDINAL.

Cut, dress, and dish up the fillets of turbot as directed in former cases; sauce them with some Cardinal sauce (No. 48), and garnish the centre of the entree with prawns or crayfish tails, small quenelle* of whiting or lobster, and a few small button-mushrooms.

Fillets of turbot may be dressed in a variety of ways, according to the sauce or garnish used, from which accordingly the fillets derive their denomination: as, for instance, d la Matt re d' Hotel, a la sauce Barnard, or Lobster sauce, d la sauce aux Huitres, or Oyster sauce, &c, &c, &c.

410. BRILL.

This species of fish, bearing a great resemblance to turbot, may be dressed in every variety of form in which turbot is capable of b insr sent to table; it may also be served plain, boiled with either Lobster. Shrimp, Crayfish, Anchovy, Caper, Dutch, Oyster, Muscle, or Ravigotte sauce.

411. JOHN DORY.

This kind of fish, although a great favorite with many, is very seldom sent to table in any other shape than as a plain boiled fish, either with Lobster or Dutch sauce; it may, however, be broiled with Champagne sauce, for which see turbot dressed in that manner (No. 398).

147

SALMON,

COMPRISING

Salmon d la Chambord. Salmon d 1 1 Marlchale.

„ d la Regence. „ " & V Anglaise.

„ d la Genoise. „ d I'Ecoasaise.

„ d la Cardinal. Slices of Salmon d la Tartare.

„ d la Victoria. Matelotte of Salmon.

„ „ d la VSnitihine.

412. SALMON A LA CHAMBORD.

Take a whole salmon, and when properly cleansed, truss it in the shape of the letter S, which is effected in the following manner: - Thread a trussing needle with some twine, pass this through the eyes of the fish, and fasten the jowl by tying the string under the jaw; then pass the needle through the centre part of the body of the salmon, draw the string tight, and fasten it round the extremity of the tail; the fish will then assume the desired form.

Boil the salmon in salt and water; when done, drain it on a dish, and immediately take off the whole of the skin, and put the fish to cool in the larder. In the meantime, prepare some quenelle forcemeat of whitings, part of which should be colored with some pounded lobster coral, and as soon as the salmon is cold, spread a layer of this over the whole surface of the fish, taking care to smooth it with the blade of a large knife dipped in hot water; this part of the process being completed, ornament the salmon by laying some fillets of soles which have buen contises with truffles in a slanting position across the back, fastening the ends under the belly of the salmon by means of the force-meat; mark out the head and eyes of the fish with fillets of black truffles. Then place the salmon on a buttered drainer of a fish-kettle, and cover the fish with thin layers of fat bacon; moisten with a bottle of dry Champagne, garnish with a fagot of parsley, thyme and bay-leaf, sliced carrot, and onion; place a buttered paper over the whole, and put the lid on. Next, make it boil on the stove-fire, and then put it in the oven or on a slow fire to simmer gently for three-quarters of an hour; drain the salmon and place it on a dish, and put it in the hot closet till wanted for table.

Meanwhile, strain the liquor in which the salmon has been braized, reduce it to a glaze, add some finished Espagnole or brown sauce, essence of mushrooms, a little grated nutmeg, a pat of anchovy butter, and lemon-juice; and pass the sauce through a tammy into a bain-marie.

Just before sending to table, remove the layers of bacon, and arrange groups of quenelles of whiting, mushrooms, truffles, large crayfish, and soft roes of mackerel, round the salmon, sauce the fish round in the inner circle with the hot sauce, and serve. Let there be some of the sauce, with truffles, mushrooms, and small quenelles of whiting in it, sent to table in a boat.

148

DRESSED FISH IX GENERAL.

413. SALMON A LA REGENCE.

Boil a whole salmon, remove the skin, and mask it over with strong glaze, mixed with some pounded lobster coral; place the salmon on an oval crbustade of fried bread, about three inches high, on the dish; pour round it some Regent's sauce, finished with some anchovy butter and lemon-juice; and garnish it with alternate groups of quenelles of salmon (mixed with some finely-chopped truffles), some large crayfish, button-mushrooms, and small fillets of soles decorated with green gherkins, rolled in a spiral shape, and simmered in a little butter and lemon-juice. Form a decoration on the back and head of the fish, with some ornamented fillets of soles; send up some of the sauce in a boat.

414. SALMON A LA GENOISE.

Boil a salmon, skin it, and place it on a dish; mask it with Genoise sauce (No. 30), and garnish it round with lobster quenelles, buttonnnishrooms, some glazed tails of very small lobsters, quenelles of whiting, half of which must be colored with extract of spinach or Bacigotte herbs, and the remainder with chopped truffles. All these garnishes are appropriate in ornamenting this dish, but it is desirable not to use too many sorts of garnishes in the preparation of one dish, so as not to produce an unseemly species of medley. Send up some Genoise sauce in a boat.

415. SALMON A LA CARDINAL.

Boil and skin a salmon that has been previously trussed, as directed in the first article of this chapter; cover it with a thin smooth coating of lobster quenelles; ornament it with a representation of the scales of the fish, by placing alternate rows of halfmoons of truffles on its surface, marking out the eyes and gills, also with fillets of truffles. Cover the salmon with very thin layers of fat bacon, moisten with half a bottle of white wine, aud a ladleful of good broth; cover with a buttered paper, place the lid on the fish

SALMON. 149

kettle containing the salmon, and set it to simmer on a moderate fire for three-quarters of an hour. Then drain the salmon, place it in a dish, on a cr';,ustade, and keep it in the hot closet till wanted. Meanwhile, reduce the liquor in which the salmon has been braized with the remaining half-bottle of wine, and mix with it some Cardinal sance (No. 48); remove the layers of bacon, glaze the fish lightly and sauce it. Garnish it round with groups of truffles, mushrooms, crayfish tails, and quenelles of lobster.

As usual, send up some of the sauce in a boat.

416. SALMON A LA VICTOKIA.

Braize a salmon in a mirepoix (No. 237) made with claret; when the fish is done, skin it, and place it on a low cri,ustade, on a dish. Then, after divesting the mirepoix in which the fish has been done, of all grease, put one-third of it into a stewpan, boil it down to a demiglaze, and work it in with some brown sauce; add a pat of anchovy butter, and a good piece of lobster butter, cayenne, and lemon-juice; mix the whole well together, and pour the sauce over the salmon. Garnish it round with groups of crayfish tails, fried fillets of smelts, and small quenelles of whiting.

Send some of the sauce up to table in a boat, and put some thin scollops of lobster in it.

417. SALMON A LA MAEECHALE.

Truss a salmon in the shape of the letter S, boil it in salt and water, skin and cover it with a coating of reduced Allemande sauce, and set it to cool in the larder; then shake some very fine bread-crumbs over it, and after fixing them on the sauce by gentle pressure with the blade of a knife, egg the salmon over with a paste-brush dipped in three whole eggs beaten up with a little nutmeg, pepper, ajid salt; again shake some bread-crumbs over it, smoothing them on the salmon with the blade of a knife; place the fish on a deep baking-dish, previously buttered for the purpose, moisten with a little white wine and consomme, or some mirepoix. About three-quarters of an hour before dinner-time, put the salmon in the oven, and bake it of a deep yellow or very light brown color; then place the salmon carefully on a dish, sauce it round with Crayfish or Supreme Dutch sauce, in which has been added an infusion of horse-radish, and garnish round with a border of quenelles of gurnets, and fried smelts trussed as whitings are for frying.

418. SALMON A L'ANGLAISE.

Boil the salmon, either whole or in slices, in salt and water; when done, dish it up on a silver drainer, without a napkin. Plain boiled fish should never be sent to table on napkins, nor garnished round with cold wet parsley, neither is it advisable to garnish with fried small fish, the latter thereby generally becoming soddened and spoilt; the mixed vapor arising from both kinds of fish, when thus covered up, is detrimental to the flavor of each.

Dish up the salmon, and send it to table with either of the following sauces: Lobster, Shrimp, Crayfish, Dutch, Parsley and butter, or Muscle sauce.

150 DRESSED FISH IN GENERAL.

419. SALMON A L'ECOSSAISE.

To dress salmon or trout in perfection in this style, it is quite neces sary that the fish be dressed a short time after being caught: sportsmen well know that it is only while this kind of fish is yet almost alive, that it retains that white creamy substance which appears between the flakes of the boiled fish, and which makes it so truly delicious: this is little known to the London epicure. If it be practicable to procure what is termed a live salmon, take out the gills, draw it, wash the fish, and crimp it on either side, by making deep incisions with a sharp knife, and then throw it into a large vessel, containing clean, cold, spring water, fresh from the pump - to remain there about two hours. ]n crimping any sort offish, the colder the water is the better; the coldness of the water, petrifying the fish to a certain degree, gives it the firmness so much desired. As soon as the salmon or trout is crimped, put it into the fish-kettle containing boiling water in sufficient quantity to cover the fish, at the same time throwing in a good handful of salt; let the fish boil on the side of the fire, remembering that crimped fish require considerably less time in boiling than when plain. As soon as the fish is done, take it out of the water immediately: leaving fish of any kind in the water after it is done, detracts from its flavor and firmness. When the salmon is dished up, send it to table with Lobster sauce, Parsley and butter, or the following sauce: - Put half a pound of fresh-churned butter into a clean stewpan, add a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley, a little grated nutmeg, a pinch of minionette pepper, some salt and juice of lemon; set the stewpan in a bath of hot water, and keep stirring the butter quickly as it melts, with a wooden spoon; when the whole of the butter is melted, work the sauce well together, and seud to table. With crimped salmon or trout, this kind of melted butter will be found to surpass all other

sauces.

«

420. SLICES OF SALMON A LA TARTARE.

Steep some slices of salmon in a dish with a little salad-oil, pepper and salt, and a few sprigs of parsley; about half an hour before dinner, place the slices ol salmon on a clear gridiron rubbed over with whiting, and broil them on a clear fire; when done on one side, turn them on the other: both sides should be of a fine light brown; dish them up, and send to table with either some Tartare, Cambridge, or Remoulade sauce iu a boat (Nos. 94, 95, 96).

421. MATELOTTE OF SALMON.

Boil and take the skin off one or more slices of salmon, mask them with some glaze mixed with pounded lobster-coral; place them on a dish and garnish with a rich Matelotte ragout (No. 193).

422. SLICES OF SALMON A LA VENITIENNE.

Boil, trim, and glaze the slices of salmon, as in the foregoing case, and sauce them round with a sauce a la Vcnitienne (No. 26). Garnish with a border of croquettes of fillets of soles.

151

T R U T,

COMPRISING

Trout d V ItaUenne. Truut i VAvrore.

„ d la Gatscoune. „ d In J'en'yitnix.

,, d la Cfievali&re., , in paper cases, with fine herbs.

,, d la Vertpri., , a hi I'oyale.

„ au giatin., . broiled, with Dutch sauce.

423. TROUT A L1TALIEXXE.

Boil the trout in salt and water, divest it of the shin, glace and place it on a dish; then mask it with some Italian sauce in which has been mixed a pat of anchovy butter, a very little nutmeg, and lemonjuice. Garnish with crayfish and quenelles of whiting.

424. TROUT A LA GASCOXXE.

Boil and dish up the trout as directed in the foregoing instance, and pour round it some of the sauce denominated d la Gasconne (Xo. 08). Garnish with fillets of soles prepared as paujoictles (for which see No. 1131), and between each paupirlle place a group of crayfish tails that have been tossed in a little glaze, and some pounded lobster-coral.

425. TROUT A LA CHEVALIERE.

Boil, skin, and trim one or more trout, and cover them all over with some UUxellea or Papillotte sauce: when the sauce, by getting cold, has become set on the trout, roll them in ^y line breadcrumbs, and afterward egg them over and roll them again in the bread-crumbs, in which Parmesan cheese has been mixed in the proportion of one-third; place the trout on a buttered baking-sheet, and about half an hour before dinner, first sprinkle them over with a little melted fresh butter, and then put them in the oven to be baked of a line light brown color. Dish them up and sauce round with the following ragout:¦ - Reduce half a bottle of dry Champagne or Sauterne, with some essence of mushrooms, down to one-fourth part, then add a ladleful of Allemande sauce, incorporate with it a pat of anchovy butter, a little lobster-coral, nutmeg, cayenne, and lemonjuice; sauce the trout round, and garnish with a border of small fillets of soles that have been contiscts, one half with truffles, and the remainder with tongue, and then turned round in the shape of halfmoons, and simmered in a little butter, salt, and lemon-juice. In the inner circle, place small groups of prawns' tails tossed in lobstercoral and glaze, soft roes of mackerel tossed in a spoonful of sauce, colored with some green Ravigotte, and between the trout a row of large crayfish trimmed and glazed. Send up some of the sauce in a boat.

426. TROUT AU GRATIX.

Parboil the trout sufficiently to remove the skin, ami, when trimmed, place them on a buttered sauta-pan; season with pepper and salt, sprinkle over them a good spoonful of chopped parsley, three times that quantity of chopped mushrooms, and two chopped shalots; add a small ladleful of finished brown sauce, and two or

152 DRESSED FISH IN GENERAL. »

three glasses of Sherry. Half an hour more or less before sending to table, according to the size of the fish, put the trout thus prepared into the oven to bake, taking care to baste it every five minutes; when done, put the trout out on a dish, reduce the sauce, if necessary, incorporate iu it a pat of anchovy butter, add the juice of half a lemon, and pour the sauce over the trout; then shake some baked bread-crumbs bruised fine, over the whole, replace the fish in the oven for five minutes, and then send them to table after placing round them a border of lobster croquelles.

427. TROUT l'aurore.

Boil and trim one or more trout, mask them over with some reduced Ailemande sa uce, put them on a silver dish, and then place a wire sieve over the trout; rub the yelks of six or more eggs boiled hard through the sieve with a wooden spoon, on the fish, taking care that the curling shreds which fall through the sieve cover the surface of the trout equally. About half an hour before dinner, put the trout in the oven to get colored of a fine amber hue; pour round them some Aurora sauce (No. 41), and garnish them with a border of muscles fried iu batter.

428. TROUT IN CASES, WITH FINE HERBS.

Procure as many small trout as may suffice for a dish, clean, parboil, trim, and place them each in a separate paper case previously oiled, and then baked for five minutes, for the purpose of hardening the paper to enable it to contain the sauce; add to each trout a moderate quantity of fine herbs' sauce (No. 14); put them in the oven twenty minutes before dinner-time to bake, and when done, dish them up, and send to table with some of the sauce in a boat.

429. TROUT A LA ROYALE.

Clean and draw a fine trout, stuff it with some quenelle forcemeat of whitings, stew it with a bottle of Chablis wine, a few mushrooms, parsley, green onions, thyme, and a bay-leaf, pepper-corns, and a blade of mace: when done, remove the skin, glaze, and put it on its dish in the hot closet till recpiired for dishing up. Then strain the liquor in which the trout has been stewed, reduce it to half glaze, add to it some Supreme sauce, work in a pat of anchovy butter, a little cayenne pepper, and lemon-juice, and then pour the sauce inro a stewpan containing some small quenelles of whiting, button-mushrooms, and prawns' tails. Allow the whole to boil together for a few minutes, sauce the trout, and garnish them round with a border of crovstades of quenelle of whiting, poached, breadcrumbed, and fried; the interior should be removed and filled with soft roes of mackerel tossed in a little of the sauce

430. BROILED TROUT, WITH DUTCH SAUCE.

Split a trout at the back, oil it over, season with pepper and salt; just before dinner-time, broil it, and send it to table with some Dutch sauce in a boat separately.

In addition to the different methods given here for dressing trout, this kind of fish may be prepared in every variety of form and style in which salmon is sent to table.

153

STURGEON",

COMPRISING

Sturgeon d la Beaufort. Sturgeon d la Bourgnignotte. „ d la Cardinal. „ d I'Ltdiinne. v

„ d la Ginoise. „ ati gratin with fine herbs.

„ d la Danphine. „ d la Ruxse.

„ d la Perigord. „ d I'Anglaise.

431. STURGEON A LA BEAUFORT.

Choose a small sturgeou, draw, skin, and truss it in the shape ot the leter S; braize it in a mirepoix moistened with sherry, or with common broth, and a little brandy. When the fish is done, drain it raid put it in the larder to cool; then mask it all over with a coating of quenelle force-meat of whitings; observing that the form of the head should be restored by covering that part of the sturgeon with some of the force-meat mixed with some lobster-coral. Form the eyes, mouth, and gills, with some black truffles cut into shapes for the purpose. Place some fillets of soles previously contises with truffles, crosswise along the back of the sturgeon, allowing the space of an inch to intervene between each fillet of sole, which spaces are to be filled up by the insertion of crayfish tails, trimmed and secured by being stuck into the force-meat in close rows; then cover the fish with very thin layers of fat bacon, place it on a drainer, and put it ill the braizer with a little of the mirepoix in which it has been braized. About an hour before dinner-time, put it in the oven or on a slow fire, with live embers upon the lid, and after the fish has simmered gently, without boiling, during the time allotted, take it out of the braize upon the drainer, and after divestiug it of the layers of bacon, slide it off the drainer on to its dish; sauce it round with a rich Matelotte sauce made with Sauterne wine, add also some of the liquor in which the sturgeon has been braized; garnish round with alternate groups of the soft roes of mackerel (cut in halves, blanched, and fried in batter) and some dessert-spoon quenelles of lobster.

432. STURGEON A LA CARDINAL.

Procure a prime cut of sturgeon weighing about 12 lbs.; remove its skin in the following manner: - Place the piece of sturgeon on the kitchen table, lengthwise before you, so as to have a command on either side; then take a long thin-bladed knife, insert its point immediately between the flesh and skin, run the knife right up, keeping close to the back fin, and minding that the edge of the knife be kept to the left; press, with the palm of the left hand, on the skin of the fish, drawing the knife to and fro, so as to sever the skin from the flesh; and after effecting this on one side, repeat it on the other. Replace the skin over the sturgeon, and fasten it on with a string, in order to preserve the color of the fish; at the same time taking care to give shape and appearance to the sturgeon. Then put it into a fish-kettle or braizing-pan on the drainer belonging to it, moisten with a fjood wine mirepoix, and set it to braize with fire under and over. If the quality of the sturgeon be good, about four hours' gentle

154

DRESSED FISH IN GENERAL.

boiling will suffice to braize it; the fish must be well basted with its liquor every now and then. When the sturgeon is done, take it up, remove the skin, drain, and afterward mask it with some stiff glaze, in which has been mixed some pounded lobster-coral in sufficient quantity to give the sturgeon a bright scarlet color; form on its centre a palm or star, with some contises fillets of soles. The ornamental skewers that appear in the woodcut, must, if used - which is not strictly essential - all be garnished with a large truffle, crayfish, mushroom, quenelle, and truffle. Pour some Cardinal sauce (No. 48) round it, garnish with a border of tails of very small lobsters, and alternate groups of small quenelles of whiting, button-mushrooms, and truffles.

433. STURGEON A LA GENOISE.

Prepare the sturgeon as in either of the foregoing instances, and after having glazed and dished it up, pour some Genoise sauce No. 30) round it; garnish with a border of large crayfish, and servo.

434. STURGEON A LA DAUPHINE.

Pare off the whole of the skin of a prime cut of sturgeon, weighing about 8 lbs.; garnish the inside to its full extent with some quenelle force-meat of whiting, mixed with some, chopped and simmered fine herbs; wrap the sturgeon in thin layers of bacon - secured on with string; set the sturgeon to braize in some wine mirepoix; when done, drain it and put it to cool in the larder, after which cover it well over - first divesting it of the bacon, &c, - with a coating of stiffly -reduced Allemande sauce, and when the sauce has cooled upon the fish, bread-crumb it in the usual manner, drop a little clarified butter over it through a straining-spoon, put it on a drainer into a deep baking-dish, and set it in the oven to lu baked of a light color. Then place it on a dish, sauce with Sturgeon sauce (No. 56), garnish with an outer row of quenelles of gurnets,

STURGEON. 155

mixed with some chopped and blanched parsley, and garnish the inner circle with alternate groups of thin scollops of lobster (tossed in a little lobster-coral butter, to render them of a bright scarlet color), and some button mushrooms and scollops of gurnets tossed in a spoonful of Bechamel sauce. Stick on four ornamental Atelets, or silver skewers, garnished each with a large truffle, quenelle, crayfish, and mushroom.

435. STURGEON" A LA PERIGORD.

Prepare the sturgeon as in the preceding case, but instead of breadcrumbing it, glaze and dish it up; sauce it with a good Perigueux sauce (Xo. 23), in which has been mixed some of its own liquor boiled down to glaze, a pat of anchovy butter, and a little lemon-juice; gar nish with a border of truffle crjustades made as follows: -

Choose a dozen or eighteen large truffles of equal size, boil them in some wine mirepoix, cut a piece from the top, of the thickness of a penny piece, scoop out the inside of the truffles, and cut the produce into thin scollops, which after mixing with a little of the sauce, replace in the truffles; cover them with some small fillets of soles contises with some red tongue, and turned round in the shapes and size of half-acrown piece, and simmered in a little butter. Send up some of the sauce to table in a boat.

436. STURGEON A LA BOURGUIGNOTTE.

Stuff and braize the sturgeon according to the foregoing directions, trim, glaze, and dish it up; then pour some Bourguignotte sauce (Xo. 28) round it, garnish with groups of mushrooms, glazed button-onions, small quenelles, and crayfish tails.

Send some of the sauce to table in a boat.

437. STURGEON A L'lNDIENNE.

Braize the sturgeon in some wine mirepoix, take about a pint of the liquor, reduce and mix it in some Indian curry sauce (No. 47) prepared for the purpose, add a pat of anchovy butter, and some lemonjuice, sauce the sturgeon, and garnish it round with a border of rice or icslacles, filled with curried prawns or shrimps; ornament it with four Atelets - each garnished with a large crayfish, a contise fillet of sole, and a fine smelt, fried: the smelt here alluded to must be trussed previously to its being fried, and the point of a skewer run through its tail and eyes, and again through the centre of the body, also through the fillet of sole, and the large crayfish. Send up, as usual in such cases, some of the sauce in a boat.

438. STURGEON AU GRATIN, WITH FINE HERBS.

This method of dressing sturgeon should be resorted to only when it happens that a sufficient remnant is left from the previous day's dinner. In such a case, cut the sturgeon into neatly-trimmed scollops, and toss these in some reduced Allemande sauce, incorporated with some of the essence of the sturgeon - previously boiled down to glaze; add some fine herbs, lemon-juice, a little grated nutmeg, and half a pat of anchovy butter; mix the whole well together; put the scollops on a silver dish, piled up in the form of a dome; cover them with some fried bread-crumbs, mixed with one-third part of

156 DRESSED FISH IN GENERAL.

grated fresh Parmesan cheese. About twenty minutes before dinnertime, place the dish in the oven to gratinate the scollops: pass the redhot salamander over them, to melt the cheese; pour round some of the sauce reserved for the purpose; garnish with some croquettes of stur geon, lobster, or potatoes, and send to table.

439. STURGEON A LA RUSSE.

Braize the sturgeon as usual, either in some wine mirepoir, or merely in vinegar and water, when economy is an object. When the sturgeon is done, take off the skin, trim, and mask it with some stiff glaze mixed with some pounded lobster-coral; ornament it on the centre with some small fillets of gurnets contises with green gherkins, - previously placed in a buttered sauta-pan, in the shape of half-moons, and simmered in a little butter; at each end place a row of turned olives; pour round it some rich Genoise sauce (No. 30) - finished with a good piece of lobster butter, cayenne, and lemon-juice, a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley, two spoonsful of capers, some turned olives, two dozen crayfish tails, and about the same quantity of small quenelles of anchovies. Garnish round the inner edjBB of the dish with some smelts trussed in the same way as whitings, and fried.

440. STURGEON A L'ANGLAISE

Trim and skin a fine piece of sturgeon - or a small whole fish; line the inside with some well-seasoned ordinary veal-stuffing; replace the skin, and secure it with string; put the sturgeon on a drainer in the fish-kettle; garnish with carrot, onion, parsley, thyme, and bay-leaf, mace, peppercorns, and six cloves, a handful of trimmings of mushrooms, and a little salt; moisten with a bottle of port wine; cover with a well-buttered paper, and set it on the fire to boil; then place it on a slow fire to stew gently till it is done. Xext drain, trim, and glaze it; place it on a dish, and put it in the hot closet until dinner-time. Meanwhile, take some of the liquor in which the sturgeon has been stewed, with three glasses of good Port wine, and boil the whole down to half-glaze, and add it to some finished Espagnole, or brown sauce; work in a pat of anchovy butter, and two pats of fresh butter, a little cayenne, grated nutmeg, and lemon-juice; pour the sauce into a stewpan containing some buttonmushrooms, scollops of lobster, and small quenelle of whiting, colored with some very fine chopped and blanched parsley; allow the whole to boil up for a minute on the stove; sauce the sturgeon over with this ragout; garnish it round with a border of large crayfish, and serve.

Sturgeon, in addition to the preceding modes of preparation, may be dressed similarly to salmon, in all its varieties.

157

COD FISH,

COMPRISING

p oil. and Oyster Sauce. Crimped slices of Cod d la Hollandaise. Do. stuffed and baked. „, , „ d la Colbert.

Do. d la crime au gratin. „ „ „ in Matelotte Nor Crimped slices of Cod, and Oyster Sauce. mande.

„ ., „ d la Seville. Scollops of Cod d la Bechamel.

Fillets of Cod d I'lndiinne. Slices of crimped Cod d la Maitre d'H6tel.

Baked Cod's head.

441. COD, AND OYSTER SAUCE.

Boil the cod, whether it be crimped or plain, in boiling spring water, into which throw a handful of salt; as soon as the fish is done, drain it instantly, and place it on a dish, with a clean wet napkin over it, to keep it moist: just before dinner, take off the napkin, and send the cod to table with a sauce-boat full of white Oyster sauce (No. 50).

Cod-fish is rarely dressed whole, as, in addition to its unwieldy size, the length of time required to boil so large a fish deprives it materially of its peculiar attraction, which is never so effectually obtained as when the fish is crimped, and cut into slices, previously to its being boiled.

442. COD STUFFED AND BAKED.

Clean, trim, and stuff a cod with some well-seasoned veal-stuffing; secure this by sewing up the belly; then truss the fish in the shape of the letter S; make several deep incisions on either side, and place it in a deep baking dish previously well spread with fresh butter; season with chopped parsley and mushrooms, pepper and salt; moisten with half a bottle of Sherry, and the liquor of two dozen oysters; then set the fish in the oven to bake; and every ten minutes, or oftener, baste it with its own liquor; when it is nearly done, sprinkle it over with some fine raspings of bread, and again put it in the oven for ten minutes longer. When the cod is baked, draw the strings out of it; place it on its dish, then pour two glasses of Sherry into the dish in which the cod has been baked, and also a little consomme - to detach the glaze from round the pan; pass the whole through a tammy into a stewpan; add some brown sauce; reduce the whole to a proper consistency; work in a pat of anchovy butter, a little cayenne, and lemonjuice, beard the oysters, and add them to the sauce; pour it round the cod, and send to table.

443. COD A LA CEEME AU GRATIN.

Is prepared in a similar manner to tubot a la crtme au gratin (for which see No. 401).

444. CRIMPED SLICES OF COD AND OYSTER SAUCE.

Put crimped slices of cod in boiling spring water containing a handful of salt, as before directed; as soon as it boils up again, set the fish-kettle by the side of the stove to continue boiling for about a quarter of au hour; when done, drain and dish up the fish with

158 DRESSED FISH IN GENERAL.

some pieces of liver and charlton*, - which should be boiled apart from the fish, so that the oil contained in the liver may not spoil the color or flavor of the cod. Send up to table with a boat of Oyster sauce (No. 50).

445. SLICES OF COD A LA SEVILLE.

Wash and dry half a pound of Carolina rice; fry it in salad-oil, drain it on a sieve, and afterward put it into a large fricandeau pan; then cut some pieces of crimped cod, about four inches square, and fry them of a fine color in some salad-oil, after which drain and place them on the rice. Next cut a Spanish onion into very thin slices, and fry these in some of the oil used for the fish; drain off the oil and add six large ripe tomatas, from which the seeds have been squeezed; simmer the tomatas and the onions together on the fire for five minutes, and pour the whole on the fish and rice; season with a little cayenne, salt, and lemon-juice; moisten with a pint of good broth; place a buttered paper on the top, cover with the lid of the pan, and put the whole to bake in the oven. In about half an hour, the fish and rice will be done, when take the pieces of cod out of the rice, place them on an earthen dish, and with a wooden spoon stir the rice over the fire, in order to mix it with the seasoning; after which put the rice on a silver dish, and place the pieces of cod-fish on it; sauce it round with some Muscle sauce (No. 52), and send to table. This is a favorite dish in Spain.

446. COD A l'indienne.

Trim some pieces of cod in the shape of fillets; keep them rather thick; place them neatly in a deep sauta-pan, previously buttered: then moisten them with some Indian Curry sauce (No. 4T) prepared for the purpose; cover with a stewpan-lid, and set the fillets on a sharp fire to simmer; about twenty minutes will suffice to stew them; then dish up the fillets - the one overlaying the other - in the form of a circle; pass the sauce through a tammy, pour it over them, and send to table.

447. CRIMPED SLICES OF COD A LA HOLLANDAISE.

In order to produce this fish in perfection, it is advisable to bespeak some very thin slices of crimped cod, not more than half an inch thick, of the fishmonger, a day or two beforehand. About an hour or two before dinner, sprinkle the slices of cod with salt; and ten minutes before sending to table, boil them quickly; as soon as done, dish them up, and send them to be eaten immediately, with some delicately-prepared Dutch sauce (No. 42).

This method of preparing crimped fish is a favorite one in Holland; where, however, plain butter is taken with it, prepared as follows: -

Put the butter in a small stewpan, with a little salt, pepper, nutmeg. and lemon-juice; then keep stirring it by a slow fire till the butter is sufficiently melted, taking care that it does not become oily.

448. CRIMPED SLICES OF COD A LA COLBERT. Procure some very thin slices of crimped cod; bread-crumb and

* A soft whitish substance in curling folds found inside cod-fish.

COD FISH. 159

fry them; dish them up with some cold Maitre d 1 Hotel butter (No. 44) under them; then sauce them round with an essence prepared for the purpose, as follows:

Put the trimmings of the fish with a sole, or two or three flounders, cut into pieces, into a small stewpan, with carrot, parsley roots, thyme, mace, and peppercorns; moisten with two glasses of white wine, and allow the whole to boil down to half; add a small ladleful of good consomme; set the essence to boil gently for half an hour; strain and reduce it down one-third, to which add a spoonful of Bechamel or Allemande sauce, and use it as directed above.

449. CRIMPED SLICES OF COD, IN MATELOTTE NORMANDE. .

Place some. thin slices of cod on a silver dish, previously spread with butter; season them with a little pepper and salt, and sprinkle some chopped parsley over them; moisten with two glasses of French white wine and some oyster liquor; cover with a buttered paper, and half an hour before dinner put them in the oven to bake, taking care to baste them occasionally. When the fish is -done, pour the liquor there may be in the dish into a ragout prepared for the purpose, in the usual manner (No. 194), and wipe the edges of the dish with a wet napkin; sauce the slices of cod over with the ragout, and garnish round with a border of fried smelts and large crayfish; place some glazed oval croutons round the inner circle, and send to table.

450. SCOLLOPS OF COD A LA BECHAMEL.

Cut and trim some crimped cod into neat scollops; simmer them in a sauta-pan with a little fresh butter and salt; when done, drain them on a napkin, and afterward toss them gently in a stewpan, with some good cream Bechamel sauce (No. 6); dish them up, pyramidally, iu the entree dish, and garnish round with a border of potato croquettes.

To save time, or indeed as a variety, these scollops may also be prepared in the following manner:

Boil the slices, or piece of cod, drain it, and then break it gently into large flakes, which toss in some Bechamel sauce; dish up and garnish as directed above.

451. SLICES OF CRIMPED COD A LA MAITRE D'HOTEL.

Steep some thin slices of crimped cod in a little oil, pepper, and salt; broil them on a gridiron rubbed with whitiug, and when done, glaze them over very lightly; dish them up, and sauce them under and round with a well-seasoned Maitre d 1 Hotel sauce (No. 43), and send to table.

452. cod's head baked.

Fill the hollow of the gills with some veal stuffing; put the head into a deep baking dish - season with pepper and salt, a little chopped shalot, and a spoonful of chopped parsley; moisten with two glasses of Sherry and a little mushroom catsup; put two pats of butter on the fish, and place it in the oven to bake, remembering that it must be frequently basted with its liquor, adding, if necessary, a little consomme for the purpose. After the cod's head has been in the oven ten minutes, sprinkle it over with some bruised raspings of bread,

160 DRESSED FISH IN GENERAL.

and when its baking is completed, place it on its dish; then add a spoonful of brown sauce and half a glass of wine to the liquor in which the head has been baked, and allow the whole to boil down to the consistency of sauce; add a pat of butter, a little essence of anchovies, and lemon-juice; work the whole together, pour the sauce round the cod's head, and send to table



HADDOCKS AND COD'S SOUNDS,

COMPRISING

Haddocks d la Royale. Fillets of Haddocks d la Marfchale.

„ stuffed and baked. „ „ d I' talienne.

„ d la Belle-vue. Cod's sounds and Egg sauce.

„ broiled, with Dutch sauce. „ „ d la Ravigatte.

„ broiled, with Egg sauce. „ „ d la Gascomie.

Fillets of Haddocks d la Royale. „ „ d la Royale.

453. HADDOCKS A LA ROYALE.

Bone and stuff two haddocks with some quenelle force-meat of whiting; place them head to tail on a baking-sheet; then season them with a little pepper and salt, and bake them. After allowing the haddocks to cool, cover them with a thin layer of quenelle force-meat of whitings, and place thereon some contises fillets of soles, in a slanting direction; mask the heads with a little of the force-meat, mixed with some pounded lobster-coral, and form the eyes and mouth with truffles; cover the haddocks with very thin layers of bacon, placing over all a buttered paper. About three-quarters of an hour before diuner, put the haddocks in the oven to finish baking. Just before serving, take off the paper, and remove the layers of bacon, and with a clean napkin absorb all the grease and moisture there may be upon them; then carefully remove the haddocks on to their dish, sauce them round with some Parisian sauce (Xo. 40), and garnish them with some quenelles of lobster, with a large scollop of truffle intervening between each quenelle, and send to table.

454. HADDOCKS, STUFFED AND BAKED,

Are prepared iu the same manner as cods' heads baked, previously described.

Haddocks, after being baked, may also be served with Poivrade, Piquante, Tomata, Italian, Oyster, Muscle, or caper sauces.

455. HADDOCKS A LA BELLE-VUE.

Skin two haddocks; truss them as you would whitings for frying, and put them into a baking dish; cover them with a layer of quenelle force-meat of whitings, covered with lobster-coral; then place across their backs some fillets of soles OOnHsis with green gherkins, taking care to leave the space of an inch between each fillet, so as to insert some small truffles cut in the shape of olives; cover them with thin layers of fat bacon, and over all place a buttered

HADDOCKS, AND COD'S SOUNDS. 161

paper; moisten with three glasses of white wine, and put the haddocks in the oven to bake for about half an hour. Then remove the paper and bacon, and slip them, with great care, on to their dish; sauce them round with Ravigotte sance (No. 20) and garnish with a border of quenelles of whiting in which has been mixed a sufficient quantity of very fine chopped parsley, to color them, and send to table.

456. HADDOCKS BROILED, WITH DUTCH SAUCE. To broil haddocks in perfection, it is necessary, first, to wipe them well over, and then to score them with a sharp knife; next to steep them in a little salad oil, pepper, and salt. About half an hour before dinner, place the haddocks on a gridiron which has been rubbed with whitening, and broil them; when done on both sides, dish them up on a napkin, and send some Dutch sauce (No. 42) to table in a boat.

457. HADDOCKS BOILED, WITH EGG SAUCE.

Boil the haddocks in salt and water; when done, drain and dish them up, and send them to table with egg sauce (No. 84) in a boat.

This fish, when plain boiled, may be sent to table with almost every kind of fish sauce.

458. FILLETS OF HADDOCKS, A LA BOYALE. Fillet one or more haddocks; remove the skin by passing the

knife under the fillet, so as to detach the tail end of the skin from the fish, then take a firm hold of the piece of detached skin, and inserting the knife, with the edge of the blade turned from you, draw the skin toward you, and keep moving the knife to and fro, at the same time pressing the blade firmly on the skin. Having thus removed the skin, cut each fillet into two or more smaller fillets, trim them neatly, by paring off the rough edges; place them in a basin with two sliced shalots, some sprigs of parsley, oil, and lemon-juice, and season with pepper and salt. About ten minutes before dinner, drain the fillets on a napkin, and afterward dip each fillet separately in some light batter, and fry them of a fine color in some hog's-lard, heated for the purpose; when done, drain them on a napkin to absorb the greese; dish the fillets in the form of a wreath, lying shoulder to shoulder, pour in the centre some white Ravigotte sauce (No. 20), and send to table.

459. FILLETS OF HADDOCKS, A LA MAEECHALE. Prepare these in the same manner as fillets of turbot d la Marechale (see No. 404).

460. FILLETS OF HADDOCK, A L'lTALIENNE Fillet one or more haddocks, remove the skins, cut and trim them into smaller fillets; place these neatly in a sauta-pan with some clarified butter; season with pepper and salt, squeeze a little lemon-juice over them, sprinkle some chopped parsley; over all place a round of buttered paper, and put them in the oven, or on a moderate fire, to simmer for about ten minutes; then drain the fillets on a napkin, and afterward dish them up in the form of a wreath, one fillet resting on the other, and pour some Italian sauce, mixed with a pat of butter, a little anchovy and lemon-juice over them, and send to table. 10

162 DRESSED FISH IN GENERAL.

By varying the sauce, fillets of haddocks prepared in the above manner, are named according to the sauce employed: as for instance, a la RavigoUe, a la Maitre d J Hotel, a la Hollandaise, &c.

461. cod's sounds, and egg sauce.

Preparatory to boiling cod's sounds, it is quite necessary that they should be soaked in milk and water for at least six hours, and then washed and put to boil in a stewpan containing fresh milk and water, then continue gently boiling till they are done; about an hour will suffice for this. When done, drain them on a napkin, cut them into pieces about an inch and a half square, and put them into a stewpan with a sufficient quantity of egg sauce (No. 84); toss the whole together over the fire, pile them upon a dish in a pyramidal form, garnish them round with neatly-cut boiled parsnips, and send to table.

462. cod's sounds, a la ravigotte.

Prepare and cut the sounds into pieces, as directed in the preceding article; toss them in some Ravigotte sauce (Xo. 20), dish them up, garnish round with a border of potato croquettes, and send to table.

463. cod's sounds, a la gasconne.

Prepare the sounds as usual, step them iu oil, vinegar, sbalot, and parsley, season with a little minionette pepper; just before dinner, fry -the sounds in butter, dish them up in the form of a wreath, pour under them some Gasconne sauce (Xo. 68), and send to table.

464. cod's sounds, a la royale.

The sounds should be prepared and fried as in the preceding case; and afterward dished up similarly, with white Ravigotte sauce (Xo. 29) poured under them, and sent to table.

Cod's sounds may also be dressed a la Roulette, a VIndienne, a la Bechamel, a la Maitre d? Hotel, in the same manner, of course substituting any of the above sauces for the Ravigotte.

DRESSED SOLES, GURXETS, AXD MACKEREL,

COMPRISING

•Soles fried, with Shrimp sauce. Gurnets stuffed and baked.

„ boiled. „ d la Daitphiite.

„ d la Colbert. „ d la Genuise.

„ au gratin. Mackerel boiled.

„ -with fine herbs. „ broiled, d la Maitre d'Hotil.

„ d la Parisenne. „ broiled with nut-brown butter.

„ d la MarSchale. Fillets of Mackerel, d la Mail re d'Hot-l.

„ in Matelotte Normande.

„ d la Plctsy.

465. fried soles with shrimp sauce.

Moderate-sized soles are preferable for frying, as when large, from their size and thickness, they must necessarily remain a con

SOLES, GURNETS, AND MACKEREL. 163

siderable time in the frying-fat, and will thereby contract a strong flavor, as well as imbibe a greater portion of the fat; they are also less likely to appear crisp, so essential a requisite in all fried fish. Clean the soles thoroughly, pull off the brown skin, cut off the head transversely, and with a pair of large scissors trim away the fins close up to the fillets; then wash and wipe the soles dry, and roll them in a little flour; dip them first into some beaten egg, and then in fine breadcrumbs, and place the fish on a dish in a cool place until within twenty minutes of dinner-time; then fry them in some hot lard; when done, drain them on a napkin, and dish them up with some fried parsley, and serve with a sauce-boat full of shrimp, anchovy, Dutch, or lobster sauce.

466. BOILED SOLES.

For boiling, crimped soils are preferable; but when these are not to be obtained, choose large and thick fish - such, for instance, as Torbay soles. Trim the soles, and rub them over with lemon-juice; sprinkle over some salt, and put them on in boiling water; when done, dish them up, and send to table with a sauce-boat filled with Dutch, Lobster, Shrimp, Anchovy, or French Caper sauce.

467. SOLES, A LA COLBERT.

Clean and trim the soles, wash and wipe them dry with a clean cloth; then flour them over and fry them, after which cut them open at the back, and carefully take out the backbone; fill the inside with some cold Maitre V 'Hotel butter (No. 44); turn the soles on their backs in a dish, pour round them an essence of fish, or of anchovies (No. 176), and serve them quite hot.

468. SOLES, AU GRATIN.

Spread some fresh butter on a silver dish, and place the soles, head and tail, on it; season with pepper and salt, sprinkle some chopped parsley over them, and moisten with two glasses of white wine; half an hour before dinner, put them in the oven to bake; when they have been in twenty minutes take them out; and, after saucing them all over with some brown Italian sauce (No. 12), shake some fine raspings of bread over the whole, and put the soles back in the oven to gratinate for a few minutes; just before sending to table pass the red-hot salamander over them, and serve.

469. SOLES WITH FINE-HERBS.

Trim the soles close up to the fillets; put them on a buttered sautapan; sprinkle over them some chopped mushrooms, parsley, and one shalot; season with pepper and salt, and a little nutmeg, and moisten with two glasses of white wine; cover them with a buttered paper, and set them in the oven to bake. When done, drain their liquor into a small stewpan containing some Allemande sauce; add a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley, a pat of fresh butter, and lemonjuice; work the whole well together on the fire; wipe the edges of the dish with a clean napkin dipped in hot water, and sauce the soles over; place round them a border of glazed thin croutons, and send them to table.

164 DRESSED FISH IN GENERAL.

470. SOLES, A LA PARISIEXNE.

Trim a pair of fine large soles, slit them down the back, and take the bone out; line the soles with some quenelle force-meat of whitings mixed with some chopped fine-herbs; put them on a buttered sautapan, season with pepper and salt, moisten with two glasses of white wine, cover with a buttered paper, and put them in the oven to bake. When done, pnt them in press between two earthen dishes, and set them in the larder to cool. In the mean time, prepare some stifflyreduced Allemande sauce, with which, after neatly trimming the soles, cover them all over; and when the sauce, by getting cold, has set firmly upon them, cover them with egg and bread-crumbs; fry them of a fine light color, dish them up, and garnish with a Parisian ragout (No. 203), place round them a border of large crayfish and glazed croutons, and send to table.

471. SOLES, A LA MARECHALE.

Bone a pair of soles, line them with quenelle force-meat of whiting, bread-crumb, with Allemande sauce, and then fry the fish; drain them on a napkin, dish them up, and sauce them round with some Venetian sauGe (No. 26), and serve.

472. MATELOTTE NORMANDE OF SOLES.* Bone two fine soles; line them with quenelle force-meat of whitings mixed with some chopped fine-herbs; place them on a buttered sautapan, season with pepper and salt, moisten with half a bottle of French white wine, some oyster liquor, and white essence of mushrooms; put them in the oven to bake, and when done, remove the soles carefully on to their dish. Reduce the liquor, incorporate it in a rich Mat-e'lotte Normande ragout (No. 194), with which sauce the soles all over, and garnish round with a border of crayfish, and some oval croutons, made with the crusts of French rolls fried in butter, and glazed, then serve.

473. MATELOTTE OF SOLES, A LA PLESSY.

Bone, stuff, and bake a pair of large soles, as described in the preceding directions, and when done, put them in press between two earthenware dishes; as soon as they have cooled, mask them over with some fish quenelle force-meat, colored with lobster coral; smooth them over with the blade of a large knife, dipped in hot water; then place the soles carefully on a silver dish buttered for the purpose, and after ornamenting the centre of each sole with a bold decoration, - composed of truffles, - cover them with some very thin layers of fat bacon: moisten with a glass of French white wine, and put them in the oven for about a quarter of an hour, in which time they will be done. Remove the bacon, glaze them slightly, and garnish them round with a Parisian sauce (No. 40), with the addition of some fine white muscles; place round the Matelotte a border of fried smelts, previously boned and stuffed with force-meat, and serve.

474. GURNETS STUFFED AND BAKED.

Cut off the fins and head from two or more gurnets, stuff them

with veal stuffing, sew them up, and score them with a sharp knife

on both sides; then place the gurnets in a buttered baking-dish,

season them with pepper and salt, some chopped parsley, and two *Mtl

SOLES, GURNETS, AND MACKEREL. 165

of butter; moisten with two glasses of Sherry, some essence of mushrooms, and a little consomme, and put them in the oven to bake, - taking care to baste them every five minutes until they are done. Then remove the gurnets on to their dish, and detach the glaze from the bottom and sides of the dish in which they have been baked, with a glass of Sherry; reduce the essence to a demi-glaze, and incorporate it into one of the following sauces, with a pat of butter and a little essence of anchovies; pour the sauce over the gurnets and send to table. Either Piquante, Italienne, Gasconne, Proven$ale, Poivrade, Genoise, or Tomata sauce, will suit this fish, when prepared in the above manner.

475. GURNETS, A LA DAUPHINE.

Cut off the heads and fins from two gurnets, boil them in water with a little salt and vinegar; when done, drain and skin them, then cover them with some stiffly-reduced Allemande sauce (No. *?), and when this has cooled upon them, egg them over and cover with bread-crumbs, and place them on a buttered baking-sheet; half an hour before dinner put them in the oven to bake, and as soon as they have acquired a Rue color, dish them up, and garnish round with some Bavigotte sauce, containing some crayfish tails, and send to table.

476. GURNETS, A LA GENOISE.

Boil or bake one or more gurnets in some mirepoix (No. 236); drain, skim, glaze, and place them on their dish, and sauce them with Genoise sauce (No. 30); garnish round with large crayfish, or quenelles of whiting or gurnet.

Gurnets, either boiled or baked, may be sent to table with any kind of fish sauce; but as they do not possess any decided flavor of their own, sharp, or Piquante sauce should be used in preference*

Note. - Fillets of gurnets may be dressed in every variety of form, and served with any kind of sauce, similar to soles.

477. BOILED MACKEREL.

Boil the mackerel in salt and water, dish it up, and send to table, either with fennel, parsley, or gooseberry sauce.

478. BROILED MACKEREL, A LA MAITRE D'HOTEL.

Split the mackerel down the back, season with pepper and salt, and oil it over; then place it on a gridiron, over a moderate fire; when the mackerel is done on one side, turn it over on the other; and as soon as it is done through, take it up on a dish and put some cold Maitre d 1 Hotel butter (No. 44) inside it, and pour a well-finished Maitre d'H tel sauce (No. 43) round it, and send to table.

479. BROILED MACKEREL, WITH NUT-BROWN BUTTER. Broil the mackerel as directed in the last article, dish it up, garnish

it round with fried parsley, and pour over it some nut-brown butter (No. 93).

480. FILLETS OF MACKEREL, A LA MAITRE D'HOTEL. Fillet the mackerel thus:

Place the fish on the table with its back toward you, then run the knife in just below the gills, turn the edge of the blade under, press

166 DRESSED FISH IN GENERAL.

with the fingers of the left hand full on the upper end of the fillet, and bearing with the blade of the knife upon the side of the backbone, draw the knife gently down to the tail, and turn the mackerel over and take the fillet off the other side: when this is done, cut each fillet into two, trim the ends neatly, and place them side by side on a buttered sauta-pan, season with pepper aud salt and chopped parsley, squeeze the juice of half a lemon over them, and then pour a little oiled butter upon each, and cover with a round of buttered paper. About twenty minutes before dinner, either put them in the oven or on a stove-tire to simmer, and when done, drain the fillets on a napkin, dish them up in the form of a wreath, the fillets resting upon each other; sauce them over with some Maitre (VHjtel sauce (No. 43), and send to table.

The soft roes, if any, in the mackerel, should be parboiled in boiling water containing a little vinegar and salt; then draiu them on a napkin, and place them in the centre of the fillets when dished up.

Fillets of mackerel, prepared as described in the first part of the above directions, may be sent to table with either of the following sauces: Vertpre, Ravigotte, Italienne, or Genoise.

DRESSED MULLETS, &c,

COMPRISING

Mullets in cases, with fine-herbs. Fillets of Whiting, d la Mnttre d'H6ul.

„ a V Italihme. „ „ d la Horly.

„ d la Genoise. „ „ d la Marichale.

„ au ragout Cardinal. „ „ d la Jiot ale.

„ d la Chesterfield. Whitings boiled. Gray Mullets, Graylings, Ac. fried.

broiled, fcc.

481. MULLETS IN CASES, WITH FINE-HERBS.

Scale and trim the mullets, place them in a sauta-pan spread with fresh butter for the purpose; season with a little pepper and salt, cover them with some fine-herbs sauce (No. 14), moisten with two glasses of Sherry or white wine. About half an hour before dinner (the exact time dependiiig on the size of the fish), put the mullets in the oven to bake; occasionally basting them with their own liquor. When done, put each of them, separately, in an oblong paper case saturated with oil, and then lightly colored in the oven; add a glass of wine to the sauce remaining in the sauta-pan, shake it about to detach the glaze from the sides, and then mix the whole with the remainder of the fine-herbs sauce reserved for the purpose; reduce the whole, mix in a little essence of anchovy, and the juice of half a lemon; add a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley, sauce the mullets over in their cases, dish them up, and send to table.

Mullets may be dressed with fine-herbs, also, in the following manner: Trim and place the mullets on a buttered sauta-pan. season with pepper and salt, strew over them chopped mushrooms, shalot, and parsley; moisten with two glasses of Sherry aud a large spoonful of

MULLETS. 167

brown sauce; bake and finish them exactly in the same manner as previously directed.

482. MULLETS A L'lTALIENNE.

When the mullets are trimmed, put them in a buttered santa-pan, season with pepper and salt, and moisten with three glasses of French white wine, and some essence of mushrooms; bake the fish, taking care to baste them frequently while in the oven; when done, dish them up, and mask them over with some glaze mixed with some finely-bruised lobster-coral; sauce them round with some Italian sauce (No. 12), incorporated with the liquor in which the mullets have been baked, after it has been reduced, also a little essence of anchovy, butter and lemon-juice, and send to table.

483. MULLETS, A LA GENOISE.

Prepare the mullets in a sauta-pan, as before-mentioned, moisten with two glasses of claret, and some essence of mushrooms; when the mullets are baked, glaze them with some lobster-colored glaze, and dish them up. Then reduce the liquor in which the mullets were baked, and incorporate it with some Genoise sauce (No. 30), together with a pat of anchovy butter, and some lemon-juice; sauce the mullets round, garnish with a border of large crayfish and quenelles of whiting, and send to table.

484. MULLETS, AU EAGOUT CAKDINAL.

Prepare the mullets as a Vltalienne, dish them up after being glazed of a fine scarlet hue; garnish them round with a rich cardinal ragout (No. 200); finish by placing a border of large crayfish and decorated quenelles of whiting round them, and send to table.

485. MULLETS, A LA CHESTEEFIELD.

When the mullets are trimmed, put them into a buttered sauta-pan with half a bottle of dry Champagne, some essence of mushrooms and a little pepper and salt; bake them in the oven, taking care to baste them frequently; when done, glaze and dish them up, reduce their liquor, and add to it some bisque of crayfish sauce, previously prepared as follows: -

Thoroughly wash and draw the gall from two dozen crayfish, put them into a stewpan with a small quantity of carrot and celery cut fine, one shalot, half a bay-leaf, a sprig of thyme, and some parsley; moisten with the remaining half-bottle of Champagne; boil the crayfish, and when done, remove the shells from the claws and tails, reserving the shells for the purpose of making crayfish butter afterward (No. 184). Next, pound the bodies, tails, and claws in the mortar, take the produce up into a stewpan, moisten with a large ragout spoonful of good Allemande sauce, and after warming the puree over the fire, rub it through a tammy in the usual manner; remembering that it must be kept sufficiently thick to be able to mask the fish with it. Then reduce the liquor in which the mullets and crayfish have been dressed to half a glaze, and incorporate a sufficient quantity of it with the bisque, to give it flavor; add a pat of lobster or crayfish butter, made with the shells reserved for this purpose, a little essence of anchovies and lemon-juice; pour the sauce over the mullets,

DRESSED FISH IN GENERAL.

and garnish them round with a border of quenelles of whiting, colored with chopped and blanched parsley, and some small fillets of soles contises with truffles: place them alternately overlapping each other. The fillets of soles after being conlisis with truffles, should be turned round and placed in a sauta-pan with some fresh butter, previously to being simmered.

Note. - Mullets should never be drawn; it is sufficient to take out the gills only, as the liver and trail are considered the best parts of this fish. According to Yarrell's History of British Fishes, there are two distinct species of red mullets: the one is called the striped red, the other the plain red mullet, the former being the sort generally exposed for sale by the London fishmongers. Mr. Yarrell also informs us, that the generic term mullus, from which their name is derived, is said to have reference to the scarlet color of the sandal or shoe worn by the Roman Consuls, and in later times by the Emperors - which was called mullus. It would seem that in those days, the almost incredible price of £240 was given for three mullets of large size.

Gray Mullets should be dressed in the same manner as red mullets; they are sometimes plain boiled or broiled, and sent to table with any of the various fish sauces in use: but this fish, from its want of flavor, especially requires the assistance of the most skillful cookery.

Tim; Grayling is seldom seen in the London market, although, from its claims to the notice of epicures, it certainly deserves to be better known; when dressed in the manner described for the preparation of mullets or whitings, it will be found deserving a higher estimation than has hitherto been accorded to it. This fish is hi season in the months of October and November.

Whiting Poult, which in shape somewhat resembles perch, and in color is like the whiting, having when fresh much of its silvery hue, is found to be in best condition during the months of November and December, although they are sometimes taken in the spring of the year. Partaking in a great measure of the same character as the grayling, it should, like that fish, be prepared for table in a similar manner to red mullets. The same method is also to be used in dressing gwynniad, a species of lake fish, commonly found in Wales, Cumberland, and some parts of Ireland and Scotland.

486. FILLETS OF WHITINGS, A LA MAITRE D'HOTEL. Fillet the number of whitings required, cut each fillet in two, trim the ends neatly round, and place the fillets side by side in a buttered sauta-pan; season with pepper and salt, strew over them some chopped parsley, cover the fillets with a little melted fresh butter, and squeeze the juice of half a lemon over them; cover with a buttered round of paper, and set them in the oven, or on the stove-fire - from five to sewn minutes will suffice to do them; then, take the fillets up carefully on to a napkin to drain, and afterward dish them up in the form of a close circle, pour some Maitre d'Hbtel sauce (Xo. 43) over them, and serve.

Note. - Fillets of whitings thus prepared may be sent to table with any of the following sauces: - Italian, Ramgotte, shrimp, fine herlts, crayfish, Dutch sauce, Supreme, with scollops of lobster, or oyster sauces: the dish is named according to the sauce used for the fillets.

WHITINGS. 169

487. FILLETS OF WHITINGS, A LA HORLY. Fillet the whitings, and remove the skin from each, by first placing the fillet on the table, with the skin downward, then inserting the point of the knife between the skin and the flesh, bearing lightly with the left hand on the fillet, gradually draw the knife under, so as to separate the skin from the fish without wasting its flesh: having thus trimmed the fillets, next put them into a basin with pepper and salt, thyme and bay-leaf, three chalots cut into slices, and some sprigs of parsley; add two tablespoonsful of oil and one of French vinegar, and after the fillets have been steeped for about a couple of hours, drain them on a napkin, dip them thoroughly in flour, and fry them of a fine light color; dish them up in a pyramidal form, with some parsley fried of a green color, and serve up with the fish a sauce-boat of either of the following sauces: - white or brown Italian, Tomata, Poivrade, Dutch, Ravigolle, or Gasconne.

488. FILLETS OF WHITINGS, A LA MAEECHALE. Trim the fillets of any number of whitings as in the previous instance; cut each in two, trim the pieces neatly, and place them separately on a large earthen dish. Then mask each fillet with a thin coating of reduced Allemande sauce, first seasoning the fillets with pepper and salt; when the sauce has stiffened on them, dip each fillet in some very tine bread-crumbs, afterward in beaten eggs, and then in bread-crumbs again; smooth and shape the fillets with the blade of a knife, and as each is finished off, place it with care in a sauta-pan containing some clarified butter. Twenty minutes before dinner, set the fillets on a brisk stove-fire to fry; as soon as they have acquired a light color on the under side, turn them carefully over with a knife, and when the fillets are nicely colored on both sides, remove them on to a napkin, in order to absorb the butter that may remain about them; then dish them up in the form of a wreath, and sance them in the centre with some Dutch sauce - with the addition of an infusion of horseradish in French vinegar - some shrimps, oysters, muscles, prawns, crayfish, or merely some chopped and blanched parsley, according to taste or convenience.

489. FILLETS OF WHITINGS, A LA EOYALE. Trim and marinade the fillets of whitings in the manner directed for preparing whitings a la Horly (No. 487). About twenty minutes before dinner, drain the fillets on a napkin, and theu dip each fillet separately in some light-made frying batter, and then throw them oue after another in some frying fat heated for the purpose; as soon as they are done, and have acquired a light-brown color, take the fillets out of the fat on to a cloth, with the corners of which touch them lightly in order to absorb any grease they may retain; then dish the fillets up either in a pyramidal form, or else in a circle, and pour some white Bavigotte, white Italian, Venetian, or Dutch sauce, under and round them, and send to table.

490. WHITINGS, BOILED. When the whitings are trimmed, boil them in spring water with a little salt - about seven minutes will suffice to do them; take the fish ont of the water as soon as done, dish them up on a fiih-plate covered

170 DRESSED FISH IX GENERAL.

with a napkin, and send to table with a boatful of either of the following sauces: - Anchovy, Shrimp, Plain butter, or Dutch.

491. WHITINGS, FRIED.

To prepare whitings for frying, it is necessary first to skin them as follows: -

With a cloth in the left hand, take a firm hold of the whiting at the back part of the head, just below the gills, then loosen the skin on each side of the fish, just at the commencement of the upper dorsal fin, by inserting the point of a small hnife, and with the right hand pull the skin off sharply, first on one side and then on the other. When the fish is skinned and trimmed, turn the tail round into its mouth, and fasten the ends together with a short peg of wood; dip each fish into some beaten eggs, and cover it with fine bread-crumbs. A quarter of an hour before dinner, fry them of a fine color in some fat heated for the purpose, dish them on a napkin with fried parsley, and send to table with a boatful of either of the following sauces: - Anchovy, Dutch, Shrimp, or Plain butter.

492.; WHITINGS, BROILED.

Trim and score the whitings on both sides, rub them over with oil, and broil them on a gridiron, previously rubbed with whitening; when broiled on one side, turn them over on the other, taking care to keep them of a fine color; when done, dish them on a napkin, and send to table with a boatful of either of the following sauces: Dutch, white Bavigotte, Venetian, brown oyster sauce, or Maitre d'Hbtel.

Note. - Whitings in cases with fine herbs, stuffed and baked a la Vileroi, a la Cardinal, &c, are dressed in the same manner as mullets.

FRESH- WATER FISH,

SECTION I.

COMPRISING

Char, d la Ginoue, Lamprey, d la Beauchamp.

„ in Matelotte. Smelts fried.

„ d la Hollandaise. „ in Matelotte.

„ d la Beaufort. „ in cases, with fine-herbs.

Lamprey in Matelotte. „ d la lioyale.

„ d la Foley.

Char is in season from July till October, and forms a most delicious variety for the table in the summer season. When perfectly fresh, it makes perhaps the best water souchet of any fish.*

493. CHAR, A LA GENOISE.

Boil the fish in salt and water, and when done, skin and glaze them; dish them up, sauce with some Genoise sauce (No. 30), garnish with a border of small quenelles of whiting, and crayfish tails, and send to table.

* Water Souchet of Char is described among the Water Souchcts.

CHAR. 171

494. CHAR, IN MATELOTTE.

Trim the char intended to be dressed, place them in an oval stewpan with an onion and carrot cut in thin slices, also a bay-leaf and a sprig of thyme, a bouquet of parsley and green onions, a blade of mace, a few pepper-corns, some parings of mushrooms, and a little salt; moisten with a bottle of Claret, and set the whole to stew gently on a stove-fire for about twenty minutes or half an hour, according to the size of the fish. As soon as the fish are done, drain them on a wet napkin; remove their skin with a knife, and place them neatly on the dish. Then, reduce the liquor in which the char have been stewed (after first being strained and skimmed), with a sufficient quantity of brown sauce for the purpose; when the sauce is reduced, add a little nutmeg, a pat of butter, and some lemon-juice, and pass it through a tammy into a stewpan containing some prepared button-mushrooms, button-onions, and very small quenelles of whiting; warm the ragout, pour it over and about the char, garnish the matelotte with a border of large crayfish, and some croutons, and serve.

495. CHAR, A LA HOLLANDAISE.

Boil the char in salt and water, dish them up on a napkin, and send to table with a boatful of Dutch sauce.

Char, thus plain boiled, may also be sent to table with parsley and butter, green Bavigotte, or Crayfish sauce.

496. CHAR, A LA BEAUFORT.

Place the char when trimmed in an oval stewpan, with sliced carrot and onion, a fagot of parsley and green onions, mace, mushrooms, pepper-corns, thyme, bay-leaf, and salt; moisten with French white wine, and set the fish to stew gently on the stove fire. When done, drain them on to a napkin, skin and mask them with some glaze mixed with some bruised coral of lobster, place them on their dish, and sauce them round with a Parisian ragout (No. 203) mixed with the liquor in which the char has been stewed, after this liquor has been reduced to glaze; garnish round with a border of lobster croquettes.

497. LAMPREY MATELOTTE.

To cleanse lampreys,* it is necessary to put them into a large earthen vessel with plenty of salt, with which they should be well scoured, and afterward thoroughly washed in several waters: by this means they are freed from the slimy mucus which adheres to this kind of fish. The lamprey should then be trimmed and cut into pieces about three inches long, or it may be left whole, according to taste; it should be placed in a stewpan with sliced carrot and onion, mace, pepper-corns, thyme, and bay-leaf, parsley, mushrooms, and salt;

* Of this kind offish there are two different sorts in general use for the table; one being the sea or marine lamprey, which is abundant at Gloucester and Worcester, where it is dressed and preserved for the purpose of being given as presents. The olher sort, the Lampern, is much smaller; this is to be found in the Thames, and may easily be obtained at any of the London fishmongers from the month of October till March, at which period they are in season. The lamprey is considered to be in best condition during the months of April and May, when it ascends the Severn from the sea, for the purpose of depositing its spawn.

172 FRESH-WATER FISH.

moisten it with Port wine, and set the whole to stew gently on the stove-fire. "When done, take half the liquor in which the lampreys have been stewed, and reduce it with some brown sauce; add a glass of Port wine, and as soon as the sauce is reduced to a proper consistency, incorporate with it a pat of butter, a little essence of anchovies, and lemon-juice, and pass it through a tammy into a bain-marie, containing some button-mushrooms, stewed small button-onions, and some small quenelles of perch. Drain the lampreys, place them on a dish, sauce them over with the ragout, garnish round with crayfish, and send to table.

498. LAMPREY, A LA FOLEY.

Take two fine lampreys, thoroughly cleansed, form each into a circular shape, and fasten them with string: then stew them in Claret, with the addition of vegetables, &c, as in the foregoing cases; as soon as the lampreys are done, reduce two-thirds of their liquor with an equal proportion of brown sauce, and some essence of mushrooms - when sufficiently reduced, incorporate with this some crayfish butter, and a little essence of anchovies, a very little nutmeg, lemon-juice, and cayenne, and pass the sauce through a tammy into a bain-marie containing three dozen crayfish tails, and as many button-mushrooms - previously prepared for the purpose. Then drain the lampreys on a napkin, and afterward place them, one resting on the other, in the dish, sauce them over with prepared ragout; garnish round with a border of glazed croutons and fried small fillets of perch.

499. LAMPREYS, A LA BEAUCHAMP.

Truss the lampreys as directed in the previous article, stew them iu old Madeira, cider, and the requisite vegetables, &c.; add two-thirds of their liquor to an equal quantity of good brown sauce, work the whole by boiling on the fire, skim and reduce it to its proper consistency, add some lobster-butter, cayenne, and lemon-juice, and pass the sauce through a tammy into a bain-marie containing some small round truffles, lobster quenelles, and tails of crayfish. Dish up the lampreys as in the last case, and sauce them over with the prepared ragout; garnish round with some glazed pastry Jleurons, and send to table.

Lam perns are treated in the same manner as lampreys, being similar iu flavor.

500. SMELTS, FRIED, ETC.

When preparing smelts* for frying, take the gills out carefully, trim the lins, wipe the fish with a clean cloth, dip them first in flour, ami afterward in beaten egg, and then in fine bread crumbs; fry them in some heated hogs' lard, of a fine color; dish them up on a napkin, ami garnish them with fried parsley, and send to table with a boatful of either Anchovy, Dutch, Shrimp, Crayfish, or Lobster sauce.

Smelts may also be dressed with advantage in Normande matelotie. in cases, with fine-herbs, a Vltalienne, a la Royale, &c; by observing the directions given for dressing mullets or whitings in a similar manner.

* This kind offish, which is in general estimation, is in season from August till March, when after depositing their spawn in fresh water, they return to the sea.

173

FRESH-WATER FISH.

SECTION II.

COMPRISING

Eels, spitcheocked. Carp, d la Chanbord.

„ plain broiled. „ d la Royale.

„ stewed, d VAnglaiae. „ d la Bourguignotte.

Jfatelotte of Eels, d la Bordelaise. „ d la Periguenx.

if „ d la Parisi&ine. „ d la Provenqale.

„ „ d la Genoise. „ d VAllemande.

Eels, d la Dauphinoise. „ d la Veniti&me.

„ d la Vinitidnne. Stewed Carp, a VAnglaiae.

„ d la Tartare. Small Carp fried.

„ d la Ponlette. Tench.

„ d I'lndienne.

501. EELS, SPITCHCOCKED.

As eels,* when brought into the kitchen, are frequently alive, it is first necessary to kill them; this, from their tenacity of life, is found by many not easy to accomplish; it is, however, merely necessary to insert the point of any sharp instrument into the spine, at the back of the head, to the depth of an inch, and the eel will become perfectly motionless. Then take a firm hold of the eel with a cloth in the left hand, and with the right hand proceed to detach the skin just below the gills, with the point of a small knife; when there is a sufficient quantity of skin loosened, so as to gain a purchase, hold the head firmly with the left hand, and with a cloth in the right, force the skin to slide off the fish. Then cut off the head, make an incision about two inches in length at the vent, and the same at the neck, draw the gut, &c, trim away the fins, wash and thoroughly cleanse each fish; wipe them with a cloth, and then, after sprinkling them with salt, let them lie on a dish for an hour or so, previously to dressing them. After having trimmed the eels, lay each on its back in a straight line on the table, and with a knife, open it from one extremity to the other; detach the back-bone, and take it out; then cut the eel into several pieces about three inches long, season them with pepper and salt, and sprinkle them over with chopped parsley and shalot; dip each piece of eel separately in some beaten egg, and afterward in some fine bread-crumbs. Place the eels thus prepared on a dish in the larder, until within twenty minutes of dinner-time; then proceed to fry them of a fine color, and dish them up with fried parsley round them, and send to table. Either of the following may be served in a sauce-boat with spitcheocked eels: - Dutch, Italienne, Venilienne, Poivrade, Piquante, Tartare, Tomata, or Gasconne sauce.

• There are four distinct sorts of eels: the snig, the broad-nosed, the grig, and the sharp-nosed; the latter is the kind generally known. The London markets are supplied principally from Holland: Thames eels are, however, in high repute; being caught in a running stream, their skin is brighter and more silvery; they are preferable, too, from their greater sweetness, to the Dutch eels.

174 FRESH-WATER FISH.

502. EELS, PLAIN" BROILED.

Bone and cut the eels into three-inch lengths, put them on a dish, season with pepper and salt, lemon juice, and two spoonsful of oil; twenty minutes before dinner, broil them of a light color, dish them up on a napkin with fried parsley, and send to table with either of the sauces named in the foregoing article, in a sauce-boat, separately.

503. EELS, STEWED A L'ANGLAISE.

The eels being skinned, trimmed, and cut into pieces about two tnches long, place them in a stewpan, with some sliced carrot, onion, parsley, bay-leaf, and thyme, a handful of mushroom trimmings, a few pepper-corns, four cloves, a blade of mace, and a little salt; moisten with half a bottle of Port wine, cover with a round of buttered paper, replace the lid on the stewpan, and set the eels on the stove-fire to stew. When they have boiled gently on the corner of the stove for about twenty minutes, they will be done; then drain and trim them, keeping their liquor to make the sauce; place the pieces of eel in a clean stewpan, and then proceed to make a sauce for them in the following manner: - Put about two ounces of fresh butter into a stewpan on the fire, and as soon as it is melted, add two tablespoonsful of flour; with a wooden spoon stir them both together over 1 he fire, until the roux, or thickening, becomes slightly colored; fbeu throw in a couple of shalots, and moisten gradually with the liqtiof in which the eels have been stewed, adding thereto a small ladleful of good stock, and a couple of glasses of Port wine. Stir the sauce over the fire till it boils, and set it on the corner of the stove, to continue gently throwing up the scum, which, having entirely removed, reduce the sauce, if necessary, to its proper consistency; and then pass it through a tammy into the stewpau containing the pieces of eel already mentioned. Just before sending to table, add a few prepared buttonmushrooms, a pat of fresh butter, some chopped and blanched parsley, lemon-juice, and a very small quantity of essence of anchovy; toss the whole well together over the fire until well mixed; then dish the eels up in a pyramidal form on their dish, pour the sauce over them, garnish round with a dozen croutons of fried bread, and send to table.

504. MATELOTTE OF EELS, A LA BORDELAISE,

Cut some eels into three-inch lengths, place them in a stewpan with sliced carrot, onion, parsley-roots, mushrooms, thyme, and bayleaf, mace, four cloves, and a few pepper-corns; season with a little salt, and moisten with a bottle of claret. Set the eels to stew on the fire, and when done, drain, trim, and place them in a clean stewpan with a little of their liquor to moisten them. Then put the remainder of the liquor into a stewpan with a ladleful of brown sauce, some essence of mushrooms, and two glasses of claret; let thi^ boil, then set it by the side of the stove to continue gently boiling, that it may throw up the scum, and become bright; when this is effected, reduce it to its proper consistency, by boiling it down quickly, stirring the sauce the whole time with a wooden spoon to prevent its sticking to the bottom of the stewpan and burning. Then pass the sauce through a tammy into a bain-marie, and just before

EELS. 175

using it, make it hot, and incorporate with it the following preparations: - mix a pint of butter with three anchovies, a tea-spoonful of capers, a clove of garlic, and a little nutmeg, pound the whole together and pass them through a sieve: having well worked this into the sauce, pour it over the matelotte, and dish up the latter as follows: - place the pieces of eel on the dish, in circular order - each piece resting on the other, with a glazed crouton of bread between - fill the centre with quenelles of perch, place a trimmed and glazed crayfish across each crouton, and garnish round the inner edge of the dish with alternate groups of white muscles, button-mushrooms, and stewed button-onions.

505. MATELOTTE OF EELS, A LA PAEISIENNE.

Cut the eels into four-inch lengths, put them into a stewpan with sliced carrot, &c.; moisten with a bottle of French white wine, some essence of mushrooms, and the liquor produced b}' three dozen blanched oysters; stew the eels thus prepared; drain, trim, and put the pieces of eels into a clean stewpan, with a little of their own liquor to keep them moist and to warm them in. Put the remainder of the liquor into a stewpan with a large ladleful of white veloute sauce, and two glasses of white wine; reduce the whole quickly on the fire, incorporate therein a leason of four yelks of eggs, a large pat of crayfish butter, some lemon-juice, and a little nutmeg; pass the sauce into a bain-marie containing the three dozen oysters before alluded to, some button-mushrooms, and crayfish tails. When about to dish up, first place upon the dish an oval piece of bread, about three inches high, cut in flutes all round and fried of a light color; then set the pieces of eels in a perpendicular position up against the fried bread, garnish the crbustade with a group of small quenelles of whitings, sauce with the ragout prepared for the purpose, garnish round with large crayfish, and small fluted bread croustades filled with soft roes of mackerel or carp, and send to table.

506. MATELOTTE OF EELS, A LA GENOISE.

Either cut the eels into three or four-inch lengths, or truss them into an oval or round shape; prepare them for stewing with the usual vegetables, &c, moisten with Claret or Burgundy wine, and set the eels on the fire to stew. When done, drain, trim, and glaze them with some lobster coral in the glaze; pile the eels up in a pyramidal group on a dish, sauce with some good Genoise sauce (No. 30), made with the liquor in which the eels have been stewed; garnish round with alternate groups of button-mushrooms, small quenelles of carp, and crayfish tails, and send to table.

507. EELS, A LA DAUPHINOISE.

Bone two large eels, fill them with force-meat of whitings mixed with some simmered fine-herbs; then sew the eels up with a large worsted needle and some coarse thread; truss them in a circular form, place them in an oval stewpan with some mirepoix (No. 236), and set them to stew on the fire, or in the oven, basting them frequently with their own liquor, and taking care that they arc not allowed to boil fast, as that would cause them to break, and otherwise disfigure them. When the eels are done, glaze and dish them up,

176 FRESH- WATER CRAYFISH.

one resting on the other in the dish; in the centre of one, place a group of quenelles of whitings mixed with some chopped truffles, and in the centre of the other, place another group of quenelles of whitings colored with lobster coral; sauce them with some Perigueux sauce (No. 23), in which has been mixed half the mirepoix the eels have been stewed in, and finish with a pat of anchovy butter and lemon-juice. Garnish round with large crayfish, placing a group of half-a-dozen of the finest of these in the centre of the dish.

508. EELS, A LA VENITIENNE.

Cut the eels into pieces four inches long, stew them in some mirepoix of French white wine; when done, drain, trim, and glaze them with some lobster coral-colored glaze, and dish them up in two parallel conical groups; pour round them some Venetian sauce, (No. 26), which has been finished with the addition of half the mirepoix, in which the eels have been stewed, a pat of anchovy butter and the juice of half a lemon; pass this through a tammy into a stewpan containing a pottle of prepared button-mushrooms; some blanched chopped parsley must be added the last thing. Garnish round with groups of muscles fried in batter, and serve.

509. EELS, A LA TARTARE

Either cut the eels into three-inch lengths, or truss them whole, in a circular form; place them in a stewpan with sliced carot and onion, parsley, bay-leaf and thyme, a few peppercorns and salt; moisten with a gill of vinegar and some water; then put them on the fire to boil, and as soon as they are done, set them to cool partially in their lio "or: - after which drain, trim, and bread-crumb them with egg, fry mem of a fine color, dish them up with fried parsley, and send to table with some Tartare sauce (No. 96), in a sauce-boat.

Eels a la Tartare may also be bread-crumbed as follows. Mix the yelks of six eggs and three ounces of fresh butter melted over the fire, with pepper, salt, and nutmeg; with this preparation cover the eels, and afterward bread-crumb them - causing plenty of bread-crumbs to adhere; put the eels on a buttered baking-sheet, drop some butter through a spoon with holes in it over them, and about half an hour before diner, place them in the oven to be baked of a fine color, dish them up as in the foregoing case, and send to table with the Tartare sauce, separately in a sauce-boat.

510. EELS, A LA POULETTE.

Stew the eels in the usual manner with white wine, or merely as directed for d la Tartare,' then drain, trim, and place them in a clean stewpan, with some of their liquor to keep them moist. Just before dinner, dish the eels up in a group, in the centre of the dish, sauce them with some good sauce d la Pouletle mixed with a pat of ancliovv butter (and if the eels have been stewed in white wine, half their liquor, reduced to a glaze, should also be added to the sauce); place round them alternate groups of crayfish tails tossed in lobster butter to give them a brighter color, and some scollops of perch tossed in some green Iiavigotte sauce; place in the centre of the eels, just at tli top of the group, six large crayfish, eight glazed ordutons of fried bread round the base, and serve.

CARP. 177

511. EELS, A L'lNDIENNE.

Stew the eels as directed in the foregoing cases, dish them up in the form of a circle, garnish the centre with plain boiled rice, sauce the eels with a good curry (No. 74), and garnish round with some rice croquettes, to he made as follows: -

To four gravy-spoonsful of boiled rice, add one of good Allemande sauce, some nutmeg, and a little grated Parmesan cheese; stir the whole on the fire till it has boiled two or three minutes, and set it on a plate to cool; then mould the croquettes in the form of corks, pears, or round balls, bread-crumb them with egg in the usual way, fry them of a fine color, and use them as directed.

Eels stewed and glazed according to the different modes above described, as well as when bread-crumbed and fried, or baked, may also be sent to table with the following sauces: - Bourguignotte, Tomata, Italian (white or brown), Cardinal, Matelotte, Normande, Ravigolte, Provengale, Poivrade, Piquante, Aurora, or Crayfish sauce.

512. CARP, A LA CHAMBORD.

Choose, if possible, a carp* weighing about six pounds, and after scalding, drawing, and thoroughly cleansing the fish, stuff it with some quenelle force-meat of whitings. Then lay the carp on a buttered sheet of paper, placed upon the drainer of an oval fish-kettle, cover the entire fish with a coating of force-meat of whitings about half an inch thick, keeping the head clear, and with some " contises'' 1 fillets of soles, form thereon a decoration resembling scales, but larger; in the angles of these, place the tail of a crayfish, trimmed for the purpose; cover the whole with thin layers of fat bacon, moisten with a white wine mirepoix, and set it to braize gently on a moderate fire, carefully preventing it from boiling fast, as that would tend to displace the fillets, &c. with which the carp has been decorated. If the fish is of large size, it will require about an hour to braize it; when done, drain it from its braize, remove the layers of fat bacon, &c, and plar^ it on a large silver dish; garnish round the extremity of the inner edge of the dish with alternate groups of small quenelles of whitings a la Perigueux, button-mushrooms, white muscles, and crayfish tails; sauce round the carp, without covering any part of it, with some Allemande incorporated with part of the liquor in which the fish has been braized, a pat of anchovy butter, and some lemon-juice; glaze the head of the carp, and after ornamenting each end of the dish with a group of large crayfish, send to table.

513. CARP, A LA ROYALE.

Cleanse a carp of large size, wipe it with a clean cloth, and lay it on a buttered paper, place it upon a drainer of an oval fish-kettle, and cover it entirely with quenelle force-meat of whitings colored with

*This fish is held in high estimation on the Continent, especially those caught in the Rhine and Moselle. In England they are seldom found good, and this is the case also •with tench; both these fish being found when cooked to taste muddy: this is chiefly owing to their being taken from stagnant ponds. Those ouly can be expected to be free from this disagreeable peculiarity that are caught in running streams.

When about to clean carp for dressing, it is quite necessary to extract an angular subStance, called the gall-stone, which is to be found at the back of the head: if not removed, this is sure to impart a bitter taste, and render the best fish unfit for table. 11

178 FRESH-WATER FISH.

lobster-coral; smooth the surface of the force-meat with the blade of a knife clipped in whipped white of egg; place some fillets of soles colitises with green gherkins crosswise upon the carp, leaving the space of an inch between each fillet - these spaces are to be filled up by inserting in the force-meat some pieces of truffle, cut in the shape of small olives; cover the whole with thin layers of fat bacon, and braize the carp as in the former case, in a white wine mirepoix; when done, place it on a large oval dish, remove the layers of bacon, &c, sauce it round with a Genoise sauce (No. 30), and garnish it with a border of large quenelles of soles, half of which must be colored with lobster-coral, and the remainder with chopped and blanched parsley; within the inner circle of the quenelles, place alternate groups of prepared oysters and the tails of prawns; at the extremities, and on the flanks of the dish, place groups of crayfish, and send to table.

514. CARP, A LA BOURGUINOTTE.

Stew the carp whole in red wine, when done, drain, and place it on an oval dish; sauce it with a rich Bourguignotle sauce (No. 28), garnish with soft roes and crayfish, and send to table.

515. CARP, A LA PERIGUEX.

Stew the carp in wine, drain it, and dish it up; sauce it with Perigueux sauce incorporated with a pat of anchovy butter and some lemoujuice; garnish with a border of lobster quenelles, and serve.

516. CARP, A LA PROVENCALE.

Stew the carp in a mirepoix of white wine, when done, drain and dish it up; pour some Provencale sauce over it, garnish it with groups of muscles fried in batter, and scollops of perch tossed in green Bavigotte sauce; place a border of crayfish round the dish, and send to table.

517. CARP, A l'allemande.

Glean one or more carp, cut the fish into slices about two inches thick; place the slices in a basin, and season them with a gill of oil, a little tarragon-vinegar, minionette-pepper, and salt, bay-leaf, thyme, and shalot; let the carp steep in this marinade till within about half an hour of dinner-time; then drain them on a napkin, and dip each piece separately in flour, bread-crumb them in the usual way with egg and bread-crumbs mixed with one-fifth of Parmesan cheese; fry the pieces of carp of a fine color, and dish them up on a napkin, placing the pieces so as to make the fish look whole; surround the carp with a border of fried parsley, and slices of lemon, and send to table with two sauce-boats containing some butter sauce (see No. TO), and some Genoise sauce (No. 30).

518. CARP, FRIED A LA VENITIENNE.

Stew one or more carp in a white wine mirepoix (No. 236); drain them on an earthen dish, and after removing the skin, proceed to mask them with a coating of stiffly-reduced AUemande sauce (No. 7); in which has been added some of the liquor the fish have been stowed in. When the sauce has cooled upon the carp, first strew over some bread-crumbs, theu egg them over with a paste-brush, and cover them

PIKE, OR JACK. • 179

entirely with bread-crumbs mixed with one-third of grated Parmesan cheese: then place the carp in a buttered baking-dish or sheet, and half an hour before dinner put them in the oven to bake: they should be of a light-brown color: set the fish on an oval dish, sauce them round with some good Venetian sauce (No. 2G), garnish with qui'urlles of carp mixed with some purre of mushrooms, and -end to table.

510. CARP. STEWED A l aXGLAISE.

For dressing carp in this way, see the directions for stewing eels a I'Aii'jUttsr (No. 5U3).

520. SMALL CAP P. FRIED.

Cleanse and scale the carp, split them down the back, open them flat, season with pepper and salt, dip them in flour, and immediately frv them of a fine color; dish them on a napkin, garnish round with fried parsley, and send to table with either Italian, anchovy, or Dutch hauce, separately in a sauce-boat.

If [(referred, the carp may be bread-crumbed fur frying in the usual way.

Tenth being somewhat similar to carp, may be dressed in the various way- in which that fish is prepared for the table, with equal success; both these kinds offish make excellent Matelottes, and, indeed, it is not unusual to prepare JlatelofffS of carp, tench, and eels all in the same dish. Tench may be sent to table either fried or boiled, with Dutch sauce.

FRESH- WATER FISH.

SECTION 111.

COM I'KISIXG

Pike, or Jack. stuffed sm I linked. Perch, ) hi Si.uJ, .

„ d la Chnmhord. tV. ., n In ] ',,*tn- f i*rhr.

„ fried in slice,,: In Hnllawlahe. .., ) i„ . „;,;;„,,. .

„ crimped in slices, • . "¦ !l .lh,„d iiisv. Fillets ul 1'creli, 'i " ItnUnin.;, ('¦.¦. Fillets of Pike.

521. PIKE. OR JACK. STUFFED .VXD BAKED.

Scale, draw the gills, and thoroughly cleanse and wipe the pike with a clean cloth; till the paunch with well-seasoned veal stufTimr; sew it up with a trussing-needle and fine string, and either turn the tail round into the mouth, securing them together by means of string, or truss the pike into the shape of the letter S; make several deep incisions in a slanting direction on both sides of the fish, and place it in a baking-dish; season with pepper and salt, chopped parsley, and mushrooms, and a little shalot, and from six to eight ounces of fresh butter: - moisten with half a bottle of Sherry, and a little good stock, or essence of mushrooms; cover with a well-buttered paper, and put the pike thus prepared in the oven to bake - observing, that it should be frequently basted with its liquor. When done, dish it up; then

180 FRESH-WATER FISH.

with two glasses of Sherry - detach all the glaze and herbs from the bottom and sides of the dish in which the pike has been baked, add to this a ladleful of good brown sauce, reduce the whole to a proper consistency, and mix in two ounces of fresh butter, a little essence of anchovies, lemon-juice, and a trifle of cayenne; with this sauce mask the pike and send to table.

522. PIKE, A LA CHAMBORD.

This dish is prepared in a similar manner to carp d la Chambord (see No. 512).

This is also the case with pike d la Cardinal, ditto d la Royale, and ditto fried d V Allemande; in fact, pike may be dressed in all respects the same as carp.

523. PIKE, FRIED A LA HOLLANDAISE.

When the pike is cleaned, cut it into slices an inch thick, and place them in an earthen vessel; season with pepper and salt, oil, lemonjuice, chopped parsley, and a little grated nutmeg; turn the slices of pike over in the seasoning occasionally, in order that they may be well saturated with it, and half an hour before dinner-time, drain them on a napkin, dip each separately in flour, and immediately fry them in hogs' lard, made sufficiently hot for the purpose; dish them on a napkin, place round them a border of fried parsley, aud send to table with a boat of well-seasoned Dutch sauce (No. 42).

524. CRIMPED SLICES OF PIKE, A LA HOLLANDAISE.

To produce this dish in perfection, the following instructions must be closely attended to in every particular: -

Scale* and clean the pike, immediately on its being taken from the water; cut the fish into slices nearly an inch thick, and put them into a panful of spring water - fresh from the pump - which, from its coldness, has the power of crimping the comparatively live fish thrown into it. About twenty minutes before dinner, boil the slices in hot water with a little salt; as soon as they are done, drain and dish them up on a napkin, and send to table with either of the following, in a sauce-boat: - Parsley and butter, Dutch sauce, Maitre d f Hotel, or Crayfish sauce.

525. FILLETS OF PIKE.

May be dressed in every variety in which salmon, turbot, or soles are capable of being sent to table; and the directions given under those heads will suffice. It is necessary, however, to describe here the operation of filleting pike.

The smaller-sized of this fish are best suited for this purpose; these should be filleted as follows: -

First lay the fish on the table, with its back placed toward you. insert the knife just below the gill, press with the left hand slightly on the upper part of the fillet, and then draw the knife down - close to the back-bone; when one fillet is removed, repeat the same operation on the other side. Then lay the fillets alternately on the table,

over knife.

The easiest way is to place the pike in a sink, and then to pour some boiling water it, by which means the scales are effectually removed by scraping them off with a

PERCH. 181

with the skin downward, insert the edge of the knife close to the skin, at the extreme end, and by drawing the knife to and fro, keeping the blade clossly pressed to the skin, it will come away from the fillet. Then cnt these fillets into smaller ones, according to taste or convenience, or into scollops, as the case may require.

526. PERCH, A LA STANLEY.

Thoroughly cleanse two or three fine bright perch, which should weigh not less than one pound and a half each; stew them in Rhenish wine, and when done, drain them on a napkin, dish them up, and garnish with a Parisian ragout (No. 203), omitting the truffles, but containing the liquor the perch have been stewed in. Garnish round with a border of large crayfish, and send to table.

527. PERCH, A LA WASTREFISCHE.

Boil the perch in French white wine, and when done, after removing the skin, dish it up, and stick the red fins straight up in a row, down the centre of the fish; on each side of the fins thus placed, decorate the perch by laying on its uppermost fillets streaks of carrot and parsleyroots, shred exceedingly fine, and boiled; also in alternate rows with these, some blanched leaves of green parsley. Pour round the perch the following sauce:

Reduce the liquor in which the perch have been stewed with a proportionate quantity of white Veloute sauce; add a pat of fresh butter, some white essence of mushrooms, a little nutmeg, and lemon-juice; mix the whole well together, and serve.

528. PERCH, A LA VENITIENNE.

Boil the perch, skim and dish them up, placing the red fins in a row down the centre; moisten them over with some sauce d la Venitienne (No. 26), and send to table.

In addition to the foregoing methods for preparing perch for the table, this fish may also be dressed in the same way as pike, carp, and tench, in Matelotte, a la Dauphine, Water Souchet, d VAllemande, a la Genoise, a la Hollandaise, a la Maitre d? Hotel, and also with Shrimp, Parsley and butter, and plain Butter sauce.

Note. - Perch should be served in fillets only, when it happens that they are small, or that they are plentiful; otherwise it is usual to dress this kind of fish whole.

529. FILLETS OF PERCH, A L'lTALIENNE.

Follow the directions given for filleting pike, divesting the fillets of the skin in like manner; trim them neatly, by rounding them atone end, and bring the other end to a point. Then lay the fillets in a circle in a sauta-pan, with some clarified fresh butter; season with a little salt, pepper, and lemon-juice. Twenty minutes before dinner-time, set the fillets on the stove-fire, or in the oven, for about ten minutes to simmer; and when they are thoroughly done, drain them on a napkin, and dish them up in the form of a close circle; sauce them with a white or brown Italian sauce, and send to table.

Fillets of perch thus prepared, may also be sent to table with either of the following sauces, from which the dish will take its name: a la Ravigotte, a la Maitre d'HJel, a la Cardinal, a la Vertpre, a la Hollandaiae.

182 SKATE, WHITEBAIT, AND SCOLLOPED SHELL-FISH,

COMPRISING

Crimped Skate, boiled. Crimped Skate, d la Pascaline. „ „ fried. „ „ d la Jloyale.

„ „ with nut-brown butter. White Bait.

„ „ d I'ltalienne. Scolloped Oysters.

„ „ with fine-herbs au gratin. Muscles, Lobsters, Cockles, Ac.

There are many varieties of skate, amongst these that generally called the blue or gray skate is deemed best for the table. Although not held in much repute, it nevertheless is not unworthy the notice of the epicure, when properly dressed. In order to clean this fish, skin it on both sides, draw and wash it thoroughly; then lay the skate flat on the table, and cut it up in the following manner: First, with a sharp knife separate, on both sides, the fleshy parts of the fish from the back-bone, drawing the knife in a curving direction; afterward, cut these winglike pieces into long strips, by cutting right through the cartilaginous or finny parts; then, place these strips in a pan filled with fresh water from the pump, in order to crimp them. In like manner cut the fleshy parts remaining, and also the back-bone itself, into three-inch lengths, and place them also in the cold water to be crimped. Reserve the liver of the fish to be dressed with it. The water in which the fish is placed should be changed often, until the crimping be effected.

530. CBIMPED SKATE, BOILED.

Turn the fin-pieces of skate round and fasten them with string; boil the fish in hot water with a handful of salt in it; when done, drain and dish it up on a napkin, placing the pieces of liver in the centre; garnish round with a row of green parsley, and send to table with either of the following, in a sauce-boat: Lobster, Crayfish, Shrimp, Anchovy, Dutch, Muscle, or Oyster sauce.

531. CRIMPED SKATE, FRIED.

With a clean napkin, absorb all the moisture from the pieces of skate intended to be fried; after which dip each piece into flour preparatory to its being again dipped in beaten egg, and then rolled in very fine bread-crumbs; turn the pieces of skate rouud into shape again, and fry them of a fine bright color, and dish them up on a napkin with a border of fried parsley, and send to table with either of the sauces recommended for boiled skate.

532. CRIMPED SKATE, WITH NUT-BROWN" BUTTER.

Boil the skate, drain and place it on a silver dish, surround it with a border of fried parsley, and pour over it some well-seasoned nutbrown butter (No. 93).

533. SKATE, FRIED A L'lTALIENNE.

Bread-crumb and fry the fish as directed for fried skate; when done, place it on a dish, [tour uuder it a good browu Italian sauce (No. 12), and serve.

SKATE WHITEBAIT. 183

534. SKATE, WITH FNE-HEEBS, AU GEATIN.

Butter a baking-dish or sauta-pan, and after first turning the pieces of skate round, lay them neatly in the dish, strew over them some chopped mushrooms, parsley, and a very little shalot; season with pepper and salt, and moisten with two glasses of Sherry and a spoonful of consomme; then shake some fine browned bread-crumbs or raspings over the whole, and set it in the oven to bake; when done, place the pieces of skate on the dish, in the same position which they occupied on the baking-dish; reduce the liquor they have been baked in, and add to it some Espagnole or brown Italian sauce, mix therewith a small piece of butter, a little essence of anchovies, and lemon-juice; pour the sauce round the fish; shake some fresh raspings over the whole, and then set the dish (if it be silver) on the stove to gratinale or consolidate the sauce and fish, for a minute or two; pass the redhot salamander over it, and send to table.

535. CRIMPED SKATE, A LA PASCALINE.

Turn the pieces of skate round in the usual manner, boil, drain, and dish them up; then pour over the fish a well-seasoned sauce d la Pascaline (No. 15) made rather piquante; garnish round with glazed croutons of fried bread, on which should be placed a ueatly-trimmed piece of the liver, and send to table.

536. SKATE, A LA ROYALE.

Boil the skate till it is half done, drain it, and after allowing it to cool, cut it into pieces about two inches long, place these in a basin and marinade them in oil, vinegar, pepper, and salt. Twenty minutes before dinner, drain the pieces of skate on a napkin, and then having first dipped each piece separately in some frying batter prepared for the purpose, fry them of a fine color in plenty of hogs'-lard, heated for the purpose; dish the skate up in a pyramidal form, sauce round with Havigotte or Poivrade sauce, garnish the dish with alternate groups of fried parsley and pieces of the liver, and serve.

537. WHITEBAIT.

This very delicious fish is in season during the months of June, July, and August: it is then eaten in the greatest perfection at Greenwich and Blackwall. Owing to the extreme delicacy of this fish, and its very fragile nature, it cannot be conveyed any distance during the season, without injuring its quality, neither can it be kept many hours after it has been taken.

The following is the best method of preparing whitebait for the table.

Drain the fish on a clean napkin, thoroughly absorbing all the water; then roll them in flour, and afterward drop them into some heated frying fat: as soon as they become crisp, drain them on a sieve, and after drying them for a minute or two before the fire, sprinkle on them a little salt, dish them on a napkin, and -send to table accompanied by plates of white and brown bread and butter, and quarters of lemon, - to be handed round, with cayenne pepper.

538. SCOLLOPED OYSTERS. Opex a sufficient quantity of oysters for the purpose, and put them

184 REMOVES OF BEEF.

in a stewpan on the fire to blanch or parboil; after boiling for a few minutes, drain them on a sieve, reserving their liquor to make the sauce with; immerse the oysters in cold water so as to wash off any scum or surf that may adhere to them; take away the beard and gristly substance, and place the oysters thus prepared on a plate, while the sauce is being made in manner following: Into a small stewpan put two ounces of fresh butter, one tablespoonful of flour, a very little pepper, and salt; with a wooden spoon mix the whole thoroughly, moisten with the oyster liquor and half a pint of cream, add a small piece of glaze, and then stir the sauce on the fire till it boils; keep stirring this for about ten minutes, by which time it will be sufficiently reduced to admit of the oysters being added to it; then squeeze in the juice of half a lemon, mix the whole well together, and after putting the oysters in the silver scollop-shells, (or, clean scoured oyster-shells will do,) cover them with fried bread-crumbs. About ten minutes before serving, place them in the oven till they are sufficiently hot to send to table, dish them on a napkin, and serve.

538a. SCOLLOPED OYSTERS ANOTHER WAY.

The oysters being prepared as set forth in »the foregoing recipe, first boil down their liquor to a fourth part of its original quantity, add thereto half a pint of white sauce, the yelks of two eggs, a little grated nutmeg, c yenne pepper, and the juice of half a lemon, a teaspoonful of essence of anchovies and a similar quantity of Harvey sauce; and, after stirring the whole over the fire for five minutes, the oysters should be mixed in, and then, after being placed neatly in the shells, - finished as directed in the preceding article.

Scolloped muscles, cockles, shrimps, lobsters, or crayfish, may be prepared in like manner; a little essence of anchovies should however be added to the sauce for all these - except muscles and cockles; and for lobsters, the coral should be added also.

REMOVES OF BEEP,

COMPRISING

Braized Roll of Beef, r? In Flamande. Braized Roll of Beef, d la d'Orlians.

„ a In f'rintanie're. „ „ d la Milanaiee.

„ d la PuloiKiixe., , „ d la Richelieu.

„ d F Allemunde. „ „ d la Dauphinoise.

„ d la Rot ale. „ „ garnished with glazed

,, (i In Wxndtor. roots.

„ d la Claremont. Brnized rump of Beef.

539. BRAIZED ROLL OF BEEF, A LA FLAMANDE.

Take a piece of sirloin of beef, well covered with fat, weighing about twenty pounds; bone it, leaving the fillet adhering to the upper part; daube or interlard the fillet in a slanting position, by inserting with a large daubing needle some pieces of ham or bacon about a quarter of an inch square and four inches long; then roll the beef up close, and fasten it round with a string so as to secure its shape. Break up the bones aud place them with the trimmings at

BRAIZED ROLL OF BEEF.

185

the bottom, of a braizing pan; then place the roll of beef on the bones, and garnish with four carrots, four onions, with a clove stuck in each, four heads of celery, and a fagot of parsley with thyme and a bay-leaf, and two blades of mace; moisten with half a bottle of Sherry and two glasses of brandy; set the whole on the stove to simmer for about ten minutes, then add a sufficient quantity of good stock or consomme, nearly to cover the beef; place thereon a well-buttered paper, and, after having caused it to boil, set the braizing pan to continue gently boiling on a smothered stove for about five or six hours: the time for this must be regulated by the degree of tenderness of the meat. When the beef is done, drain, trim, and put it into a convenient-sized pan, containing a little of the liquor in which it has been braized; and with a portion of the remaining part, work some brown sauce for the remove; boil the rest down, and with this glaze the beef. Place it on a dish, garnish round with alternate groups of turned and glazed carrots and turnips, glazed onions, and Brussels-sprouts; pour the sauce above alluded to round the dish, glaze the beef, and send to table.

540. BRAIZED BEEF, A LA PRUSTTANIERE.

Prepare and braize a piece of sirloin of beef, according to the foregoing directions; dish it up, and place round it groups of young carrots (turned in their own shape and glazed in the usual manner), asparagus-heads, small buds of cauliflowers, and French-beans, cut in the shape of diamonds, and boiled green; round the dish place a border of turnips cut in the form of deep saucers, and filled with green peas; pour some bright Espagnole sauce (No. 3) round the remove, glaze the beef, and stick on it five or seven ornamental silver skewers, all of them garnished with carrots, turnips, &c, similar to the centre-skewer in the above wood-cut, and send to table.

541. BRAIZED ROLL OF BEEF, A LA POLONAISE.

Braize the roll of beef as in the previous cases, mask it with some glaze in which beet-root juice has been mixed; dish the beef up on

186 REMOVES OF BEEF.

a bed of braized red cabbage (No. 163), garnish round with alternate groups of glazed small onions, and thoroughly well-boiled beet-root cut into the shape of small pears or half-moons, and glazed; pour some Poivrade sauce (No. 29) round the remove, and serve.

542. BRAIZED ROLL OF BEEF, A l'ALLEMANDE.

Bratze the beef in the usual manner, garnish it round with stewed sauer-kraut (No. 165), round which place a border of potatoes cut in the shape of large olives, and fried of a fine light color in butter; sauce round with Poivrade or brown sauce, and send to table.

543. BRAIZED ROLL OF BEEF, A LA ROYALE.

Prepare and braize the roll of beef, as directed for dressing the beef d la Flamande; after trimming and glazing the roll, place it on a dish, and sauce it round with a rich ragout d la Financiere (No. 188); garnish round with a border of larded lambs' sweet-breads and whole truffles, placed alternately round the dish, and ornament the roll of beef by inserting six silver attelets or skewers garnished as follows: - First run the point of a skewer through a large double cock's-comb, then a large mushroom, a fine truffle, and lastly, a fine crayfish; use them as directed to ornament the roll of beef, and send to table

544. BRAIZED ROLL OF BEEF, A LA WINDSOR.

Braize the roll of beef perfectly tender, trim, glaze, and place it ou a dish; garnish round with alternate groups of stewed peas, and potatoes - turned in the shape of large olives, and fried of a fine light color in butter. Clarify and reduce the braize in which the beef has been done, and with it sauce the beef round, reserving part to be sent to table in a sauce-boat, to be handed round with the beef

545. BRAIZED ROLL OF BEEF, A LA CLAREMONT.

Procure about eighteen pounds of sirloin of beef, cut square from the centre; bone and trim it, and then proceed to daube* the fillet and upper part of the beef with tongue and the fillets of a pheasant, cut into lengths of about four inches, and a quarter of an inch square in thickness; roll the beef and secure its shape with string, place it in a braizing-pan with the bones broken small, and the trimmings, three carrots, four onions, celery, a garnished fagot of parsley and green onions, four cloves, and two blades of mace; moisten with half a bottle of Sherry, and two glasses of brandy, and set the whole to simmer on the stove- fire for about ten minutes; then add sufficient broth from the stock-pot to nearly cover the beef, place a wellbuttered paper on it, cover the pan with its lid, and set the beef to boil gently on a slow fire for about five hours - taking care that, when the liquor has become somewhat reduced in quantity by boiling, the beef should be frequently moistened on the exposed surface, by being basted with the braize. When the beef is done, drain, trim, glaze, and place it on a dish; pour round it a ragout d la Claremont, consisting of a brown sauce, mixed with one-fourth part of brown puree of onions and some thin scollops of truffles, mushrooms, and rod

* To daube, is to lard or garnish the inner part of fowls, or any joints of meat, by inserting long strips of ham, bacon, &c, with the aid of a larding-pin.

BRAIZED ROLL OF BEEF. 187

tongue, the whole to be cut out with a round cutter, about the size of half-a-erown piece; ornament the centre of the surface of the beef with fillets of rabbits conlises with tongue and truffle, turned round into the shape of palm leaves, and simmered iu a little fresh butter for the purpose; at each corner insert a silver skewer garnished with a large coek's-comb, a decorated quenelle, and a thick scollop of red tongue; place a border of decorated quenelles and large crayfish round the edge of the dish, and send to table.

546. BRAIZED ROLL OF BEEF, A LA D'ORLEANS.

Prepare, braize, and trim the beef as in the foregoiug case; thoroughly absorb the oily matter from the surface of the fat, and cover it all over with the following preparation: -

Take two dozen very green pickled gherkins, chop them very fine aud put them into a small stewpan; stir them over a quick fire till their moisture be entirely absorbed by the heat, then take the stewpan off the fire, and after allowing the contents to cool, add the yelks of three eggs, pepper, salt, and nutmeg; mix well together, and use as paste, as directed, for the purpose of covering the entire surface of the beef with a coating about a quarter of an inch thick; smooth it over with the blade of a knife dipped in hot water; decorate the centre aud ends of the roll of beef with carrots and turnips, French-beans and asparagusheads,' cut and prepared for the purpose, in fancy designs, by placing, fur instance, young carrots and turnips cut in the shape of a crescent, alternately side by side so as to form a circle, and in its centre a group of heads of asparagus boiled green, and again round this a border of large marrow-fat peas boiled green; at each end place a row of small carrots and turnips in the shape of small olives, while round the roll of beef thus decorated pour a well-made Poivrade sauce (No. 29), garnish round with a border of potato croquettes fried of a light color (made in the form of pears, with a stalk of parsley stuck in the point, to resemble the stalk of a pear); glaze the decoration of vegetables slightly with a paste-brush dipped in some thin glaze, so as not to disturb the order of their arrangement, and send to table.

547. BRAIZED ROLL OF BEEF, A LA MILANAISE.

Bone and trim about twenty pounds of the prime cut from the centre of a well-covered sirloin of beef; daube the under and upper fillets with ham, season with a little chopped green thyme and wiutersavory, minionette, pepper and salt; roll the beef up tight, and secure its shape with string, place it with the trimmings and usual accessories recommended in the foregoing cases, in a braizing pan; moisten with a bottle of red wine and two glasses of brandy, and set the whole to simmer very gently on a slow fire for about twenty minutes; then add a sufficient quantity of good stock, to reach rather better than half way up the beef; place thereon a well-buttered paper, cover with the lid of the pan, and set the whole to braize gently for about five hours - taking care frequently to baste the beef with its liquor. When the beef is done, drain, trim, and glaze it - first straining off the braize, and divesting it of every particle of grease; then clarify, and afterward reduce it to the consistency of thin glaze, to which add half a pot of red-currant jelly, a glass or two of Malaga or fine old Madeira. Dish

188 REMOVES OF BEEF.

up the roll of beef, pour this sauce over it, at each end garnish with macaroni dressed with Parmesan cheese, and at the flanks of the dish place groups of Raviolis (No. 375) prepared for the purpose, and send to table.

548. BRAIZED ROLL OF BEEF, A LA RICHELIEU.

Braize the roll of beef in exactly the same manner as directed for beef d la Flamande (No. 539); when done, drain, trim, glaze, and dish it up; garnish it round with glazed onions, and round the outer circle of the well of the dish, place a border of quenelles of pheasant (previously mixed with a little Soubise sauce), which, after being first poached in the usual manner, are to be bread-crumbed and fried of a light color; then sauce lightly with the essence in which the beef has been braized (clarified and boiled down to the consistency of half glaze for the purpose). Send some of the essence separately in a sauce-boat, and serve.

549. BRAIZED ROLL OF BEEF, A LA DAUPHINOISE.

For this purpose, the roll of beef should be braized sufficiently tender to enable it to be cut with a spoon; it should be allowed to cool in its own liquor, and when nearly cold, drained out carefully on to a dish, trimmed and placed on a deep baking-dish, and then covered over entirely with a coating of thick Soubise sauce, thickened with four yelks of eggs: when the sauce has become firmly set on the beef by getting cold, egg it over, and bread-crumb it twice; sprinkle a little clarified butter over the surface of the beef; and about half an hour before serving the dinner, set the beef thus prepared in a very hot oven, that it may be baked of a fine light color; place it on its dish, sauce it round with a brown Italian sauce (No. 12), and garnish it with a border of tomatas prepared au gratin (No. 11 GO), and send to table

550. BRAIZED ROLL OF BEEF, GARNISHED WITH GLAZED ROOTS.

Braize, trim, glaze, and dish the roll of beef up as directed for Beef d la Flamande; garnish it round with young carrots, turnips, and onions, turned and stewed in the usual manner, and placed in alternate groups; sauce the beef with some Espagnole or Foicrade sauce, and send to table.

551. BRAIZED RUMP OF BEEF.

This piece of beef is considered to be the best for braizing, and should be chosen of fine quality for this purpose: rich grained, of a deep bright-red color, and well covered with a thick coating of delicatelooking fat. Bone the beef, and, after having trimmed it, secure its shape with a string, and braize it as directed for braized rolls of beef, following those instructions, according to the manner in which the rump of beef is intended to be dressed; as, for instance, d la Flamdiulc, a la Frintaniere, &c, &c. t &c.

189

BRAIZED AND ROAST FILLETS OF BEEF,

COMPRISING

Fillet of beef, d la Napolitaine. „ a la Macedo'ne.

„ d la Jardiniere.

„' •with Ghevreuil sauce. „ d V Allemande.

,, au Madire.

Fillet of Beef, d la Milanaise. „ d V Anglaise.

„ d la Nivernaise.

„ d la Royale.

„ d la Parieilnne.

„ d la Provenqale.

552. FILLET OF BEEF, A LA NAPOLITAINE.

Procure a whole fillet of beef, and, with a thin-bladed knife, pare off the sinewy skin which covers it, lard it closely in the usual manner, and prepare it for braizing, as follows: - First, place the trimmings in a narrow oblong braiziug-pan on the drainer, then put in the fillet and garnish it round with carrot, celery, a couple of onions with two ¦ •loves stuck in each, a fagot of parsley and green onions garnished with thyme and bay-leaf, and two blades of mace; moisten with a bottle of light white wine, cover the whole with a well-buttered paper, put the lid on the pan, and set the fillet to boil gently on a slow fire, with live embers on the lid, basting the fillet frequently with its own liquor while braizing, which will require about two hours. Toward the latter part of the time, glaze the larding with some thin, lightcolored glaze, and set the fillet in the oven to dry the larding, taking i-are that it does not burn, or get too much colored. In the mean time, strain off the braize, divest it of every particle of grease, and clarify it; reduce it to one-third of its original quantity, and then add a spoonful of good Espagnole sauce (No. 3), two chopped shalots, half a pot of red-currant jelly, and a spoonful of grated horse-radish; set the whole to boil on the stove-fire for five minutes, after which pass

190 REMOVES OF BEEF

the sance through a tamray into a bain-marie. When about to serve the dinner, place the fillet on a dish, and surround it with groups of macaroni dressed with cheese, in the usual manner, some ravioli* (No. 375), tossed in a little glaze, and some sultana raisins stewed for ten minutes in a little white wine; glaze the beef over, pour the sauce round the fillet, on which, at each end, and at the centre, with an ornamental skewer, fix a turnip, cut in the shape of a cup, (parboiled in salt and water colored with cochineal), and filled with grated horse-radish, and send to table; observing that some of the sauce should be sent in a sauce-boat separately.

553. FILLET OF BEEF, A LA MACEDOINE.

Trim, lard, and prepare a fillet of beef according to the first part of the preceding instructions; moisten it with two ladlefuls of good stock, and proceed to braize the fillet in exactly the same manner; when done, glaze and dish it up. Garnish it round with groups of carrots, turnips, French-beans, asparagus-heads, and buds of cauliflower - the carrots and turnips to be turned or cut into the shape of small olives, or cloves of garlic, the French-beans in the shape of diamonds; and observe that each kind of vegetable should be separately prepared and tossed in a little Bechamel or AUemande sauce, previously to bein^ placed round the fillet of beef. Sauce round the fillet with the clarified and reduced braize in which it has been done, glaze the fillet, and send to table.

554. BRAIZED FILLET OF BEEF, A LA JARDINIERE. Braize a larded fillet of beef according to the foregoing instructions, and when done, glaze and place it on its dish; garnish it round with alternate groups of turned carrots and turnips, to which give the shape of olives, round balls, diamonds, small half-moons, or any other suitable fancy shape - all which must be previously boiled in broth, with a grain of salt, a little sugar, and a small piece of butter. Intermixed with these, place also some groups of green-peas, French-beans cut in diamonds, asparagus-heads, and buds of cauliflower. Sauce the fillet of beef round with bright Espagnole sauce, mixed with some of the essence in which the fillet has been braized (previously clarified and reduced for this purpose), glaze the fillet and send to table.

555. BRAIZED FILLET OF BEEF, DRESSED AS CHEVREUIL. (ROEBUCK.)

Procure part or a whole fillet of beef, as occasion may require, remove the sinewy skin which covers the fat side, trim it neatly, and lard it closely; then lay the fillet for a day or so to steep or pickle in a pan containing a sufficient quantity of cold marinade (No. 234), prepared for the purpose. Next, when the fillet has become saturated with the marinade, drain it, and prepare it for braizing exactly in the same manner as in any one of the preceding cases; moisten with a bottle of Sherry, and braize the fillet of beef in the usual way; when it is done, glaze it well, and place it on its dish. Garnish it round with potatoes turned in the shape of large olives, and fried of a line light color in clarified butter; sauce the fillet round with a well-made ( ' iri-rruil sauce (No. 69), with the addition of half the essenee in which the beef has been braized, and which, as usual, has been previously

FILLETS OF BEEF. 191

clarified and reduced to half glaze for the purpose; glaze the larding and send to table. If preferred, the fillet may be roasted instead of braized.

556. BRAIZED FILLET OF BEEF, A L'ALLEMANDE.

Prepare a fillet of beef in every respect according to the foregoing directions, when done, glaze and dish it up; garnish it round with stewed saner-kraut (No. 165), sauce it with Poivrade or E*pagnole sauce, and send to table.

The fillet of beef a VAllemande may also be garnished with stewed prunes, quenelles of potatoes (No. 312), and sauced round with German sweet sauce (No. 61).

557. BRAIZED FILLET OF BEEF, WITH MADEIRA SAUCE.

Lard a fillet of beef, prepare it for braizing in the usual manner, moisten it with a bottle of good Madeira, and then set the fillet to braize gently on a slow fire; keep basting it frequently with its own liquor, and when done, gfaze it and place it on its dish. Garnish it round with a Jardiniere (No. 143), a Macedoine (No. 144), or some nicelyfried potatoes; clarify the whole of the liquor in which the fillet has been braized, reduce it to the consistency of half glaze, and use it for the purpose of saucing the fillet, and send to table.

558. BRAIZED FILLET OF BEEF, A LA MILANAISE. Braize a larded fillet of beef in an oval braizing-pan garnished with the usual quantity of vegetables, &c.; moisten with a bottle of Sherry or Malaga; when the beef is done, glaze and dish it up, and garnish it round with macaroni prepared as follows: - Boil three-quarters of a pound of macaroni, cut it into two-inch lengths, and put it into a stewpan containing some scollops of mushrooms, truffles, tongue, and the fillets of one fowl; to these add a ragout-spoonful of Bechamel sauce (No. 5), four ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, and a pat of butter; season with a little grated nutmeg and minionette pepper, toss the whole well together over the fire until well mixed, and use it as directed. Sauce the fillet round with the essence (clarified in the usual manner), and send the remainder to table in a sauce-boat, to be handed round with the fillet of beef.

559. ROASTED FILLET OF BEEF, A L'ANGLAISE.

Procure a good thick fillet of beef, trim and lard it in the usual manner, place it in a large earthen dish, strew over it carrot and onion cut into thin slices, thyme, bay-leaf, and branches of parsley, some thin slices of the pulp of a lemon, and a little minionette pepper; pour about a gill of salad-oil over the whole, and allow the fillet of beef to steep in this marinade for several hours - taking care to turn it over occasionally, so that it may absorb a portion of the oil impregnated with the flavor of the various ingredients contained in this kind of marinade.

About an hour and a half before dinner, remove every particle of vegetable from the fillet of beef, run a strong-made iron skewer through it lengthwise, fasten it on the spit by tying it with string at each end, and then put it down to the fire to roast - basting it frequently; take care that the fire is not too fierce, as in that case the larding will be

192 REMOVES OF BEEF.

scorched, which would spoil not only its appearance, but also injure the flavor. Toward the last five minutes of the fillet's roasting, and before it is taken up from the fire, glaze over the larding with some thin light-colored glaze, twice or thrice, take it off the spit, and dish it up; garnish it round with small turned potatoes, fried in clarified butter, placing at each end a bouquet of scraped horse-radish; pour a bright Financiere sauce round it (Xo. 8), glaze the fillet over afresh and send to table.

560. BRAIZED FILLET OF BEEF, A LA NIVERNAISE.

Braize a larded fillet of beef according to the instructions given for the fillet of beef d la Macedoine (Xo. 553); when done, glaze it brightly, dish it up and garnish it round with a Nivernaise (No. 137), and send to table.

561. BRAIZED FILLET OF BEEF, A LA ROYALE.

Closely lard a thick fillet of beef, daube or interlard it with small square fillets of lean ham, fat bacon, and truffles; prepare it for braizing with the trimmings and the usual quantity of vegetables, &c, one or two carcasses of game, and moisten with a bottle of Madeira. Set the fillet to simmer gently on a slow fire in the usual way, carefully basting it occasionally with its liquor; when done, glaze it brightly, and afterward dish it up; strain off the braize, clarify and reduce it, then add it 'o a Financiere ragout (No. 188), with which garnish the fillet of beef; place round it a border of large crayfish, whole truffles, and cock'sconibs, and send to table.

562. ROASTED FILLET OF BEEF, A LA PARISIEXXE.

Roast a larded fillet of beef according to directions given for the fillet of beef a VAnglaise (Xo. 559); when done, dish it up, and surround it with alternate groups of green peas, and crayfish tails (tossed in a little glaze and lobster coral butter, to make them of a bright scarlet); sauce the fillet round with a rich Financiere sauce (Xo. 8), finished with some cravfish butter, and a little lemon-juice, and send to table.

563. ROASTED FILLET OF BEEF, A LA PROVEXCALE.

Steep a larded fillet of beef in the marinade as directed for the fillet of beef d VAnglaise, adding to the ingredients therein mentioned, four cloves of garlic and the pulp of an extra lemon; allow the fillet sufficient time to become thoroughly saturated with the marinade; roast it off, as before directed, glaze and dish it up, garnish it round with tomatas au gratin (Xo. 1160), and pour round it some sauce a laProvencale (Xo. 25), for making which, use the marinade iu which the fillet of beef has been pickled.

Note. - Fillets of beef may also be dressed plain, that is, without being larded, as some dislike the mixture of fat bacon with beef. In all other particulars, the directions for dressing braized rumps, rolls or larded fillets of beef, are to be followed when dressing fillets plain. For purposes of economy, the fillet of beef should be thus prepared for braizing: trim the fillet as if intended to be larded, and then cover the upper or smooth part with layers of beef-suet prepared for the

BOILED AND STEWED BRISKETS. 193

purpose, by taking some large pieces of suet and placing them between a wet cloth, and with the cutlet-bat flatten them until they do not exceed half an inch in thickness; fasten the layers on the fillet with string, and for braizing the fillet, follow the directions given in the foregoing dishes.

BOILED AND STEWED BRISKETS, EDGEBONES, ROUNDS, AND RIBS OP BEEF,

COMPRISING

Boiled Brisket of Beef, d I'Anglaise. Ribs of Beef, d la Chasseur.

„ „ d V Eco.rlate. „ d la Piemoutaise.

Stewed Brisket of Beef, d la Flamande. „ d la Mode.

Edgebone of Beef, d I'Anglaise. „ d la Bourgeoise.

Bound of Beef, d I'Anglaise. „ au Madiere.

,, d la Chasseur. „ d la Baden.

564. BOILED BRISKET OF BEEF, A LANGLAISE.

Procure a piece of brisket of beef, well covered with fat, and which has been in salt about a week or ten days; wash the beef in cold water, and then place it on a drainer in a large oval braizingpau; garnish with three carrots, two large onions with two cloves stuck in each, and two heads of celery; pour in sufficient cold water to fill the pan nearly, and set it to boil on the fire. As the scum rises to the surface, take it off with a spoon, and when the beef has been thoroughly skimmed, set the pan down by the side of the stove, to continue gently boiling for about four or five hours - according to the size and weight of the brisket; when the beef is done, take it up on to an earthenware dish, trim, glaze, and then dish it Up; garnish it round with plain boiled turnips and carrots, that have been neatly cut into the shape of pears, eggs, or small fluted leaflike shapes; at each end place a group of small suet dumplings, pour some gravy under the beef, and send to table. Some Piquante sauce (No. 18), lightly seasoned, should be served in a sauce-boat, to be handed round with the beef.

565. BOILED BRISKET OF BEEF, A L'ECARLATE.

The brisket of beef, a VEcarlate, should be prepared according to the foregoing instructions, in every respect - except the salting or curing operation, which must be thus effected:

To six pounds of common salt, add four onces of saltpetre, half a pound of moist sugar, some bruised bay-leaves, thyme, winter-savory, and sweet-marjoram, a dozen cloves, and a few blades of mace: with this mixture rub the piece of brisket of beef for a few minutes every day - for four or five days running; after which, merely turn it over in the brine once a day, for the succeeding five days - altogether making up ten days for salting the beef. The brisket of beef is then ready for use - provided it is to be eaten while hot; but if intended to be eaten cold, the beef should remain iu the brine at least a fort12

194 REMOVES OF BEEF.

night, by which time only it can be expected to have sufficiently absorbed the flavor of the herbs and spices.

The foregoing instructions apply equally to every kind of salted meat.

566. STEWED BRISKET OF BEEF, A LA FLAMANDE.

Pare off the breast-bone and rough parts adhering to a well-covered piecj of fresh brisket of beef; place it on the drainer of a large braizing-pan, garnish with carrots, onions, celery, fagot of parsley, green onions, thyme, and bay-leaf, six cloves, and two blades of mace; moisten with sufficient good broth (from the boiling stock) to cover the beef. Set the pan to boil gently for about five hours; when done, drain the, brisket on a dish, trim and place it on a baking-sheet, pour a little broth under it, glaze it well and put it in the oven to dry, and glaze it again; then place the brisket of beef on its dish, garnish it round with alternate groups of turned carrots and turnips (boiled down with consomme and a little sugar), Brussels-sprouts, and glazed onions; sauce the beef round with a well-finished E*pagnole or Poivrade sauce, and send to table.

Briskets of beef prepared in the foregoing' manner, may also be sent to table in every variety of method described for the preparation of rolls of beef, as wells as rumps and fillets - in their various forms.

567. EDGEBONE OF BEEF, A LANGLAISE.

Procure a fine edgebone of beef well-covered with rich and delicatelooking fat; take out the kernels, and salt it in the usual manner, by merely rubbing the salt well into the meat; repeat this operation every morning during four days, and then be careful that the beef is turned over in its brine every morning for seven successive days: by this time the edgebone of beef will be ready for use. Next, put it on in cold water, with a couple of carrots and turnips in the pot, and set it to boil gently for about four hours: when done, drain it, trim off the soiled parts of the fat, dish it up, and surround it with alternate groups of well-turned carrots, turnips, summer cabbages, and small suet dumplings; pour gravy under the beef, and send to table.

568. BOILED ROUND OF BEEF, A LANGLAISE.

Follow the foregoing directions in every particular - (observing that a round of beef should remain ten days in the brine, and that the time it will reqnire for boiling must necessarily vary, according to the weight of meat)'; in fact, dress the round of beef according to the old English manner, garnishing it with the same sort of vegetables as directed to be used for the edgebone, and send it to table with some lightly-seasoned Piquanle sauce, separately in a sauce-boat.

569. BOILED ROUND OF BEEF, A LA CHASSEUR, OR " HUNTING

BEEF."*

Cure a round of beef according to the directions given for salt * The apparently large quantity of ale required to dress a round of beef in th; s fashion seems at first sight preposterously extravagant; but it should be borne in mind that this, like others of the more expensive kind of dishes which arc supposed to be indulged in only by the wealthy, is in point of fact not so extravagant as it appears: inasmuch as that the liquor in which the spiced beef has been boiled, serves to ameliorate the Mup which is now so bountifully supplied twice a week to the poor of the adjacent parishes, by the generous owners of the noble mansions throughout the laud.

BOILED AND STEWED BEEF. 195

ing a brisket a VEcarlate; it will require a fortnight or three weeks thoroughly to impregnate the beef with the flavor of the herbs, spices, &c. When the round of beef is sufficiently salted, put it on to boil in home-brewed ale; as soon as it is done, dish it up with carrots, turnips, baked Spanish onions, summer-cabbages, or Brussels-sprouts, and small suet dumplings - the whole of these to be placed in groups round the beef; pour some gravy under it, and send to table. Rounds of beef prepared in the foregoing manner -are more frequently sent to table cold, - for breakfast and luncheon; especially at Christmas time, when they are considered a desirable feature on the sideboard.

570. STEWED EIBS OF BEEF, A LA CHASSEUR.

Procure three or four small ribs of beef well covered with fat, saw off the spine bone close up to the rib-bones, and with the saw shorten the rib-bones to about ten inches; then daube or interlard the lean right through with fillets of fat bacon or ham, a quarter of an inch square - seasoned with prepared herb-seasoning (No. 1250). Next, cure the ribs of beef, as described for the preparation of the huntingbeef, and when it is ready, wash the brine off in cold water, place the ribs of beef in a braizing-pan on a drainer, garnish with the bruised carcasses of any sort of game, four carrots, four onions, three heads of celery, and a well-garnished fagot, moisten with half a bottle of Sherry,' and sufficient broth to cover the beef. Set the pan on the fire to continue gently boiling for about four hours: when the beef is done, drain, trim, and glaze it, put it in the oven to dry the surface, and glaze it again; then dish it up, garnish it round with glazed Spanish onions, and carrots - turned in the shape of pears; sauce the ribs of beef round with a well-finished Madeira sauce (No. 8), and send to table.

It is usual to dress ribs of beef in this manner to be eaten cold; - for this purpose it is necessary to allow them to cool in their own braize, by which means they are materially benefitted, as they absorb a considerable proportion of the essence - thereby acquiring both flavor and delicacy. When the ribs of beef are cold, take them out of their braize, trim, glaze, and dish them up; surround them with a border of bright aspic-jelly (to be made from the liquor in which the meat has been braized), and send to table.

571. BRAIZED RIBS OF BEEF, A LA PIEMONTAISE.

Trim and do,ube with ham and truffles three small ribs of fresh beef; prepare them for braizing with the trimmings, three carrots, three onions, two heads of celery, a garnished fagot of parsley, six cloves, two blades of mace, and two cloves of garlic; moisten with a bottle of Sherry and a, ladleful of broth; set the beef to boil very gently on a slow fire - with live embers on the lid of the pan - for about four hours, taking care to baste.it frequently with its own liquor; when the beef is done, drain, trim, and glaze, and keep it in the hot closet for a few minutes; during this time, strain off the liquor in which the beef has been braized, divest it of every particle of fat, clarify it, and then add one-half to a pound of Naples macaroni, previously boiled in water with a little salt and butter, for about ten minutes, and then drained on a sieve, cut into three-inch lengths, and put into a stewpan

196 REMOTES OF BEEF.

with a pinch of minionette-pepper; then stew the macaroni for a quarter of an hour longer, by which time it will be done; add a tablespoonful of tomata-paste, two pats of fresh butter, and six ounces of fresh-grated Parmesan cheese; toss the whole well together over the fire, and place the ribs of beef on their dish; surround them with the macaroni thus prepared, glaze the beef afresh, pour into a sauce-boat the remaining half of the clarified braize reduced nearly to the consistency of half glaze, and send to table.

572. SMALL RIBS OF BEEF, A LA MODE.

Prepare the ribs of beef for braizing according to the foregoing instruction, moisten with half a bottle of Sherry or Madeira and two wine-glassesful of brandy; then set the pan containing the ribs of beef on the stove-fire to simmer for about a quarter of an hour; after which add two ladlefuls of good consomme, cover the whole with a buttered paper and the lid, and set the pan again on the fire to continue gently simmering for three or four hours - according to the weight or size of the piece of beef. When done, drain and trim it, place it in a sauta-pan with a little of its own liquor, put it in the oven to dry for a minute or two - previously to glazing it; unless, indeed, it has been already glazed during the latter part of the braizing, which is the better method - frequent basting with its own liquor imparting additional flavor; when glazed, dish the ribs of beef up, and garnish them round with groups of glazed carrots, turnips, and onions; sauce round with the essence in which the beef has been braized, clarified and boiled down to the consistency of half-glaze for the purpose, and send to table.

573. SMALL RIBS OF BEEF, A LA BOURGEOISE.

Trim three small ribs of beef, daube and prepare them for braizing, with their trimmings and the usual complement of vegetables, &c.; moisten with two large ladlefuls of good broth; set the beef to boil very gently on a slow fire till done, which will require about four hours and a half, if the piece of beef be small; taking care to turn it over in its braize occasionally; when the ribs are done, drain, trim, and glaze them; dish them up with a border of glazed carrots, onions, turuip . Brussels-sprouts or stewed cahbages, round them; pour the essence on them, and serve.

574. BRAIZED RIBS OF BEEF, WITH MADEIRA SAUCE.

Prepare the ribs of beef for braizing in the usual manner, moisten with half a bottle of Madeira and a ladleful of good consomme; braize the beef gently for about four or five hours; when done, trim, glaze, and dish it up with alternate groups of fried potatoes in the shape of large olives, and any green vegetables the time of year may afford: use the clarified braize, reduced to an essence, as sauce, and send to table.

575. BRAIZED RIBS OF BEEF, A LA BADEN.

Trim and daube three small ribs of beef with some fillets of lean ham and fat bacon; place tham in an oval braizing-pan, garnish with six shalots, a grated stick of horseradish, and a garnished fagot of parsley and green onions; moisten with a bottle of Rhenish wine

FILLETS OF VEAL. 197

and a single ladleful of good strong broth, braize the beef gently on a slow fire, with live embers on the lid of the pan, taking care to baste the beef frequently with its own liquor; when done, glaze and dish it up; strain the braize through a silk sieve into a stewpan, take off all the fat, add a small pot of red-currant jelly, the grated rind of two oranges, and the juice of four; reduce the whole to the consistency of sauce, pour it round the beef, garnish with a border of quenelles of pototoes (No. 312), glaze the beef afresh, and send to table.

Braized ribs of beef may also be sent to table in a variety of other forms; as, for instance, a VAnglaise, a la Milanaise, a la Macedoine, u la Royale, &c, for which see Braized Rolls of Beef.

REMOVES OF VEAL,

COMPRISING

Roast Fillet of Veal, d VAnglaise. Cushion of Veal, d la Jnrdiniire.

„ „ d la Macfdoine. Roast Loin of Veal, d la Monglas.

„ „ d la Jardiniere. „ d la Danphine.

Roast Neck of Veal, d la Grime. „ „ a la ltoyale.

„ „ d la Montmorency. „ „ d la Financiire.

„ „ d la Dreux. ., „ d la Grime.

„ „ d la B'Uxelles. Breast of Veal, d VAnglaine.

„ „ d V Ecarlate. „ d la Bourgeoise.

„ „ d la Royale. „ d la Windsor.

Cushion of Veal, d la St. George. „ d la Financi&re.

„ „ d la Financilre. „ d la Romaine.

„ „ d la 3fac6doine. „ d la Royale.

576. ROAST FILLET OF VEAL, A L'ANGLAISE.

Veal, to be in perfection, should, if possible, be procured fresh killed, as it does not improve either in flavor or color by being kept. Take out the bone from a good fat fillet of veal, and with the cutletbat, flatten the udder so as to lengthen it out; make a deep incision between the udder and the fillet with a knife, and fill it with about 1 lb. of well-seasoned stuffing (No. 662); sew it up with small twine, wrap the udder tightly round the fillet, and secure its shape with skewers and twine; spit the fillet in the usual manner, cover it well with buttered thick white paper, roast it about two hours and a half; just before it is done, take off the paper, and, after first shaking some flour over it from a dredger, baste the veal with a little fresh butter, and froth it; then dish it up, pour round it some light-brown sauce incorporated with 4 oz. of fresh butter, some essence of mushrooms, and a little lemon-juice, or else use No. 82: garnish round with potato croquettes, and send to table.

577. ROAST FILLET OF VEAL, A LA MACEDOINE.

Roast a fillet of veal according 'to the foregoing directions, glaze and dish it up, garnish it round with a Macedoine of such vegetables the season of the year may afford; sauce round with Supreme or Bechamel, and send to table.

198 REMOVES OF TEAL.

578. ROAST FILLET OF VEAL, A LA JARDINIERE.

Prepare the fillet of veal as before described, dish it up, and garnish jt round with groups of turned carrots and turnips, small heads of cauliflower, French-beans, cut into diamonds, green-peas, and asparagus-heads; sauce with half glaze, or a well-finished Espagnole sauce, and send to table.

579. ROAST NECK OF VEAL, A LA CREME.

Procure a neck of white fat veal, saw off the scrag and spine-bones, shorten the ribs to four inches in leugth, run a stout iron skewer through the neck of veal, lengthwise, and then secure it on the spit by tying it with string at each end; about an hour and a quarter before dinner, put it down to roast, baste it frequently, and about twenty minutes before taking the veal off the spit, baste it with some good Bechamel sauce, made with plenty of cream. As in course of roasting the sauce dries on the veal, keep adding a fresh coating, until a light-colored, delicate crust is produced all over the meat; then take it off the spit with great care, in order that the crust may not be disturbed; dish it up, pour a good cream Bechamel sauce (No. 6), under it, garnish it round with groups of Trench-beans cut in diamonds and buds of cauliflower, and send to table.

580. BRAIZED NECK OF VEAL, A LA MONTMORENCY.

Trim a neck of white veal, according to the directions given in the preceding article; then, with a thin long-bladed knife, pare off the skin and sinew which cover the fillet part of the neck, leaving the ribs well covered; lard the part which has been trimmed as closely and neatly as possible, and prepare it for braizing as follows

Strew the bottom of the drainer of an oval braizing-pan with three carrots, three onions, two heads of celery, and a garn-ished fagot; cover the vegetables with thin layers of fat bacon, and then put in the neck of veal; lay the trimmings round it, and moisten with two ladle'sful of good veal stock; put a buttered paper on the top, cover with the lid, upon which place live embers of charcoal, and set it to braize gently on a slow fire, taking care to baste it frequently with its own liquor. When it is done, which will require about three hours, glaze it brightly, and dish it up; garnish with a white ragout of small quenelles, truffles, mushrooms, and cocks'-combs; then place round the ragout a border of lambs' sweetbreads, larded, and large quenelles of fowl, decorated with tongue, and send to table.

581. NECK OF. VEAL, A LA DRETJX.

Trim a neck of veal, daube or interlard it through the fillet with some truffles, tongue, and fat bacon; "first cut these into three-inch lengths, by a quarter of an inch square, and then introduce them into the fillet part of the neck of veal, without showing through the skin which covers it; it should then be braized according to the directions in the foregoing article, and wh*en done, glazed, and dished up. burnish with a white ragout of scollops of tongue and mushrooms, and round this place a border of largo crayfish, and glazed whole truffles j glaze the neck of veal, and send to table.

NECK OF VEAL. 199

582. NECK OF VEAL, -A LA D'UXELLES.

Prepare a neck of veal in every particular the same as described in the foregoing article, braize it, and allow it partly to cool in its own stock; drain, trim, and spread a coating of thickly-reduced d'Uxelles sauce (No. 16) over it; when the sauce has become set, proceed to bread-crumb the neck of veal in the usual manner with beaten egg and bread-crumbs, observing that one-fourth part of grated Parmesan cheese should be introduced into the bread-crumbs used for the purpose. Place the neck of veal on a' buttered baking-sheet, and three-quarters of an hour before dinner-time, put it in the oven, and bake it of a fine bright light-brown color: during this part of the process, be careful to sprinkle a little clarified fresh butter over the bread-crumbed surface of the veal, in order to prevent it from drying or burning. When the neck of veal is done, place it on a dish, garnish round with a Toulouse ragout (No. 187), and send to table.

583. NECK OF VEAL, A L'ECARLATE.

Trim and lard a neck of veal in the usual manner, mark it for braizing according to the instructions set forth for the preparation of neck of veal a la Montmorency, and braize it in a similar manner; dish it up, garnish it round with a border of circular scollops of tongue that have been glazed; sauce round with either Supreme, Allemande, or Bechamel sauce, and send to table.

584. NECK OF VEAL, A LA ROYALE.

Trim and braize a neck of veal, and afterward let it get partially cool in its own braize; drain it on an earthen dish, and mask it entirely with a coating of thick and well-seasoned Allemande sauce; as soon as the sauce has become set upon the neck of veal, bread-crumb it with egg and bread-crumbs, in which introduce a fourth part of grated Parmesan cheese; place it on a buttered baking-dish, threequarters of an hour before dinner, and put it in the oven to bake. When done, dish it up, garnish round with a Toulouse ragout, surround the whole with a border of quenelles, decorated with truffles, and large crayfish; place a heart sweet-bread (decorated with pieces of the tip of a tongue, cut into the shape of large hob-nails, and inserted in circular rows in the sweet-breads, previously to their being simmered iu a little white braize) at each end of the dish, glaze the crayfish lightly, and send to table.

Kote. - Necks of veal, either braized or roasted plain, or larded and braized, may, in addition to the foregoing, be sent to table garnished with a Macedoine of vegetables, a Jardiniere, potato croquettes, mushrooms, or tomatas.au gratin (iu the last two cases, the neck of veal must be sauced with Espagnole, Poivrade, or brown Italian sauce), a In Mila liaise, a la Financiere, &c.,&c.

585. NOIX OR CUSHION OF VEAL, A LA ST. GEORGE.

The noix, or cushion, is that part of a leg of veal to which the udder adheres. In order to separate it from the round, or fillet, the leg should be placed on the table, with the knuckle from you, then with the left hand, take hold of the upper part of the fillet of veal, and with the right insert the point of a knife into the separation which divides

200 REMOVES OF VEAL.

the noix, or cushion, from the under part of the fillet; cat the noix away, following the separation right through, round to the knuckle, terminating at the left, under the udder, which must be left adhering to the noix.

Pare off the sinewy parts from the noix, trim the udder without reducing its size, and then, with a sharp pointed-knife, make a very slight incision in a circular direction on the surface of the noix, round ' the inner edge of the udder; next remove the outer part with a knife, trimming it smooth and neatly; lard the trimmed part closely with fat bacon, in the usual manner, and prepare the noix for braizing as follows: - First place at the bottom of a large fricandeau or oval stewpan, on the drainer thereof, some sliced carrots, a head of celery, two onions, with a clove stuck in each, and a garnished fagot; cover the whole with thin layers of fat bacon, and then put in the noix of veal; surround it with the trimmings, and moisten with half a bottle of Sherry or Madeira, and a sufficient quantity of good stock, barely to reach the surface of the veal; cover with a well-buttered white paper, and set it to boil on the stove; place the lid on the pan, and put it on a slow fire, or in the oven, to braize gently for about four hours (with live embers on the lid), remembering to baste the larding frequently with the liquor, in order to moisten the veal and glaze it of a bright color; the udder should be covered with thin layers of fat bacon, to preserve its whiteness during the braizing. When the noix is done, drain and glaze it, remove the layers of bacon, and dish it up; garnish it round with groups of bntton-mushrooms, small quenelles of fowl (colored with crayfish butter), cocks'-combs and kernels, and turned truffles tossed in glaze; surround these with a border of lambs' sweetbreads, one-half of which should be larded, and the others, contiaes with tongue, placed alternately; stick four silver skewers, each garnished with a large double cocks'-comb, a large truffle, mushroom and crayfish, into the noix, sauce with a rich Madeira sauce (No. 8), and send to table.

586. NOIX OF VEAL, A LA FINANCIERS.

Prepare and braize a noix or cushion of veal in every respect the same as the foregoing; the wine may, however, if thought proper, be omitted; when the noix is done, glaze and drain it, dish it up, pour a rich Financiere ragout (No. 188) under it, garnish round with a border of quenelles and crayfish, and send to table.

587. NOIX OF VEAL, A LA MACEDOINE.

Prepare the noix of veal as in the foregoing cases, dish it up. garnish it with a Macedoiive of carrots, turnips, green-peas, asparagus-heads and cauliflower-buds, tossed in some good Allemande sauce, with a pinch of sugar, and the glaze produced from the small carrots and turnips, place round these a border of small artichoke-bottoms, filled alternately with green-peas, small carrots, and turnips; glaze the lanled part of the noix, and send to table.

588. NOIX OF VEAL, A LA JARDINIERE.

The noix, or cushion of veal, must be first trimmed, larded, and braized, according to the directions given for the noix a la Financiere: when done, di&h it up, and garnish it round with a Jardiniere, n garnish

LOIN AND BREAST OF VEAL. 201

of small roots and vegetables, composed as follows: - Tarn some carrots and turnips in the shape of either small olives, diamonds, corks, or cloves of garlic, &c, and boil them separately in consomme with a very small piece of fresh butter, a pinch of sugar, and a grain of salt, observing that the turnips must be kept white, and that the carrots should be boiled down and rolled in their glaze: prepare also some small heads of cauliflower, green peas, French-beans cut into diamonds, asparagusheads, and small new potatoes; place these vegetables round the noix, in alternate groups, sauce with an Espagnole sauce, or else with the essence in which the noix has been braized, - first clarified, then reduced to half glaze, and added to a well-finished Espagnole sauce; glaze the larded part of the noix, and send to table.

In addition to the foregoing methods of dressing noix, or cushions of veal, for the table, they may, after being first prepared and braized (either larded or stuck with circular rows of truffles, cut in the shape of large hob-nails, and inserted in the semicircular lean part of the noix), be served with a Napolitain, Milanese, or Chipolata ragout, with tomatas au gratin, potato croquettes, and sauced with Bechamel sauce, with stewed peas, or asparagus-peas, tossed in a little Allemande sauce, with a pat of butter, a pinch of sugar, and a little nutmeg.

589. ROAST LOIN OF VEAL, A L'ANGLAISE. Order a loin of veal to be cut without the chump end, and with the skirt left on; trim it square, and placing the veal stuffing (No. 662) in an incision made in the flap part for that purpose, wrap the flap, or skirt-piece, round tight, so as to secure the kidney-fat; fasten it with skewers and string, cover it with two sheets of buttered paper, to be tied on with string, and place the loin of veal in a cradle-spit to roast: or a common spit may be used. If the loin of veal be of the usual size, weighing about 10 lbs., it will require about two hours and a half to roast it; when nearly done, take off the paper, shake some flour over it with a dredger-box, and afterward froth it over with 4 oz. of fresh butter, previously put to melt in a spoon, in the dripping-pan, before the fire; as soon as the veal has acquired a fine light color, and the butter and flour have frothed up, take it off the spit, and dish it up: pour some brown melted butter under it (No. 32), and send to table

590. ROAST LOIN OF VEAL, A LA MONGLAS.

Roast off a loin of veal, according to the foregoing directions: next, with a sharp knife, make an incision two inches deep along the sides and ends of the loin, and endeavor to cut out the square piece without tearing the meat, the joint resembling an oblong case. The fillet thai taken out, should be cut into thin round scollops, and put into a stewpan with an equal quantity of scollops of tongue and mushrooms: to these add a ragout spoonful of good Bechamel sauce, and with this mixture fill the loin of veal, previously put on a buttered bakingBheet; smooth the top over with the blade of a knife, and cover the whole with very fine bread-crumbs, fried with butter, of a light color, and mixed with a third part of Parmesan cheese; sprinkle a little melted fresh butter over it, and set it in the oven to get hot, salamander it over and dish it up; garnish with a white Toulouse ragout (No. 187), and place round a border of croquettes of veal, or sweetbread: at each

202 EEMOVES OF VEAL.

corner of the loin stick an ornamental silver skewer garnished with a large cock's-corab, mushroom, decorated quenelle, crayfish, and truffle; glaze the sides of the loin of veal, and send to table.

591. LOIN OP VEAL, A LA DAUPHINE.

Procure a loin of very white veal, cut square, with the whole of the flap, or skirt, left on; bone it entirely, taking care, at the same time, to divest ft of every portion of sinew; daube or interlard the lean part of the fillet with small fillets of tongue, or ham: the veal must then be laid square on the table, and with some quenelle force-meat of chickens (mixed with chopped parsley and mushrooms), spread the whole of the inner part about an inch thick; the kidney and fat should then be replaced in the centre, the loin rolled up tight, and its pillowlike shape be secured with small iron skewers, and fastened with string. Then put it in a large oval braizing-pan, on the drainer; garnish with the trimmings, a couple of carrots, onions, celery, and garnished fagot of parsley and green onions, two blades of mace, and four cloves; moisten with two large ladlesful of good consomme, cover with ah oval of double paper, well-buttered, put the lid on, and then set the pan to boil on the stove-fire; after which, put it to braize in the oven, or on a slow fire, with live embers on the lid; baste the veal frequently with its own liquor, and when it is done, drain, trim, and mask it all over with a coating of the following mixture: - To six yelks of eggs, add 2 oz. of fresh butter, melted, and two tablespoonsful of Bechamel sauce, season with nutmeg, pepper, and salt, mix this well together, and use it as directed above. Cover the whole with very fine bread-crumbs, mixed with a third proportion of grated Parmesan cheese, sprinkle some drops of melted, or oiled butter, over it, and placing the loin of veal on a buttered baking-sheet, put it in the oven to bake of a light-brown color; when done, dish it up, pour round it a Parisian ragout (No. 203), and garnish with a border of quenelles of veal, or fowl, decorated with truffles, and send to table.

592. LOIN OF VEAL, A LA ROYALE.

Prepare and braize a loin of veal, as directed in the preceding article; when done, allow it partially to cool in its own braize, then strain it on the drainer of the braizing-pan, and absorb any grease there may be on it with a clean napkin; cover it ail over with a quenelle farce of veal, mixed with a little lobster coral; decorate the ends and centre with a bold design, using for the purpose some black truffles, in order that the decoration may show well on the scarlet surface. Next, place the loin of veal in a large oval braizing-pan with just sufficient consomme to bathe it, to the depth of an inch, cover the loin with very thin layers of fat bacon, or, in lieu thereof, a wellbuttered oval covering of paper; set it in the oven, or on a moderate stove-fire, with live embers on the lid, to boil or simmer gently for about three-quarters of an hour, when it will be done. Then drain the veal, and divest it of the bacon or paper used to cover it; pour round it a ragout of button-mnshrooms, small quenelles of fowl, cock'scombs and kernels; garnish with a border of large truffles and crayfish, glaze the loin of veal with thin, light-colored glaze, and send lo table.

Note. - This remove may also be decorated with ornamental skewer*

BREAST OF VEAL. 203

garnished with a piece of red tongue, cut in the shape of a cock's-comb, a large double white cock's-comb, a mushroom, and a red quenelle, ornamented with truffle.

593. ROAST LOIN OF VEAL, A LA FINANCIERE.

Procure a loin of veal, cut square without the chump, and with the flap, or skirt, left on; bone it carefully, truss it tightly in the shape of a pillow, and after first laying the fillet bare, by paring off the whole of the skin and sinew which covers it, lard it closely, as you would a fricandeau. When the loin is so far prepared, get it ready for braizing in a large oval braizing-pan, with carrot, onion, celery, garnished fagot, two blades of mace, and four cloves; moisten with two ladlesful of good stock, cover with an oval of paper, well-buttered, place the lid on the pan with live embers on it, and then set the veal to braize gently on the fire, taking care to baste it frequently with its own liquor. "When done, drain, glaze, and dish it up; pour round it a rich brown Ftnanciere ragout (No. 188), garnish with a border of plain quenelles, and crayfish, and send to table.

594. ROAST LOIN OF VEAL, A LA CREME.

To prepare this, follow the direction's given for dressing neck of veal a la Gixme (No. 579); garnish in the same manner, and send to table.

595. ROAST BREAST OF VEAL, A L'ANGLAISE.

First take the tendons out of the breast of veal intended to be dressed, and reserve them for an entree; then bone it completely, cut the ends square, and trim it; place about 1 lb. of well-seasoned vealstuffing (No. 662) along the centre of the inner part, roll the veal np tight, so as to secure the stuffing in the middle; fasten it with string and small skewers. About an hour and a half before dinner-time, spit the breast of veal, cover it with buttered paper, and put it down to roast; when done, dish it up, pour round it either some brown melted butter (Xo. 82), light Espagnole sauce, or Bechamel, and send to table.

596. BREAST OF VEAL, A LA BOURGEOISE.

Bone, trim, and roll a breast of veal, according to the preceding instructions; prepare it an oval stewpan, with 4 oz. of fresh butter, and set it to simmer on a moderate fire, until it becomes colored all over; then add a garnished fagot of parsley and green onions, moisten with a lar^e ladleful of good stock, and put it to braize gently on the stovefire, or in the oven; half an hour after, add two dozen small carrots, nicely turned, and in another half hour, add as many heads of middlesized onions, a pinch of sugar, and a little salt. When the veal is done, take it up, and after taking away the strings and skewers, put it on a baking-sheet in the oven and glaze it; dish it up, garnish round with the glazed carrots and onions, and after removing all the fat from the surface of the stock, or essence of the veal, and reducing it down to the consistency of half-glaze, use it to sauce the breast of veal, and send to table.

597. BREAST OF VEAL, A LA WINDSOR.

Bone and trim a breast of veal, lay it on the table, and after spreading the inner part with quenelle force-meat of veal or rabbits, at least

204 REMOVES OF VEAL.

an inch thick, place some square fillets of boiled tongue lengthwise, and between the fillets of tongue put some pieces of black truffles, cut square to match the size of the pieces of tongue; then roll up the breast of veal carefully, secure its shape with the aid of small iron skewers and string, and to prevent the force-meat from escaping, cover the ends with layers of fat bacon. Put the veal thus prepared into an oval braizingpan, with the trimmings and the usual complement of roots, &c, moisten with two ladleSful of good stock, and set it to braize gently on a slow fire; when doue, drain, glaze, and dish it up, garnish round with French-beans cut in diamonds - which, after being boiled green, must be dressed with a spoonful of Bechamel sauce, a little minionette-pepper, nutmeg, salt, fresh butter, and lemon-juice; round these place a border of young carrots nicely glazed, and send to table.

The braize in which the breast of veal is done should be divested of grease and clarified, and after being reduced to half glaze served separately in a sauce-boat.

598. ROAST BREAST OF VEAL, A LA FINANCIERE.

Trim, stuff, and truss a breast of veal as directed for the preparation of a breast of veal a V Anglaise, roast it off iu the same manner, dish it up, and surround it with a rich Financiere ragout (No. 188), and send to table.

599. ROLLED BREAST OF VEAL, A LA ROMAINE.

Prepare a breast of veal as for a la Windsor, and braize it accordingly; when done, glaze and dish it up, garnish it with lasagnes (No. 265) prepared as macaroni, surround the whole with a border of rice croquettes, made with rice boiled iu consomme, and to which should be added a little Allemande sauce, grated Parmesan cheese, nutmeg, and minionette pepper; and when the preparation is cold, mould the croquettes according to taste, bread-crumb and fry them of a light color, and use them as directed. Send the remove to table, accompanied with a sauce-boat containing Sicilian sauce (No. 60).

600. ROLLED BREAST OF VEAL, A LA ROYALE.

For this preparation, follow the directions given for loin of veal a la JRoyale.

Note. - In addition to the foregoing methods of preparing breasts of veal for the table, they may, after beiug either roasted or braized, also be garnished with a Jardiniere or Macedoine of vegetables, with stewed peas, or with a ragout a la Claremont, a la Toulouse, d la Chipolala, &c. &c, as convenience or fancy may suggest.

205

REMOTES OF LEGS, LOINS, AND NECKS OF MUTTON,

COMPRISING

Boiled Leg of Mutton, d I'Anglaise. Necks of Mutton, d I'Anglaise.

Braized „ with roots. „ d I' Irlandaise.

,, „ d la Provencale. „ d la Jardiniere. .

„ „ d la Soubise. „ larded with Poivrade

„ „ d la Bretonne. sauce.

„, , d la Jardiniere. „ d VAllemande.

Braized Saddle of Mutton, d la Macidoine. „ d la Soubise.

601. BOILED LEG OF MUTTON", A L'ANGLAISE.

Select a leg of Southdown mutton, rather fat, and not kept above three or four days; trim it, and put it on to boil in a stock-pot or braizing-pan, filled up with cold water; when it boils, remove the scum, and put it on the side of the stove to continue gently boiling for about two hours and a half: a handful of salt and a couple of turnips and carrots should be put into the pot to boil with the leg. When the mutton is done, drain and dish it up, garnish it round with mashed turnips, dressed with a little sweet cream, a pat of butter, pepper -and salt: mould the mashed turnips in the shape of large eggs - with a table-spoon, and place these closely round the leg of mutton, introducing between each spoonful of mashed turnips, a carrot nicely turned, that has been boiled, either with the mutton, or in some broth separately: pour some gravy under it, put a paper ruffle on the bone, and send it to table, accompanied with a sauce-boat full of caper-sauce (No. 91).

602. BRATZED LEG OF MUTTON, GARNISHED WITH ROOTS.

Tium a leg of Southdown or Scotch mutton, interlard it with fillets of ham or bacon cut a quarter of an inch square and about six inches long, seasoned with pepper and salt, a little grated nutmeg and some chopped parsley; pare off the ends of ham, &c, and place the leg of mutton in an oval braizing-pan with two carrots, a head of celery, a couple of onions, four cloves, and two blades of mace; moisten witli a glass of brandy, and two large ladlefuls of fresh stock, cover with an oval buttered paper and put on the lid; then set the braizing-pan on the fire to boil gently for about four hours, from time to time moistening the mutton with its liquor, and keeping a continual supply of live embers on the lid of the pan. When done, take it up on to a deep baking-sheet, with a little of its own liquor, and put in the hot closet till wanted. In the mean time, strain off the braize, divest it of all the fat, clarify it in the usual manner, and when strained, reduce it to the consistency of half glaze, and set it aside in a small bain-marie. Then glaze the leg of mutton nicely, and place it on its dish; garnish it round with alternate groups of young carrots and turnips turned and boiled in broth as usual, for the purpose, and afterward boiled down in their own glaze, also some glazed young onions; pour the clarified essence under the leg of mutton, put the ruffle ou the bone, and send to table.

206 REMOVES OF MUTTON.

603. BRAIZED LEG OF MUTTON", A LA PROVENCALE.

Bone a leg of four-year old mutton, commencing at the thigh bone, by detaching the meat from round it with a knife, and throwing it back right up to the joint of the leg-bone; then cut the sinewy ligatures, and remove the thigh-bone entirely; saw off the shank and scrape the end of the bone remaining in the leg as in preparing a cutlet. Then interlard the interior with seasoned lardoons or fillets of ham or fat bacon, introduce the Provengale stuffing (described below), and sew the hollow opening whence the bone has been extracted, with small twine; place the leg of mutton in a braizing-pan with carrots, turnips, celery, six cloves, two blades of mace, two garnished fagots, and six cloves of garlic; moisten with half a bottle of Sherry, and two large ladlefuls of good fresh stock, cover with an oval of buttered paper and the lid; set the pan on the stove to boil, and then put it on a small stove-fire, with live embers on the lid, and allow it to continue gently simmering for about four hours; taking care to moisten it frequently with its own liquor. When it is done, take it up on to a baking-sheet with some of its own liquor, and set it in the hot closet for a few minutes. Strain the remainder of the liquor through si sieve, and remove all the fat, clarify it, strain the essence through a napkin, and reduce it to half glaze, and add it to some Gasconne Mtfee (No. 68). Then dish up the mutton, garnish it round with toruatas or mushrooms dressed au gratin (No. 1160), pour the Gasconne sauce under the remove, and send to table. - The Provengale stuffing for the leg of mutton is to be made as follows:

Chop half a pottle of mushrooms very fine, and put them into a small stewpan; to these add some chopped parsley and shalot, with an equal quantity of grated lean and fat ham, and a little grated lemon-peel: season with pepper, salt, and nutmeg; set the whole on the fire and stir it with a wooden spoon for five minutes, that the watery parts of the mushrooms may evaporate; add the yelks of four eggs, and after -setting the yelks of eggs in the fine-herbs, by stirring the whole on the fire, add them to some quenelle force-meat made with the fillets of a partridge, mix these well together, and use the stuffing as directed above.

604. BRAIZED LEG OF MUTTON, A LA SOUBISE.

Bone a leg of mutton, and lard it as in the foregoing case, stuff it with some quenelle force-meat, made with game, and secure the stuffing with twine. Then prepare the leg of mutton for braizing with a couple of carrots and onions, a head of celery, and garnished fagot, four cloves, and two blades of mace; moisten with two large ladlesful of common stock, cover these with buttered paper, then put on the lid. and set it on a moderate fire to braize gently for about fuur hours: taking care to moisten it frequently with its liquor. When the mutton is braized perfectly tender, take it up on to a baking-sheet with some of the liquor in which it has been braized, and put it in the oven to finish glazing. In the mean time strain off and clarify the remainder of the liquor, and keep it in a small bain-marie; ami after having glazed the mutton brightly, dish it up on a bed of well-made Soubise puree of ouion (No. 11 9), garnish round with potato croquettes, and send to table.

BRAIZED LEG AND SADDLE OF MUTTON. 207

The clarified essence, after being reduced to half glaze, should be sent to table in a sauce-boat to be served with the mutton when carved; if poured round the mutton, it would mix with the Soubise sauce.

605. BRAIZED LEG- OP MUTTON, A LA BRETONNE.

Prepare and braize a leg of mutton as directed in the foregoing case; when done, glaze and dish it up on a bed of white haricot-beans dressed & la Bretonne (No. 1186); garnish it round with a border of potatoes cut in the shape of large olives, and fried in butter, of a light color; ornament the bone with a paper ruffle, and send to table.

606. BRAIZED LEG OF MUTTON, A LA JARDINIERE.

Bone and braize a leg of mutton according to the preceding directions; and when done, glaze and dish it up; garnish it round with alternate groups of prepared small carrots, turnips, cauliflowers, French beans cut in diamonds, small new potatoes, cucumbers, asparagus-heads, and green peas - the whole, or any part of these, according to the season. Pour round the mutton some Espagnole sauce iu which has been incorporated, after reduction, the clarified essence in which the mutton has been braized; put on a ruffle, and send to table.

Note. - In addition to the foregoing garnishes for braized legs of mutton, the) r may also be appropriately served with new potatoes a la JIaUre d' Hotel, fresh ha?-icdt-be&us, stewed peas, and a border of young carrots glazed, artichoke bottoms cut in quarters, and tossed in Allemande sauce, or with a Macedoine of vegetables (No. 143).,

607. BRAIZED SADDLE OF MUTTON, A LA MACEDOINE.

Procure a well-covered saddle of mutton, and extract the spinebone With the knife, without injuring the fillets, or perforating any part of the fat which covers them; trim the tail end quite round, cut the flaps square, season the inner part of the saddle with pepper and salt, and having rolled up each flap or skirt piece, so as to give it a tight and neat appearance, secure its shape by passing some string round it several times. After this, the mutton should be prepared for braizing with carrots, onions, celery, garnished fagots, cloves, and mace; moisten with a sufficient quantity of good stock, to merely cover the mutton; place a buttered paper and the lid over all, set the braizing-pan on a moderate fire, and after it has boiled, let it continue ly braizing for about four hours - carefully basting it frequently with its own liquor. When it is done, take it up on to a baking-sheet, and put it in the oven to dry the moisture from the surface, preparatory to its being glazed; then dish it up, and garnish it round with prepared small vegetables, such as carrots, turnips, cauliflowers, French-beans, cucumbers, asparagus-heads, small new potatoes, and green-peas: each separately tossed in a little Allemande sauce (after being first prepared in the usual manner, and the carrots and turnips boiled down in their glaze, as also the cucumbers), pour some Allemande sauce round the saddle of mutton, and send to table.

Note. - Instead of saucing this remove with Allemande, Espagnole

208 BEMOVES OF MUTTON.

may be used, if preferred, or even the clarified and reduced essence in which the mutton has been braized; but it is essential that the vegetables intended to be used for garnishing should be dressed with Allemande or Bechamel sauce.

Saddles of mutton prepared and braized according to the foregoing instructions may also be sent to table in all the varieties described for braized legs of mutton.

608. BOILED NECKS OF MUTTON, A LANGLAISE.

Saw off the scrag of two necks of mutton, and shorten the rib-bones to four inches in length; next, detach the spine-bone from the fleshy part of the neck, and afterward saw off the whole of the spine adhering to the base of the ribs; pare the fat smooth, and about two hours before dinner-time, put them on to boil in a stewpan with water, a little salt, and two or three carrots and turnips. When they are done, dish them up so as that the uncovered ends of the rib-bones may fall in between each other - representing a chevaux-de-frize. Garnish round with mashed turnips, and with turned carrots, between each spoonful of the mashed turnips, or else placed round in a row.

Send two sauce-boats filled with gravy and caper-sauce (No. 91).

609. BRAIZED NECK OF MUTTON, A L'lRLANDAISE.

Trim two necks of mutton as directed in the previous article, put them to braize in an oval stewpan with carrot, onion, celery, and garnished fagot; moisten with common stock, and put them to boil on the stove; after which set them by the side of a moderate fire, and while the necks of mutton are being braized, turn two or three dozen potatoes in the shape of small eggs, and place them in a stewpan with half a dozen small onions; season with pepper and salt, moisten with a ladleful of broth, and put them on a moderate fire to boil gently: taking care that the potatoes are kept as whole as possible, although they must be thoroughly boiled. When the necks of mutton are done, take them up, trim them, if necessary, and dish them up as directed in the foregoing article; strain the broth in which the mutton has been boiled, remove all the grease from its surface, and reduce it to half glaze: add part of it to the potatoes, and with these garnish the necks of mutton round neatly, pour the essence under, glaze them, and seud to table.

610. BRAIZED NECK OF MUTTON, A LA JARDINIERE.

Trim two necks of mutton, and prepare them for braizing with carrot, onion, celery, fagot, four cloves, and two blades of mace; moisten with two ladlesful of stock, cover with an oval piece of buttered paper, and the lid; put them to braize gently on a moderate fire for about two hours and a half: when done, glaze and dish them up, giving them an appearance of chevaux-de-frize; garnish them round with a wellprepared Jardiniere of every variety of small vegetables in season, sauce them with Espagnole sauce, and send to table.

611. BRAIZED NECKS OF MUTTON LARDED - AS ROEBUCK, WITH POIVRADE SAUCE.

For the preparation of this remove, it is necessary that the necks of mutton be trimmed as directed for braizing, and afterward that

NECKS OF MUTTON. 209

the upper part of the fillet be laid bare without loosening it from the bones; they must then be larded closely as a fricandeau^ and put to steep in a cold marinade (No. 234), for at least twenty-four hours. It will be readily understood that this must be attended to a day before the necks of mutton are required to be used. Trim, lard, and marinade the necks of mutton as directed; and then prepare them for braizing in the following manner: - Place the necks of mutton in an oval braizing-pan on the drainer, garnish with carrot, onion, celery, garnished fagot of parsley, &c, four cloves and two blades of mace; moisten with some light wine mirepoix (No. 236), or in lieu thereof, use half a pint of Sherry or Madeira, and a large ladleful of stock; cover the necks of mutton with an oval piece of buttered paper, and set them to boil on the stove-fire; after which put the lid on the pan, and set the braizing-pan on a moderate fire with live embers on the lid, to continue gently boiling for about two hours; taking care to baste the larded necks frequently with their own liquor. When done, take them up on to a small baking-dish with a little of their own broth, and put them in the oven that the larding may dry for a minute or two, then glaze and dish them up; garnish them round with a border of potatoes turned in the shape of large olives, corks, or balls, and fried in clarified butter; pour some Poivrade sauce (No. 29), under them, and send to table.

612. NECKS OF MUTTON, LAEDED AND BEAIZED, A L'ALLEMANDE.

Trim, lard, and prepare for braizing, two necks of mutton, as directed in the preceding article; and about two hours before dinner-time, set them on the fire to braize in the usual manner. When done, glaze and dish them up, surround them with alternate groups of quenelles of potatoes, and prunes stewed in red wine; pour some German sweet sauce (No. 61) under them, and send to table.

613. NECKS OF MUTTON LAEDED, A LA SOUBISE

Trim and lard two necks of mutton, prepare them for braizing with carrot, onion, celery, garnished fagot of parsley, three cloves, and two blades of mace; moisten with a large ladleful of good stock, cover them with an oval piece of buttered paper as well as the lid of the brazier: set them on a moderate fire to braize gently for about an hour and a half; when done, glaze, and dish them up (having previously poured in the dish a rich puree of onions d la Sotibise No. 119), place a border of potato croquettes round them, and seud to table.

Note. - Larding may be dispensed with, when considered objectionable, without deteriorating much from the excellence of any of the foregoing methods of dressing necks of mutton. It is, however, generally regarded as a proper characteristic of these dishes. In addition to the above methods for garnishing braized necks of mutton, they may also be finished by placing round them a garnish of stewed peas, asparagus, glazed young carrots and turnips, sauer-kraut, baked tomatas, or Lyonnaise toinatas, or Piquante sauce. 13

210

REMOVES OP LAMB,

COMPRISING

Baron of Lamb, d la Montmorency. Saddle of Lamb, d la Godard.

„ d la Printaniere. „ d la Financiire.

„ d la Jardiniere. „ d la Rot ale.

„ d la Maxtre d'H6tel. „ d la Macidoine.

Hind-Quarters of Lamb. „ d la Milanaite. Saddle of Lamb, d la Dauphine.

614. BARON OF LAMB, A LA MONTMORENCY.

Procure the hind quarters of a fine fat lamb, take off the transparent skin which covers the fat of the saddle, and with the point of a small knife, make a slight incision, in an oval form, all over the surface of the upper part of the legs; and afterward with a sharp thin-bladed knife, pare off the skin, so as to leave the place bare; this will give to the surface of each leg, the appearance of fricandeaux prepared for larding. Then saw off the shank bones, as well as the projecting part of the spine bone; cut off the tail, and truss the skirts neatly up with small skewers. Next, place the baron on the spit for roasting, and be careful* to cover it with buttered white paper. Two hours and a half before dinner, put the lamb down to the fire to roast, and about ten minutes before it is done, take off the paper; and after allowing the larding to get lightly colored, glaze it well over, then take it off the spit, and dish it up; garnish it round with groups of button mushrooms, truffles, fine white cocks'-combs, and scollops of red tongue; round the whole place a border of syoon-quenelles decorated with truffles, and a lamb's sweetbread larded between each quenelle; sauce with good Allemande sauce; glaze the lamb brightly, and send to table.

615. BARON OF LAMB LARDED, A LA PRINTANIERE.

Trim, lard, and roast a baron of lamb according to the directions contained in the foregoing article; dish it up, pour round it some Printaniire sauce (No. 21), garnish it with groups of small new potatoes first partly boiled, and afterward fried of a light color in clarified butter, glaze the lamb all over, and send to table.

616. BARON OF LAMB, A LA JARDINIERE.

Prepare and roast the baron of lamb according to the preceding directions; and when dished up, garnish it round with a rich and varied Jardiniere of such vegetables as are in season; sauce the lamb round with Evpagnole sauce, and send to table.

617. BARON OF LAMB, A LA MAITRE d'HOTEL,

Prepare the baron of lamb as previously directed, dish it up and pour round it a rich Maxtre d'Hdtel sauce (No. 43); garnish it round with alternate groups of small buds of cauliflowers, and fried oliveshaped potatoes; glaze the lamb well, and send to table.

SADDLE OF LAMB. 211

Note. - Hind-quarters of lamb should be dressed in the same manner as barons of lamb, and may therefore be garnished with every sort of sauce and garnish used for the latter.

When the larding is dispensed with, the whole of the fat as a matter of course should be retained on the surface of the lamb, to protect the meat from losing its juices, and consequently render it unfit for table.

618. SADDLE OF LAMB, A LA DAUPHINE.

Select a moderate-sized saddle of lamb, bone it, and having laid it on the table, season the inside with pepper and salt, and line it with some quenelle force-meat of veal or fowl, about an inch in thickness, placing on the force-meat some fillets of tongue and truffles, after which, fold the skirts of the saddle over - so as to encase the force-meat, &c, thereby giving it a plump appearance; and in order to secure its shape, bind it in a napkin on which butter has been spread: when the saddle of mutton is rolled up tightly in it, tie the ends with twine. Then place the saddle so prepared on the drainer of an oval braizingpan, cover it with the bones and trimmings; garnish with carrot, onion, celery, garnished fagot of parsley, four cloves, and two. blades of mace; moisten with sufficient good stock to cover the lamb, and set it to braize gently on a moderate fire for about two hours and a half. When the lamb is done, place it on an earthen dish, untie the ends of the napkin, and fold the saddle up tightly, and smooth it in again; fasten the ends as before, and put it in press between two dishes until it is nearly cold. Then take the lamb out of the napkin, trim it neatly, and cover it over with a coating of well-seasoned reduced Allemande sauce, which must be allowed to set, afterward being egged over, and then be covered with very fine bread-crumbs mixed with one-fourth part of grated Parmesan cheese; sprinkle some drops of melted fresh butter with a paste-brush over the whole, and put it on a baking-sheel in the oven to acquire a light-brown or fawn color. The saddle of lamb being ready, dish it up, garnish it round with some bouchees of wild rabbits a la Pompadour (No. 1010); sauce round and under the lamb with some white Italian sauce (No. 13), and send to table.

619. SADDLE OF LAMB, A LA GODARD.

Bone, stuff, and braize a saddle of lamb according to the preceding directions; when done, put it in press between two dishes till cold. It should then be taken out of the napkin, trimmed neatly without removing any of the fat, or diminishing its size, and put into a deep baking sheet with the broth in which it has been braized - previously clarified, and afterward reduced to half glaze for the purpose; put a buttered oval piece of white paper on the top, and half an hour before dinner put it in the oven to be warmed and glazed of a fine light color. Then dish it up, and pour round it a rich ragdut a la Qodard - composed of cock's-corabs and kernels, button-mushrooms, small sweetbreads cut into scollops, and truffles - the whole to be tossed in some good Allemande sauce. Put a border pf large quenelles decorated with truffles, and some larded lamb's-heart sweetbreads - placed alternately round the remove, and send to table.

212 REMOTES OF LAMB.

620. SADDLE OF LAMB, A LA FINANCIERE.

Prepare a saddle of lamb exactly as the foregoing, and when dished up, garnish it with a rich Finayxciere ragout (No. 188); glaze the remove, and send to table.

621. SADDLE OF LAMB, A LA ROYALE. For the preparation of this remove, follow the directions for loin of veal d la Royale (No. 592).

622. SADDLE OF LAMB, A LA MACEDOIXE.

Bone, stuff, and braize a saddle of lamb as for d la Godard (No. 619), warm and glaze it, also, in the same manner; dish it up, garnish it round with a rich and well-prepared Macedoine of vegetables tossed in some Allemande sauce: surround the remove with a border of artichoke bottoms, or small turnips cut in the shape of cups, boiled in white broth with a lump of sugar and a little salt, and filled - half with green peas, and the remainder with very small turned or scooped carrots, nicely glazed; glaze the remove, and send to table.

623. SADDLE OF LAMB, A LA MILANAISE.

Prepare and braize a saddle of lamb as previously directed; when glazed, dish it up, and garnish it round with macaroni prepared as follows: -

Boil one pound of Naples macaroni in two quarts of boiling water, a pat of butter, a little salt and minionette pepper; when done, drain it on a sieve, and afterward on a clean napkin, cut it into pieces two inches long, and put this into a stewpan with two pats of butter, six ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, a small piece of glaze, a ragoutspoonful of good white sauce, minionette pepper, and a little salt: toss the whole well together over a stove-fire until quite hot, and then use it to place round the remove, as also some truffles, and tongue cut into small circular scollops; these are to be warmed in a tablespoonful of half glaze, and placed round the remove in alternate groups with the macaroni; glaze the saddle of lamb before serving, and send to table with it a sauce-boat containing some of the clarified and reduced broth, in which the lamb has been braized, to be handed round with the remove.

CALVES'-HEADS AND OX-CHEEKS,

COMPRISING

Calf s-head, d I'Anglaise. Ox-cheek, braized, d la Flamande. „ plain, with Piquante sauce. „ d la Poloi ai*e.

,, d la Ffnaneiire. „ d I' Allemande.

„ d la Beaitvaux. „ d la Portuguaite.

„ d la Tortne. „ d la Pompadour.

,, d la Marigny.

624. calf's-head, a l'anglaise.

Procure a fine, fat, white, scalded calf's-head, bone it in the manner described for preparing mock-turtle soup (No. 349); then put it into

CALF'S HEAD. 213

a large panful of cold water, in order that it may be thoroughly cleansed, after which, put it on the fire in a large stewpan with cold water, and as soon as it boils, skim it well, and allow it to boil for five minutes; then take it up and put it into cold water to cool. Next, drain it on a napkin, cut the ears out, leaving a sufficient base round them to allow them to stand up; cut the cheeks, &c, into pieces two inches square, round the angles, and pare off any rough cuticle there may be about them; this done, proceed to rub each piece of calfs-head .with lemon-juice, then place the whole, including the tongue, in a large stewpan, with carrot, onion, celery, parsley roots, sweet-basil, a garnished fagot of parsley, &c, four cloves, and two blades of mace; moisten with half a bottle of Sherry or Madeira, and two ladlesful of good white stock, and set the whole to braize gently on a moderate fire, for about two hours. When the pieces of calfs-head are done, drain them upon a napkin, and dish them up in a close circle round the tongue, (previously trimmed, glazed, and placed in the centre of the dish); then cut the brains into scollops, and place them in the flanks, and at each end place the ears, previously trimmed and curled; pour some parsley and butter (No. 77) over the remove, and send to table.

The calf s ears should be trimmed as follows: - First drain them upon a napkin, then scrape off all the glutinous surface from the thin part with the edge of a spoon, leaving the white gristly membrane quite clear; wash them in warm water, put them back upon the napkin, and then slit them into narrow stripes, taking care not to run the knife through the ends, but merely from the inner part to within half an inch of the point, so as that, when the ear is turned down, it may present the appearance of a looped frill.

It is customary to send a piece of boiled streaky bacon on the sidetable, when calfs-head is intended to be eaten plain. A boatful of sauce d la Diable (No. 17) as an accessory to plain calfs-head, is generally preferred to parsley and butter, the latter being considered too insipid.

625. calf's-head, plain with piquante sauce.

Prepare the calfs-head as directed in the preceding article; then put about one pound of chopped beef-suet into a large stewpan, with carrot, onion, celery, garnished fagot of parsley, four cloves, .and two blades of mace. Stir the whole with a wooden spoon over the fire until the suet is melted, then add the pulp of two lemons and a small handful of flour; moisten with common white broth, or water, add a little salt and a few pepper-corns, and then set the calfs-head to boil gently for about two hours. When it is done, drain the pieces upon a napkin, and dish them up neatly round the tongue, trimmed and glazed, and placed in the centre of the dish; place the ears, after trimming them, at each end, and on either side of the tongue place half the brains (which should be boiled in vinegar and water, with a little salt, and some fat from the stock-pot); make an incision lengthwise in each half portion of the brains, then pour a well-made Piquante sauce (No. 18) over the whole: garnish round with eight fried eggs, and some croutons, and send to table.

Calfs-head, prepared according to the foregoing directions, may also

214 REMOVES.

be served with either Italian, Ravigotte, Tomata, Poivrade, or Poor-man's sauce.

626. calf's-head, a la financiers.

Bone a calfs-head, blanch it in boiling water for about ten minutes on the fire, then put it into cold water for ten minutes; drain it upon a napkin, trim off all the rough parts, and cut it into large scollops, leaving the tongue and ears whole, as usual; the brain should be carefully taken out of the head, and boiled separately, as directed in previous cases.

The pieces of calf's-head after being first rubbed over with lemonjuice, should be placed in a braizing-pan with half a bottle of Sherry or Madeira, two ladlesful of good stock, carrot, onion, celery, garnished fagot of parsley, &c.; four cloves, two blades of mace and a few peppercorns; cover with a thickly buttered oval piece of strong white paper, and put on the lid; then set it to braize gently for about two hours, with live embers on the lid. Twenty minutes before dinner time, drain the pieces of calf's head on to a napkin, dish them up in the form of a wreath, round the base of a fried croustade (previously stuck on the centre of the dish with a little flour and white of egg mixed together), at each end place the ears, on the croustade place the tongue (separated down the centre, and rather spread out), and the brains laid thereon; around these should be stuck in the croustade six or eight ornamental skewers, each furnished with a double cock's-comb, a large mushroom, a truffle, and a crayfish; pour round the whole a rich Financiere ragout (No. 188), and send to table.

627. calf's-head, a la beauvaux.

Select a small, well-shaped white calfs-head, bone it carefully, as before directed, keeping the skin as whole as possible. When the head has been boned, wash it thoroughly, wipe it with a clean cloth, season inside with pepper and salt, and then fill up the entire vacant space, occasioned by the extraction of the skull and jaws, with a well-seasoned quenelle force-meat made of veal mixed with some chopped parsley and mushrooms; when the calf's-head is thus again plumped up to its original size, by means of the force-meat, it must be secured, by sewing up all the apertures with twine and a trussing needle of proper size. When this part of the process is completed, roll the calf's-head up tightly in a well-buttered napkin saturated with lemon-juice (to keep the head white); then place the calf's-head in a braizing-pan with one pound of chopped suet, carrot, onion, celery garnished fagot cloves, mace, peppercorns, and a spoonful of salt; moisten with good common white stock, cover with the lid, and set it to boil gently for about two hours.

About half an hour before dinner-time, take the calf's head up on a dish, remove the napkin, trim the ears, slit them and turn them down, that they may appear frilled; then place the calf's-head, perfectly drained from any moisture, on the centre of the dish, and remove ail the twine with which it has been sewn up, and musk it all over, excepting the ears, with a preparation of four yelks of i mixed with a pat of melted butter, and seasoned with pepper and salt, and a little nutmeg; theu cover the whole with fine bread

calf's-head. 215

crumbs, fried in a sauta-pan, with a little butter of a fine bright color, and place the head in the oven for five minutes, that the bread-crumbs may dry on, taking care to cover the ears with wet paper to keep them white, and prevent them from cocking up and spoiling their effect. As soon as the bread-crumbs have dried on, remove the paper from the ears, sauce round with a ragout, composed of the tongue cut into scollops, as also the brains, some button mushrooms, and greeu gherkins, cut into the shape of olives; allow these to boil up for two or three minutes in a well-made Poivrade sauce (No. 29); garnish round with some quenelles of veal or chicken, colored with Bavigotte, or spinach-green (No. 285); stick in four silver ornamental skewers, garnished with a crest of red tongue, a large truffle, and a decorated quenelle, and send to table.

628. calf's-head, a la tortue.

Bone, blanch and trim a calf's-head, cut it up into large scollops, keep the ears whole, neatly trim the pieces, and toss them in the juice of a lemon; put them into a stewpan, with carrot, onion, celery, garnished-fagot, cloves, mace, and a few peppercorns; moisten with half a bottle of Madeira or Sherry, and two large ladlesful of good stock; cover with a well-buttered stiff paper, and put on the lid; set the whole to braize on the stove for about two hours. When the pieces of calf's-head are done, drain them on a napkin, and afterward dish them up in the form of a close wreath, round the base of a fried bread croustade; place the ears at the ends and on the flanks: if the party be large, two extra ears should be procured, as the four make the dish look much handsomer: next, place the tongue, cut down its centre, and spread out on the top of the croustade; on this put the brains, which must be kept whole and white, and round these, on the croustade, should be stuck six ornamental silver skewers, garnished with a double cocks-comb, a large mushroom, a quenelle, a truffle, and a large crayfish: sauce round with a well-made sauce a la Tortus (No. 9).; garnish the dish round between the spaces*of the ears, with four larded and glazed sweetbreads, and eight decorated quenelles, and send to table.

629. calf's-head, a la marigny.

Prepare and braize a calf's-head as directed for dressing a calf'shead a la Beauvaux. When done, take it out of the napkin, and drain all the moisture from it, place the head on a dish, remove the twine used to secure its shape, trim the ears; and then sauce it all over (the ears excepted) with a well-seasoned Bavigotte sauce; garnish round with a border of crayfish, and green gherkins, and send to table.

Note. - It is not necessary, in all cases, to garnish each remove as richly as heretofore set forth: many of the accessories, on every-day occasions, might be regarded as extravagant. What to omit in such cases, must be left to the judgment of the experienced cook, acquainted with the means and taste of his master.

216 REMOVES.

630. OX-CHEEK BRAIZED, A LA FLAMANDE.

Procure two fresh ox-cheeks, bone and trim them, and then place them in a large oval braizing-pan on the drainer, garnish with the usual complement of vegetables, &c, add the trimmings, moisten with sufficient broth from the stockpot to cover the whole, and set them to boil very gently by the side of the stove-fire for about five hours. When the ox-cheeks are thoroughly braized, and are become quite tender, take them up carefully, and put them in press between two dishes, until cold; then trim them neatly, giving them an oval or oblong shape, and put them into a deep fricandeau pan, with the broth in which they have been braized (clarified and reduced to half its original quantity), and set them by in the larder, till about threequarters of an hour before dishing up; then put the ox-cheeks in the oven or on a slow fire, to get gradually warm, and to glaze them brightly, with their own stock. Next place them on their dish, the one resting on the other, garnish them round with a border of Brussels-sprouts boiled green, and tossed over the fire in a stew-pan, with two pats of butter, grated nutmeg, pepper and salt; or when these fail, in their stead use braized cabbages; then add a border of alternate groups of well-prepared, and nicely glazed carrots and turnips, cut into fancy shapes, and also some small-sized glazed onions. Sauce with an Espagnole or Poivrade sauce, and send to table.

631. OX-CHEEK, A LA POLONAISE.

Bone and trim two ox-cheeks; prepare them for braizing as directed in the foregoing case; moisten with half a bottle of Sherry, and allow them to simmer on the stove-fire for about ten minutes, add sufficient stock to cover them, and again set them on the stove to boil; skim and put them by the side of the fire, to continue gently boiling for five hours. When the ox-cheeks are sufficiently braized, and are become quite tender, put them in press between two dishes; when cold, trim, and afterward cut them across the grain into very thin slices. Then stick a number of triangular croutons of fried bread in an oval form on the dish, within two inches of the edge, and within this coronet place a layer of the thin slices of the ox-cheeks, over which spread some sauce made in the following manner: -

Shred the rind of two oranges very thin, and perfectly free from pith, boil it in water for five minutes, drain and refresh it in cold water, and then add to it a small ladleful of good Espagnole sauce, half a pound of red-currant jelly, four chopped shalots, a little grated nutmeg, and the juice of one lemon; boil the whole together, stirring it the while with a wooden spoon, and use this preparation as directed above. Having thus continued alternately adding layers of oxcheek and sauce, until the whole forms a dome; mask it over with the remainder of the sauce, and after smoothing the surface with the blade of a knife, cover it with some light-colored raspings of roll, bruised and sifted for the purpose. About three quarters of an hour before dinner, put the dish in the oven, when moderately hot to allow the preparation to get thoroughly warm; garnish with a border of fried eggs and glazed onions, pour some of the same sauce round it -

OX-CHEEKS. 217

this, however, must be thinner than that directed to be used for mixing with the ox-cheeks - and serve.

632. ox-cheeks, a l'allemande.

Braize the ox-cheeks as directed in the foregoing case; when done, put them in press, and after being trimmed, place them on a buttered baking-sheet, and mask them all over with the following preparation: - Bake some pieces of crumb of bread of a light color, pound and sift them; use this powder to mix into a paste with Port wine, a table-spoonful of cinnamon-powder, and 2 oz. of pounded sugar; mix the whole well together, and spread it all over the ox-cheeks. Three quarters of an hour before dinner-time, put the ox-cheeks in the oven, when moderately hot, to get warmed through; then place them on their dish, garnish round with groups of small quenelles of potatoes (No. 312) and stewed prunes, sauce them round with German sweet sauce (No. 61), and send to table.

633. OX-CHEEKS, A LA PORTUGUAISE.

Braize the ox-cheeks; when done, put them in press, trim and place them in a fricandeau pan, with the clarified and reduced broth in which they have been braized; and having warmed them in this, and glazed them with it, dish them up; garnish round with a border of eggs, farcis, or stuffed and fried (No. 380), pour some Portuguese sweet sauce (No. 59) round the ox-cheeks, and send to table.

634. OX-CHEEKS, A LA POMPADOUR.

Braize the ox-cheeks very tender, and after having put them in press, and then trimmed them, mask them over with a coating of reduced Atelet sauce (No. 36); when the sauce has become set by cooling on the ox-cheeks, egg them over and bread-crumb them with very fine bread-crumbs mixed with one fourth of grated Parmesan cheese; sprinkle over a little butter, place them on a well-buttered baking-sheet, and an hour before dinner put them in the oven to bake of a fine bright color; dish them up, garnish round with a ragout of ox-palates in a brown Italian sauce (No. 209), finish with a border of croquettes of ox-palates, and send to table.

Note. - Besides the foregoing methods of dressing ox-cheeks, they may also be served with a Jardiniere, Macedoine, tomatas farcis (No. 1160), braized red cabbage, Soubise, or Bretonne purees, stewed peas, or asparagus peas.

Although in the preceding cases it is directed that two ox-cheeks should be used for a remove, it does not follow that in all cases two are requisite; more frequently one will prove to be quite sufficient for the purpose.

218

REMOVES OP PORK AND ROASTED SUCKING PIGS,

COMPRISING

Boiled Leg of Pork, d VAnglaise. Roast Sucking Pig, d VAnglahe.

„ „ d I'Allemande. „ „ d la Pingord.

Roast Leg of Pork. „ „ d la Chipolata.

Roast Loin of do., . „ d la Provenqale.

Roast Neck of do. „ „ d la Napulitaine.

Roast Griskin of do.

635. BOILED LEG OF PORK A L'ANGLAISE.

Saw off the shank bone of a salted leg of dairy-fed pork, then put it into a large braizing-pan or stock-pot: fill this nearly full with cold water, and add six carrots, as many turnips, one head of celery, and an onion stuck with three cloves. Set the pork to boil gently by the side of the stove-fire for about three hours - the exact time depending on its size. While the pork is boiling, trim a dozen and a half of small turnips and as many young carrots, boil these separately, and reserve them for garnishing the remove. When the pork is done, drain, trim, and dish it up; place the carrots and turnips alternately round the remove, pour some plain gravy under it, put a ruffle on the bone, and send to table.

A peas-pudding is usually served from the side-board, made as follows: soak a pint of yellow split peas in cold water for about six hours; drain and tie them rather loosely in a napkin or pudding-cloth, and boil them with the pork - about three hours will suffice. Take them up, pound them in a mortar with two pats of fresh butter, and rub them through a fine wire-sieve: then put this puree into a stewpan, add the yelks of four eggs, pepper, salt, and nutmeg; mix the whole well together with a wooden spoon, and after having spread a napkin with fresh butter, place the puree in the centre, draw the corners up on the left hand, and with the right tie up the pudding with string; then place it to boil for an hour, after which turn it out carefully on to a vegetable dish, and serve.

636. BOILED LEG OP PORK A L'ALLEMAXDE.

Pickle a leg of pork with four ounces of saltpetre, ditto of moist sugar, half a pint of vinegar, cloves, mace, sweet basil, and marjoram, thyme, and bay-leaf, and the usual quantity of common salt; boil it as directed in the foregoing article. When done, dish it up, and after garnishing it with saner kraut (No. 165), surround it with a border of glazed carrots, turnips, and onions; pour some Poivrade sauce (No. 29) over it, and send to table.

637. ROAST LEG OP PORK, A l'ASTGLAISE.

Procure a leg of fresh dairy-fed pork; make a large incision just below the knuckle, between the skin and meat, for the purpose of introducing the stuffing of sage and onion, which must be secured by sewing it up with small twine; then with a sharp-pointed knife score it all over in the following manner: with the left hand hold the pork firmly, and with a very sharp knife score the skin across in parallel

REMOTES OF PORK. 219

lines a quarter of an inch apart; then spit the joint, and roast it for about two hours and a half; when done, dish it up, pour a rich brown gravy under it, and send to table with apple sauce.

The stuffing for the pork should be thus prepared: chop a dozen sage leaves and six large onions, boil these in water for three minutes, and after having drained them on a sieve, put them into a stewpan with pepper and salt, and a pat of butter; set the stuffing to simmer gently over a very slow fire for ten minntes, and then use it as directed above.

638. ROAST LOIN OF PORK.

Trim, score, and separate the bones of the loin of pork with a small chopper or meat saw; make an incision in the upper part of the loin for placing the stuffing, sew it up with small twine, and having passed a strong iron skewer through it lengthwise, tie it firmly on to a spit at both ends. About an hour and a quarter before dinner-time, put. the pork down to the fire to roast, and when done dish it up; pour some brown gravy under it, garnish it round with a border of small potatoes fried of a light color, and send to table with apple sauce.

639. ROAST NECK OF PORK.

Saw the chine bone neatly off, stuff the neck of pork with sage and onion, spit, roast, and dish it up as directed for the loin, and serve.

640. ROAST GEISKIN OF PORK.

The piece called griskin is that part of the pig which is cut from the side of a bacon-hog, being the lean from the neck and loin: this should be lightly sprinkled with salt the day before dressing it for table; it must then have a long iron skewer passed through it lengthwise, and tied on to a spit. About an hour and a quarter before dinner put it to roast, and when the griskin has been down an hour, shake some flour over it with a dredger, and afterward sprinkle some chopped sage and onions upon it. When the pork is done, dish it up, pour some brown gravy under it, and send to table with two sauce-boats containing apple and sage and onion sauce, the latter to be prepared as follows: chop a dozen sage-leaves and four onions, and after having boiled them two minutes in water, drain, and put them in a stewpan with a pat of butter, pepper and salt; set these to simmer on a very slow fire for ten minutes, and then add half-a-pintof good brown gravy, boil the whole together for five minutes, and serve.

641. ROAST SUCKING-PIG, A L'ANGLAISE.

In selecting a sucking-pig for the table, those of about three weeks old are generally preferred, their meat being more delicate than when allowed to grow larger. Let the pig be prepared for dressing in the usual way, that is, scalded, drawn, &c, pettitoes cut off, and the paunch filled with stuffing previously prepared for the purpose as follows: chop two large onions and a dozen sage-leaves, boil them in water for two minutes, and after having drained the sage and onion on to a sieve, place it in a stewpan with a pat of butter, pepper and salt, and set the whole to simmer gently for ten minutes on a very slow fire; then add

220 REMOVES OF PORK.

a double handful of bread-crumbs, two pats of butter, and the yelks of two eggs; stir the whole over the fire for five minutes, and then use the stuffing as before directed. When the sucking-pig is stuffed, sew the paunch up with twine, spit the pig for roasting, carefully fastening it on the spit at each end with small iron skewers, which should be run through the shoulders and hips to secure it tightly, so that it may on no account slip round when down to roast. The pig will require about two hours to roast thoroughly, and should be frequently basted with a paste-brush dipped in salad oil. (Oil is better adapted for this purpose than either dripping or butter, giving more crispness to the skin; when basted with oil, the pig will, while roasting, acquire a more even, and a finer color.) When done, take it up from the fire on the spit, and immediately cut the head off with a sharp knife, and lay it on a plate in the hot closet. Next, cut the pig in two, by dividing it first with a sharp knife straight down the back to the spine, finishing with a meat-saw; a large dish should be held under the pig while it is thus being divided, into which it may fall when completely cut through; place the two sides back to back on the dish, without disturbing the stuffing, split the head in two, put the brains in a small stewpan, trim off the snout and jaws, leaving only the cheeks and ears, place these one at each end of the dish, surround the remove with a border of small potatoes fried of a light color, in a little clarified butter; pour under some rich brown gravy, and send to table with the following sauce: to the brains, put into a small stewpan as before directed, add a spoonful of blanched chopped parsley, pepper, and salt, a piece of glaze the size of a large walnut, some well-made butter sauce, and the juice of a lemon: stir the whole well together over the fire, and when quite hot, send it to table separately in a boat, to be handed round with the sucking-pig.

642. ROAST SUCKING-PIG, A LA PERIGORD.

Procure a plump fresh killed sucking-pig, and fill the paunch with the following preparation. Wash and thoroughly clean two pounds of fresh truffles, pare them and afterward cut them into pieces resembling small walnuts, but without trimming them much; pound the parings and trimmings in a mortar with about two ounces of butter; then put them into a stewpan with the truffles, and add thereto about one pound of scraped fat bacon, a bay-leaf, and a few sprigs of thyme and sweet-basil chopped fine, some grated nutmeg, pepper and salt, a small clove of garlic, and half-a-pound of fat livers of fowls pounded for the purpose. Set the whole over a moderate fire, stirring it the while with a wooden spoon: when the truffles have simmered on the stove for about ten minutes, take them off and allow them to cool, fill the paunch of the sucking-pig with the above, sew it up with twine, spit and roast it as directed in the preceding article; when done, dish up in the same manner, taking care to send with it all the truffles; pour some Perigueux sauce (No. 23) under it, and send to table.

643. ROAST SUCKING-PIG, A LA CHIPOLATA.

Roast sixty chestnuts, peel and then boil them with a quart of consommt for tweuty minutes: reserve half in a small stewpan, and mix

AND SUCKING-PIGS. 221

the remainder with one pound of pork sausage-meat, and use this kind of stuffing to fill the paunch of a sucking-pig; sew it up with a trussing-needle and string, spit, and roast it in the usual manner: and when done, dish it up as directed in the foregoing cases; observing, that the stuffing should be kept as whole as possible in the separated sides. Garnish with a richly varied Chipolata ragout (No. 190), and again, round this, place eight decorated quenelles; a dozen large cray-fish should also be placed up the centre, one overlaying another: glaze the pig and serve.

644. EOAST SUCKING-PIG, A LA PEOVENCALE.

Roast sixty large chestnuts, remove their husks while yet hot, and after pounding them in a mortar with four ounces of butter, rub the produce through a wire sieve, and put the puree into a stewpan; add thereto a few chives, sweet-basil, parsley, thyme, and one bay-leaf well chopped, a little grated nutmeg, pepper and salt, and the yelks of three eggs; mix well together, and use this preparation to fill the paunch of a plump sucking-pig, and roast it in the manner already directed. Then, cut it up and place it upon the dish, garnish the remove with a border of tomatas au gratin (No. 1160), pour some Gasconne or Provengale sauce under it, and send to table.

645. EOAST SUCKING-PIG, A LA NAPOLITAINE.

Take half a pound of polenta,* mix it in a stewpan with a quart of good consomme, four ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, and the same quantity of butter; season with uutmeg, pepper and salt; stir the whole on the fire quickly till it boils, and then continue stirring it on the fire until it assumes the appearance of a soft paste, when add four ounces of picked Sultana raisins and a small pot of orange marmalade; mix the whole lightly together, and with it fill the paunch of the sucking-pig: roast it in the usual way, divide and dish it up, garnish with a border of polpettes (No. 1062), pour a well-made Napolitaine sauce (No. 63) under the pig, glaze the remove, and send to table.

Note. - In addition to the foregoing different methods for dressing sucking-pigs, they may also be served a la Financiere, with Poivi'ade, Tomata, Maitre d'Hotel, Piquante, Robert, or Britonne sauce.

BRAIZED HAMS,

COMPRISING

Braized Ham, with Spinach, &c. Westphalia Ham, roasted, d la St. James

Westphalia Ham, d I'Exsence. „ d la Parisihme,

„ baked. Granada and Bayonne Hams.

646. BEAIZED HAM, WITH SPINACH, ETC.

When about to dress a ham, care must be taken after it has been trimmed, and the thigh-bone removed, that it be put to soak in a large

* A kind of farina much used in Italy, obtained from Indian corn.

222 REMOVES OF HAM.

pan filled with cold water; the length of time it should remain in soak, depending partly upon its degree of moisture, partly whether the ham be new or seasoned. If the ham readily yields to the pressure of the hand, it is no doubt new, and this is the case with most of those sold in London in the spriug season; for such as these, a few hours' soaking will suffice; but when hams are properly seasoned, they should be soaked for twenty-four hours. Foreign hams, however, require to be soaked much longer, varying in time from two to four days and nights. The water in which they are soaked should be changed once every twelve hours in winter, and twice during that time in summer: it is necessary to be particular also in scraping off the slimy surface from the hams, previously to replacing them in the water to finish soaking.

When the ham has been trimmed and soaked, let it be boiled in water for an hour, and then scraped and washed in cold yater; place it in a braiziug-pan with two carrots, as many onions, a head of celery, garnished fagot, two blades of mace, and four cloves; moisten with sufficient common broth to float the ham, and then set it on the stove to braize very gently for about four hours. To obtain tenderness and mellowness, so essential in a well-dressed ham, it must never be allowed to boil, but merely to simmer very gently by a slow fire. This rule applies also to the braizing of all salted or cured meats.

When the ham is done, draw the pan in which it has braized away from the fire, and set it to cool in the open air, allowing the ham to remain in the braize - by this means it will retain all its moisture - for when the ham is taken out of the braize as soon as done, and put on a dish to get cold, all its richness exudes from it. The ham having partially cooled in its braize, should be taken out and trimmed, and afterward placed in a braizing-pan with sojne of its own stock; and about three-quarters of an hour before diuner, put either in the oven or on a slow fire. When warmed through, place the ham on a bakingdish in the oven to dry the surface, then glaze it; replace it in the oven again for about three minutes to dry it, and glaze it again; by that time the ham, if properly attended to, will present a bright appearance. Put it now on its dish, and garnish it with well-dressed spinach (No. 1155), placed round the ham in table-spoonsful, shaped like so many eggs; pour some bright Espagnole sauce round the base, put a ruffle on the bone, and serve.

Note. - Any of our home-cured hams, dressed according to the foregoing directions, may also be served with a garnish of asparagus-peas, young carrots, a Jardiniere, Macedoine, green-peas, broad-beans, French-beans, or Brussels-sprouts.

647. WESTPHALIA HAM, A L'ESSENCE.

Trim and remove the thigh-bone from a Westphalia ham, and let it soak in cold water for two or three days, according to the probable length of time it may have been cured; then boil it in water for an hour, and after having washed it iu cold water, put it into a large braizing-pan, with two carrots, as many onions, a head of celery, a fagot of parsley and green onions, thyme, sweet-basil, and bay-leaf, four cloves, and two blades of mace; moisten with two glasses of brandy, half a bottle of Sherry, and sufficient broth to float the ham.

BRAIZED AND BAKED HAMS 223

Then set the ham to boil, or rather to simmer, very gently on a slow fire, from five to six hours: taking care, during the process of braizing, to probe it occasionally after the first four hours, in order thereby to ascertain how much longer it may be necessary for it to remain on the fire to effect the desired purpose.

When the ham is braized sufficiently tender, and after it has been allowed to remain in its own liquor for an hour or so, drain it on to a dish, divest it of the rind to within four inches of the knuckle-bone: this portion of the rind must be cut with a small sharp knife, so as to form a neat design in the shape of leaves, palms, or scollops, disposed in a fanlike form. Trim the fat of the ham smooth, without removing any more of it than is really necessary to give it a neat appearance. Put the ham in the oven on a baking-sheet for ten minutes, first absorbing every particle of grease from the surface with a clean cloth; then glaze it, replace it in the oven again for five minutes; glaze it once more, and place it on its dish; garnish it round with any of the dressed vegetables indicated for Braized Ham, with spinach, &c, (No. 646), sauce with bright Espagnole sauce, mixed before reduction with a glass of Sherry, and about a pint of the liquor in which the ham has been braized; place a ruffle on the bone, and send to table.

648. WESTPHALIA HAM, BAKED.

Trim, and partially bone, a "Westphalia ham, by removing the thigh-bone; soak it, as usual, in cold water, for forty-eight hours, at least, and afterward boil it in water for half an hour; this part of the operation should be executed in time to allow the ham to soak a day and night, previously to its being dressed in some wine mirepoix (Xo. 236) in a deep baking-dish. Cover the ham with two sheets of oiled paper, and over the whole lay a covering of paste, such as is used to cover venison with, and applied similarly to a pie-crust, taking care to secure it thoroughly all round, so as to prevent the escape of the volatile properties of the essence of the ham, &c, which by condensation, and subsequent absorption, impart to the ham that peculiarly fine flavor which renders this method of dressing hams so much esteemed by gastronomes., Having prepared the ham in every particular according to the above directions, about five hours before dinner-time, let it be put in the oven to bake slowly, observing that the heat of the oven should be moderate, in order that the moisture be not reduced, so as to render the ham dry, which would spoil it entirely. When the ham has been in the oven about four hours, take it out of its braize, trim it, and then place it on a baking-sheet in the oven, to dry the surface; glaze it in the usual manner, and after having clarified the mirepoix in which the ham has been baked, add as much thereof as will suffice to give flavor to some Espagnole sauce, reduce it to a proper consistency, and use it to pour round the ham when sent to table. Hams dressed according to the foregoing method, may be garnished as follows: - a la Financiere, a la Perigueux, a la PaiHsicnne, a la Maeedoine, a la Jardiniere, & la Flamande; with stewed peas, asparagus-peas, young carrots, spinach, broad-beans, &c.

Note. - If the ham, dressed as above, be intended to be eaten cold, it should be allowed to remain in its braize, until it becomes set in a

224

REMOVES OF HAM.

jelly, it must be then taken out, trimmed, glazed, and dished up, with some aspic-jelly, made with the addition of the essence of ham.

649. WESTPHALIA HAM, ROASTED A LA ST. JAMES

Prepare a Westphalia ham in every respect according to the first part of the previous directions, and having allowed it to steep in the ntircpoix the allotted time, run a large iron skewer through it, and fasten it at each end on to the spit with string; next reduce the mirepoix, vegetables, &c, of which it is composed, and cover the under part of the ham therewith; then wrap the whole of the ham up with large sheets of cartridge-paper, previously veil oiled for the purpose; over the paper put a covering of venison paste, as is usual when about to prepare venison for roasting. Cover the said coating of flour and water paste, with greased paper, and tie on this with string. About five hours before the ham is required for table, put it down to roast before a moderate fire; when it bas been down about three hours and a half, take it up, make a hole in the paste, and, with a funnel, infuse half a pint of brandy, or, in preference to this, if you have it, as much Malaga wine; stop the hole up with paste, and put the ham down to the fire to roast for twenty minutes longer; then take it up, and remove it carefully from the spit, so as not to lose any portion of the essence contained within the coating of crust that surrounds the ham. Trim the ham, and set it to dry on a baking-sheet in the oven, glaze it and dish it up, using the essence reserved for the purpose, in order to give flavor to the sauce intended to be served with it.

Westphalia haras, thus dressed, may be served with any of the garnishes described as appropriate for baked hams.

650. BRAIZED HAM, A LA PARISIENNE

Trim, soak, and boll a ham, either Westphalia or home-cured, as the case may be; when it has boiled in water about an hour, take it up and put it into cold water, and after having scraped the rind clean, place it in an oval braizing-pan, with two carrots, as many onions, a head of celery, and garnished fagot of parsley, six cloves, and two blades of mace; moisten with a glass of brandy and half a bottle of Sherry, and sufficient broth to cover the surface of the ham; put the lid on, and as soon as it has boiled, set the pan on a slow fire, to continue gently braizing for about five hours and a half. When the ham is done, take it up and trim it, leaving, as usual, enough of the rind adhering to the knuckle part, and on this cut out (with the point of a sharp

REMOVES OF VENISON. 225

knife) an ornament resembling leaves, or scollops, spread out in a fanlike form; glaze the ham, and put it on its dish, raised on an oval crdustade, two inches and a half high, formed to the shape of the ham, cut round in flutes, and fried of a light color; round the base place a dozen or fifteen small fluted crbustades of fried bread, filled with green peas, asparagus-heads, carrots and turnips, scooped out. in the form of very small olives, and nicely glazed. Glaze the ham, put the paper ruffle on the bone, and serve.

Send some bright Espagnole sauce, mixed with some of the essence of ham, previous to reduction of the same, in a sauce-boat, to be served, with the ham from the sideboard, when it is carved.

Note. - Granada, Bayonne, and foreign hams in general, are prepared for the table according to the directions given for dressing Westphalia hams.

REMOVES OF YENISON, RED DEER, AND ROEBUCK,

COMPRISING

Haunch of Venison, d I'Anglaise. Haunch of Red Beer, d la Kinnaird.

„ d V Allernande. Necks of Red Deer, d la Marie Stuart.

„ d la St. George. „ d la St. Andrew.

Haunch of Red Deer roasted, d V Ecossaise. Fillets of Red Deer, d la Royale.

„ d la Glengarry.

651. HAUNCH OF VENISON ROASTED, A L'ANGLAISE.

Saw off" the shank-bone, remove the sinew, pare away the dark, dry skin from the skirt, and also the dried surface of the under part. Then cover the haunch with a large sheet of buttered paper, and over that place a covering of flour and water paste, about half an inch in thickness; envelop the whole with two large sheets of cartridge-paper, and having fastened these on with string, place the venison on a cradle-spit, or, if that be wanting, the haunch of venison should be first put on the common spit, preparatory to its being covered as aforesaid. If the haunch be a fine one, it should be allowed from four hours to four and a half to roast, and about twenty minutes before it is done the paste and paper should be removed, and a little salt sprinkled over it. Then with a dredger-box shake over some flour to froth and color it; baste it with four ounces of fresh butter, and about five minutes after take the haunch up from the fire, place it on its dish, pour a rich brown gravy under it, put a paper ruffle on the bone and send to table, with, a sauce-boat filled with sweet sauce (No. 65).

652. HAUNCH OF VENISON, A L'ALLEMANDE.

Trim and remove the spine-bone from a small haunch of venison, place it in an oval braizing-pan with four carrots, four onions, two heads of celery, a garnished fagot of parsley, six cloves, and two blades of mace; moisten with a bottle of red wine, and sufficient broth to cover the surface of the venison; lay on it a buttered paper, and put 14

226 REMOVES OF VENISON.

on the lid, and after having allowed it to boil on a brisk stove-fire, place it in the oven or on a moderate fire to continue braizing very gently for about from five to six hours - taking care to moisten the surface frequently with its own braize. When the venison is done, take it up on a deep baking-dish, put about a pint of its own broth under it, trim it neatly and mask it all over with a thick coating of the following preparation: bake some slices of bread of a light-brown color, and afterward pound and sift them, put one pound of this into a basin, and add thereto half an ounce of powdered cinnamon, four ounces of fine sugar, and as much Port wine as will suffice to moisten the whole into a thick paste; use this to cover the haunch of venison, smooth it over with the blade of a knife, and put it in the hot closet to dry the surface of the crust. When about to send to table, place the venison on a dish, pour some Victoria cherry sauce (No. 64) round it, garnish with alternate groups of prunes stewed in wine, and potato quenelles, put a ruffle on the bone and serve.

653. "HAUNCH OF VENISON, A LA ST. GEORGE.

Trim a haunch of venison in the usual manner, and with the point of a small knife make a circular incision about eight inches in diameter, just below the knuckle, on the upper part of the haunch, and with a large knife remove the surface of the part so marked out, in order to leave the place bare, preparatory to its being thickly and neatly larded as for a fricandeau. Then prepare the venison for braizing - in every respect following the directions given for that part of the process in the preceding article. Having carefully and frequently moistened the surface of the venison during the time it is braizing, and kept a supply of live embers of charcoal on the lid of the braizing-pan, the venison, when done, will present, if properly attended to, a bright appearance. It should then be taken up to drain on to a common dish, and after being glazed and dished up with a rich Financiere ragout (No. 188), in a Poiurade sauce made with Port wine, garnish the haunch with eight ornamental silver skewers, each furnished with a large double white cock's-comb, a large black truffle, a crayfish, and a decorated quenelle; put a handsome ruffle on the bone, and send to table.

654. HAUNCH OF RED DEER ROASTED, A L'ECOSSAISE.

Prepare and roast this kind of venison as described for dressing a haunch of venison a VAnglaise; observing that it is necessary to allow it to hang longer than any other sort before dressing it, as it will be found to eat tough if due attention be not paid to the time of keeping it.

655. HAUNCH OF RED DEER, A LA GLENGARRY.

Trim and remove the whole of the chine-bone of a haunch of red deer, saw off the shank, and scrape the leg-bone so as to show about an inch. Then pare off the whole of the surface (excepting the fat part) in an oval form, and lard it closely like a fricandeau; place the haunch in a large earthen pan with sliced carrot and onion, parsley, bay-leaves and thyme, cloves, mace, and bruised peppercorns, adding to these a gallon of common vinegar, a handful of salt, and half a gallon of water; let the haunch steep in this pickle for about ten days,

HAUNCH AND NECK OF RED DEER. 227

taking care to turn it over twice a-day, and at the expiration of that time, the venison will be fit for dressing.

After the venison has been marinaded, place it in a large oval braizing-pan, and garnish with four carrots, four onions, four heads of celery, two garnished fagots of parsley, &c, eight cloves, and four blades of mace; moisten with a bottle of Madeira, and three large ladlesful of good broth: cover with a sheet of thick brown paper well buttered, let it boil, and then place the lid on with live embers of charcoal upon it, and put the pan on a moderate stove-fire to braize gently for seven hours - moistening the larding of the venison frequently with its own liquor, by which means, when the venison is done, it will be nicely glazed. It should now be taken up on to a baking sheet, and placed in the oven for a few minutes to dry the larding: then glaze and dish it up. Pour a well-made Poivrade sauce (No. 29) under it, garnish it round with quenelles of grouse, bread-crumbed and fried, and at each end place groups of venison fry; put a ruffle on the leg-bone, and send to table with sweet sauce, separately in a boat.

656. HAUNCH OF RED DEER, A LA KINNAIRD.

Prepare and dress a haunch of red deer exactly as the foregoing; when done, glazed and dished up, garnish it round with alternate groups of fried potatoes (cut in the shape of large olives, and fried in clarified butter) and round potato croquettes; pour a well-made sweet sauce (No. 66) under it, and send to table.

657. NECKS OF RED DEER, A LA MARIE STUART.

To make a handsome remove, two necks are required; from these, saw off the chine-bones and shorten the ribs to about five inches in length; then remove the whole of the sinewy covering from the meaty part of the necks, leaving a perfectly even surface, which must be larded closely in the usual manner - observing that when about trimming the necks of deer, care must be taken to leave the whole of the fat that covers the ribs. When the necks have been larded, marinade them in the pickle prescribed for the haunch; and allow them to steep in this about six days and nights, when they will be ready for dressing. Take them out and prepare them for braizing in like manner to the haunch, proceeding in all respects the same way. "When done, take them up on to a baking-sheet, and put them in the oven to dry the larding for a few minutes, glaze them, and place them on their dish in the form of a Ghevaux-de-frise: this is effected by placing the necks on their base, and allowing the rib-bones to fall over, or between each other, showing the larded parts outside. Garnish them with a Parisian ragout (No. 203), and a border of quenelles of pheasant a la Richelieu (No. 1004), at each end: and along the ridge occasioned by the meeting of the rib-bones, place a line of trimmed crayfish; glaze the larding of the venison, and serve.

658. NECKS OF RED DEER, A LA ST. ANDREW.

Prepare and braize two necks of red deer in the manner last mentioned; when done, glaze and dish them up after the same directions; garnish with a rich Financiere ragout (No. 188), with Poivrade sauce: surround them with a border of quenelles of grouse, decorated

228 REMOVES OF TURKEY.

with truffles; at each end place a crbustade of bread cut in the shape of a vase, and fried of a light color, and fill it with a group of four large truffles; and on the flanks of the dish, put a group of large crayfish: glaze the larding, and send to table.

659. FILLETS OF RED DEER, A LA ROYALE.

Take out the fillets of two necks of red deer, which must be cut with part of the loin adhering to them; trim and lard them all over the upper surface, after which steep them in a marinade (No. 233) for six days. Then proceed to dress them in the same manner as directed for the haunch d la Glengarry. When the fillets are done, take them out of their braize on to a baking-sheet, and put them in the oven for a few minutes to dry the larding; then glaze them nicely, and afterward dish them up, side-by-side, on an oval croustade of fried bread, about two inches high, and cut round in flutes; garnish with a ragout composed as follows: braize six pork sausages, and after they have been allowed to cool, cut them up and throw the pieces into a large bainmarie; to these add an equal quantity of round balls of streaky bacon (previously braized), some button mushrooms and green gherkins. A rich Poivrade sauce must be poured on the ingredients; let the whole boil on the stove-fire for two miuutes, pour the ragout round the fillets, and place a border of quenelles of potatoes (No.- 312) (rolled in fried bread-crumbs) round the edge of the dish, and serve.

REMOVES OF TURKEY AND CAPONS,

COMPRISING

Roast Turkey, d la PSrigord. Capon, d la Macf.doine.

„ d la Chipolata. „ d la Printanih-e.

„ d V Anglaise. „ d I'lvoire.

„ d la Financiire. „ on gros sel.

Boiled Turkey, with Celery sauce. „ i I'Estragon.

„ with Oyster sauce. „ d la PSrigord.

Capon stuffed with Truffles, d la PSrigord. „ aud Rice.

„ d la Godard. „ d la Milanaise.

„ d la Chipolata. „ with Macaroni.

„ d V Anglaise. „ with Nonilles. „ d la Jardinih-e.

660. ROAST TURKEY, A LA PERIGORD.

For this purpose, choose a fine young hen turkey, make an incision at the back of the neck, and through it draw out the entrails, &c.; with a knife cut away the vent and close the opening thus made, by sewing it up with twine, then singe off the hairs, and by scalding the legs, divest them of their black skin. The neck should then be cut off close into the back, and the crop left entire; clip the talons and claws, wipe the turkey clean, and lay it upon a napkin. With a strong kitchen knife break the breast-bone, and after detaching the angular part, remove it with the fingers. Previous to this operation, some truffles should be prepared as follows, to be used in stuffing the turkey: -

Have about four pounds of truffles thoroughly washed; peel aud

ROAST TURKEY. 229

cut them into pieces the size of a small walnut; place these in a stewpan, and after pounding the parings with about two pounds of fat ham or bacon, add them to the truffles. Season with minionette pepper and salt, grated nutmeg and chopped bay-leaf and thyme, and one clove of garlic; a few fat livers of poultry may also be added, after being pounded separately. Set the stewpan containing the foregoing ingredients on a slow fire, and allow them to simmer very gently for about half an hour, stirring them occasionally with a wooden spoon. They should be removed from the stove, and after allowing this preparation time to get partially set by cooling, proceed to stuff" the turkey with it; keep the crop full, and with a small trussing-ueedle and twine draw the crop up in a purselike form, and fasten the ends of the twine to the back of the turkey so as effectually to close up the paunch. The turkey must then be placed upon an earthen dish, and put away in the larder till the next day, (time permitting,) when it should be trussed in the usual manner for roasting.

The turkey when placed on a spit for roasting should have the breast covered with thin layers of fat bacon, and the entire of the turkey should be carefully wrapped round with thick paper well buttered, and securely fastened on to the spit at each end with string. It should then be roasted, and care should be taken when about to remove it from the spit, that the crop is not torn. Dish up, and glaze it, pour under it a rich Perigueux sauce (No. 23), garnish with large quenelles of fowl, and truffles, and serve. The quenelles and truffles are, however, not indispensable to the completion of this remove.

661. ROAST TURKEY, A LA CHIPOLATA.

Draw and prepare a turkey for stuffing, fill it with well-seasoned veal stuffing and chestnuts, or, if preferred, pork sausage-meat may be substituted for the veal stuffing.

The chestnuts are prepared as follows: - Take about sixty chestnuts, and after splitting them across the outer skin, fry them with a little butter in a frying-pan until they shed their husks easily; when peeled, boil them in a little good consomme till done; half should then be reserved to be put in the sauce, and the remainder used as directed above.

The turkey being thus prepared, truss and cover with thin layers of fat bacon as directed in the foregoing case, and having roasted it of a light color, dish it up and garnish with alternate groups of the ingredients composing the Chipolata ragout (No. 190), pour some of the sauce round the remove, and send to table.

662. ROAST TURKEY, A L'ANGLAISE.

Stuff a turkey with some well-seasoned veal stuffing, let it be trussed in the usual manner, and previously to putting it down to roast, cover it with thin layers of fat bacon, which should be secured on with buttered paper tied round the turkey, so as entirely to envelop it on the spit; then roast it, and when done, dish it up, garnish with stewed chestnuts, and small pork sausages, nicely fried; pour a rich Poivrade sauce (No. 29) round it, glaze the turkey, and send to table.

663. ROAST TURKEY, A LA FINANCIERE.

The turkey may be stuffed either with veal stuffing or quenelle of fowl; it should be roasted in the usual manner, and when done, dished

230 REMOTES OF TURKEY

up and garnished with a rich Financiere ragout (No. 188); at each end place a larded sweetbread, and -at the sides, a sweetbread decorated with scollops of truffles inserted in the form of a rose; between these should be placed groups of large truffles and quenelles of fowl; glaze the turkey and send to table.

As this is rather a sumptuous kind of garnish, suitable for great occasions only, the sweetbreads, large truffles, &c, may be dispensed with, and the Financiere ragout onlv retained.

664. BOILED TURKEY, WITH CELERY SAUCE.

Draw a fine young hen turkey, and remove the angular part of the breast-bone, stuff it with veal stuffing, and truss it for boiling; wrap some buttered paper round it, and place it in an oval braizing-pan with carrot, onion, one head of celery, and a garnished faggot of parsley; add as much white poele (No. 230), or white stock, as will suffice to cover the turkey, then set it on a stove to boil; it should after that be removed to the side, or placed on a slackened stove to continue gently boiling till done; then take it up out of the braize, remove all the string, &c, and set it to drain upon a napkin; dish it up, pour over it a well-made puree of celery (No. 110), place round it some stewed heads of celery, and send to table.

665. BOILED TURKEY, WITH OYSTER SAUCE.

The turkey should be boiled as directed in the last article; when done, dish it up, and previously to sending it to table, pour over it some well-made oyster-sauce (No. 50), and serve.

666. CAPON STUFFED WITH TRUFFLES, A LA PERIGORD.

This should be prepared according to the directions given for dressing a turkey after the same fashion (No. 660).

667. CAPON, A LA GODARD.

The capon being drawn and singed, trim the feet and wings; then remove the angular part of the breast-bone by inserting a strongbladed knife, taking care not to tear the breast nor cut the fillets. Next, cut the under part of the thighs close up to the bend of the joint, and by introducing the finger through the vent, loosen the skin all round the thighs in order to facilitate the slipping of the legs inside, so as to show the feet only. Then lay the capon flat on its breast, and having turned the skin of the breast upon the back, and twisted the pinions round to make them lie even with the back, run a trussingneedle and string through the pinion on the left, pass again through the lower joint of the pinion, and from thence through the upper joints of the thighs; the needle must afterward be brought round and inserted through the other wing in the same manner; the strings should then be drawn tight, and fastened. The legs must now be secured by running the needle through the upper part, leaving the drum-slicks under, and then again the needle should be drawn through the back, and t*he strings tightened to secure their position; the tailend must be pushed into the vent, and the string passed through it twice (up and down), and tied: all this giving to the capon an appearance of plumpness. It should then be rubbed with half a lemon, and wrapped in a sheet of buttered paper (to keep it white), and

AND CAPONS.

231

placed in a stew-pan with some white poele or stock, to braize; for which purpose it must be first put on the stove-fire, and after it has boiled, placed by the side to continue gently simmering for about au hour and a quarter. Just before dinner-time, take the capon out of the braize, and drain it on to a napkin; remove the strings, ornament the breast with some contises fillets of fowls, dish it up and garnish it with a richly-composed ragout a la Godard (No. 187), and serve.

When this remove is intended for a large party, it will be necessary to serve two capons; in which case, an ornamental croustade of bread should be put in the centre of the dish, and the capons at each end, placing at either end of the dish, a fine, larded heart-sweetbread; two nicely-trimmed calf's ears with a black truffle on each, should also be placed on the flanks. Fill up the intervening spaces with groups of quenelles of fowl, large truffles, cocks'-combs and mushrooms; in the centre of the croustade put either a larded sweetbread, or a group of truffles - or these may be replaced by inserting six ornamental skewers garnished each with a large double cock's-comb, a mushroom, a truffle, a quenelle, and a large cray-fish. Sauce the remove with Allemande or Bechamel, and serve.

668. CAPONS, A LA CHIPOLATA.

These are dressed in the same way as turkeys d la Chipolata (No. 66).

669. CAPONS, A l'anglaise.

Truss and boil two plump capons, and when they are done, dish them up, placing a neatly-trimmed tongue between them; garnish round with boiled heads of broccoli or cauliflower, sauce the capons with a rich Bechamel sauce (No. 5), glaze the tongue and serve.

670. CAPONS, A LA JARDINIERE.

These should be boiled and dished up as in the foregoing case. Garnish them with alternate groups of prepared vegetables, sacli .is

232 REMOVES OF CAPONS.

small carrots, turnips, flowerets of cauliflower, green peas, asparagus heads, and French-beans cut in the form of diamonds. Sauce the capons with Bechamel sauce, glaze the tongue and serve. In some cases the tongue may be replaced by an ornamental croustade of bread, fried of a light color, and filled with mashed potatoes, in which should be inserted some young carrots, and French-beans (cut in the form of pointed olives), and placed in alternate rows.

671. CAPONS, A LA MACEDOINE.

This method is very similar to the foregoing, with this exception, that the capons, when dished up, should be garnished with a welk prepared Macedoine (No. 143); a border of very small heads of cauliflowers and bundles of sprue asparagus about two inches long, should also be placed alternately round the edges of the dish; sauce with Allemande and serve.

672. CAPONS, A LA PRINTANIERE.

Truss and boil two fat capons, and when they are done, dish them up with a nicely trimmed and glazed tongue, in the centre; sauce them with a Printaniere sauce (No. 21); garnish them round with a border of small deep cups, cut out of young turnips; these when boiled in white broth with a little butter, sugar, and salt, should be drained on a napkin, and filled with carrots scooped out in the form of very small peas or olives, and also with young green-peas: these cups when disposed alternately round the dish, will be foond to produce a very pretty effect.

673. CAPONS, A l'ivoire.

Tfiese must be trussed and braized in fche usual manner, and when done, the broth in which they have been braized should be strained through a sieve, then divested of every particle of grease, and clarified with a little white of egg. After this has been strained, it should be boiled down to the consistency of half-glaze, and when the capons are dished up, should be poured over them, and sent to table. It is also customary in serving this remove to use a rich Supreme sauce (No. 38), with small quenelles of fowl for garnish.

674. CAPON, AU GROS SEL. This is dressed in the manner described in the first part of the foregoing article; a little rock salt should, however, be placed upon the breast, just before sending it to table.

675. CAPON, A l'estragon. Braize the capon in the usual way; when done, the broth in which it has been braized must be clarified, and a few sprigs of green tarragon thrown into it while boiling; the consomme should tnen be strained through a napkin, and boiled down nearly to the consistency of half-glaze, to be poured over the capon when served. Some leaves of green tarragon must be boiled for a minute or two in water, and used to ornament the breast of the capon.

676. CAPON and rice. After the capon has been drawn, wash the inside thoroughly clean, and absorb all the moisture with a napkin. Then nearly fill the capon

BOILED CAPONS. 233

with rice, boiled quite soft in white broth, and mixed with a spoonful of white sauce; it should afterward be trussed for boiling, and placed in an oval stewpan, with an onion stuck with two cloves, and a carrot. Add as much white broth as will cover the breast of the fowl, over which lay an oval piece of buttered paper; place the lid on the stewpan, and about an hour before it is wanted set it to boil gently on a slow fire. When done, drain the fowl, and having removed the strings, place it upon its dish, garnish it round neatly with rice, previously boiled in white broth, to which has been added a large spoonful of white sauce, two yelks of eggs, a little mignionette pepper, grated nutmeg, and a small pat of fresh butter. Work the rice over a brisk stovefire for five minutes, and then, with two table-spoons, mould it into the form of large eggs, and place these round the capon in a close border: sauce the capon with Supreme or Bechamel sauce, and serve.

If the capon is intended to be served plain, the sauce, &c, must be omitted, and instead of masking it with sauce, pour some essence of fowl under it; this may be obtained by clarifying some of the broth in which it has boiled, and afterward boiling it down to the consistency of half-glaze.

677. CAPON" A LA MILANAISE.

Truss and boil a capon in the usual way, and when done, dish it up, and garnish it with a ragout of macaroni dressed with truffles, red tongue, and mushrooms; place a border of rissoles (No. 1020) round the dish, and serve.

678. CAPON WITH MACAEONI.

Boil the capon as directed for the capons d la Godard; dish it up, and garnish it with macaroni, prepared as follows: - Boil half a pound of Naples macaroni in two quarts of water, with a small pat of butter, a little salt and mignionette pepper; when it is done, drain it in a colander, cut the pipes into pieces, two inches long, and put them into a stewpan, with 6 oz. of grated Parmesan cheese, two pats "of butter, a little mignionette pepper, and a large spoonful of white sauce; stir the macaroni, or rather toss it, over a brisk fire, and when the cheese is incorporated with the sauce, &c, use it as directed; mask the breast of the capon with Bechamel, and serve.

679. CAPON WITH NOUILLES.*

Braize the capon as directed in the foregoing article, and when done, dish it up, and garnish round with the nouilles, previously prepared for the purpose, in the following manner: - Parboil the nouilles in water for five minutes, throw them on to a sieve to drain the water from them, and afterward replace them in the stewpan; season with mignionette pepper, a little grated nutmeg, and a pat of butter; moisten with about a quart of good broth, cover with a round of buttered paper, place the lid on the stewpan, and set the nouilles to simmer gently on

• Nouilles are a kind of vermicelli prepared in the following manner: Place six ounces of sifted flour upon a marble slab or paste-board; make a well in the centre by spreading the flour out in the form of a ring with the back of the hand; then place therein a little salt, and add a tea-spoonful of water to melt it; after which, add the yelks of five eggs, and knead the whole well together into a firm, smooth, compact paste; and after allowing it to rest for ten minutes, roll it out as thin as paper, and then divide it into bands three inches wide, cut these into very fine shreds, and spread them upon a large sieve to dry.

234 REMOVES OF CHICKENS.

a slow fire for about an hour; then remove the paper, and add a ragoutspoonful of Allemande sauce and two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese; toss the whole together over the fire until well mixed, and then use them as before directed; sauce the poulard, or capon, with Supreme or Allemande sauce, and serve.

In addition to the foregoing methods of dressing capons, they may also be served with celery-sauce, oyster, green Bavigotte sauce, or with cray-fish, or Financiere ragouts.

Poulards are dressed in the same manner as capons.

CHICKENS FOR REMOVES OR FLANKS,

COMPRISING

Chickens, d la Heine. Chickens, d la Florentine.

„ d Vllalie'nne. „ d la Cardinal.

„ d la Sauce Tomate. „ d V Allemande.

„ d la Vinitihme. „ d I'Indihine.

„ d la Dauphine. „ d V Africaine.

„ d la Montmorency. „ d la Turque.

„ d la JUilanaise. „ d I'JEspagnole.

„ d la Chivry.

680. CHICKENS, A LA REINE.

Truss two small spring chickens for boiling, rub them over with lemon-juice, and wrap them up separately in a sheet of thickly-buttered paper; then place the chickens in a stewpan, with a garnished faggot of parsley, a carrot, and an onion stuck with two cloves; moisten with some of the surface of the boiling stockpot, in sufficient quantity to nearly cover the chickens; set them to boil gently for about forty minutes, when they will be done. When about to send to table, drain the chickens upon a napkin, and after having removed the paper and string, dish them up side by side, and cover them with Supreme sauce, garnish the dish with four groups of very small quenelles of fowl, and serve.

681. CHICKENS, A L'lTALIENNE.

Truss and boil two small chickens according to the foregoing directions; when done, divest them of the paper, and dish them up; sauce with a rich brown Italian sauce (No. 12), garnish with a border of mushrooms farcis (No. 1161), and serve.

682. CHICKENS WITH TOMATA SAUCE.

These are prepared in the same manner as the foregoing, with this exception, that, when dished up, they must be sauced with a wellfinished tomata sauce (No. 22), and a border of tomatas ail gratin (No. 1160) should be placed round them.

683. CHICKENS, A LA VENITIENNE.

The chickens, when boiled and dished up, must be sauced with a Veaitienne (No. 26), and garnished with a border of raviolis (No. 375).

REMOTES OF CHICKENS.

235

684. CHICKENS, A LA DAUPHINE.

Draw two spring chickens, proceed to bone them as for "galantines," excepting that the legs and wings must be left entire. The void must be then filled with quenelle of fowl, in which has been mixed some chopped mushrooms and parsley; the chickens should afterward be trussed, taking care to give them the same shape as they would have were the bones not removed; and after rubbing them over with lemonjuice, cover the breasts with thin layers of fat bacon, and secure their shape by wrapping them in sheets of buttered paper; then place them in a stewpan, with carrot, onion, and a garnished faggot; moisten with some light mirepoix (No. 236), and set the chickens to simmer very gently by the side of a slow fire for about three-quarters of an hour; when done, drain them upon a napkin, remove the string, &c, and dish them up; sauce them with the clarified essence in which they have been braized, and serve.

It is also customary to serve chickens, fowls, capons, or poulards, when prepared in this fashion, with ragouts, a la Financiere, a la Parisienne, with Macedoine, or Jardinieres of vegetables, Italian, Poivrade, Tomata, or Supreme sauces.

685. CHICKENS, A LA MONTMORENCY.

Truss two or more chickens (as may be required), and let their breasts be entirely covered with close larding; next place them in a stewpan containing a wine mirepoix (No.. 236), covering the unlarded parts with thin layers of fat bacon; add as much good consomme as will suffice to reach up to the larding, cover the chickens with a round of buttered paper, and set them to braize gently on a slow fire, taking care that the lid of the stewpan be covered with live embers of charcoal, to effect the glazing of the larding. When the chickens are done, dish them up, garnish them with a white ragout a la Financiere (No. 1ST), or a ragout a la Parisienne (No. 203), and serve.

536 REMOVES OF CHICKENS.

Chickens, a la Montmorency, may also be dished up with an ornamental croustade in the centre, in which should be fixed five atelets, garnished as shown in the wood-cut, p. 235.

686. CHICKENS, A LA MILANAISE.

These should be trussed and boiled, and wheu done, dished up with a ragout a la Milanaise, see Capon a la Milanaise (No. 677); they may also be garnished with a border of rissoles (No. 1020).

687. CHICKENS, A LA CHIVBY.

Truss the chickens so as to look very plump, boil or braize them in some white poele (No. 231) or broth; and when done, dish them up in the following manner: - Some small rings of onions about the size of a shilling should be first boiled in white broth, then filled with blanched ravigotte of chives, tarragon, and chervil, and afterward used to ornament the breasts of the chickens. Place these in their dish, pour under them a Chivry or Ravigotte sauce (No. 20), and send to table.

688. CHICKENS, A LA FLORENTINE.

Truss two chickens, and lard the breasts very closely with black truffles cut into strips, which must be used instead of bacon for this purpose; the chickens should be covered with thin layers of fat bacon, (to prevent the truffles from drying and breaking off), then braized in white broth, and when done, dished up with an ornamental crdustade of bread fried of a light-brown color, and placed in the centre of the dish, garnish with alternate groups of small quenelles of fowl colored with lobster spawn, truffles cut in-. the form of olives, mushrooms, large double cocks'-combs, and small croquettes of rice mixed with a little grated Parmesan cheese; sauce the chickens, without masking the breasts, with some Allemande sauce, in which have been added two table-spoonsful of tomata sauce, and a little Chili vinegar. Fill the croustade with trimmed crayfish tails tossed in a little of the sauce, and serve. If this dish be intended for a grand dinner, four ornamental silver skewers, garnished with a double cocks'comb, truffles, decorated quenelle, and a cray-fish, may be inserted in the croustade.

689. CHICKENS, A LA CARDINAL.

Draw two chickens, taking care to leave the crop entire, cut off the feet two inches from the joint of the leg, and make an incision just under the thigh; insert the legs inside, and then put the chickens in a basin of cold water to soak for a quarter of an hour; after which, with the aid of the forefinger, detach the skin as much as possible from the breasts and legs of the chickens without tearing it; they must then be placed upon a napkin, and all the water absorbed from them; after which the interstices between the skin and fillets, &c, should be covered with some quenelle of fowl colored of a deep red with lobster spawn. The chickens are then to be trussed for boiling in the usual manner, being covered with thin layers of fat bacon, to protect the skin while braizing; place them in a stewpan with the customary vegetables, &c, moisten with white broth, and set them to braize very gently on a slow fire; care must be taken to prevent their boiling

BOILED CHICKENS.

237

fast, as in that case the quenelle, would burst the skins. When clone, dish them up with an ornamental fried bread croustade in the centre of the dish; garnish with small groups of glazed truffles, cocks'-combs, large quenelles of fowl decorated with truffles, button-mushrooms and cray-fish tails, and at each end place a larded sweetbread; sauce with some Cardinal sauce (Xo. 48), insert four garnished ornamental silver skewers into the croustade, and serve.

600. CHICKEN'S, A L'ALLEMANDE.

These must be trussed and boiled as usual, and when done, dished up with a border of quenelles of potatoes (Xo. 812), first poached, then covered with fried bread-crumbs, and placed round the chickens; sauce them with a rich AUemande sauce (Xo. 7), and send to table.

601. CHICKENS, A L'IXDIENNE.

Truss two chickens for boiling, lard the breasts closely, and place them in a conveniently-sized stewpan with a carrot, an onion stuck with two cloves, and a garnished faggot of parsley, &c; add some good stock in sufficient quantity to reach up to the larding, place a buttered paper over the chickens, and having put the lid on the stewpan, set them to braize gently, with some live embers of charcoal upon the lid of the pan: about forty minutes will suffice to do them. Then remove the paper, and after drying the larding in the oven for a minute or two, glaze the chickens nicely, dish them up, garnish them round with a border of rice croquettes formed in the shape of an ^^, and between each croquette place a minion fillet of fowl decorated with tongue, sauce them round with some Financiere sauce (Xo. 8), in which have been added two mangoes sliced small, and serve.

692. CHICKENS, A L'AFRICAINE.

Prepare the chickens in the same way as for d la Cardinal, and detach the skins in the same manner, fill up the interstices between

238 REMOVES OF CHICKENS.

the skin and fillets, with some forcemeat of fowl in which has been mixed sufficient puree of truffles (No v 121) to color it; the chickens must then be trussed as for boiling, and after being covered with thin layers of fat bacon, should be braized, and when done, dished up side by side. Garnish them round with alternate groups of very small quenelles, half of which must be colored with chopped truffles and the remainder with lobster coral; sauce with a Financiere ragout (No. 188), in a Poivrade sauce (No. 29), and serve.

693. CHICKENS, A LA TURQUE.

These must be trussed, boiled, and dished up as usual; they should then be garnished with a close border of rice boiled in broth, with a little saffron and Cayenne pepper; place round the rice alternate groups of Smyrna raisins stewed in a little Malaga wine, and tongue cut into small pipelike forms about half an inch long; pour a lightly-seasoned curry sauce (No. 47) over the chickens, and serve.

694. CHICKENS A L'ESPAGNOLE.

Truss two chickens as for boiling, then take a deep fricandeau pan, spread it thickly with butter, and lay therein, in circular order, a dozen pieces of raw ham cut in the shape and about twice the thickness of a crown-piece; upon these place the chickens, and garnish with carrot, onion, faggot of parsley, a clove of garlic, a little grated nutmeg, pepper and salt; cover with a buttered paper and the lid, and then set them upon a moderate fire (with some live embers of charcoal upon the lid), to simmer for about forty minutes: taking care to turn the chickens occasionally, in order that they may be equally colored of a light brown all over. This being done, the butter should be drained off from the chickens, and the vegetables removed; then add a glass of Sherry or Madeira, two spoonfuls of Tomata sauce (No. 22), and the same quantity of Brown sauce, a small piece of glaze, lemon-juice, and a little Cayenne pepper. Let the whole simmer together on the fire for five minutes, then draw the strings from the chickens, and dish them up; garnish them round with the pieces of ham placed alternately with a crouton of the same shape; round these place four groups of Spanishpeas (garbangas) boiled and divested of the hulls, and some dressed tomatas au gratin (No. 1161); pour the sauce over the chickens and Berve.

In addition to the foregoing methods of dressing chickens for small Removes, Flanks, or Entrees, they may also be served with rice, macaroni, nouilles, oyster sauce, a VAnglaise, a VIvoire, a VEstragon, &c, and indeed in every variety of form described for dressing capons.

239

REMOVES OF GOOSE,

COMPRISING

Goose, d V Anglaise. Goose, d la Normande.

„ d V Estouffade. Wild Goose, d V Aberdeen. „ d la Flamande. „ d I'Allemande.

„ d I'Allemande. Cygnets. „ d la Danphinoise. „ d la NoruricK.

695. GOOSE, A l'anglaise.

Draw a fine fat goose, and stuff it with the following seasoning: - Chop six large onions and about one third of the quantity of greensage-leaves; parboil these in water for three minutes, then drain them upon a sieve, and afterward put them into a small stewpan with two ounces of butter, pepper and salt, and allow the whole to simmer gently over a slow fire for a few minutes, stirring the seasoning the whole of the time with a wooden spoon. When the goose is stuffed, truss it for roasting, run the spit through it, then fasten it on by the means of a strong iron skewer laid upon the back of the goose, and secured at each end with string. The goose should now be put down to the fire to roast, which will require about an hour and a half, according to its size - taking particular care to baste it frequently; when done, take it off the spit, dish it up with a rich brown gravy under it, and send to table with a boat of apple-sauce.

696. GOOSE, a l'estouffade.

Draw a fine fat young goose, and stuff it in the following manner: - Parboil two 'large onions and chop them fine; to these add six sageleaves, and a proportionate quantity of green thyme and mugwort: these also must first be parboiled and then chopped. Put the onions and the herbs into a small stewpan with two ounces of butter, a little grated nutmeg, pepper and salt; and set the whole to stew gently on a very slow fire for about ten minutes. Then put the stuffing into the goose, and truss it in the usual way; place it in an oval stewpan with half-a-pound of butter, a garnished faggot of parsley, an onion stuck with four cloves, one head of celery, and a carrot cut into slices, and moisten with two glasses of Sherry. Put the lid on the stewpan, place it on a slow fire, with some live embers of charcoal and ashes on the lid, and allow the goose to simmer gently for about an hour and a half, taking particular care to turn it, so as to give it an equal color all over. When done, pour off all the fat, and a ragout-spoonful of reduced brown sauce, and a little consomme to detach the glaze from the sides of the stewpan; and having allowed it to boil quickly, in order to reduce the sauce to its usual consistency, the goose should be dished up, and garnished round with a border of glazed turnips; then pour the sauce over it, and serve.

This dish may also be garnished with macaroni, with glazed carrots, or onions.

240 REMOVES OF GOOSE.

697. GOOSE, A LA FLAMANDE.

Truss and braize a goose; when done, dish it up and garnish it round with alternate groups of glazed carrots, turnips, Brusselssprouts, and indeed almost every variety of vegetables in season, previously prepared for the purpose; glaze the goose, and pour some bright brown sauce (with the addition of some of the braize in which it has been done, reduced to a glaze for that purpose) round the vegetables, and send to table.

698. GOOSE, A l'allemande.

Procure a double-handful of mugwort, rub off all the buds, and blanch them in boiling water for two minutes; then drain and put them into a small stewpan, with a large onion chopped fine, a little grated nutmeg, pepper and salt and four ounces of butter; set these to simmer gently on the fire, for ten minutes, and having put this stuffing in the goose, truss and place it in an oval stewpan with four ounces of butter, and set it on a moderate fire, with some live embers on the lid. Care should be taken to turn the goose every now and then, so as to give it an equal color all over. When it is done, pour off all the grease, add the juice of one lemon and one orange, together with the peel of an orange eut into very thin shreds previously parboiled in water; add also a spoonful of brown sauce and a little consomme. Allow these to boil together for two or three minutes, dish up the goose, garnish it round with groups of potatoes - cut into the shape of large olives and fried in butter - pour the sauce over the goose, and send to table.

699. GOOSE, A LA DAUPHINOISE.

Stuff a goose with chestnuts prepared as follows: - Slit, scald, and peel about sixty large chestnuts; put them into a stewpan with two ounces of butter, a little salt, and a quart of good broth, one shalot, chopped fine, and a garnished faggot of parsley; set the chestnuts to stew upon a slow fire, and when they are done, put them in the goose and truss it. Then place the goose in a deep earthen dish, moisten with a wine mirepoix (No. 236), and cover the dish effectually with some stiff-made flour-and-water paste, so as entirely to prevent the aroma of the several ingredients from escaping. Set it in the oveu to bake for about two hours, and when it is done, remove the crust, dish up the goose, strain the gravy through a sieve into a stewpan, skim off every particle of grease, and then boil it down to the bare quantity required for saucing; to this add the juice of two oranges and one lemon, half a pound of currant jelly, and some orange peel shred fine; boil the whole together for two minutes, then pour the sauce over the goose, and send to table.

700. GOOSE, A LA NORMANDE.

Chop one large onion fine, blanch, and afterward drain it upon a sieve; then fry it with a little butter of a light brown color, and mix it with mashed potatoes, in sufficient quantity to stuff the goose; this being done, truss it and roast it in the usual manner, and when removed from the spit, dish it up; garnish it round with a border of small rouud apples neatly turned, and stewed with a little broth, a

REMOVES OF GOOSE. 241

small piece of butter, and two ounces of sugar; when nearly done, the apples should be boiled down quickly, in order to glaze them of a bright light brown color: be careful that they remain whole. Pour a rich gravy round the goose, and send to table.

701. WILD GOOSE, A L'ABERDEEN.

When the goose is drawn, scald the feet and remove the rough cuticle that covers them; then singe it over the flame of a charcoal-fire, wipe it with a clean cloth, and pick out all the stubble, and stuff the goose with the following preparation: -

To one pound of chopped beef-suet, add the same quantity of breadcrumbs, half a pound of butter, two whole eggs, a little chopped thyme, sweet-basil, and marjoram, two shalots, and a handful of parsley; season with grated nutmeg, pepper and salt; knead the whole well together, and stuff the goose with it.

Then truss the goose, and put it on the spit in the same fashion as directed for a haunch of venison. It will require about three hours to roast; when done, dish it up with a border of glazed Portugal onions (No. 1164), pour some Poivrade sauce (No. 29), under it, and send to t able. The goose should be frothed with flour and butter in the same manner as venison, after the crust has been removed.

702. WILD Tjoose, l'allemande.

Prepare the goose at first as directed in No. 698, then place it in a deep earthen dish, and strew upon it the following vegetables cut into thin slices: two carrots, two onions, one head of celery, a handful of parsley, four bay-leaves, thyme, marjoram, and sweet-basil in small quantities; also four blades of mace, a dozen cloves, and a spoonful of Jamaica pepper-corns, two lemons peeled and cut into slices, a pint of salad oil, and half a pint of French vinegar. Allow the goose to remain in this marinade or pickle for a couple of days, taking care to turn it frequently. When about to dress the goose, put it on the spit, cover with a stout paper well buttered, lay the whole of the vegetables. &c, on the breast, cover these with two sheets of buttered paper, and fasten them on securely with string. Put the goose thus prepared down to the lire to roast for about two hours, taking care to baste it frequently; when done, take it from the spit, glaze and dish it up, garnish with a horder of quenelles of potatoes rolled in fried breadcrumbs, and pour under it a sauce, made as follows: -

Grate a large stick of horseradish; peel and slice up two lemons, removing the pips, and put these in a stewpan with four shalots, six cloves, two blades of mace, and a tea-spoonful of pepper-corns, two bay-leaves, a large sprig of thyme, and half a pint of French vinegar: set these to boil on the fire until reduced to half the quantity, then add a large spoonful of rich gravy, one pound of currant jelly, and the juice of two Seville oranges; allow the whole to boil together for five minutes, and then strain the sauce through a tammy with considerable pressure into a small stewpan, and make it hot for use.

703. CYGNET A LA NORWICH.

Procure a Norwich-fed cygnet (these birds are in best condition in September), stuff it with the following preparation: - 15

242 REMOVES OF DUCKS.

Three pounds of rumpsteaks chopped 6ne, seasoned with three shalots, grated nutmeg, pepper and salt. Truss the cygnet in the usual manner, spit it, then envelope it with well-buttered paper, and encase it wiih flour-and-water-paste in a similar way to that practised for haunches of venison; after which let the whole be again secured with stout paper well greased and fastened on with twine. About four hours will suffice to roast the cygnet, during which it should be frequently basted. When done, remove the coating, froth it with flour and butter in the usual manner, and dish it up with a rich brown gravy under it; and send a boatful of Port-wine sauce to be handed round with it.

Note. - Cygnets may be prepared for the table, according to the directions for dressing wild geese.

REMOVES OF DUCKS,

COMPRISING

Ducks, d la MacMoive. Braized Ducks, with stewed Peas.

Braized Ducks, with Turnips. „ d la Provengale.

703. DUCKS, A LA MACEDOINE.

Truss two ducks for boiling, and put them into an oval stewpan with a carrot, an onion, two cloves and a garnished faggot of parsley; moisten with a quart of white broth, cover with an oval piece of well-buttered paper, place the lid on the stewpan, and set it on the stove to boil; then put some live embers on the lid, and remove the ducks to the side of the stove to braize gently for about an hour. When about to send them to table, drain them upon a napkin, remove the string, and dish them up with alternate groups of a copious and varied Macedoine of vegetables (No. 143) - such as carrots and turnips, cut in fancy shapes and nicely glazed, after being previously boiled in broth, asparagus heads, French-beans, green-peas, cauliflower, &c, as they may happen to be in season. Sauce the ducks with some Allemande, and serve.

704. BRAIZED DUCKS, WITH TURNIPS.

These should be trussed in the usual way, and placed in an oval stewpan with a carrot, an onion stuck with two cloves, and a garnished faggot of parsley; moisten with sufficient white stock to cover the ducks, put a buttered paper over them and set them to boil gently on a slow fire for about an hour. While they are being braized, cut some turnips into fancy shapes, such as large olives, half-moons, &c, fry them in two ounces of butter and a little sugar; when they are all equally browned, throw them into a stewpan, containing about a pint of Espagnole sauce, with the addition of some of the broth the ducks are braized in. Allow the turnips to boil very gently by the side of the fire until done; they must then be drained upon a sieve, their sauce clarified, skimmed, reduced to its proper consistency, and passed through a tammy into a small stewpan containing the turnips. Dish the ducks up, place the turnips neatly round, oour the sauce over them, and send to table.

REMOVES OF PHEASANTS. 243

705. BRAIZED DUCKS, WITH STEWED PEAS.

Braize the ducks as directed in the foregoing case, and when done, dish them up with stewed peas round them; sance with a brown sauce in which some of the broth from the ducks has been reduced. They may also be prepared as follows: -

Put two ounces of butter in a stewpan on the fire: when melted, add two table-spoonfuls of flour, and stir this over the fire until the roux becomes of a fawn-color; then add a quart of good broth or gravy, carefully working the whole while mixing. Stir this sauce on the fire, and when it boils, put the ducks trussed for boiling into it, and also a quart of young peas, and a faggot of parsley and green onions. Allow these to stew very gently by the side of the stove for about an hour; when the ducks are done, take them out of the sauce, skim off all the grease, remove the faggot of parsley; and if there is too much sauce, boil it down to its proper consistency, pour the peas and sauce over the ducks, previously dished up, and serve.

706. BRAIZED DUCKS A LA PROVENCALE.

These should be braized as in the former cases, and when dished up, garnished with the following preparation:

Cut six large onions into halves, remove the ends of these, and slice them up. Meanwhile, heat half a pint of salad oil in a deep sautapan over the fire; fry the onions in it of a light-brown color, carefully stirring them with the end of an iron skewer to avoid breaking the pieces. When the onions are done, drain them upon a sieve, and afterward put them into a small stewpan with the juice of a lemon, a little mignionette pepper and a piece of glaze about the size of a walnut, and set them on a slow fire to simmer gently for a quarter of an hour; add some finished Espagnole sauce in sufficient quantity for the purpose, boil the whole together, pour it round the ducks and serve.

This dish is sometimes designated d la Lyonnaise.

In addition to the foregoing methods for serving braized ducks, they may also be garnished with a Jardiniere, stewed olives, a Nivernaise, or with sauer-kraut (No. 165); for preparing which, see Vegetable Garnishes.

REMOVES OF PHEASANTS,

COMPRISING

Pheasants, d la Piriguexix. Pheasants, d la Daxtphinoi'se.

d la Chipolata. „ with braized cabbage.

d I'ltalienne. „ d la Flamande.

d la Beauveaux. „ d I'Allemande.

d la Financiire. „ d la Rigence.

with purie of celery. „ d V 'Espagnole.

d la Soubise. „ d I' Aspic.

d la Danphine. „ d la Monglas.

d la Paysanne.

707. PHEASANTS, A LA PERIGUEUX.

Follow in every respect the directions for dressing turkeys d la Perigueux (No. 660).

244 REMOVES OF PHEASANTS.

708. PHEASANTS, A LA CHIPOLATA.

These are to be trussed and nicely roasted, and when taken from the spit, shonld be dished up and neatly garnished with a Chipolaia ragout (No. 190).

709. PHEASANTS, A L'lTALIENNE.

Truss two pheasants as for boiling, and place them on the spit in the usual way, then cover the breasts with a reduced wine mirepoix, retaining the vegetables in it; wrap them in two large sheets of wellbuttered paper, securely fastened at each end with a string; place a long stout-made iron skewer at the backs of the pheasants, which must be likewise tightly secured with string to prevent them from slipping round. Roast the pheasants for an hour, take them up, place them on their dish, garnish with a border of raviolis (No. 375), pour an Italian sauce (No. 12) over them, and serve.

710. PHEASANTS, A LA BEAUVEAUX.

The pheasants must be boned, except the legs and wings, which should be left entire: stuff them with a, farce made with fat livers of fowls or game (No. 249): then truss them so as to give them the appearance of being whole; run a strong iron skewer through them, fasten this upon a spit with string at each end of the skewer; cover the breasts with some reduced mirepoix (No. 236), and wrap them up in two sheets of buttered paper, which must also be securely fastened with string. Roast the pheasants an hour and a quarter, and when done, dish them up with a ragout of scollops of fat livers and truffles (No. 191) in a Financiere sauce, and serve.

711. PHEASANTS, A LA*- FINANCIERE.

Truss and roast the pheasants, and when done, dish them up with a rich Financiere ragout (No. 188).

712. PHEASANTS, WITH PUREE OF CELERY.

Truss the pheasants for boiling, braize them in some good stock, garnished with a carrot, an onion stuck with two cloves, and a garnished faggot of parsley; when done drain them upon a napkin, dish them up, and pour over them a white puree of celery (No. 110); garnish round with a border of potato croquettes, and serve.

713. PHEASANTS, A LA SOUBISE.

These should be larded through the breasts, lengthwise, with strips of fat bacon about four inches long and a quarter of an inch square, seasoned with pepper and salt and chopped parsley; they must be afterward trussed for boiling, then braized as in the foregoing case; when done, dish them up with a puree of onions d la Soubise (No. 119) poured over them, and send to table.

714. PHEASANTS, A LA DAUPHINE. See Poulards a la Dauphine. (No. 684.)

715. PHEASANTS, A LA PAYSANNE.

Truss the pheasants as for boiling with the legs tucked inside; then put them into an oval stewpan with four ounces of butter, and

REMOVES OF PHEASANTS. 245

a piece of glaze the size of an egg, and set them to simmer very gently over a slow fire. They must be frequently turned, and care should he taken to prevent the glaze and butter from burning. When the pheasants are done, let the butter and urease be poured off; add a glass of white wine and some good stock in sufficient quantity to serve for the gravy, the juice of half a lemon and a little pepper and salt; boil these together to detach the glaze from the sides of the stewpan, and when the pheasants are dished up, pour this gravy over them, garnish them round with groups of potatoes cut into the shape of large olives and fried in butter, and serve.

716. PHEASANTS, A LA DAUPHINOISE.

Truss the pheasants as for boiling, braize them in a wine mirepoix (Xo. 236), and when done, take them up, draw the strings, and allow them to get partially cold; then cover them entirely with some reduced Allemande sauce in which has been mixed half the mirepoix the pheasants have been braized in, (this previously to its being boiled down for the purpose of adding it to the sauce, must be freed of all the grease, vtc.) This coating of sauce should be allowed to cool, and then must be bread-crumbed over with grated Parmesan cheese mixed with the bread-crumbs in equal proportions. The pheasants must now be placed in a deep sauta-pau or pie-dish, previously well-buttered, and the remaining half of the braize added to moisten the bottom of the pan.- Three-quarters of an hour before dinner-time, sprinkle the pheasants with a little clarified butter, and set them in the oven to be baked of a very light fawn color, frequently basting them with clarified butter while baking. When done, dish them up side by side, garnish round with a border of quenelles of polenta, pour a brown Italian sauce (No. 1*2) under them, and serve.

The quenelles of polenta above alluded to should be thus made: - Put into a small stewpan six ounces of butter, half a pint of water, a little mignionette pepper, and salt; set these on the fire to boil, and then mix in with them six ounces of polenta (a preparation of Indian corn); stir this again over the fire until it becomes a a smooth compact paste, and then work in with it two whole eggs and two yelks, and two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese. Shape this composition into quenelles with two table-spoons in the usual manner, and poach them in hot water.

717. PHEASANTS, WITH STEWED CABBAGES. These must be trussed as for boiling, and placed in a rather large oval stewpan with three white-heart or Savoy cabbages previously cut into halves, the cores taken out, and blanched or parboiled; afterward the two halves of each cabbage, previously seasoned with mignionette pepper, and salt, must be tied up with string; add two carrots, one head of celery, two onions, each stuck with two cloves, one pound of streaky bacon from which all the rust has been pared off, and which must also be parboiled like the cabbages, one pound of German sausage, and a garnished faggot of parsley; moisten with good stock in sufficient quantity to cover the pheasants, cover with a piece of buttered paper, put the lid on the stewpan, and then set the whole on a moderate fire to stew very gently for about two hours. Just before sending to table, take out the pheasants, drain them upon

246

PHEASANTS.

a napkin, remove the strings, and dish them up with an ornamental cr6usta.de of fried bread in the centre; then put the bacon and German sausage upon a plate, and after having drained the cabbages in a colander, roll them in a clean napkin in the form of a rolling-pin; cut this into two-inch lengths, and place them round the pheasants, trim the bacon, cut it into strips, and lay them on the top of the circle of the pieces of cabbages in alternate layers with slices of the sausage; about the upper part of this dish, place well-formed groups of nicelyshaped glazed carrots, turnips, and onions, prepared for the purpose; pour an Espagnole sauce over the whole, glaze the pheasants and the roots, and serve.

718. PHEASANTS, A LA FLAMANDE.

Truss and braize the pheasants in common stock, garnished with carrot, onion stuck with two cloves, and a faggot of parsley; when done, dish them up side by side, garnish round with alternate groups of carrots and turnips, cut into fancy shapes, and nicely glazed, and some dressed Brussels sprouts and glazed onions; pour an Espagnole sauce round them, glaze the pheasants, and serve.

719. PHEASANTS, A L'ALLEMANDE.

See chickens d, V Allemande (No. 690.)

720. PHEASANTS, A LA REGENCE.

Truss the pheasants with plump breasts as for roasting, lard them closely, and about an hour before dinner-time, put them on the spit before the fire to roast for about forty minutes, taking particular care to baste them frequently, and glaze them well just before taking them off the spit. When done, dish them up, garnish round with groups of white cocks'-combs, button-mushrooms, small quenelles and truffles;

PHEASANTS. 247

in each flank of the dish place a large decorated quenelle, and at the ends put a larded sweetbread; sauce the remove neatly round with some Allemande sauce, so as not to touch the pheasants, glaze the larding, and serve.

721. PHEASANTS, WITH RICE, A L'ESPAGNOLE.

These must be trussed as for boiling, and then placed in an oval stewpan, with carrot, celery, two onions stuck with three cloves each, a garnished faggot of parsley and a couple of red Spanish sausages; moisten with some red wine mirepoix, cover them up, and set them to stew very gently for about two hours on a slow fire.

While the pheasants are stewing, prepare some rice in the following manner:

Thoroughly wash ten ounces of Carolina rice, and afterward boil it for three minutes in water, and drain it on a sieve until all the moisture is absorbed; then put a gill of salad-oil into a large sauta-pan over a brisk fire, and, as soon as the oil is quite hot, throw the rice in and fry it until it becomes slightly browned, stirring it with a spoon the whole of the time it remains on the fire. Then put the rice into a stewpan, moisten it with a pint and a half of good consomme, season with a little Cayenne pepper and a pinch of saffron powder; set it to simmer very gently on the fire for half an hour, and when the pheasants are dished up, work the rice with a teaspoonful of tomata sauce and a little glaze, then mould it in the shape of ordinary quenelles with a tablespoon, and place these closely round the pheasants after they are dished up; sauce them over with Poivrade sauce in which part of their broth has been mixed after being first boiled down to glaze, and serve.

722. PHEASANTS, A L'aSPIC.

Bone the pheasants, and take care to leave the legs and wings entire; then season the inside with pepper and salt, and fill them out with some forcemeat of pheasant (No. 243) previously mixed with some chopped parsley and mushrooms; truss them so as to give them their original shape and size, cover them with thin layers of fat bacon and wrap them securely in napkins spread with butter, fastened at each end with string. When the pheasants are thus far prepared, place them in an oval stewpan with a carrot, an onion stuck with three cloves, and a garnished faggot of parsley; moisten with good white stock in sufficient quantity to cover them, and then set them to braize very gently on a slow fire for an hour and a half. When the pheasants are done, take them up, remove the napkins and strings, drain all the moisture from them upon a clean napkin, and dish them up; pour under them some bright essence of game, made from the carcasses of the pheasants, which, previously to its being used, must be clarified and reduced to half-glaze.

723. PHEASANTS, A LA MONCLAS.

Roast two pheasants, and as soon as they come off the spit, cut the meat from the breasts by making an incision in the shape of a heart; this meat must then be cut into very small dice and mixed with two gravy-spoonfuls of reduced Bechamel sauce or Allemande, and two dozen mushrooms, a couple of black truffles and a small piece of red

248 REMOVES OF PARTRIDGES.

tongue should be also cut into dice and mixed with the pheasant. With this preparation fill up the breasts of the pheasants, smooth them over with the blade of a knife, and then cover them with bread-crumbs fried of a light-brown color; set the pheasants in the oven or hot closet to keep warm, and when about to send them to table place them in their dish side by side, pour under them a white ragout of cock's-combs, mushrooms, and truffles, and serve.

Note. - This dish is generally served when there happens to be some ready-dressed game left from the previous day's dinner.

REMOTES OP PARTRIDGES,

COMPRISING

Partridges, d la SSville. Partridges, d la Ravigotte.

Red-legged Partridges, d la Plessy. „ d la Soubixe.

„ „ d la Cerito. „ d I'Ellsler.

724. PARTRIDGES, A LA SEVILLE.

Truss four or six partridges as for boiling, fry them of a light-brown color in four ounces of fresh butter, and then set them aside upon a plate; cut about one pound of raw ham (that has been previously soaked and parboiled) into small pieces in the form of olives, and two dozen small pieces of the red part of a carrot cut with a round scoop, with the same number of small button-onions; fry these also of a lightbrown color, withdraw them from the" fire, and then put them with the partridges back into the stewpan; add a faggot of parsley garnished with thyme, bay-leaf, sweet basil, and one clove of garlic; season with a little salt and Cayenne pepper, moisten with two glasses of Madeira or Malaga, and a table-spoonful of tomatas; then set the stewpan (covered with the lid containing live embers) on a slow fire, to simmer gently for three-quarters of an hour. Observe that the moistening of the partridges should be reduced to one half of its original quantity while braizing. When done, dish them up in a triangular form, skim off the grease from the carrots, &c, add a gravy-spoonful of finished Espagnole and the juice of half a lemon; boil the whole together for two minutes, place the ham, carrots, and onions in separate groups round the partridges, pass the sauce through a tammy, pour it over the partridges, and serve.

In the centre of the partridges place some garbangas, or yellow Spanish peas, prepared as follows: -

Soak a pint of garbancas in tepid water for twelve hours; then drain, and put them into a stewpan with half a pound of ham, a carrot, an onion, a garnished faggot of parsley, and a little mignionette-pepper; moisten with three pints of broth, and set them to boil gently for three hours.

725. RED-LEGGED PARTRIDGES, A LA PLESSY.

These are to be trussed as for boiling, braized in a white poi'Ic (No. 230), and when done to be dished up in a triangular form, ami garnished with neat groups of small quenelles of partridge and white

PARTRIDGES.

249

button mushrooms; pour round a Supreme sauce (No. 38), finish with an essence of game over the partridges, and serve.

726. PARTRIDGES, A LA CERITO.

Bone three red-legged partridges and fill them out with some quenelle force-meat made with the fillets of two partridges, and with which should be mixed previously to using it, two black truffles and a small piece of red tongue cut into small dice: when the partridges are filled with this preparation, truss them so as to give them their original shape; scald the red legs and insert them on each side of the birds, at the same time pushing the ends of the skin of the leg neatly in with each foot. Then, wrap each bird in a separate small napkin spread with butter, and fasten the ends with string; braize them for about an hour in some white poele (No. 230), over a slow fire, and take particular care that they do not boil fast. Whan done, take them out of the napkins, remove the strings, drain all the unnecessary moisture from them, and dish them up: garnish them with a border of raviolis (No. 375), pour a Provengale sauce (No. 25) over them, and serve.

727. PARTRIDGES, A LA RAVIGOTTE.

These should be trussed as for boiling, and mast be roasted just before, they are wanted; when dished up, pour a Ravigotte or Provenrale sauce under them, glaze and send to table.

728. PARTRIDGES, A LA SOUBISE.

Truss the partridges for boiling, braize them, and when done, dish them up, ponr an onion sauce a la soubise, finished with a gill of cream (No. 119) over them, and send to table.

729. PARTRIDGES, A L'ELLSLER.

Truss four red-legged partridges as for boiling, lard the breasts closely, braize them in wine mirepoix (No. 236); when done, glaze them nicely and dish them up iu a row; garnish with a group of

250 MEAT PIES.

small truffles, cock's-combs and mushrooms at each end place a heart sweet-bread contise with black truffles, and on the sides a border of dessert-spoon quenelles, made with game force-meat, in which has been mixed some lobster-coral; pour a Parisian sauce (No. 40) round the partridges, and serve.

Note. - In addition to the foregoing methods for dressing red-legged and common partridges, they may also be treated according to the various directions giveu for dressing pheasants.

MEAT PIES FOR REMOVES,

COMPRISING

Chicken Pie, d In Reine. Veal and Ham Pie.

Pigeon Pie, d V Anglaise. Mutton Pie, d V Anglaise.

Grouse Pie, d V Eeossaise. Pie of Woodcocks or Snipes, d V Irlandaitt.

Partridge Pie, d la Chasseur. Fieldfare, or Blackbird Pie.

Gibblet Pie, with fine-herbs. Lark Pie, d la Melton Mowbray.

Beefsteak and Oyster Pie.

730. CHICKEN PIE, A LA REINE.

Cut two chickens into small members as for fricassee; cover the bottom of the pie-dish with layers of scollops of veal and ham placed alternately; season with chopped mushrooms and parsley, pepper and salt, then add a little white sauce; next place in the dish the pieces of chicken in neat order, and round these put a plover's egg in each cavity; repeat the seasoning and the sauce, lay a few thin slices of dressed ham neatly trimmed on the fop; cover the pie with puff-paste, ornament this with pieces of the same cut into the form of leaves, fcc, egg the pie over with a paste-brush, and bake it for one hour and a half. A very good chicken pie may be made by omitting the plover's eggs, mushrooms, ham, and the sauce - substituting for these, the yelks of eggs boiled hard, chopped parsley, bacon, and a little mushroomcatsup, some common gravy, or even water.

731. PIGEON PIE, A L'ANGLAISE.

Draw, truss, and singe six young pigeons; then, stuff them with the chopped livers, mixed with some parsley, a small piece of butter, pepper and salt. Next, cover the bottom of the dish with rather large scollops of beef, taken either from the fillet or rump; season with chopped parsley and mushrooms, pepper and salt; over these place the pigeons, and between each pigeon put the yelk of an egg boiled hard, placing two or three in the centre also; add some white or brown sauce, whichever may be at hand, in sufficient quantity to produce sauce enough for the dish, or if neither of these be ready, then substitute some gravy or common broth; repeat the seasoning, cover the pie with puff-paste, bake it for an hour and a half, and send to table.

732. GROUSE PIE, A L'ECOSSAISE.

When the grouse are picked, cut off the legs and wings, and tuck the thighs inside; then cut away the lower parts of the backs, which,

REMOVES OF PIES. 251

if permitted to remain, would, from their bitter taste, spoil the pie. Cover the bottom of the dish with large scollops of beef, seasoned with chopped mushrooms, parsley, and shalots, pepper and salt: over these place the grouse, and between each bird put the yolk of an egg boiled hard; lay some small thin slices of streaky bacon or ham upon the top, and then mix a pint of good gravy with two table-spoonfuls of " Hickson's Mogul Sauce," and the same proportion of genuine Harvey sauce: pour this preparation into the pie, sprinkle some chopped parsley and mushrooms on the surface, cover with puff-paste, bake the pie for an hour and a half, and serve.

733. PARTRIDGE PIE, A LA CHASSEUR.

Cut the partridges into small members, in the same manner as directed for cutting up fowls for a fricassee, and set them apart on a plate. Then, cover the bottom of the pie-dish with neatly-trimmed scollops of veal, and thin slices of streaky bacon, first partially boiled to extract the salt; cover these with six spoonfuls of the following preparation: - Make about half a pint of Soubise sauce (No. 119), to this add half that quantity of white sauce, a pottle of button-mushrooms, some chopped parsley, and a littly thyme; season with cayenne pepper, and salt. When the veal, &c, is covered with the foregoing, place the members of the partridges, in neat order, upon the whole; pour the remainder of the sauce on these, and smooth over the surface with a knife; place on the top some yolks of eggs boiled hard and cut into halves, and between each yolk put a small piece of streaky bacon; cover the pie with puff-paste, bake it for one hour and a half, and serve.

734. GIBLET PIE, WITH FINE-HERBS.

Procure two sets of goose giblets (cleaned), scald them, afterward immerse them in cold water, and drain them upon a napkin. Then, cut the giblets into pieces about two inches long, trim them neatly and place them in a stewpan with a carrot, an onion stuck with four cloves, a garnished faggot of parsley, and season with pepper and a little salt; moisten with a quart of good broth and a glass of Sherry and set them to stew gently on a slow fire. When done, remove the carrot, onion, and faggot of parsley; drain the giblets into a sieve, skim off all the grease from the broth, and after having put it back into a small stewpan, thicken it with a little roux, and boil the sauce over a brisk fire for a quarter of an hour, stirring it the whole time with a wooden spoon. Reduce the sauce by boiling to about a pint, and then remove it from the fire. Next, cover the bottom of the dish with scollops of fillet of beef, season with fine-herbs, consisting of mushrooms, parsley, a very little sweet-basil, and two shalots, adding cayenne pepper, and salt; over these pour half the sauce, then fill the dish up with the giblets, which place in neat order; sprinkle some fine-herbs upon them, and pour the remainder of the sauce over the whole. Cover the pie with puff-paste, bake it for an hour and a quarter, and send to table.

735. BEEFSTEAK AND OYSTER PIE.

Cut three pounds of fillet of beef or rump-steaks into large scollops, fry them quickly over a very brisk fire, so as to brown them before they

252 REMOVES OF PIES.

are half done; then, place them on the bottom of the dish, leaving the centre open, in two successive layers; fill the cente with four dozen oysters, previously parboiled and bearded, season with pepper and salt, and pour the following preparation over the whole. When the scollops of beef have been fried in a sauta or frying-pan, pour nearly all the grease out, and shake a table-spoonful of flour into it; stir this over the fire for one minute, and then add a pint of good gravy or broth, two tablespoonsful of mushroom-catsup, and an equal quantity of Harvey sauce and the liquor from the oysters; stir the whole over the fire, and keep it boiling for a quarter of an hour. Half an hour after this sauce has been poured into the pie, cover it with puff-paste in the usual way, bake it for an hour aud a half, and serve.

736. VEAL AND HAM PIE. Trim the veal and ham into scollops, and season with pepper and salt in moderation. Next chop a handful of mushrooms and some parsley very fine, and put them in a small stewpan with a small pat of butter, and one shalot also chopped fine; fry these lightly over the fire, then add nearly a pint of Veloute sauce or good stock; boil the whole for five minutes, and pour it into the pie; place six yolks of eggs boiled hard in the cavities, cover with puff-paste, bake the pie for an hour aud a half, and serve.

737. MUTTON PIE, A l'ANGLAISE.

Procure a neck of mutton, remove the scrag and the spine-bone, shorten the ribs to about three inches, and use these trimmings to make some stock or gravy for the pie. Next cut the mutton into neat chops, pare off the superfluous fat, soason them with pepper and salt, and place them in the dish in circular order, one resting upon another in the same way as cutlets are dished up; fill the centre with small new potatoes, or old ones turned into round balls; boil the mutton stock down to the quantity required to nearly fill up the dish, season with pepper and salt, cover with puff-paste, bake the pie an hour and a half, and send to table.

738. PIE OF WOODCOCKS OR SNIPES, A L'lRLANDAISE.

Pick the birds clean, cut off the legs and wings, singe them, and then cut each woodcock or snipe into halves: remove the gizzards, leaving the trail, and set them aside on a plate. Then, cover the sides and bottom of a white glazed earthen oval pan (used for preserving game) with very thin layers of fat bacon, place the woodcocks or snipes in the pan in close layers, each well-seasoned with ground black pepper and salt, and a small proportion of prepared aromatic spices (No. 1250). When this is done, fill up the pan with a sufficient quantity of clarified fresh butter to cover the birds, place some layers of fat bacon on the top, cover the pan hermetically with a firm flonrand-water paste: bake the pie in a moderately-heated oven for about two hours; when it has become cold, remove the crusts, wash the edges and sides of the pan, and run a little fresh clarified butter on the top; when cold, ornament with a neat border of picked double parsley, set the pie on a folded napkin laid on its dish, and serve.

This is perhaps the best method for making pies of woodcocks or snipes, as from the simplicity of the ingredients used, the birds retain

REMOVES OF PIES. 253

their flavor: an important consideration with amateurs of this kind of game.

739. FIELDFARE OR BLACKBIRD PIE.

These birds are only fit for table during the months of November, December, and January, and are in the greatest perfection during severe frosty weather. Procure a dozen fieldfares or blackbirds - which should l e fat and fresh killed; pick them very clean, draw and singe them: next cut the legs and wings off, and tuck the thigh bones inside the birds, and stuff them with the following preparation:

Soak the crumb of two French-rolls in a little milk, put them in a stewpan with two ounces of fresh butter, a little grated lemon-peel, a small shalot chopped fine, and a handful of parsley also chopped; season with pepper and salt, a little grated nutmeg, and a pinch of aromatic spices (No. 1250); stir this over the fire until the whole forms a compact paste; then add the yolks of two eggs, and use this stuffing as above directed. Cover the bottom of a pie-dish with scollops of beef previously fried brown, place the birds in close circular order upon these; between each bird put a slice of streaky bacon, and fill up the centre with stewed mushrooms prepared as follows. Clean a plateful of mushrooms, cut them up and put them in a stewpan with a small pat of butter, half a pint of rich gravy or brown sauce, two table-spoonfuls of Harvey sauce, a little Cayenne pepper and salt; stew these over a quick fire for ten minutes, and then, if gravy be used for the purpose instead of sauce, thicken it by mixing in a small pat of butter kneaded with a table-spoonful of flour. The pie must be afterward covered with puff-paste, baked for one hour and a half, and then sent to table.

740. LARK PIE, A LA MELTON MOWBRAY.

Pick clean four dozen Dunstable larks, singe them over the flame of a charcoal fire, cut off the wings and legs, and with the point of a small knife remove the gizzards, and then set the larks aside on a dish. Next cut two pounds of veal cutlets and a pound of ham into scollops; fry these in a sauta-pan with a little fresh butter, a pottle of button mushrooms, some parsley and two shalots, half a bay-leaf, and a sprig of thyme chopped fine; season with cayenne and salt, and the juice of a lemon. To these add half a pint of Veloute or Espagnole sauce, and the same quantity of rich gravy; boil the whole together for three minutes, then place the veal and ham scollops one upon the other in the bottom of the dish; put the larks neatly and close to each other upon these, pour the sauce over them, and place the mushrooms in the centre; cover with puff-paste, bake the pie for one hour and a quarter, and serve.

254

MEAT PUDDINGS,

COMPRISING

Beefsteak and Oyster Pudding. Pudding of small Birds, d la Chipolata.

Mutton Pudding. Snipe Pudding, d la D'Oraay.

Kidney Pudding. Sausage Pudding.

741. BEEFSTEAK AND OYSTER PUDDING.

Line a two-quart pudding basiu with some beef-suet paste; fill this lining with a preparation similar to that described for making beefsteak and oyster pie, except that the sauce must be more reduced. When the pudding is filled, wet the edges of the paste round the top of the basin with a paste-brush dipped in water, cover it with a piece of suet-paste rolled out to the size of the basin, fasten it down by bearing all round the edge with the thumb; and then with the thumb and fore-finger, twist the edges of the paste over and over so as to give it a corded appearance. This pudding must be either steamed or boiled three hours; when done, turn it out of the basin carefully, poursome rich brown gravy under it, and serve.

742. MUTTON PUDDING.

Line a basin as in the above case, fill the lining with thick mutton cutlets, slightly trimmed, or, if preferred, with steaks cut from the leg; season with pepper and salt, some parsley, a little thyme, and one small shalot chopped fine, and between each layer of meat, put some, slices of potatoes. Cover the pudding as in the foregoing article, steam or boil it for three hours, and serve some rich gravy under it when sent to table.

743. KIDNEY PUDDING.

Clt two pounds of sheep's or lamb's kidneys into scollops, put them into a basin with some chopped parsley, shalot, and a little thyme, and season with pepper and salt; then add a large gravyspoonful of good sauce, and the juice of half a lemon: mix these ingredients well together. Line a basin with suet-paste, and fill the pudding with the foregoing preparation; cover it in the usual way. steam or boil it for two hours and a half, and when sent to table, pour under it some rich brown gravy to which has been added a little Indian soy, and serve.

744. PUDDING OF SMALL BIRDS, A LA CHIPOLATA.

Most kinds of small birds may be used for this purpose, such as larks, sparrows, fieldfares, and wheatears, &c.

Take two pounds of small birds which have been picked clean, remove the gizzards, and fry them over a brisk fire until they are browned; add chopped mushrooms, parsley, and shalot, season with a little grated nutmeg, lemon-juice, pepper and salt, and a large gravy spoonful of brown sauce, also two dozen roasted chestnuts previously peeled, and a like number of small pieces of parboiled streaky bacon:

SAUSAGE PUDDING. 255

boil these ingredients for three minutes, then fill the pudding with them, and cover it with paste, as usual. This pudding must be steamed on account of its richness. When done, turn it out of the basin with care, in order not to break it; pour a rich brown sauce under, and serve.

This pudding may be made in a plainer manner, by omitting the mushrooms, lemon-juice, sauce, and chestnuts - following in all other respects the same process.

745. SNIPE PUDDING, A LA D'OESAY.

Pick eight fine fat fresh snipes, singe them over a charcoal flame, and divide them into halves, remove the gizzards and reserve the trail for further use; season the snipes with a little Cayenne pepper, salt, and lemon-juice, and set them aside on a dish till wauted. Then peel a Portugal onion, cut it into thin slices and fry these in a stewpan with a small piece of butter; when they are slightly browned, throw in a tablespoonful of flour, and stir them together on the fire for three minutes; then add a handful of chopped mushrooms and parsley, a small bay-leaf, a sprig of thyme, a small blade of mace and a clove of garlic; moisten with a pint of Claret; stir the whole upon the fire, and when these have boiled ten minutes, add the trail and a piece of good glaze. Set the sauce to boil for three minutes longer, and then rub it through a tammy into a puree upon the snipes. Next, line a pudding basin with suet-paste, fill it up with the foregoing preparation, and when covered with a piece of paste and properly fastened round the edges so as to prevent the escape of the volatile properties of the sauce, steam it in a covered stewpan for two hours and a half. When the pudding is done, turn it out of the basin with care, pour a rich brown game gravy under it, and serve.

746. SAUSAGE PUDDING.

Procure two pounds of Cambridge sausages, and twist each into three round balls; put these into boiling water, on the stove, merely to parboil them for a minute or so, then throw them into cold water and afterward remove the skins. Line the pudding basin with suet paste, fill it with the sausages, and pour the following preparation upon them: chop one onion and three sage leaves, boil these in water for two minutes, drain them upon a sieve, and then fry them in small stewpan with a piece of butter; as soon as they become of a lightbrown color, add a table-spoonful of flour and a tea-spoonful of curry paste, season with pepper and salt, and moisten with half a pint of good broth; stir the sauce upon the fire, and when it has boiled a quarter of an hour, rub it through a sieve or tammy, and use it as above directed. Cover the pudding with paste, steam or bake it for two hours, and when turned out of the basin, send to table with plain gravy under it.

256

REMOVES OF BAACK GAME AND GROUSE,

COMPRISING

Black Game, d la Montagnarde. Black Game, d la Paysanne.

t, d Vltalihine. ., d la Norwegihxne. &C.

„ d la Suidoise.

747. BLACK GAME, A LA MONTAGNARDE.

Cut off the legs and wings, tuck the thighs inside the birds, and split them down the back; season well with pepper and salt, rub them over with a paste-brush dipped in clarified butter, and then broil them carefully on a gridiron, over a clear fire perfectly free from smoke: or place the birds in a baking-dish or sauta-pan with a piece of butter; set them to bake in the oven, and baste them frequently. When done, glaze them nicely, and dish them up with a border of potato croquettes, and then pour under them some Poivrade sauce (No. 29), fiuished with a piece of anchovy-butter and some lemon-juice.

748. BLACK GAME, A L'lTALIENNE.

Truss the birds as for boiling, put them into an oval stewpan with garnished faggot of parsley, two carrots, two heads of celery, two ouions, each stuck with three cloves, a blade of mace, twenty peppercorns and two cloves of garlic; moisten them with a gill of brandy and a large ladleful of good stock; place a buttered paper on the top, put the lid on, and set them To braize on a very slow fire, with some live embers on the lid. If the birds are young, one hour and a quarter will suffice to braize them; but if old they will require longer time. When the birds are done, drain, glaze, and dish them up, garnish with macaroni finished with the liquor from the birds, freed from every particle of grease, and boiled down with the macaroni; to this add six ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, a spoonful of tomata sauce (No. 22), and four ounces of fresh butter; pour some browu Italian sauce (No. 12) over the birds and round their base, and serve.

749. BLACK GAME, A LA STJEDOISE.

These must be trussed as for boiling, and then placed in an oval stewpan with one pound of streaky bacon, and one pound of German sausage, a good-sized carrot, two heads of celery, two onions stuck with four cloves each, a garnished faggot of parsley, and a tea-spoonful of black peppercorns; moisten with three pints of fermented juice of beetroot (No. 380) and two glasses of brandy, cover with buttered paper and the lid containing live embers, and set them to braize slowly on a stove-fire partially smothered with ashes. When the birds are done, take them up on a dish and keep them covered up in the hot closet until they are dished up. Next, strain the liquor through a napkin, skim off all the grease, boil it down nearly to half-glaze, then add to it a small ladleful of finished Eapagnole sauce (No. 3), together with a glass of red wine; allow this sauce to boil by the side of the

BLACK GAME. 257

stove-fire for five minutes; skim it and pass it through a tammy into a small stewpan, and keep it hot. Then place the black game on their dish side by side, garnish them round with carrots prepared in the Swedish fashion, and round this place another border composed of neatly-cut scollops of the streaky bacon and German sausage; pour the sauce over the remove, and serve.

The carrots above alluded to should be thus prepared: slit the outside or red part of a dozen large carrots into thin stripes, cut these again into thin shreds of about two inches long. Next, place them iu a stewpan with four ounces of butter and half a pint of vinegar; season with four ounces of sugar, a little grated nutmeg and a little salt; set them to stew very gently upon a partially-smothered charcoal fire, taking care to turn them over now and then with a spoon: about an hour will suffice to do them: when, if any moisture remains, it must be boiled down, and they will be ready for use.

750. BLACK GAME, A LA PAYSANNE. See pheasants d la Paysanne. (No. 715.)

751. BLACK GAME, A LA NORWEGIENNE.

Truss these as for roasting, lard the breasts closely with well furnished rows of larding; set them to braize in an oval stewpan, moistened with a mirepoix (No. 236) made with two parts of good stock and one third of French vinegar; baste the birds frequently while they are being braized, when done, set them upon a baking-sheet in the oven for two minutes to dry the larding, then glaze and dish them up; garnish with a border of stewed red cabbage dressed in the same way as French sauer-kraut (No. 165), and round this place a border of small sausages prepared as follows:

Chop one pound of calf's liver with ten ounces of fat bacon and six ounces of brown bread-crumbs, season with black pepper, salt, grated nutmeg, and lemon-peel, some parsley, thyme, one bay-leaf, and some sweet-basil, all chopped fine; add the yolks of three eggs, mix the whole thoroughly, aud then form this preparation into small flat, round, or oval sausages, which must be wrapped up in pig's caul; fry these of a brown color, and use them as directed above.

Sauce the remove with a Poivrade (No. 29), mixed with half the liquor in which the birds have been braized, previously cleared of all grease and boiled down to half-glaze; glaze the larding, and serve.

In addition to the foregoing methods of dressing black game, they may also be served d la Soubise, & la Perigueux, a la Financiere, with a puree of celery, Richelieu sauce, braized cabbages, and a la Dauphinoise; for the preparation of which, see those articles.

Note. - Grouse should be dressed in the same way as black game. 16

258

PATE-CHATJDS, OR RAISED PIES FOR ENTREES,

COMPRISING

Pdte-Chaud of Young Rabbits with fineherb?.

„ d la Sauce Poivrade.

„ of Leverets with Truffles, d

la PSrigueux.

„ of ditto d la Financi&re.

„ of Godiveau d la Ciboulette.

Pdti-Chaud of Young Partridges, d la Chasseur. „ of Ox Palates, d FTtalibine.

„ of Quails, d la Financiire.

„ of Larks boned, d I' Essence.

„ of Snipes, d la Bordelaise.

Pdte-Chaud Cases. 752. PATE-CHAUD* OF YOUNG RABBITS, WITH FINE-HERBS.

Cut up two young rabbits into small members, place these in a deep sautapan with two ounces of butter, a handful of chopped mushrooms, some parsley and two shalots chopped also; season with pepper and salt, a little grated nutmeg and a garnished faggot. Then set the rabbits on a brisk fire, and fry them of a light-brown color; add a glass of French white wine, cover the sautapan with its lid containing some live embers of charcoal, and again set them on the fire to stew very gently for twenty minutes, when they will be done. Next, add a grawspoonful of brown sauce, a small piece of glaze, and the juice of half a lemon; toss the whole together over the fire, and allow it to boil sharply for two minutes; then dish up the pieces of rabbit neatly in the pie, pour the sauce over them, and serve.

753. PATE-CHAUD OF YOUNG RABBITS, A LA SAUCE POIVRADE.

Cut the rabbits into small members, and place them in a sautapan with about two ounces of clarified butter, season with pepper and salt,

* General directions for making a Pdtf-Chaud, or raised pie, will be found iu that part of the work which' treats of Entries of Pasty.

PATE-CHAUDS. 259

and then set them over a brisk fire to be fried brown; next, add a glass of Madeira, and a piece of glaze the size of a walnut; cover the sautapan with its lid containing some live embers of charcoal, and again place it upon a moderate fire, that the rabbits may stew very gently for twenty minutes longer; then add some Poivrade sauce (No. 29) in sufficient quantity for the entree, allow the whole to boil together for three minutes, garnish the pdte-chaud as in the former case, and send to table.

754. PATE-CHAUD OF LEVERETS, WITH TRUFFLES, A LA PERIGUEUX.

The leverets must be cut into small members or joints as follows: - First, take off the hind legs and make two pieces of these; detach the shoulders, and cut the loins transversely into pieces about two inches long; split the head into halves, trim the whole neatly without waste, and place these members in a sautapan with three ounces of clarified butter: season with pepper and salt, and set them on a brisk fire to be fried brown. Next, add four ounces of truffles cut into thick scollops, and a small piece of glaze, cover with the lid containing live embers of charcoal, and replace the sautapan on a slow fire, to simmer for twenty minutes longer. Then add the Perigueux sauce (No. 23), allow the whole to boil together for three minutes, garnish the pdU'-chaud, and serve.

755. PATE-CHAUD OF LEVERETS, A LA FINANCIERE.

Prepare these in the manner directed in the foregoing article, and when the members of the leverets are ready to receive the sauce, add a rich Financiere ragout (No. 188); after the whole has boiled together for three minutes, garnish the pie, and serve.

A border of large white cocks'-combs may be placed round the edge of the pie, and a larded sweetbread or a large truffle in the centre.

756. PATE-CHAUD OF GODIVEAU, A LA CIBOULETTE.

To one pound and a half of sifted flour, add three-quarters of a pound of butter, the yolks of two eggs, a tea-spoonful of salt, and about a gill and a half of cold water, then knead the whole into a fine smooth paste. Take rather more than two-thirds of this, mould it into a round ball with the palm of the hand, and afterward roll it out to the size of a common dinner-plate; then with the fingers of both hands, take up the edges of the paste to the depth of two inches, and gather it into the shape of a round or oval purse (according to the shape of the dish): and having previously buttered a raised piemould for the purpose, line it. with the paste, by first rolling it out and then pushing the paste into the mouMings of the case with another piece of paste, used as a cushion for the purpose. When the mould is thus lined, fill it with some godiveau (No. 251), previously mixed with some chopped chives or green onions, parsley, and mushrooms; smooth the top over with a blade of a knife dipped in water, cover the pie with the remainder of the paste, and after it has been neatly fastened and trimmed round the edge, nip it round with the pastry-pincers; place upon the top a circular piece of puff-paste, egg this over with the paste-brush, and score it with the point of a small knife, forming some device or ornament. Make a small hole in the

260 RAISED PIES FOR ENTREES.

centre for the steam to escape, bake the pie for one hour and a quarter, and when it is done, remove the top carefully with a knife; score the c odiveau to the bottom, in the shape of squares or diamonds; pour some Poivrade, Italian, or Espagnole sauce over it, and after replacing the cover, send to table.

757. PATE-CHAUD OF YOUNG PARTRIDGES, A LA CHASSEUR.

When the partridges have been drawn and singed, cut them into small joints as follows: - First, remove the legs and wings; then cut the fillets with the pinion-bone adhering to them, leaving the breastpiece entire, as also the back, after having detached the thighs. Let all these be neatly trimmed without waste, and observe that the skin of the thighs must be rolled under to give them an appearance of plumpness. Next, place them in neat order in a deep sautapan with three ounces of clarified butter, and season with pepper and salt, and a little grated nutmeg; fry them brown over a brisk fire, after which add a glass of Madeira or Sherry, a piece of glaze the size of a walnut, four ounces of truffles cut into thick scollops, and two dozen buttonmushrooms. Cover this with the lid containing some live embers of charcoal, and set the sautapan again on a moderate fire to simmer gently for a quarter of an hour: then remove the lid, add some brown Italian sauce in sufficient quantity for the entree, allow the whole to boil together for three minutes longer, add the juice of half a lemou, and a teaspoonful of chopped and blanched parsley; toss these in with the partridges, &c, garnish the pie, keeping back the truffles and mushrooms to place on the top, lastly pour the sauce, and serve.

758. PATE-CHAUD OF OX-PALATES, A L'lTALIENNE.

Procure six fresh ox-palates, steep them in tepid water for six hours, then throw them into a large stewpan of boiling water and scald them for about five minutes; after which immerse the palates in cold water, and scrape off all the white cuticle from the surface; next, wash them in plenty of cold water, and drain them on a napkin. Then place them in an oval stewpan, moisten with some blonc (No. 235), covered with buttered paper, and put on the lid, and set them to braize very gently over a slow fire for about four hours. As soon as the palates are done, put them in press between two baking-sheets or earthen dishes, and when they are cold, take a circular tin-cutter an inch in diameter, and cut them into scollops without wasting any part. Put these into a stewpan with about two dozen large buttonmushrooms cut into scollops, also two dozen raviolis (No. 375), and enough brown Italian sauce for the entree; boil the whole together for two minutes, garnish the pie, and serve.

759. PATE-CHAUD OF QUAILS, A LA FINANCIERE.

For a small entree, eight fine fat quails will suffice; bone these by making an incision in that part of the back nearest the crop, through which all the bones, &c, must be drawn out, so as to give them as much as possible the appearance of being whole. Next, fill each quail with some farce of fat livers (No. 249), and truss them with their legs turned back: be careful that the crop is securely fastened in order to prevent the stuffing from escaping - a large worsted needle aud very fine twine must be used for the purpose. Then, place the

yol'au'yents. 261

quails in a small frican deau pan which has been previously lined with thin layers of fat bacon; in the centre place a garnished faggot of parsley; cover the whole with more layers of fat bacon, moisten with a wine mirepoix (No. 236), and having put a buttered paper over all, set the lid on the pan and place it on a stove-fire, or in the oven, to braize very gently for about three quarters of an hour. As soon as the quails are done, drain them on a dish, set tbem to cool,, and trim them neatly. Next line the inside of the pie with some of the remainder of the farce of fat livers, to within an inch of the top, place the quails in it in circular order, with the breasts uppermost, and a thin layer of the force-meat between each; cover the whole with thin layers of fat bacon, place a double round of paper well-buttered on the top, and then set the pie in the oven to bake: this will take about an hour. When done, remove the bacon, drain off all the grease carefully, place a decorated small fillet of fowl in between each quail, and on the breast of each, a large white button -mushroom, round the edge a border of large white cocks'-combs, and in the centre a larded heart sweetbread; sauce sparingly with a bright Financiere (No. 8) mixed with some reduced extract of quails made from the bones.

Note. - Observe, that the raised pie for this purpose must be only half baked previously to filling it with the quails; as it has to undergo another baking. This remark refers also to the two succeeding cases.

760. PATE-CHAUD OF LAKES BONED, A L'ESSENCE. Follow the preceding directions, but substituting larks for quails.

761. PATE-CHAUD OF SNIPES, A LA BOE.DELAISE.

Bone eight snipes, and with the trail and one pound of fat livers, make some force-meat for gratin (No. 249), and with part of this fill the snipes; truss them in the same way as directed for the quails, and braize them accordingly, after which follow in all respects the second part of the directions. When the pie is baked, drain off carefully all the grease; between each snipe place a large white cock'scomb, on the breast of each put a small fillet of fowl, decorated with red tongue, and afterward turned round in a circle, with a round ball of black truffle in the centre: these fillets must be placed in a small sauta-pan between thin layers of fat bacon, and set in the oven for about three minutes; garnish the edge of the pie with a close border of scollops of red tongue cut in the form of large cocks'-combs, in the centre put a large truffle, bearing a double comb, and a border of these round its base; sauce the pie carefully with a rich Bordelaise (No. 57), mixed with some reduced extract of snipes, made from the bones, and serve.

262

YOL'AU'VEXTS AND TOURTES,

COMPRISING

Yol'au'vent, d la Nesle. Yol'au'vent of Salt Fish, d 1'Anglaise.

„ d la Financiere. Tourte of Whitings, d la Danphine.

„ of Turbot, d la Bechamel. „ of Godiveau au Madere.

„ of Salmon, d la Rauiyotte. „ of Ox Palates, d la Francaise.

„ of Cod, d la Crime. „ of Lobsters, d la Cardinal.

762. vol'au'vents, a la nesle *

Cleanse one set of calf s-brains, and boil them in a stewpan with water, a small carrot and an onion both sliced very thin, two cloves, a little mace, twelve peppercorns, and a little salt, for a quarter of an hour; when done, remove them from the fire to get cold. Prepare also a throat sweetbread, which must be steeped in tepid water for two hours or more, then scalded, cooled in water, and gently simmered on the stove in some toppings of white consomme for a quarter of an hour; when done, put the sweetbread on a plate to get cold. Prepare also twelve quenelles of fowl, moulded in dessert-spoons, and poached, a like quantity of large button-mushrooms, and the same proportion of double cocks'-combs, and round balls of black truffles. Put these into a middle-sized stewpan, add to them the calf's-brains and sweetbread, previously cut into neat scollops, and just before dinner-time, pour over the whole sufficient Allemande sauce (Xo. 7) for the entree (previously mixed with a small piece"of good glaze, and two tea-spoonfuls of Chili vinegar.) Toss the whole lightly together over the fire, and with this ragout garnish a handsome vol' 'au'vent, cut either square, oval, or round, so as to suit the shape of the dish.

The top of this entree may be ornamented with very small fillets of fowls, decorated with red tongue or black truffle: or a border of small quenelles, decorated similarly, may also be placed rouud the edge of the voVau'vent, and a small larded sweetbread in the centre of these.

763. vol'au'vent, a la financieee.

See the directions for a pdle-chaud, a la Financiere (Xo. 759); substituting a voVau'vent for the shell or crust.

764. vol'au'vent of tuebot, a la bechamel.

This entree, is generally served when there happens to be any turbot Teserved from a previous day's dinner; in which case, the fish must be pulled, or cut into scollops, warmed in a rich Bechamel sauce (Xo. 5), made with a full proportion of cream; let the voVau'vent be filled with this, and sent to table.

765. vol'au'vent of salmon a la eavigotte.

Procure 2 lbs. of fresh salmon, cut it into rather thick round scollops about two inches in diameter; place these in a sauta-pan, with

* Instructions for making a vol'au'vent case will be found in that part of the work treating of Puff-paste.

TOURTES. 263

3 oz. of clarified butter, season with pepper and salt, and squeeze the juice of a lemon over them. When about to send to table, set the sauta-pan containing' the scollops in the oven, or on a stove-fire, for about five minutes, then turn them over in the pan with a fork, taking care not to break them; allow them to remain on the fire five minutes longer, and drain them upon a clean napkin. Next, put the scollops into a stewpan, with sufficient Allemande sauce (No. 7) for the enlrie, a Id two tea-spoonsful of tarragon-vinegar, the like quantity of Harvey sauce, a tea-spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley, and a little cayenne; toss the whole together lightly over the fire, and with this garnish a handsome voVau'vent, and serve.

766. vol'au'vent of cod, a la creme.

Crimped cod is best for this purpose, although plain cod may be used, but, in either case, the fish must be dressed in boUing water, with plenty of salt thrown in at the same time. A few minutes, in most instances, will suffice to boil this kind of fish, especially if it be crimped. If allowed to remain in the water after it is done, it becomes soft and tasteless. When the cod is boiled, drain it upon a napkin, and as soon as all the water has been absorbed, put the flakes and the sounds carefully, without breaking tliem up, into a stewpan, containing enough rich cream Bechamel (No. 6) for the entree, to this add 2 oz. of grated fresh Parmesan cheese and the juice of a lemon; toss the whole together over the fire with care, so as to avoid breaking the pieces; when it is quite hot, garnish the voPau'vent, and serve.

767. vol'au'vent of salt fish, a l'anglaise.

The whitest and thickest fish are the best for this purpose. About 2 lbs. will suffice; cut from the middle of the fish, and soak it in cold water for forty-eight hours previously to its being dressed, the water being changed every six hours. Set the fish on in cold water, and when it boils remove the scum, and set it by the side of the stove to finish boiling. As soon as it is done, drain it on a sieve or a napkin, and when all the water is absorbed from it, remove it in large flakes into a stewpan containing some scollops of dressed parsnips, in the proportion of one-third to the quantity of fish, and a like quantity of slices of eggs, boiled hard; to these add enough cream Bechamel sauce (No. 6) for the entree; toss the whole gently over a stove-fire until quite hot, then garnish a large voVau'vent with this ragout, and serve.

768. TOURTE* OF WHITINGS, A LA DAUPHIXE.

Procure four large fresh whitings, fillet them, and set one-half aside on a plate in a cool place; with the remainder prepare some quenelle force-meat (No. 245), which, when finished, gather up in a basin, and mould with dessert-spoons into quenelles. Trim the four remaining fillets, cut each in two transversely, and after paring off the angles, decorate or contises them in manner following: Place the fillet lengthwise upon the edge of the kitchen table, then make incisions across with a knife, cutting down in a slanting direction, and in these open * Directions for making this kind of Tourte will be found in that part of the work which treats of Puff-pastry.

264 TOURTES.

bigs insert small, round, thin scollops of red tongue, black truffle or green gherkins. Next, place these in a sauta-pan with 4 oz. of clarified butter, season with a little salt, and squeeze the juice of a lemon over them; cover with thin layers of fat bacon, or a round of paper buttered, and set them aside in the larder till wanted. While this is going on, make an extract or essence with the bones and trimmings of the whitings, as follows: - Put the bones, &c, into a stewpan, with two shalots, one bay-leaf, and a sprig of thyme, eight pepper-corns, a blade of mace, and a handful of parsley; moisten with two glasses of white wine (French is preferable), and a pint of white broth. Set this to boil gently on the stove-fire for half an hour, then strain it through a sieve; boil it down nearly to a glaze, and mix it with enough Allemande sauce, or Bechamel, for the entree, and pass it through a tammy into a stewpan containing the quenelles of whiting before alluded, to, with the addition of a dozen button-mushrooms, double that quantity of crayfish-tails and claws, trimmed, and 3 oz. of truffles, cut into thick slices; toss the whole together gently over the fire until quite hot, then garnish the tourte with this ragout, and with the fillets before mentioned (previously set in the oven for ten minutes to simmer, and afterward drained on a napkin) make a border round the inner edge of the VoPau'vent, or tourte; place a group of crayfish-tails, previously warmed in a small stewpan with a bit of glaze, and a morsel of lobster-coral butter (to color them), and crown the whole with a large crayfish, trimmed, having one prong of each claw stuck into its tail; sauce neatly with the remainder of the sauce, and serve quickly.

769. TOURTE OF GODIVEAU, AU MADERE.

Prepare about 1 lb. of godiveau (No. 250), and make it into small quenelles in the following manner: - Shake a handful of flour over a pastry-slab or kitchen-table; drop the godiveau thereon with a teaspoon in small quantities; then roll each of these with the fingers dipped in flour to the size and form of a common cork; set them in regular order upon a baking-sheet, and put them to bake in the oven for about ten minutes; when done, remove them into a stewpan containing some Madeira sauce (No. 8) in sufficient quantity for the entree, and also two artichoke-bottoms, cut into angular pieces, a few scollops of sweetbreads, some ox-piths cut into inch-lengths, and a few large button-mushrooms - set the whole to boil on the stove-fire for three minutes: garnish the tourte, and on the top of the ragout place eisjht trimmed crayfish, in the centre of which put a large truffle, or small sweetbread, larded and glazed; pour in the remainder of the sauce, and serve.

770. TOURTE OF OX-PALATES, A LA FRANCAISE

Prepare the ox-palates as directed in the first part of the article treating of the Pate chaud of ox-palates. Put the scollops into a stewpan containing one-fourth part of their quantity of red tongue cut into round scollops, and a like proportion of button-mushrooms and scollops of truffles; to which add enough Poivrade sauce (No. 29) for the entree; boil the whole together, and garnish the tourte with this ragout, put the cover on, and serve.

TIMBALES OF MACARONI.

265

771. TOURTE OF SCOLLOPS OF LOBSTER. A LA CARDINAL.

Pick the lobster out of the shell, and cut it into neat scollops; put these into a stewpan containing enough good Bechamel sauce (No. 6) for the entree, mixed with about two ounces of lobster coral butter (No. 182), a little cayenne, and the juice of half a lemon; toss the whole together over the fire until sufficiently hot, and with it garnish the tourte: put the cover on, and serve.

TIMBALES OF MACARONI,

COMPRISING

Timbale of Macaroni, d la Milanaise. Timbale of Soft Roes of Mackerel, d I'Alle „ d la Mazarin. mande.

„ of Nnuilles, d la Ohas- „ of Raviolis, d la Romaine.

seur.

Timbale Cases.

772. TIMBALE* OF MACARONI, A LA MILANAISE.

The timbale case should be left in the mould to be made hot in the oven, and when just on the point of sending it to table, garnish it with macaroni dressed with cheese, some Bechamel sauce, scollops of fowl, truffles, tongues, and mushrooms; turn the timbale out on its dish, glaze it, pour some Bechamel sauce round the base, and serve.

773. TIMBALE OF MACARONI, A LA MAZARIN.

Boil oue pound of macaroni in two quarts of water, with a pat of butter, eight pepper-corns, and a little salt; when done, and cold, put

• The mode of preparing the timbale case will be found described under the head of Pastry for Entrees.

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266 TIMBALES OF MACARONI.

about half of it to drain upon a napkin. Butter the inside of a plain round oval or square monld, according to the shape of the dish; cut the macaroni into half-inch lengths, and cover the bottom of the mould with these, placing them on end; cover this with a thick layer of chicken quenelle force-meat; then line the sides of the mould in the same way, and as soon as this is completed, smooth the inside with the back of a spoon dipped in hot water; fill this cavity with a blanquette of fowl (No. 204), the sauce of which must be thick, and cover the whole with a layer of force-meat, to be applied as follows: - Spread some force-meat upon a round of buttered paper to fit the mould; smooth the surface with a knife dipped in hot water, then take hold of the paper with both hands, and turn it upside down upon the timbale; the paper is to be left on, as that can be easily removed when the force-meat has become set by steaming. About an hour and a half before dinner-time, place the timbale in a stewpan twice its size upon a trivet or ring to prevent it from touching the bottom, so that the water contained in the stewpan, which must only reach half-way up the mould, may circulate freely under it. The stewpan must be covered with its lid, containing some live embers of charcoal, and placed after it has boiled, upon a slow fire to simmer gently but continually, in order to keep up the steam during the whole of the time. Just before sending to table, remove the piece of paper from the timbale, and take a firm hold of the bottom of. the mould with the left hand; place the dish upside down upon the mould with the right hand; then, with the left hand uppermost, place the dish on the table, and carefully lift the mould off the timbale. Pour some Supreme sauce (No. 38) over the entree, garnish the base with white cock's-combs, truffles, aud mushrooms, and serve.

774. TIMBALE OF NOUILLES, A LA CHASSEUR. Prepare about one pound of nouilles (No. 6? 9), parboil these in water for ten minutes; drain, aud put them, into a stewpan with a quart of good consomme, a pat of butter, a little grated nutmeg, and a pinch of mignionette pepper; cover the whole with a round piece of buttered paper, put on the lid, and set the stewpan on the stove-fire to boil very gently until the consommi is reduced; add a gravy-spoonful of Allemande sauce, two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, and two dozen very small quenelle^ of game, previously poached; toss the whole together lightly over the fire until the cheese is well mixed with the other ingredients; garnish the timbale case, previously prepared for this purpose, turn it out of the mould into its dish, glaze it over, pour a little half glaze round the bast, aud serve.

775. TIMBALE GARNISHED WITH SOFT ROES OF MACKEREL.

Five minutes before sending to table, garnish the timbale case, which must be quite, hot, with a ragout of soft roes of mackerel (No. 199); then turn the timbale out of the mould into the dish, glaze it nicely, pour a little Supreme or Bechamel sauce round the base, and serve.

CASSEROLES, OK BORDERS OF RICE.

267

776. TIMBALE OF RAVIOLIS, A LA ROMALXE.

Prepare four dozen ravioli* (No. 37;")), and after they have been boiled in consomme, drain them upon a sieve and put them into a stewpan containing four ounces of truffles cut into scollops, the like quantity of scollops of red tongue, and about twenty mushrooms; to these add two glasses of Madeira, and one ounce of game glaze, and set the whole to boil down quickly over a brisk lire; when the wine is absorbed, add two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, and a large gravyspoonful of reduced EsjM' nole sauce; toss these together over the stove-lire until quite hot, then garnish the timbale case, turn it out into its dish, glaze it, pour a little brown sauce or half glaze round the base, and serve.

CASSEKOLES, OH BOPxDEHS OF RICE.

COMPRISING

ih of Rice.

u hi Polonaise, a la Heine.

Casserole of Rice, garnished with a Puree of Game, ? la Belle-vue. " garnished with wings of Fowl, i I'Allemande.

777. CASSEROLES, OR BORDERS OF RICE.

„55Si^ i2ni2jr2 r K^l

A casserole of rice is justly considered one of the most elegant entrees: it requires great care throughout its preparation, especially in the treatment of the rice, that being its basis, and upon the success of this much of the beauty of the casserole depends. If the rice be not sufficiently boiled, and effectually worked into a smooth paste, it becomes a difficult matter to mould it: and any apparent roughness would spoil the look of the casserole.

t

268 CASSEROLES OF RICE.

For a casserole of ordinary size, wash about a pound and a half of Carolina rice in three waters, drain it on a sieve, and put it into a stewpan with nearly twice its quantity of water, six ounces of butter, a small ladleful of stock-pot toppings and a piece of raw ham; cover with a circular piece of buttered paper and the lid, and set the rice to boil on the stove, after which it must be put in the oven, or on a smothered stove-fire, to simmer very gently. During the time that the rice remains on the fire, it should be carefully turned over with a spoon twice or thrice. When all the grains become perfectly soft, the rice must be worked into a firm, compact paste, with the bowl of a large woodeu spoon; it should next be rolled into the form of a ball, and placed on a baking-sheet, previously covered with a circular piece of buttered paper, and shaped to the height and circumference desired. Next, for the purpose of imprinting upon the casserole the ornamental mouldings represented in the annexed illustrations, it will be necessary to cut a piece of turnip, carrot, or raw potato, in the form of a chisel, to be used for indenting or moulding the design.

When the casserole is moulded, it must be sprinkled over with a paste-brush dipped in clarified butter, and afterward baked of a fine yellow color; the interior must then be removed with a spoon, leaving the walls of the crust about half-an-inch thick; smooth the inside of the rice with the back of a table-spoon dipped in water, and keep the casserole in a dry place till it is wanted for use.

778. CASSEROLE OF RICE, A LA POLONAISE.

Prepare a puree of fowls (No. 1009), and when on the point of sending to table, stir it over the fire until it is sufficiently hot, care being taken to prevent its becoming rough; then fill the casserole with the puree, place eight eggs (previously boiled four minutes, and the shells removed), round the top of the puree; between each egg, put a small fillet of fowl, decorated with tongue or truffle, sauce the surface of the puree with some Supreme (No. 38), and serve.

779. CASSEROLE OF RICE, A LA REINE.

This must be garnished with a, puree of fowls in a similar manner to the foregoing, and a border of quenelles of fowl placed round the inner edge of the surface; sauce with Supreme, glaze the casserole with light-colored glaze, and serve.

780. CASSEROLE OF RICE, GARNISHED WITH A PUREE OF GAME, A LA BELLE-VUE.

Just before dinner-time, warm the puree of game (No. 1090) prepared for the purpose, garnish the casserole of rice with it, place round the inner edge of the surface a border of very small fillets (decorated contises with truffles or tongues), of the kind of game the puree is made from, pour a little Allemande sauce over the centre of the puree, glaze the casserole lightly, and serve.

781. CASSEROLE OF RICE, GARNISHED WITH WINGS OF

FOWL, A L'ALLEMANDE.

The casserole of rice must be garnished with a ragout of wings of

fowls (No. 208), to which may be added some small truffles and

mushrooms; ornament it with a border of large cocks'-combs, and

BORDERS OF POTATO-PASTE. 269

scollops of red tongue cut in the form of cocks'-corabs, placed alternately round the inner edge of the casserole, glaze it lightly, and serve.

Note. - Casseroles, or Borders of rice may also be garnished with fricassee of chickens, lamb's-feet, blanquettes of sweetbreads or fowls, and with all kinds of scollops whether of poultry, game or fish.

ORNAMENTAL BORDERS OF POTATO PASTE,

COMPRISING

Border of Potato-paste, garnished with Border of Potato-paste, garnished with Scol Scollops of Larks and lops of Sheep's tongues,

Truffles. with fine-herbs.

" garnished with Lamb's- " garnished with Calf's Brains,

Feet, d la Pascatine, d la Raviyottc.

" garnished with Ox Pal ates, d I'IndiSnne.

782. BORDER OF POTATO-PASTE, GARNISHED WITH SCOLLOPS

OF LARKS AND TRUFFLES.

A border of potato-paste resembles in a great measure a casserole of rice, and is prepared as follows: -

For an ordinary size entree, fifteen large potatoes should be baked, and their pulp afterward rubbed through a fine wire-sieve upon a dish; this must be put into a middle-sized stewpan with four ounces of butter, the yolks of six eggs, a little grated nutmeg, pepper and salt. Stir the whole with a wooden spoon over a slow fire until the mixture becomes a smooth compact paste; it should then be rolled into a ball, placed on a baking-sheet, and shaped to the height and circumference designed. The border should now be moulded in the same way as a casserole of rice, for which purpose consult the mouldings represented in the designs of casseroles of rice (No. 777), and are to be executed with a piece of raw carrot or turnip, cut in the form of a chisel. When the border is moulded, it should be egged over with a soft paste-brash, and baked in an oven, of a light yellow color; when done, part of the inside must be removed, and the cavity smoothed over with the back of the bowl of a spoon. The border ought to be kept in a dry place till wanted for use. Put the border in the screen or hot closet to get warm, five minutes before sending to table; garnish it with a ragout of scollops of larks and truffles (No. 205), place a border of small quenelles of fowl round the edge, lightly glaze the border, pour a little of the sauce round the base and serve.

783. BORDER OF POTATO-PASTE, GARNISHED WITH LAMBS'

FEET, A LA PASCALINE.

Procure a dozen lamb's-feet ready scalded, remove the shin-bone, parboil them for five minutes, immerse them in cold water, drain them on a napkin to absorb the water, then stick them one at a time upon the point of an iron skewer, and singe off the hair (if not already removed by scalding), over the flame of a charcoal fire. Next, braize

i

270 BORDERS OF POTATO-PASTE.

them gently in some blanc (No. 236), for about three-quarters of an hour. When the feet are done, drain them on a napkin, cut out the black substance to be found between the cushions of the hoof, trim them neatly without waste, and put them into a stew-pan with a little of their own liquor. Five minutes before sending to table, pour off the liquor from the feet, previously warmed, then add half a pottle of prepared button-mushrooms, and enough Pascaline sauce (No. 15) for the entree; toss the whole together over the stove-fire for two minutes, and garnish the border of potato-paste with this ragout; glaze the border lightly, and serve.

784. BORDER OF POTATO-PASTE, GARNISHED WITH SCOLLOPS

OF OX-PALATES, A L'lNDIENNE.

Prepare the ox-palates according to the directions contained in (No. 209), add enough well-reduced Indian curry sauce (No. 47) for the entree, warm the ragout and garnish the border of potato with, it, just before sending to table.

Some plain boiled patna must be served in a plate.

785. BORDER OF POTATO-PASTE, GARNISHED WITH SCOLLOPS

OF SHEEP'S-TONGUES, WITH FINE-HERBS.

Scald eight sheep's tongues effectually, so as to be able to remove the outer skin easily; then trim them, and afterward put them into a stew-pan with a carrot, an onion stuck with four cloves, a garnished faggot of parsley, and a dozen pepper-corns; moisten with a quart of broth, and set them to braize gently for about an hour. When done, drain them on a dish, and set them in the larder to get cold, afterward to be cut into neat circular scollops f put these iuto a stewpan with half a pottle of prepared button-mushrooms, and enough well-reduced fine-herbs sauce (No. 14), for the entree; toss these together over the stove-fire to warm them thoroughly, then garnish the border of potatopaste with this ragout, glaze it round, and serve.

786. BORDER OF POTATO-PASTE, GARNISHED WITH CALF'S BRAINS, A LA RAVIGOTTE.

Steep two sets of calf 's-brains in tepid water for several hours to cleanse them, and as soon as the thin membrane which covers the brains becomes loosened, detach it gently with the fingers; change the water frequently, and when the brains have become comparatively white, put them into a stewpan with a quart of boiling water, half a gill of vinegar, some sliced carrot, onion, parsley, thyme, bay-leaf, mignionette-pepper, and salt; alllow them to boil gently by the side of the fire for twenty minutes, then remove the brains carefully with a large spoon into another stewpan, pass their liquor through a sieve on them, and set them aside till within twenty minutes of dinner-time. The brains must then be warmed in their liquor, and afterward cut into thick scollops lengthwise, and placed in the border of potato in circular order, overlapping each other; pour a Bavigoite sauce (No. 21) over the brains, glaze the border, and serve.

271

CHARTREUSES OF VEGETABLES,

COMPRISING

Chartreuse of Vegetables, with Partridges. Chartreuse of Vegetables, with Tendons of „ with Quails. Veal.

787. CHARTREUSE OF VEGETABLES, GARNISHED WITH PARTRIDGES.

Scrape eight large carrots, and parboil them in water with a little salt for ten minutes; then put them to boil in some broth with a little sugar and salt, and a small pat of butter; when done, place them on a dish in the larder to get cold. In the mean time, eight large turnips should be peeled, and boiled in the same way as the carrots, and then put on a dish to cool. Next, a plain round mould must be lined with buttered paper, and the prepared carrots and turnips cut into appropriate forms or shapes for the purpose of arranging them over the bottom and round the inside of the mould, taking care that they fit in with each other, so as to represent any of the foregoing designs. Meanwhile parboil three large savoy cabbages in water; then immerse them in cold water, after which squeeze the moisture from them; spread them upon a napkin on the table, take out the cores, season with mignionette-pepper and salt, and tie each up with a string. Then, put the cabbages into a large stewpan with three partridges trussed with their legs inside, one pound of streaky bacon (previously parboiled), and two large saveloys; season with two onions stuck with four cloves, two carrots, and a garnished faggot; moisten with three pints of stock, cover with a buttered paper, put on the lid, and set them to braize gently for about two hours, if the birds are young, or three hours if not. When done, drain the cabbage into a colander,

6

272 CHARTREUSES OF VEGETABLES.

put the partridges, bacon, and saveloys on a dish to cool; squeeze the broth from the cabbage by pressing it tightly in a strong kitchen rubber; then chop it and afterwards put it into a stewpan with a spoonful of brown sauce, and stir it quickly over a brisk fire until it resembles a somewhat firm paste. Use this preparation to garnish the bottom and sides of the chartreuse, about an inch thick. The partridges must be cut up neatly into small members, tossed in enough brown sauce to moisten them, and then placed in the cavity of the chartreuse in close order, so as to give it solidity when turned out of the mould on its dish; a layer of prepared cabbage should be placed over these, and the whole covered with a circular piece of buttered paper. An hour before dinner, the chartreuse must be placed in a stewpan with sufficient water to reach up only one-third the height of the mould; then set the lid on, and put the stewpan near or upon a slow fire to keep the water gently simmering, so that the steam may warm the chartreuse through. When about to serve, turn the chartreuse up-side-down in the dish, and draw the mould off with care, remove the paper, and garnish the base with a close border of the bacou and saveloys cut into scollops; pour some brown sauce (worked with essence of vegetables) round the entree, glaze the chartreuse carefully, so as not to disturb the order of the vegetables, and serve.

These directions will serve for the preparation of several kinds of chartreuses: pheasauts, ducklings, pigeons, &c, being substituted for partridges.

788. CHARTREUSE OF VEGETABLES, GARNISHED WITH QUAILS, ETC.

The preparation of this kind of chartreuse is very similar to the foregoing, cabbage-lettuces being substituted for savoys; the following are the only alterations required: tfie mould required must be either oval or round, according to the shape of the dish intended to be used, and should be lined with buttered paper, and ornamented with carrots and turnips prepared according to the directions given in the first part of the previous article, and afterwards cut out, either with a small knife, or proper-shaped tin-cutters, to suit the design intended to be represented, from one of the patterns given in the foregoing designs. The cavity left in the mould, after it has been decorated with the vegetables, must be filled up with the braized cabbage lettuces warmed in the same manner as directed for the last-mentioned chartreuse.

When about to send to table, turn the chartreuse out on its dish, place the quails (prepared as for a pdte-chaud, No. 759, and kept warm) upon the upper part of the chartreuse, with their breasts outward; fill the centre of the entree with a Jardiniere of vegetables (No. 144), garnish the base with small scollops of the streaky bacon and saveloys, pour some thin bright Espagnole sauce round the entree, glaze the chartreuse lightly, and serve.

789. CHARTREUSE OF VEGETABLES, GARNISHED WITH TENDONS

OF VEAL AND STEWED PEAS.

In this case the chartreuse should be prepared in the same manner as described in the foregoing recipe; and when turned out on its dish preparatory to serving it, the top of the border must be garnished with braized tendons of veal (No. 885), placed in the same way as cutlets are dished up; the well or centre of the entree, must be filled with

CHARTREUSES OF VEGETABLES.

273

stewed peas, then pour some brown sauce round the base, glaze the chartreuse, and serve.

This kind of chartreuse may be garnished with scollops of pheasants, partridges, larks, &c.; and also with blanquettes of fowls, lambs' sweetbreads, &c. The ornamental part of these entrees may be much varied, bv using asparagus-heads, green-peas, French-beans, artichoke-bottoms, glazed button-onions, carrots, and turnips turned in fanciful shapes and forms. A good effect is produced by arranging a decoration in relief on the top of the chartreuse after it has been turned out of the mould on to its dish: its base may also be garnished with alternate groups of vegetables cut in small fanciful shapes and prepared in the usual manner.

FORCE-MEAT CHARTREUSES,

Chartreuse, d la Parisiene. „ d la .Belle Vue.

COMPRISING

Chartreuse, d la Cardinal.

790. CHARTREUSE, A LA PARISIENNE.

First prepare some quenelle force-meat (No. 242), with the fillets of three fowls; trim the tails of sixty boiled crayfish, trim also eight inner or minion fillets of fowls, and then simmer these in a little clarified butter and lemon-juice over the fire till they are done; then put them on a plate covered with thin layers of fat bacon, to keep them moist, until they are wanted for further use.

Next butter a large-sized charlotte-mould, and dispose round the inner angle of the bottom a close border of crayfish-tails; while up

the sides of the mould, some long strips, or pipes, of black truffle (cut out with a tin vegetable cutter), must be arranged alternately with the prepared fillets of fowls, so as to form a decoration representing the " Grecian-key border;" round the top of this, which, when the mould is turned upside down, forms the base, place another close border of crayfish tails; after which, the bottom and sides of the chartreuse must be lined with a coating of the prepared quenelle forcemeat, thus: - Butter a circular piece of paper, cut exactly to the size of the mould, and spread thereon a layer of the force-meat an inch thick; smooth this over with a knife dipped in hot water, and then, with great care, take hold of the sides of the paper with both hands, and turn it upside down into the mould: pass the bottom of a small bain-marie filled with hot water over the paper, that the butter may become melted, by which the paper will be easily removed. Next, cut three pieces of paper to fit in with each other, so as effectually to line the mould; butter these, and then spread them with force-meat, as directed for the bottom piece, and apply them in the same way. 17

274 FORCE-MEAT CHARTREUSES.

Then smooth the cavity with a spoon dipped in hot water, and fill it To within an inch of its surface with a thickly-garnished ragout a la Toulouse, cold (No. 187). Cover in the top with force-meat, leaving the piece of paper on, and keep the chartreuse in a cool place till within two hours of dinner-time. It should then be put to steam in a deep stewpan, containing sufficient water to reach nearly half way up the mould. The water must be kept continually boiling by the side of a slow fire, and the stewpan covered with its lid containing live embers of charcoal.

When the chartreuse is done, turn it out of the mould carefully into its dish; cover the top with a border of button-mushrooms, placed near the edge, and in the centre put a star, formed with eight very small fillets of fowl, decorated with black truffles (previously turned in the form of a crescent, on a buttered sauta-pan, covered with very thin layers of fat bacon, and gently simmered in the oven for three minutes); garnish the base of the chartreuse with some thin Toulouse ragout, glaze the sides lightly, and serve.

791. CHARTREUSE, A LA BELLE-VUE.

Butter smoothly the inside of a plain cylinder mould, and dispose

round the bottom and sides a bold decoration, formed with black truffles and red tongue; after which carefully fill up the interior of the mould with some very delicate quenelle force-meat, prepared from the fillets of three partridges. About an hour before dinner-time, the Chartreuse must be put on to steam, as in the foregoing case; when done, turn it out on to its dish; fill the centre with a ragout of scollops of fillets of partridges, with the addition of some prepared truffles, cocks'combs, and kernels in a rich Maderia sauce (No. 8); glaze the chartreuse, and serve.

792. CHARTREUSE, A LA CARDINAL.

First, trim the fillets of three pairs of soles, and contises them with scollops of the outside part of lobster-tails. Prepare some lobster

quenelle force-meat (No. 246), in which mix the fillets of two whitings. Then, butter the inside of a plain charlotte-mould, and dispose therein the prepared fillets of soles, as represented in the annexed illustration; next, line the bottom and sides of the chartreuse with some of the lobster force-meat, in the same way as directed for the chartreuse a la Parisienne; fill the cavity with a Parisian ragout (No. 303), the sauce of which must be kept stiff, and used cold for this purpose; cover in the top with a layer of force-meat, and steam the chartreuses for one

BREAD CROUSTADES.

275

hour and a half; when done, place it upside down on its dish, and draw the mould off carefully, in order to avoid disturbing the fillets. Garnish the edges of the chartreuse with a close border of small round truffles, and in the centre arrange a neatly-formed group of trimmed crayfish-tails, previously warmed in a little glaze and lobster coral butter; pour some Parisian ragout (No. 203) round the base, and serve.

ORNAMENTAL CROUSTADES OF BREAD,

COMPRISING

Ornamental Cr6ustades. CrSnetade of Bread, with Scollops of Fat

Cr6uetades of Bread, garnished with Calves' Livers, a d V Epicurienne.

tails, d la Poulette. „ „ with Quails, d la Bour „ „ with Lambs' brains, guignotte.

in Matelotte Sauce.

793. ORNAMENTAL CROUSTADES.

For a croustade of ordinary dimensions, a 41b. loaf of close bread should be procured two days before it is wanted for use, as it must be stale for this purpose. In order to prevent waste, the loaf should be baked in an oval, square, or round tin case, according to the intended form of the croustade; and when this is required for a remove or flank dish, the loaf must be made of a proportionate size.

When the crust has been pared off the loaf with a sharp knife, it must be carved in the form of a fluted or chased vase or cup, according to the following patterns:

276 BREAD CROUSTADES.

The crbustade thus carved, must next be fried of a light fawn color, in some clean hog's-lard, made quite hot for the purpose, the inside crumb carefully taken out, and the cavity smoothly covered with a thin coating of quenelle force-meat: the object of which is to prevent the escape or absorption of the sauce from the entree, afterward placed in it: when this is done, the crbustade must be put in the oven for five minutes, to bake the quenelle force-meat, and to be kept hot until served.

794. CROUSTADE OF BREAD, GARNISHED WITH CALVES'-TAILS,

A LA POULETTE.

Scald two calves'-tails with the skin on, in the same way as calvesheads; cut these up in joints, parboil them in water for five minutes, and then immerse them in cold water; after which drain them on a napkin, trim and place them in a stewpan with some blanc (No. 235), or failing this, with a carrot, an onion, garnished faggot of parsley, four cloves, a blade of mace, and twelve peppercorns; moisten with three pints of broth, or water, in which latter case add some salt; and set them to boil gently for about an hour by the side of the stove-fire. When the tails are done, drain them on a napkin, trim them neatly, and place them in the crbustade in pyramidal form, pour over them a rich sauce d la pouletle, containing two dozen button-mushrooms; garnish the inner edge of the crbustade with a border of fluted scollops of red tongue, glaze a large black truffle, place it on the top, and serve.

795. CROUSTADE OF BREAD, GARNISHED WITH LAMBS' BRAINS,

IN MATELOTTE SAUCE.

TriE brains must be prepared as directed in No. 786, and when they are done, put to drain upon a napkin, preparatory to their being cut into scollops, and afterward placed in circular order in the crbustade. Pour a matelotte sauce (No. 31), made in this case of white wine with a little cayenne and lemon-juice, and containing some small button-onions, previously simmered in butter, 3 oz. of truffles cut in scollops, a dozen small quenelles, a few mushrooms, and trimmed crayfish-tails; crown the top with six large crayfish, between which place a fried crouton of bread, cut in the shape of a leaf; in the centre of these, put a large truffle, and serve.

796. CROUSTADE OF BREAD, GARNISHED WITH SCOLLOPS OF FAT

LIVERS, A L'EPICURIENNE.

When about to send the crbustade to table, garnish it with a ragout of fat livers, prepared as follows: -

Wrap two Strasbourg livers in thin layers of fat bacon, and simmer them very gently in a wine mirepoix (No. 236) for half an hour; then remove the stewpan from the fire, and allow the livers to cool in their liquor; they must now be taken out, cut into scollops without waste, and placed in a small deep sautapan, containing 4 oz. of black Perigord truffles cut into scollops, a dozen small quenelles of game, and a few button-mushrooms; to these add about half the mirepoix, freed from every particle of grease, and set the whole to boil briskly over the fire until the moisture be reduced to a glaze; next, pour iu some

TURBANS AND MAZARINES. 277

brown fine-herbs sauce (Xo. 14), in sufficient quantity for the entree, toss the whole together over the fire, and use this ragout as directed above. A border of large double white cocks'-combs may be placed round the edge of the croustade, and a fine large Perigord truffle in the centre.

797. CROUSTADE OE BREAD. GARNISHED WITH QUAILS AU GRATIN, A LA BOURGUIGNOTTE.

Let a croustade be cut in the form of a cup, not more than fiv inches high, the carving of which must present eight bold fluted scollops at the upper part, and be brought to a tapering point toward the foot, as represented in one of the foregoing illustrations. When the cruustade has been fried, the inner crumb must lie removed, and the cavities lined with a well-seasoned farce of fat livers (Xo. 240). previously prepared for the purpose, leaving sufficient room fur the insertion, in each of the scolloped flutes, of a quail that has been boned and fdled with some of the farce, then trussed and partially braized; these must then be neatly garnished round with some of the farce. covered over with thin layers of fat bacon, and a thick band of buttered paper, secured with string, round the cruustade, to prevent it from acquiring more color while in the oven. About an hour before dinnertime, set the cri.ustade in a moderately-heated men, to be baked. Just before sending it to table, remove the paper and bacon, absorb all the grease with the corner of a clean napkin, and place it carefully on its dish. On the breast of each quail place a very small fillet of fowl of circular form, colitises or decorated with black truffle, and then simmered in a buttered sautapan, covered with thin layers of bacon, to keep them white; between each quail place a large white cocks'-comb, till the centre with a Bourguignotte ragout (Xo. 195), finished with the addition of some extract made from the carcasses of the quails, reduced to glaze, and serve.

Note. - Ornamental croustades of bread may also lie garnished with puree of fowls a la Heine, ditto of game a la Polonaise, &e.; and with almost every kind of ragout or garnish directed to be used for pateschauds, voVau'vents, borders of rice and potato-paste, for which see those articles.

TURBAXS AXD MAZAEIXES,

COMPRISING

Turban of Ox-palates, d la Pirigueux. Turban of Fillets of Hare?, a la Conti. „ Fillets (if Fowls, d la Prince .. Fillets of Soles, a la Ximnncn.

de Galtes. Mazarine of Whitings, a la Venitir.nne. „ Fillets of Rabbits, a la Finan- „ Fat Livers, d la Toulouse.

ciire.

798. TURBAN OF OX-PALATES, A LA PERIGUEUX.

Braize eight ox-palates, and wdien done, place them between two dishes, to press them flat; prepare about 2 lbs. of gratin force-meat

278

TURBANS AND MAZARINES.

(No. 249); decorate or contises twelve minion fillets of fowls, and cover them with thin layers of bacou till wanted.

Next, roll out about 4 oz. of firm common paste, to the size of a dessert-plate, and bake it in a slack oven; this is to serve for a foundation to raise the entree upon. Next, trim the ox-palates,. split each in two with a sharp knife, in the same way as thin layers of bacon are

cut; trim eight of these, spread the rough side with a thin layer of the gratin force-meat, then roll them up; put the piece of paste before alluded to on a round baking-sheet; spread it with a layer of the forcemeat, a quarter of an inch thick, and after having trimmed the rolled ox-palates, to make them fit in with each other in circular order, place them firmly together on the foundation of paste prepared to receive them, taking care to put a little force-meat between each, to fill up the fissures, and unite them; upon each fissure, one of the decorated fillets must be neatly laid, and turned under to secure it. The remaining eight pieces of ox-palates must then be trimmed, garnished with force-meat like the former, and afterward cut to the size of two-thirds of the others, and with these smaller rolls of ox-palates, a second tier must be formed upon the first, in similar fashion, and upon each joining, a decorated fillet is to be placed likewise. Any roughness occasioned by the force-meat must be neatly smoothed over with a knife, dipped in water; a thick carrot, or piece of bread, cut in the shape of a pillar, and covered with fat bacon, should be placed in the centre of the entree, to support its shape while being baked. The whole of the turban must be covered in with thin layers of fat bacon, and these must be secured ou by means of a thick band of buttered paper, cut in slits round the base (to enable it to fit closer), and secured round the entree with string: this will serve also to keep the turban in shape. One hour and a half before dinner-time, put the turban in the oven to be baked; when done, remove the paper, &c, and with the end of a large skimmer, place the turban on its dish, fill the centre with a ragout of small truffles, pour some Perigueux sauce (No. 23) round the base of the entree, lightly glaze the palates, without touching the fillets - which must be kept as white as possible - and serve.

799. TURBAN OF FILLETS OF FOWLS, A LA PRINCE DE GALLES.

Prepare some quenelle force-meat of fowls (No. 242) or veal; and with part of it fill a plain cylindrical mould, measuring about four inches high and six in diameter, previously buttered inside. This must be steamed in a covered stewpan, with a little water in it; and when done, turned out*of the mould upon a plate, and allowed to cool; it should then be placed upon a foundation of baked paste, the angles of the quenelle rounded, and the whole of it covered with a thin coating of force-meat: upon this turban of quenelle, six larded fillets of fowls should be placed, with the point made to turn over the top;

TURBANS AND MAZARINES.

279

between each of these, insert a decorated minion fillet; cover the latter with thin layers of fat bacon, and secure the entree round with a band of buttered paper made fast with string. Three quarters of an hour before dinner-time, put the turban in the oven to be baked; when it is done, remove the paper and the bacon from the small fillets, glaze the larded fillets brightly, garnish the well of the entree with a Parisian ragout (No. 203), pour some of the same round the base, and serve.

800. TURBAN OF FILLETS OF RABBITS, A LA FINANCIERE.

Take out the fillets from four rabbits, trim and lard them closely. With the flesh of the legs, prepare some quenelle force-meat, and use part of this to make a cylindrical foundation, as in the foregoing case; when cold trim the top of this round, and after it has been spread with a thin coating of the force-meat, lay the larded fillets round its sides in a slanting position, with the small end of each turned over at the top, and made to reach about an inch down the cylinder; between each "fillet of rabbit, a closely-studded row of cock's-kernels must be deeply inserted in the coating of quenelle force-meat, and these should be covered with thin strips of fat bacon to keep them white. A buttered band of paper must be placed round the turban, and secured with string. An hour before dinner-time, put the turban in the oven to be baked; when it is done, remove the paper, glaze the larded fillets, and afterwards pick the bacon off the kernels without disturbing them; fill the centre of the entree with a Financiere ragout (No. 188), pour some round the base, and serve.

801. TURBAN OF FILLETS OF HARES, A LA CONTI.

Take out the fillets of three young hares, and by splitting each fillet into halves, lengthwise, of equal thickness, twelve fillets will be obtained; these must then be neatly trimmed and contises from one end to the other with scollops of black truffles. Use the flesh of the legs to prepare some quenelle force-meat; and, as in the foregoing cases, a foundation must be made with part of this, to raise the turban upon it. When the cylinder of force-meat has been poached or steamed, and is cold enough, place it upon the foundation of paste, trim the top round, and spread it over with a coating of force-meat; lay the decorated fillets of hare slantingly round the sides with their tapering points secured inside the cylinder with a little force-meat, and cover the turban with thin layers of fat bacon, secured round with a band of paper in the usual way. An honr before dinner-time, put the turban in the oven to be baked, and when it is done, remove the paper and bacon, dish it up, fill the centre with scollops ofblack truffles and white mushrooms, pour some brown Italian sauce (No. 12) over and round the entree, and serve.

Note. - The two foregoing entrees may be varied in their appearance,

280

TURBANS AND MAZARINES.

by larding one-half of the fillets, and decorating the remainder with truffles or red tongue.

802. TURBAN OF FILLETS OF SOLES, A LA XIMENES.

Trim the fillets of four middle-sized soles, contises half with red tongue, and the remainder with thin scollops of green Indian gherkins; prepare some quenelle force-meat with four whitings, with part of which make a cylindrical foundation in the manner described for the fillets of fowls a la Prince de Galles. Spread a coating of force-meat over

this, and then place the fillets of soles round it in a slanting position, alternating those decorated with tongue with the others; the fillets must be neatly turned under the base, and securely fastened inside the cylinder with the point of a knife and a little force-meat. Cover the turban with thin layers of fat bacon, and fasten a band of buttered paper round it with string. An hour before dinner-time, put the tuban in the oven to be baked; when it is done, remove the paper and bacon, place the turban carefully on its dish, garnish the centre with a ragout of muscles (No. 197), pour some Tomata sauce (No. 22) round the base, and serve.

803. MAZARINE OF WHITINGS, A LA VENITIENNE.

Prepare some quenelle force-meat with the fillets of five whitings,

and mix therewith a large gravyspoonful of puree of mushrooms (No. 122), some chopped parsley, two ounces of black truffles also chopped, and two whisked whites of eggs. Next, butter a plain round mould, line the inside with white paper, and then fill it with the forcemeat. An hour before dinner-time, steam the mazarine in the usual way, and when done, turn it out of the mould on its dish; place a border of contises fillets of whitings round the top, fill the centre with a

ragout of crayfish -tails and muscles, pour some Venetian sauce (No. 26),

round the sides of the mazarine, and serve.

804. MAZARINE OF FAT LIVERS, A LA TOULOUSE.

Procure two fine ^Strasbourg fat livers, cut therefrom twelve flat scollops in the form of flat fingers, and with the trimmings make some force-meat (No. 249). Next line a plain round mould with buttered white paper, and then fill it with the prepared ingredients thus: Spread a layer of force-meat half an inch thick at the bottom of the

ENTREES OF BEEF. 281

mould, then line the sides in a similar manner; place the scollops of fat livers in a perpendicular position, fill up the interstices with scollops of French truffles and the remainder of the force-meat, and cover the top with buttered paper. An hour and a half before dinnertime, steam the mazarine in a deep stewpan with a little water, and cover it with its lid containing live embers of charcoal. Care must be taken to prevent the water from boiling over into the mould. When the mazarine is done, turn it out of the mould on its dish, place a border of minion fillets of fowls decorated with truffles, curled round in rings, and simmered in butter, fill the centre with a rich Toulouse ragout (No. 181), pour some Madeira sauce (No. 8), over the entree, and serve.

ENTREES OF BEEF,

COMPRISING

Plain Rump Steak, Minced Beef, d la Portugaise.

Beef Steak, a la Frangafse. Hashed Beef, plain.

„ with Anchovy-butter. Hashed Beef, and broiled Bones.

Fillets of Beef in their own glaze, Ac. Braized Beef, d la Claremont.

Minced Beef, with Poached Eggs. Bubble and Squeak.

805. PLAIN RUMP STEAK.

The steak should be cut rather thick, neatly trimmed, seasoned with a little pepper and salt, and boiled over a clear fire; when done, remove it carefully from the gridiron, in order to preserve the gravy which collects on its upper surface. Place the steak on its dish, rub a small pat of fresh butter over it, garnish round with grated horseradish, and send some beef gravy separately in a sauce-boat. Epicures, however, prefer the gravy which runs out of a juicy steak when well broiled to any other addition.

Small ribs of beef, and especially steaks cut from between the small ribs, form an excellent substitute for rump-steaks; both, when nicely broiled, may be served with cold Maitre aV Hotel butter, anchovy ditto; and also with the following sauces: Brown oyster, muscles, Italian, Pfquante, Poor-man's, Poivrade, Tomata, Provengale, Fine-herbs, &c.; for making which, see Special .Sauces.

806. BEEFSTEAK, A LA FRANCAISE.

Cut one pound of trimmed fillet of beef across the grain of the meat into three pieces; flatten these with the cutlet-bat, and trim them of a round or oval form; tnen cut and trim three pieces of suet, half the size of the former: dip the steaks in a little clarified butter, season with pepper and salt, and place them on the gridiron over a clear fire to broil; when done, glaze them on both sides, dish them up on two ounces of cold Maitre (VHotel butter (No. 44), garnish round with fried potatoes, and serve.

These potatoes must be cut or turned in the form of olives, and fried in a little clarified butter.

282 ENTREES OF BEEF.

807. BEEFSTEAKS WITH ANCHOVY BUTTER.

These are prepared in the same way as the foregoing, but anchovy butter must be substituted for Maltre d'Hotel.

Note. - French beef-steaks are always cut from the fillet, and may be served with any of the savory butters described in this work; they may also be garnished with Indian pickle, water-cresses, turned olives, and with all the varieties of common pickles, or with either of the sauces named for small rib-steaks.

808. FILLETS, OR SCOLLOPS, OF BEEF IN THEIR GLAZE.

Cut one pound of trimmed fillet of beef into four pieces, flatten and trim these round or oval, season with pepper and salt, put them with a like number of smaller pieces of beef-suet in a sauta-pan containing two ounces of clarified butter. Ten minutes before sending them to table, set the sauta-pan on a brisk stove-fire, and fry the fillets of a brown color; when they are done on both sides, pour off the grease, add a table-spoonful of glaze and twice as much brown sauce, twenty mushrooms, with some of their liquor, and the juice of half a lemon; allow the whole to boil for one minute on the fire, dish the fillets with a piece of fat on each, place the mushrooms in the centre, and pour the sauce over all.

Note. - Fillets of beef prepared in this manner may be dressed with either oysters, muscles, olives, truffles, gherkins cut into scollops, fried onions, fine-herbs, morels, &c, added to the sauce after they have been fried, instead of the mushrooms, as in the foregoing case. They may also be served when finished, wifh the addition of a piece of glaze and enough brown sauce for the entree, with every kind of pun'r of vegetables and vegetable garnish described in this work; as also with any of the sauces recommended to be served with broiled steaks.

In all cases, the garnish of these entrees must be placed in the centre of the fillets, in a conical form, and the sauce poured rouud the fillets.

809. MINCED BEEF WITH POACHED EGGS.

Pare the fat and skin off one pound of roast beef, cut it into thin small slices, and then mince these very fine by chopping them. Put the mince into a stewpan with two large gravy-spoonsful of brown sauce, and a small piece of glaze, stir the whole over the fire until quite hot, dish it up in a conical form, place six poached eggs round the mince, pour a little brown sauce round the base, and serve.

For those who like high seasoning, some grated nutmeg, lemon-peel, and Cayenne pepper may be added to the mince.

810. MINCED BEEF, A LA PORTTJGUAISE.

Trim one pound of roast or braized beef, cut it up in pieces the size of a finger, and then with a sharp knife mince these into small shavings, and put them into a stewpan. Next, put two glasses of Port wine into a stewpan with one chopped shalot, the rind of an orange cut into small shreds, a little grated nutmeg, Cayenne pepper,

ENTREES OF BEEF. 283

and the juice of half a lemon; boil these ingredients down to one-third of their original quantity, add enough Espagnole sauce for the entree, and mix the preparation with the minced beef; dish this up in a conical form, shake some light-colored raspings of bread-crust over it; place a border round the base consisting of six poached eggs, the same number of oval scollops of red tongue, and oval croutons fried in butter of a light color and glazed. Pour some of the sauce reserved for the purpose round the base, aud serve.

811. HASHED BEEF, PLAIN".

Slice the beef up in very thin pieces, season with pepper and salt, and shake a little flour over it. Next, chop a middle-sized onion, and put it into a stewpan with a table-spoonful of Harvey sauce, and an equal quantity of mushroom catsup; boil these together for two minutes, and then add half a pint of broth or gravy; boil this down to half its quantity, throw in the beef, set the hash to boil on the stovefire for five minutes longer, and then serve with sippets of toasted bread round it when dished up.

812. HASHED BEEF AND BROILED BONES.

Slice the beef up as in the foregoing case, and set it aside on a plate. Cut the bones into pieces about two inches long or square, having a little meat left on them; score them all over by making deep incisions across them, season with plenty of pepper and a little salt, and put them on a plate. Slice two onions and fry them brown, then add enough brown sauce for the hash, or if there be none ready, shake a table-spoonful of flour over the onions, stir this over the fare for a minute, then add half a pint of good broth or gravy and a table-spoonful of mushroom catsup; stir the whole on the fire until reduced to two-thirds of the original quantity, and then rub it through a tammy into a puree; mix this with the sliced beef, make the hash quite hot, dish it up with the broiled bones (glazed) round it, and serve.

813. SLICES OF BRAIZED BEEF, A LA CLAREMONT.

This entree, with its undermentioned varieties, may be served when it happens that any braized beef remains from a previous day's dinner.

The beef must be cut in rather thin round, or oval slices, placed in a* sautapan in neat order, aud warmed with a gravy-spoonful of good stock; these must then be dished up in a circle - overlapping each other closely - pour some Claremont sauce (No. 58) over them, and serve.

Note. - Slices of braized beef warmed and dished up, as in the foregoing case, may be greatly varied by being afterward garnished with macaroni prepared with grated cheese, a little glaze and tomata-sauce, also with all sharp sauces, with purees of vegetables, and with vegetable garnishes.

814. BUBBLE AND SQUEAK.

Cut some slices (not too thin) of cold boiled round, or edge-bone, of salt beef; trim them neatly, as also an equal number of pieces of the white fat of the beef, and set them aside on a plate. Boil two

284 ENTREES OF OX-CHEEKS.

summer or Savoy cabbages, remove the stalks, chop them fine, and pnt them into a stewpan with four ounces of fresh butter and one ounce of glaze; season with pepper and salt. When about to send to table, fry the slices of beef in a sauta or frying pan, commencing with the pieces of fat; stir the cabbage on the fire until quite hot, and then pile it up in the centre of the dish; place the slices of beef and the pieces of fat round it, pour a little brown sauce over the whole, and serve.

ENTREES OF OX- CHEEKS,

COMPRISING

Braized Ox-cheeks, with Ptirie of Green Braized Ox-cheeks, d la Provenqale.

Peas. „ „ with stewed Cabhage.

„ „ d la Flamande. „ „ d la Jardiniere.

„ „ d la Bretonne. '

815. BEAIZED OX-CHEEK, WITH PUREE OF GREEN PEAS. Bone an ox-cheek, and steep it in cold water for two hours; then parboil it in water for five minutes, immerse it in cold water, drain, and trim it, break up the bones, and put them at the bottom of an oval stewpan, place the cheek upon them, and garnish with carrot, onion, celery, garnished faggot of parsley, six cloves, a blade of mace, and twelve pepper-corns; moisten with two quarts of broth or water (if the latter, add some salt); set the ox-cheek to braize very gently by the side of a stove-fire for about two hours; when done, take it up carefully, and put it to press between two dishes. Half the broth may be used for preparing some brown sauce with, and the remainder boiled down to a half glaze. Next, cut the ox-cheek up into twelve pieces of equal size, shape them either round, square, oblong, or oval; trim them neatly, and place them in a sautapan with the half glaze. Ten minutes before sending to table, put the ox-cheeks, covered with the lid, to simmer gently on the stove-fire until they are warmed through, and then set them to boil quickly over a brisk fire for three minutes; roll them in their glaze, and afterward dish them up in a circle, closely overlapping each other; fill the centre of the entree with some thick puree of green peas (No. 136), pour a little brown sauce round the base, and serve. *

816. BRAIZED OX-CHEEK, A LA FLAMANDE.

This is prepared, cut, and dished up as in the foregoing. Between each scollop of ox-cheek insert a piece of carrot previously boiled in broth, and rolled in its own glaze; fill the centre with a garnish of Brussels-sprouts, round which place a neat border of prepared turnips cut in fancy shapes; pour a little thin Espagnole sauce round the entree, and serve.

817. BRAIZED OX-CHEEK, A LA BRETONNE. Prepare and dish up the pieces of ox-cheek as directed in the first

case; and just before sending to table, fill the centre with some purro of potatoes (No. 116), pour some Bretonne sauce (No. 27) over the pieces of ox-cheek, and serve.

OX-PALATES. - 285

818. BRAIZED OX-CHEEK, A LA PROVENCALE.

This when dished up must be garnished round the base with a border of ripe tomatas prepared au gratin (No. 1160); fill tho centre of the entree with some Provengale sauce (No. 25), and serve.

819. BRAIZED OX-CHEEK, WITH STEWED CABBAGES.

When the ox-cheek is prepared for braizing, as directed in No. 816, about one pound of German sausage must be added, also half a pound of streaky bacon, and two savoy-cabbages, previously cut in halves, parboiled in water, the stalks removed, and afterward tied up with string. The whole must be covered with a round buttered paper, and set to braize gently for about two hours; as soon as it is done, the ox-cheek should be put in press, and when cold cut into scollops and placed in a sautapan with some half glaze; the bacon and sausage must be also cut in neat scollops and kept hot in a sautapan with a little half glaze. The cabbage must first be drained in a colander, and then pressed in a napkin, and afterward cut out in cork-shaped pieces. The scollops of ox-cheek should be dished up in a close circle, alternately placing a scollop of ox-cheek with the bacon and sausage: and so on, until the whole is used up., Next, place the cabbage round the base in a neat border, and upon each piece of cabbage set a ring of carrot, with a piece of turnip cut in the form of a very small pear, in its centre; fill the well of the entree with a garnish of carrots and turnips, cut in very small fancy shapes, pour some Espagnole sauce round the base and serve.

The carrots and turnips, above alluded to, must, of course, be boiled in broth, with a little sugar, and afterward boiled dow* in their glaze.

820. BRAIZED OX-CHEEK, A LA JARDINIERE.

Braize, cut up, and dish the ox-cheek as directed in the first article; then fill the centre of the entree with a garnish of vegetables a la Jardiniere (No. 144), pour some half glaze or thin Espagnole sauce round the base, and serve.

DRESSED OX-PALATES,

COMPRISING

Oanelons of Ox-palates, with Poivrade Curry of Ox-palates.

.sauce Ox-palates in cases, with fine-herbs.

Paupiiites of Ox-palates d la Financiire. Attereaux of Ox-palates, d la D' Uxelles. Ox-palates, d la Tortue.

821. CANELONS OF OX-PALATES, WITH POIVRADE SAUCE.

Cleanse and braize six ox-palates, and put them in press, as directed in No. 209, between two dishes until they are cold. The ox-palates must then be trimmed and split in halves, lengthwise; each of these must be again divided across in two, crosswise; the twenty-four pieces thus produced should be laid upon a large dish, and covered on one side only with some thick cold d'Uxelles sauce (No. 16). The canelons must then be rolled up in the form of a cartridge, and each first dipped in beaten egg (seasoned with a little salt) and afterward bread-crumbed.

286 ENTREES OF BEEF.

Jnst before sending to table, the canelons should be fried in some clean hog's-Iard, made quite hot for the purpose; they must be piled up in the dish, in a pyramidal form, with green fried parsley in the centre, round the base, and on the top. Send some Poivrade sauce (No. 29) in a boat.

Note. - Instead of bread-crumbing the canelons, if preferred, they may be dipped in a light-made batter, and then fried.

822. PAUPIETTES OF OX-PALATES, A LA FINASTCIERE.

Braize and cut up the ox-palates as in the foregoing case; then trim the twenty-four pieces thus produced into oblong scollops, measuring about two inches by three and a half; lay these on an earthen dish, and spread upon each a thin layer of quenelle force-meat of veal or poultry, in which some fine-herbs have been mixed. The ox-palates .should then be rolled firmly in the form of cartridges, and six of these, disposed lengthwise in a buttered sheet of writing paper, must be rolled up tightly in it, and placed in a deep sautapan: the remainder are to be finished in the same manner, and kept in the cool until wanted. Half an hour before dinner-time set the paupiettes on a stove-fire, at the same time adding to them about a quart of boiling broth or consomme; as soon as they begin to boil, put the lid on, and set them to simmer gently by the side of the stove-fire for twenty minutes. The paupiettes must be drained on a napkin, the ends of each neatly cut off, then placed in a sautapan with a little half glaze, and again set on the fire to be rolled in this as it boils down; after, they should be dished up in a pyramidal, or a conical form, and a Financiere ragout (No. 188) poured over the entree, and sent to table.

823. OX-PALATES, A LA TORTUE.

Braize the ox-palates as before directed, put them in press, and when cold, stamp them out in scollops, with a circular tin cutter two inches in diameter, and put them in a small deep sautapan with a little of the sauce intended for the entree. Twenty minutes before sending to table, make the scollops quite hot, and place them in neat order, in and round the base of an ornamental croustade of fried bread, previously prepared for the purpose, and made fast on the centre of the dish, with a little paste made of flour and white of egg; dispose the ragout a la tortue, omitting the pieces of calf 's-bead (No. 189) tastefully about the entree, and serve.

824. CURRY OF OX-PALATES.

Prepare the scollops of ox-palates, as in the foregoing case, and put them in a good curry-sance (No. 47). Just before sending to table make the curry quite hot, and dish it up with boiled rice pressed into a border-mould, and then turned out on its dish.

The above is the simplest manner of serving this enirtie, but it looks much better when dressed with an ornamental rice border, in which case some plain boiled Patna rice must be served separately.

825. ATTEREAUX OF OX-PALATES, A LA D'UXELLES.

Braize four ox-palates; when done put them in press between two dishes; as soon as they are cold, trim both sides, cut them into inch

ox-piths. 287

square scollops, and place these on a large earthen dish, together with about half their quantity of square pieces of truffles and mushrooms; pour some reduced D'Uxelles sauce (No. 16) over the w'hole, and when the sauce has become set, run the scollops upon twelve small silver skewers, intermixing the truffles and mushrooms alternately with the ox-palates; gather the sauce from the dish with a knife, and spread it upon the attereaux to give them a square, smooth form. They must then be rolled in bread-crumbs, afterward dipped in beaten eggs, and again bread-crumbed. Half an hour before sending to table, fry the attereaux in clean hog's lard, made hot for the purpose; dish them up neatly with parsley, fried green and crisp, placed in the centre, and serve.

826. OX-PALATES IN CASES, WITH FESTE-HERBS.

Prepare the ox palates in small circular scollops, and put them into a stewpan containing about two-thirds of their quantity of scollops of truffles and mushrooms; to these add sufficieut reduced fine-herbs sauce (No. 14) for the entree, mix the whole, and with this fill twelve small square, or plaited circular paper cases, previously oiled and baked in the oven for five minutes; cover them with a layer of raspings of bread, or bread-crumbs, fried of a light color, and place them upon a baking-sheet covered with clean paper. About half an hour before sending to table, put these cases in the oven to be baked, or rather warmed through, and then dish them up on a folded napkin, with fried parsley round the base of the entree, and serve.

OX-PITHS,

COMPRISING

Ox-piths, & la Ravigotte. CrSustades of Ox-piths.

„ in cases, with fine-herbs.

827. OX-PITHS,* A LA RAVIGOTTE.

Procure about 1 lb. of ox-piths, steep them in water for a couple of hours, wash them thoroughly, and then carefully remove the membranous covering, and change the water. Next, slice up an onion and a small carrot very thin, and put these into a stewpan with a quart of hot water, mignionette pepper, and salt, a little thyme and bay-leaf, three cloves, and a blade of mace, and half a gill of vinegar; set these to boil on the fire, drop in the ox-piths, and allow them to boil geutly for ten minutes; then set them aside to cool. Drain them on a napkin, and cut them in three-inch lengths, then place them in a basin, with a few sprigs of parsley, three sliced shalots, some mignionette pepper, and salt, three table-spoonsful of salad-oil, and one of vinegar. The ox-piths must be left to steep in this pickle till within about ten minutes of dinner-time, when they must be drained upon a napkin, then dipped separately in some light batter, and fried in clean hog's-lard made quite hot for the purpose. Dish them up

* The pith consists of the spinal marrow, which is more generally taken from sides of beef; that taken from veal and mutton is also occasionally used.

288 ENTREES OF BEEF.

with fried parsley, and send some Ravigotte sauce in a boat, to be handed round.

To save trouble, the piths, when fried, may be dished up without a napkin or fried parsley, and the sauce poured under them. But in this case, unless they are eaten as soon as dished up, the vapor arising from the sauce destroys much of their crispness.

Note. - Ox-piths, when fried according to the foregoing directions, may also be served with any of the following sauces, viz: - Piquante, Poivrade, Italian, Tomata, &c.

828. OX-PITHS IN CASES, WITH FINE-HERBS.

Prepare these, in the first instance, according to the directions contained in the foregoing article. They must then be drained npon a napkin, cut into inch lengths, and placed in a small stewpan, with sufficient D'Uxelles sauce (No. 16) for the entree they should then be gently mixed together, and put into about a dozen small square or round paper cases, the surfaces of which are to be strewn with raspings, or fried bread-crumbs, and then placed upon a clean bakingsheet. About twenty minutes before sending to table, put the cases in the oven to get thoroughly warmed; dish them up neatly in a pyramidal form, and serve some fine-herbs, or brown Italian sauce, separately in a boat.

829. CROUSTADES, OR PATTIES OF OX-PITHS.

In this case, the ox-piths must be prepared according to the first part of the directions for dressing them a la Ravigotte; they must then be cut into half-inch lengths, and placed in a small stewpan, with about half their quantity of prepared mushrooms, and two artichoke bottoms, previously cut into small dice; to this may be added some fiuished Expagnole sauce (No. 3), a little cayenne, and lemon-juice; warm the whole together on the stove-fire, and garnish the croustades, or patties, with it.

OX-TONGUES,

COMPRISING

Ox-tongues, with Spinach. Ox-tongues, d la Jardinilre.

„ with Brussels-sprouts. „ d I'AUemande.

„ d la ilacidoine. „ with Sauer-Kraut.

830. OX-TONGUE, WITH SPINACH.

Procure a pickled tongue, run an iron skewer through it from the root to the pointed end, tie a piece of string on one ene of the skewer, and fasten it at the other, so as to keep it in shape. The tongue should then be put on the fire in cold water, and kept gently boiling for about three hours, when it must be taken up, and after removing the outer cuticle, should be placed in the larder to cool; it should then be neatly trimmed, wrapped in a piece of buttered paper, and put into an oval stewpan, with a little common broth. Three-quar

OX-TONGUE. 289

ters of an hour before sending it to table, put the tongue in the oven, or on a slow fire, to get warmed through; then glaze it, and dish it up with some prepared spinach (No. 112) round it, pour a little Espagnole sauce, or some half-glaze round the base, and serve.

831. OX-TONGUE, WITH BRUSSELS SPEOUTS.

This is prepared in the same manner as the foregoing, except that Brussels sprouts (No. 1192) must be substituted for spinach.

832. OX-TONGUE, A LA MACEDOINE.

Prepare the tongue as in the foregoing cases, and when about to send to table, glaze and dish it up with a white Macedoine of vegetables (No. 143) placed neatly round it, and serve.

833. OX-TONGUE, A LA JARDINIERE.

The tongue, when dished up, must be garnished round with groups of glazed carrots and turnips, cut in small fancy shapes, and boiled in broth, with a pinch of sugar and a little salt, previously to their being boiled down in their own glaze; these must be alternated with similar groups of flowerets of cauliflowers, heads of asparagus-peas, or French-beans cut in the form of diamonds and boiled green. Pour some half glaze or Espagnole sauce round the base, and send to table.

• 834. BRAIZED OX-TONGUE, A L'ALLEMANDE

Scald a fresh ox-tongue in boiling water upon the fire for about ten minutes; then immerse it in cold water, remove the root and any superfluous fat. Next, place the tongue in an oval stewpan with a carrot, an onion, one head of celery, a garnished faggot, four cloves, and a blade of mace; add a glass of brandy and sufficient good broth or stock to cover the whole, and set it to braize gently for two hours and a half upon a slow fire. "When the tongue is done, take it out of the braize, trim and put it into a stewpan with its own liquor, previously divested of all the grease, strained through a sieve, and boiled down to half its quantity. About half an hour before sending to table, set the tongue on a very slow fire to simmer until it is warmed through; roll it in its glaze, dish it up with some cherry sauce a la Victoria (No. 64) under it, garnish it round with a border of potato quenelles (No. 312), and serve.

835. OX-TONGUE, WITH SAUER-KRAUT.

For this purpose choose a smoked tongue, and let it soak in cold water for four-and-twenty hours previously to its being dressed. The tongue must now be parboiled for half an hour, and immersed in cold water; then remove the root, and truss it with a skewer and some string to keep it in shape; next, place it in an oval stewpan with one pound and a half of saiter-kraut (previously well washed in several waters), two carrots, two onions stuck with six cloves, and a garnished faggot of parsley; moisten with sufficient stockpot toppings to cover the whole; place a well-buttered paper on the top, and cover with a lid containing some live embers of charcoal; then set these to braize very gently on a slow fire for about three hours. When the tongue is done, take it up on a dish, trim it, and put it in a small oval stewpan with a little good stock, to be kept hot by the side of the stove. 18

ENTREES OF MUTTON.

Meanwhile, remove the carrot, onion, and faggot of parsley from the s r i uer-kraut, and afterward press it in a napkin, to absorb all the grease. Then glaze the tongue, and place it in its dish, garnish it neatly round with the sauer-kraut and put a border of small turned carrots (previously boiled and glazed for the purpose) round the base; pour some Poivrade sauce over the whole, and serve.

Note. - Reindeer tongues may be dressed in the same manner as the foregoing; they must, however, be soaked in cold water for four-andtwenty hours previously to their being dressed.

ENTREES OF MUTTON.

1. Mutton Cutlets, sautees,

COMPRISING

Mutton Cutlets, plain. Mutton Cutlets, with PurSe of Endives, Ac. „ d la Minute. „ d la Nivernaiee, Ac.

„ d la Maintenon. „ with New Potatoes, Ac.

„ d la Sourguignotte.

836. MUTTON CUTLETS, PLAIN.

Choose a neck of mutton that has been killed at least four days, saw off the scrag end, and as much of the rib-bones as may be necessary in order to leave the cutlet-bones not more than three inches and a half long; the spine-bones must also be removed with the saw, without damaging the fillet. Next, cut the neck of mutton thus trimmed into as many cutlets as there are bones; detach the meat from the upper part of each bone, about three-quarters of an inch. then dip them in water and flatten them with a cutlet-bat, trim away the sinewy part, and any superfluous fat. The cutlets must then be seasoned with pepper and salt, passed over with a paste-brush dipped in clarified butter, and nicely broiled, over or before a clear fire. When they are done, dish them up neatly, aud serve with plain brown gravy under them.

Cutlets prepared in this way may also be served with either of the following sauces - Poor-man's, Piquante, Italian, Tomata, Provencale, Poivrade, Shalot, Gravy.

837. MUTTON CUTLETS, A LA MINUTE.

Trim the cutlets as above, then season with pepper and salt, and place them in a sauta-pan with about two ounces of clarified butter. The cutlets must be fried over a rather brisk fire, of a brown color; then pour off the grease, and add a large gravy-spoonful of JEspagnolr sauce, a piece of glaze, and the juice of half a lemon; set the cutlets again on the fire to simmer gently for two minutes, dish them up, and pour the sauce over them.

The centre of this entree may be filled with mashed potatoes, mashed turnips, spinach, potatoes a la Maltre d 1 Hotel, &c.

ENTREES OF MUTTON. 291

838. MUTTON CUTLETS, A LA MAINTENON.

These are prepared, in the first instance, according to the former part of the directions for cutlets a la Minute; season with pepper and salt, add a table-spoonful of chopped mushrooms, the same quantity of parsley, and three shalots, also chopped. Fry the cutlets brown on both sides, pour off the grease, and two large spoonfuls of brown sauce, a very little grated nutmeg, and the juice of a lemon; allow the whole to simmer together on the fire for five minutes, and then set them in the larder to cool. Meanwhile, take as many sheets of large-sized note-paper as there are cutlets; cut each somewhat in the form of a heart, and then let them be oiled. Next, place a cutlet with an equal proportion of the sauce in one of these papers, and with the fore-finger and thumb of the right hand, twist the edges of the paper tightly under into very close folds; and repeat this with the remainder. A quarter of an hour before sending to table, put the cutlets in the oven in a sauta-pan, to get warm through; then, with a heated iron skewer, mark the papers so as to make it appear that they have been broiled; dish them up on a napkin with fried parsley in the centre, and send some brown Italian or fine-herbs sauce in a boat.

839. MUTTON CUTLETS, A LA BOURGUIGNOTTE.

Trim the cutlets and arrange them in circular order in a sauta-pan with a little clarified butter. Then, fry them quickly on a brisk fire to brown them on both sides, and before they are quite done, pour off all the grease; add half-a-pint of red wine (Port or Claret), about half a pottle of prepared mushrooms, and the same quantity of small button onions (previously simmered in a little butter, over a slow fire until nearly done); season with a pinch of mignionette pepper, and a little salt, some grated nutmeg, and a tea-spoonful of pounded sugar; set the whole to boil on the stove for two minutes, and then add a small ladleful of brown sauce; allow the cutlets (covered) to simmer very gently on a slow fire for twenty minutes, by which time they will be done, and the sauce sufficiently reduced. The cutlets must then be dished up closely, in a circle; add half a glass of red wine and a dozen small quenelles to the sauce, boil the whole together for a minute, and garnish the centre of the entree with the mushrooms, &c, pour the sauce over the cutlets, and serve.

840. MUTTON CUTLETS, WITH PUREE OF ENDIVES.

These are prepared and finished in the same manner as the cutlets a la Minute; and when they are dished up, the centre of the entree must be filled with a puree of endives (No. 114).

Note. - Cutlets dressed in this way may be served with purees of vegetables of all sorts.

841. MUTTON CUTLETS, A LA NIVERNAISE.

Trim and prepare the cutlets as in the the foregoing case, and when they Tiave been fried brown, pour off the grease, and add a garnish of carrots and turnips d la Nivernaise (No. 13?); allow the whole to simmer gently on a slow fire for a quarter of an hour, dish up the cutlets, and fill the centre with vegetables, pour the sauce over the entree, and serve.

292 ENTREES OF MUTTON.

842. ANOTHER METHOD. The cutlets, when fried, may be glazed, then dished up, and the garnish a la Nivernaise placed in the centre. The advantage of the first method is, that the cutlets partake of the flavor of the vegetables by simmering with them.

843. MUTTON CUTLETS, WITH NEW POTATOES.

These are prepared in the same way as cutlets a la Minute, and when dished up, must be garnished with new potatoes a la Maitre d'Hotel (No. 1183).

Mutton cutlets, prepared in the same manner, may be garnished with any of the following vegetable garnishes, viz: Jardiniere, Macedoine, asparagus-peas, stewed peas, Brussels-sprouts, &c.

2. Mutton Cutlets, bread-crumbed,

COMPRISING

Mutton Cutlets, Bread-crumbed and Broiled Mutton Cutlets, Bread-crumbed, d la Bre with Shalot Gravy. tonne.

i, „ with Purie of Mush- „ „ d la Maeidoine.

rooms. „ „ d V fndihine.

„ „ with Cucumbers. „ „ with Purie of Chest „ „ d la Milanaite. nuts.

844. MUTTON-CUTLETS, BREAD-CRUMBED AND BROILED WITH SHALOT GRAVY. Trim the cutlets in the usual manner, and season them with pepper and salt; then egg them slightly over with a paste-brush dipped in two yolks of eggs, beaten up on a plate for the purpose; pass each cutlet through some fine bread-crumbs; then dip them separately in some clarified butter, and bread-crumb them over once more; put them into shape with the blade of a knife, and lay them on a gridiron, to be broiled over a clear fire, of a light-brown color; then, glaze and dish them up, and serve them with plain or shalot gravy. These cutlets may also be served with any of the sauces directed to be used for plain broiled cutlets.

845. MUTTON CUTLETS, WITH PUREE OF MUSHROOMS. Bread-crumb the cutlets as in the foregoing case; then place them in a sauta-pau with a little clarified butter, fry them over a brisk fire, of a light color, and when done, remove them on to a napkin or a sheet of paper, and glaze them; dish them up, fill the centre with a white puree of mushrooms (No. 122), pour some half glaze round the entree, and serve.

846. MUTTON CUTLETS, WITH CUCUMBERS.

Prepare these in the same way as the foregoing, and garnish them, when dished up, with some scollops of cucumbers (No. 138).

847. MUTTON CUTLETS, A LA MILANAISE.

In this case, the bread-crumbs used for the cutlets must bo mixed with 2 oz. of grated Parmesan cheese: in other respects they are to

MUTTON CUTLETS, BREAD-CRUMBED. 293

be bread-crumbed as before. When about to send to table, the cutlets should be fried of a light color, glazed, and dished up; and the centre garnished with some macaroni, finished with grated Parmesan cheese, and a spoonful of Bechamel, or any other white sauce; pour some Provengale sauce (No. 25) round the base of the entree and serve.

848. MUTTON CUTLETS, A LA BRETONNE.

These are prepared and finished in the same way as cutlets, garnished with a puree of mushrooms, with this exception, that the centre must be filled with small potatoes previously cut or scooped in the form of olives, and fried in butter, of a yellow color; pour some Bretonne sauce (No. 27) under the cutlets, and serve.

849. MUTTON CUTLETS, A LA MACEDOINE.

Prepare these in the same way as the foregoing, and when they are dished up, garnish the centre with a Macedoine of vegetables (No. 143); pour some half glaze round the base of the entree, and serve.

850. MUTTON CUTLETS, A L'lNDIENNE.

Bread-crumb, fry, glaze, and dish up the cutlets; then garnish the centre with two dozen small quenelles of anchovies (No. 246), the •force-meat of which must be mixed with a little strong curry sauce (No. 47); pour some mangoe sauce under the cutlets, and serve.

The mangoe sauce here alluded to is thus made: - Split a fine mangoe, and let the inside be reserved in a small stewpan; then cut the outside part into narrow strips, and again mince these into shreds, or thin scollops, and place them in the stewpan; add a small ladleful of Espaynole sauce (No. 3); boil the whole together for five minutes, when it will be fit for use.

851. MUTTON CUTLETS, WITH PUREE OF CHESTNUTS.

These, when dished up as in the foregoing cases, should be garnished with & puree of chestnuts (No. 115), and some tliin Espagnole poured round tliem, then serve.

Note. - Bread-crumbed cutlets may be served with every sort of vegetable garnish described in this work, and with all the sauces directed to be served with plain cutlets.

BRAIZED MUTTON CUTLETS,

COMPRISING

Mutton Cutlets, d la Sonbine. Mutton Cutlets, d la Pompadour. „ d la Li onnaise., , d la Provencale.

„ with Puree of Artichokes. „ d la Russe.

d la Chipoluta.

852. MUTTON CUTLETS, BRAIZED, A LA SOUBISE.

Trim one or two necks of mutton (according to the size of the entree) in the way described for plain cutlets; the neck must then be

294 ENTREES OF MUTTON.

out up into thick cutlets, and placed on a dish without being further trimmed. Next, cut lib. of fat bacon into narrow strips, about the sixth of an inch square, and an inch and a half long, and with these the cutlets should be larded iu the following manner: - Take a middlesized larding-pin, and run it half through the lean of the cutlet: then place a strip of bacon in the open end, and draw the larding-pin through, leaving the bacon iu the cutlet: repeat this, until the cutlet has been studded with eight strips of bacou, and proceed in the same manner with the remainder. Stew some of the trimmings over the bottom of a large stewpan, or fricandeau pan, and place the cutlets upon them in circular order, with the bone-end pointing to the centre; cover them with the remainder of the trimmings, and garnish with a couple of sliced carrots, a large onion, stuck with four cloves, a garnished faggot of parsley, and one head of celery; season with a dozen peppercorns and a blade of mace, moisten with a glass of brandy, and sufficient fresh broth or stock to cover the whole; place a buttered paper on this, put on the lid, and set the cutlets to braize very gently on a slow fire, or in the oven, for about one hour and a half; when they are become nearly tender enough, draw the pan off the fire, and allow them to get partially cold in their own liquor. The cutlets must then be carefully taken out, one at a time, with a small slice or skimmer, and placed in rows on a large earthen dish: when the whole are thus removed, another dish must be placed upon these to press them slightly, iu order to give them an even surface. As soon as they have become firm by getting quite cold, trim them neatly with a sharp knife, by paring off the surface of each cutlet (without waste), so as to show the bacon inserted in the lean; put them into a deep sautapan with some half glaze, made with the broth they have been braized itfj- which must be strained, divested of all the grease, clarified, and afterward boiled down for the purpose. A quarter of an hour before sending to table, put the cutlets on a brisk fire to warm, allow them to boil quickly for five minutes, then roll the sautapan about carefully, so as to glaze them all over, and dish them up in a close circle; fill the centre with some Soubise sauce, o? puree (No. 119), pour the remainder of the half glaze round the base of the entree, and serve.

853. MUTTON CUTLETS BRAIZED, A LA LYONNAISE.

Prepare, finish, and dish up the cutlets, as in the foregoing case; then fill the centre with some Lyonnaise sauce (No. 24), and serve.

854. MUTTON CUTLETS BRAIZED, WITH PUREE OF ARTICHOKES.

These are prepared exactly as for Soubise, and when dished up should be garnished with & puree of artichokes (No. 117); pour a little Bechamel sauce, or some half glaze round their base, and serve.

855. MUTTON CUTLETS BRAIZED, A LA CHIPOLATA.

Prepare and dish up these in the same manner as the foregoing; garnish them with a Ghipolala ragout (No. 190), and serve.

856. MUTTON CUTLETS BRAIZED, A LA POMPADOUR.

These must be prepared, in the first instance, nearly in the same manner as the Soubise cutlets, except that, instead of the larding, they

BRAIZED JHUTTON CUTLETS. 295

must be studded with red tongue and black truffles; when the cutlets, after being braized, have been trimmed, mask each of them with a coating of reduced Soubise sauce (No. 119); and when this has become firmly set, by cooling on the cutlets, dip them separately in three whole eggs, seasoned with a little salt, and beaten up for the purpose, and afterward breadcrumb them; flatten the bread-crumbs on smoothly with the blade of a knife, put the cutlets carefully away on a dish in a cool place until within twenty minutes of dinner-time. The cutlets must then be placed in rows, on the wire lining of a deep frying-pan; when the hog's-lard is sufficiently hot for the purpose, immerse the cutlets in it, and fry them of a deep yellow color; then drain them on a napkin, or a sheet of paper, in order to absorb all the grease, and dish them up in a close circle upon a vegetable border. Fill the centre with a Macedoine of vegetables (No. 143), pour some half glaze round the base, and serve.

857. MUTTON" CUTLETS BRAIZED, A LA PROVENCALE.

Braize and trim the cutlets as in the foregoing case; exeept that in the present instance the cutlets must be left plain, omitting altogether the larding or studding. While the cutlets are being braized, set about making the following preparation: - Cut three Portugal onions into very small dice, parboil these in water, drain them on a sieve, and then place them in a small stewpan, with 1 oz. of fresh butter, the same quantity of glaze, a little mignionette pepper and salt, and some grated nutmeg; set the lid on the stewpan, and place the onions on a very slow fire, to be thoroughly stewed, without acquiring any color. Next, add a gravy-spoonful of white sauce, a little grated garlic, on the point of a knife, and stir the whole on the fire until reduced to a paste; then add the yolks of three eggs, and a little lemon-juice; mix well together, and use this preparation to cover the surface of one side only of the cutlets; shake a rather thick coating of breadcrumbs and grated Parmesan cheese, in equal proportions, over this, and then place the cutlets in a sauta-pan containing a little half glaze. About twenty minutes before sending to table, put the cutlets in the oven to be warmed through, pass the red-hot salamander over them, to give them a deep yellow color, mash them with thin glaze, and dish them up; then pour some Provengale sauce (No. 25) under them, and serve.

858. MUTTON CUTLETS BRAIZED, A LA RUSSE.

Cut twelve" thick cutlets, as directed in the first article of this section; insert eight strips of lean ham through the lean part, in a circular form; prepare them for braizing in the usual way, and in addition to the customary complement of vegetables and seasoning, add two cloves of garlic and a couple of capsicums; moisten with a pint of Madeira and a quart of good stock; set the cutlets to braize for an hour and a half, on a very slow fire, and when nearly done

296 ENTREES OF MUTTON.

remove them from the fire, that they may partially cool in their own liquor; and then put them in press between two dishes. When the cutlets are cold, trim them neatly, and cover one side only with a rather-thick coating" of the following preparation: - Clean two large sticks of horse-radish, and grate them; put this into a small stewpan with a small pat of butter, two table-spoonfuls of French vinegar, a pinch of migniouette pepper, a little grated nutmeg, and a tea-spoonful of sugar; put the lid on, and set the whole to stew very gently for twenty minutes on a very slow fire; then add two gravy-spoonfuls of Veloute sauce, boil the whole well together for ten minutes, mix with this sauce the yolks of four eggs, and a small piece of glaze, and use this preparation as directed above.

Next, mask the coated side of the cutlets with a paste-brush dipped in some white of egg that has been beaten up, and sprinkle this surface over with very fine bread-crumbs, previously fried of a light color, with a little butter: place the cutlets in neat order iu a sauta-pan, with a little half glaze, and a quarter of an hour before sending to table, put them in the oven to be warmed through, without allowing them to acquire any more color; dish them up with a very small paper ruffle on the bone of each cutlet, pour some half glaze (made with their own liquor, previously strained, divested of all grease, and afterward boiled down) under them, and serve.

Note. - Mutton cutiets, when braized according to any of the foregoing directions, may be served with all sorts of dressed vegetables., such as stewed peas, asparagus-peas, French-beans, broad-beans, Macedoine of vegetables, Jardiniere, braized lettuces, &c, and also with all kinds of purees of vegetables: for making which, see those articles.

SCOLLOPS OF MUTTON,

COMPRISING

Scollops of Mutton, with Fine-herbs. Scollops of Mutton, with Olives farcies.

„ d la Clarenmnt. „ with Mu hrooins and

„ with Oysters. Truffles.

„ d Plitdi&nne.

859. SCOLLOFS OF MUTTON, WITH FINE-HERBS.

Bone a loin of mutton, and with a sharp knife pare off the sinewy skin which lies beneath the fat of the upper and under or minion fillets. Next, cut these fillets into neatly-trimmed scollops, and place them in a circular order in a sauta-pan with two ounces of clarified butter; season with pepper and salt, a* id fry them over a brisk tire, until browned on both sides; then pour off, the grease, and add sufficient fine-herbs sauce (No. 14) for the entree; allow the whole to simmer together over the fire for three minutes, and then dish up the scollops, either in a pyramidal form, iu a close circle, or else in nu ornamental border of' potato or rice. These scollops may also be garnished with a border of croquettes of mutton, mushrooms, potatoes or rice.

SCOLLOPS OF MUTTON. 297

Note. - The garnishes here alluded to will serve for mutton scollops generally.

860. SCOLLOPS OF MUTTON, A LA CLAREMONT.

Prepare the scollops as in the foregoing case, fry them brown, pour off all the grease, and add enough Glaremont sauce (No. 58), for the entree, set the whole to simmer briskly on the fire for three minutes, and serve.

861. SCOLLOPS OF MUTTON, WITH OYSTERS.

These are prepared according to the foregoing directions, and when the grease has been poured off, add as much brown oyster sauce (No. 51) as will suffice for the entree, simmer the whole together on the fire for three minutes, and serve.

862. SCOLLOPS OF MUTTON, A L'lNDIENNE.

Prepare the scollops in the usual manner, fry them brown, pour off the grease, add then some curry sauce (No. 47) and a minced mangoe; simmer the whole together on the fire for five minutes, and send to table with some plain boiled rice served separately.

863. SCOLLOPS OF MUTTON, WITH OLIVES FARCIES*

These are prepared in the same way as the foregoing, and when they have been fried and the grease poured off, add two dozen olives farcies, two large gravy-spoonfuls of Espagnole sauce (No. 3), a little cayenne and lemon-juice, and a small piece of glaze; toss the whole together, allow the scollops to simmer briskly on the stove-fire for three minutes, and then serve.

864. SCOLLOPS OF MUTTON, WITH MUSHROOMS AND TRUFFLES.

Sautez or fry the scollops brown, then pour off the fat, and add a small glass of Madeira, a dozen button-mushrooms, three ounces of truffles cut into scollops, a little cayenne, and a small piece of glaze; toss the whole together over the stove-fire until mixed, and then add enough finished Expagnole sauce for the entree, and a little lemon- juice; set the scollops to simmer on the fire for three minutes, aud serve.

BRAIZED CARBONNADES OF MUTTON,

COMPRISING

Carbomiades of Mutton, d la Richelieu. Fillets of Mutton, larded, with Chtvrev.il

„ „ d la Dauphinoise. sauce, or Roebuck fashion, &c.

„ „ d la Flamande. Haricdt of Mutton, d la Nivemaise.

865. BRAIZED CARBONNADES OF MUTTON, A LA RICHELIEU.

Bone two loins of mutton, leaving the small fillets adhering thereto; divest them of all the inside fat, season with pepper and salt, cut off the loose ends and flaps, and then roll them up tight, keeping the

* Olives farcies, or stuffed olives, are sold in small bottles, and may be procured at most Italian warehouses.

298 ENTREES OF MUTTON.

fillet in the centre; sew each of them up closely with string and a small trussing-needle, and tie them round with string to preserve their shape. Next, strew the trimmings over the bottom of an oval braizing-pan, place the carbonnades upon these, garnish with two carrots, two onions stuck with four cloves, two heads of celery, and a garnished faggot of parsely; moisten with a glass of brandy and sufficient broth or stock to cover the whole. Braize the carbonnades on a gentle fire for about two hours, and allow them partially to cool in their own liquor: they must then be put in press between two dishes, taking care that the sewn-up part is placed undermost. When cold, trim them ueatly in the form of oblong cushions, remembering that nearly the whole of the fat which covers them must be left on: this, however, must be pared smooth. Strain their liquor, remove the grease, clarify it in the usual way, and then boil it down to half glaze, half of which is to be put with the carbonnades in a covered fricandeaupan, to warm them in; the remainder being used to work the sauce with. Half an hour before sending to table, put the carbonnades in the oven to be warmed through; then take the lid off, allow their surface to dry, and baste them frequently with their own glaze, until they assume a bright shiny surface; they must then be placed side by side in their dish, garnished with potatoes previously cut in the form of olives, and fried in clarified butter; pour a Richelieu rayout (No. 210) under them, and serve.

866. BEAIZED CARBONNADES OF MUTTON, A LA DAUPHINOISE.

Bone two loins of mutton, remove all the inside fat and the small fillets; season with pepper and salt, and spread some highly-seasoned veal force-meat on the inside; they must then be rolled, sewn up, and afterward corded round with string to make them retain their shape. Braize the carbonnades in the same way as the foregoing, and when done, put them in press, and cut each into six pieces in the form of a pointed scollop; trim these neatly, put them on an earthen dish, and then cover them over with a thin coating of d'Uxelles sauce (No. 16). Next remove them to a cold place that the sauce may the sooner become firmly set; then dip each separately in some beaten egg, and bread-crumb them. About twenty minutes before sending to table, place the carbonnades upon the wire-lining of a frying-pan, immerse them in some clean hogs'-lard made quite hot for the purpose, and fry them of a light-browu color; drain them upon a napkin, and dish them up in a circular form, with the pointed ends placed toward the centre, so as to make them fit in with each other. Fill the centre with a group of small tomatas " au gratin" (No. 1160), .and place also a border of these round the base; pour some Pructn^ate (No. 25), under the carbonnades, and serve.

867. BRAIZED CARBONNADES OF MUTTON, A LA FLAMAflDE.

Prepare these as in the first case; and when they are become sufficiently cold, cut each into six pieces in the form of pointed scollops, trim them smoothly and neatly, and then place them in a deep sauta-pan with some half glaze made from their own liquor. Half an hour before sending to table, put them in the oven to be warmed and glazed, as before directed; dish them up as in the preceding case, (ill the centre with some prepared Brussels sprouts (No. 156), over the

HARICOT OF MUTTON". 299

part where the carbonnades join to each other; place a crescent of turnip round the base of the sprouts, add a neat border of glazed carrots, and garnish the base of the entree with & Jardiniere (No. 144); pour some bright thin Espagnole sauce under the entree, and serve.

Note. - Carbonnades, prepared and trimmed as directed in Nos. 865 and 867, may also be served with every sort of vegetable garnish, or puree of vegetables, described in tins work.

868. FILLETS OF MUTTON LARDED, WITH CHEVREUIL SAUCE, OR ROEBUCK FASHION.

Remove the fillets from two loins of mutton, pare off all the sinewy skin that lies beneath the fat, and divide each fillet, lengthwise, into four, these, together with the smaller fillets thus trimmed also, will make up ten; trim these and lard them closely with strips of fat bacon, in the usual way. The fillets must then be steeped in a cold marinade (No. 2o4) for about forty-eight hours; after which, drain them upon a napkin to absorb any unnecessary moisture. Next, place the fillets in a sautapan thickly spread with butter, and turn them round in a semicircular form; moisten with a little mirepoix (No. 236), or a glass of Sherry; cover them with a buttered paper and set them in the oven to simmer for about twenty minutes; they must then be glazed, trimmed neatly round the ends, and dished up in a close circle, overlapping each other; fill the centre with potatoes cut in the form of olives, and fried in butter; pour some Poivrade sauce (No. 29) under the fillets, and serve.

Note. - Fillets of mutton prepared as the foregoing, may also be garnished with quenelles of potatoes, with Ghevreuil sauce (No. 69), Victoria sweet sauce, Tomata, Piquante, Gherkins, or Provengale sauce.

869. HARICOT OF MUTTON, A LA NIVERNAISE.

Cut a neck of mutton into un-trimmed cutlets, pare off any superfluous fat, put them into a large stewpan with four ounces of butter, and fry them over a brisk fire until they become brown; then pour off the greater portion of grease, and shake in a good handful of flour, stir the whole over the fire for about five minutes, moisten with three pints of broth, and stir the haricot on the fire till it boils. Meanwhile, prepare some carrots and turnips, cut in the form of small pears, olives, half-moons, or any other fancy shape, and throw these into the haricot; a dozen small onions may also be added; season with a garnished faggot of parsley, and some mignionette pepper. Keep the haricot gently boiling by the side of the fire for about one hour and a half; skim off all the grease, remove the faggot of parsley, place the cutlets and vegetables in another stewpan, and after having boiled the sauce down (if necessary), pass it through a tammy upon the cutlets. When about to send to table, warm the haricot, dish the outlets in the usual manner, fill the centre with the vegetables, pour the sauce over all, and serve.

Note. - Breasts of mutton with the superfluous fat removed, and cut into small square pieces, make a very good haricot, or stew.

The foregoing may be varied by substituting green-peas, young carrots, turnips, or new potatoes for the vegetables directed to be used.

300

SHEEP'S-TONGUES,

COMPRISING

Sheep's-tongues A I'Ecarlate, with Spinach, &c. Sheep's-tongues, d la Napolitaine.

}, i la Maintenon. „ with Gherkin sauce.

Sheep's-tongues should first be pickled in the manner directed for briskets of beef, &c.; for the preparation of which, see No. 564.

870. sheep's-tongues, a l'ecarlate, with spinach.

From six to a dozen tongues suffice for an entree; these must be braized in some wine mirepoix (No. 236), or common broth, garnished with the usual complement of vegetables, &c.: after about three quarters of an hour's gentle boiling, they will be done: they must then be placed upon a dish, on their sides, and another dish with a weight in it should be laid upon them to press them evenly. When the tongues are cold, trim them neatly, and place them in a deep sautapnn with some half glaze, and about twenty minutes before sending to table, put them in the oven, to be warmed through, covered with a circular piece of buttered paper, to prevent their being dried up; roll them in their glaze, dish them up in the same manner as cutlets, fill the centre with spinach (No. 112), mix a spoonful ef Espagnole with the remainder of their glaze, pour it round the tongues, and serve.

871. sheep's-tongues, a la maintenon.

These must first be braized, and when done, put in press between two dishes, and afterwards neatly trimmed. The tongues must then be finished in every respect the same as mutton cutlets a la Maintenon (No. 838).

872. sheep's-tongues, a la napolitaine.

Braize and trim the tongues as above, cover them all over with a thin coating of d'Uxelles sauce (No. 16), and when this has become firmly set by cooling, dip each tongue in some beaten eg^, and roll it in bread-crumbs; flatten them smoothly with the blade of a knife, and then place them on a dish in the larder, until within about twenty minutes of dinner-time. The tongues must then be fried of a lightbrown color, in clean hog's-lard made hot for the purpose, then drained upon a napkin, and dished up in the form of a close circle, the centre of which must be filled with macaroni dressed with cheese and a little Bechamel sauce; pour some Napolitaine sauce (No. 63), under them, and serve.

873. sheep's-tongues, with gherkin sauce.

Prepare, finish, and dish up the tongues according to the directions in the first case, pour some gherkin sauce (No. 19) in the centre of the entree, and serve.

Note. - Sheep's-tongues prepared after the foregoing directions, may be served with every kind of brown sauce or ragout; and also with any of the vegetable garnishes or purees described in this work.

301

SHEEP'S-HEAD AND KIDNEYS,

COMPRISING

Sheep's Kidneys, a la Brochette. Sheep's Kidneys, with Fine-herbs.

„ bread-crumbed, a I'Epicu-, , a la Glaremont.

rienne. Sheep's Head, d la Gallimaufre.

874. STIEEP'tS-KIDXEYS, A LA BROCHETTE.

Si. it the kidneys lengthwise, without cutting through the sinew; remove the thin skin which covers them, and place them in a small dish; season with pepper and salt, and a table-spoonful of salad oil, and allow them to steep in their seasoning until broiled. They must then be run on a small silver or any other kind of skewer (two or three on each), and placed upon a gridiron over a clear (ire to be broiled, with the open side downwards; when done brown they must be turned up, as, from the heat of the fire, their sides become contracted, which causes them to form a sort of cup to hold the gravy in when the kidneys are done: care must be taken not to spill this gravy in dishing them up: fill each with a small piece of cold 31ait?*e-d' Hotel butter ( Xo. 44), pour a little half glaze under them, and send to table quite hot.

Broiled kidneys may also be served with anchovy butter, plain gravy, or a pat of fresh butter and a spoonful of Harvey sauce.

875. SIIEEP'S-KIDXEYS, BREAD-CRUMBED, A l'EPICURIEXXE.

Split the kidneys as before directed, season them with pepper and salt, dip them in clarified butter, and roll them in fresh-made breadcrumbs; place them on the skewers, and broil them on both sides: •Alien done, dish them up with a small piece of epicurean butter (Xo. 18(5) in each, the juice of a lemon and a little half glaze under them, and serve quite hot.

876. SUKKI'V-KIDXEYS, WITH FIXE-IIERBS.

Prepare some fine-herbs sauce (Xo. 14), slit the kidneys lengthwise quite through; remove the skin, and then slice them into thin scollops. Place a sauta or frying pan, with two ounces of butter in it, on a brisk fire; fry the kidneys brown, then add a glass of Sherry or Madeira; let this boil till reduced, then pour in the sauce prepared fir the purpose; allow the whole to simmer together on the stove for three minutes; dish them up with some pastry Jlcuruns round them, and serve.

877. ANOTHER METHOD.

Prepare the kidneys in thin scollops, season witn pepper and salt, and fry them brown in a little butter; then throw in a table-spoonful of chopped mushrooms, the same of parsley, and two shalots, also chopped; after allowing the whole to fry a few minutes longer, shake in a table-spoonful of flour, mix together, and moisten with a glass of sherry; let this boil for two minutes, then add a large spoonful of brotfn gravy or broth; allow the whole to simmer on the fire for five minutes, add a little lemon-juice, and serve.

302 ENTREES OF VEAL.

878. SHEEP'S-KIDNEYS, A LA CLAREMONT.

Scollop and fry the kidneys as directed for those dressed with fineherbs; and when they are browned, add some Claremont sauce (No. 58); simmer the whole together for three minutes, and serve with a border of potato croquettes.

879. sheep's-head, a la gallimaufre.

Procure the head and pluck of a fresh-killed sheep, split the head into halves, remove the brains, steep the whole in water, and wash them thoroughly. Next, place the head, heart, and liver in a stewpan, with carrot, onion, garnished faggot of parsley, and green onions, two blades of mace, a dozen cloves, and a tea-spoonful of pepper-corns; moisten with a glass of brandy, and sufficient broth or water - if the latter be used, salt must be added; cover the whole with buttered paper and put the lid on, then set the stewpan on a gentle fire to braize for about one hour and a half. When the head, &c, are done, take them up carefully on a dish, strain the broth, and after having divested it of all grease, boil down one-half to thin glaze, and with the remainder make some brown sauce. The pieces of the head should be trimmed, seasoned with pepper and salt, chopped parsley, and two shalots, then rubbed over with a paste-brush dipped in beaten egg, well-covered with bread-crumbs, and placed on a dish in the larder. The liver and heart must be minced up fine, and when the sauce has been reduced to the usual consistency, add it to the mince, together with a spoonful of fine-herbs and a little lemon-juice. When about to send to table, make the mince quite hot, and turn it out on its dish; place the pieces of the head - previously broiled on both sides, of a bright yellow color, and afterward nicely glazed- upon ^the mince, pour some of the thin glaze round the entree, and serve.

Note. - Sheep's or lamb's heads, when braized and bread-crumbed, may also be served with any kind of sharp sauce.

ENTREES OF YEAL,

COMPRISING

Fricandeau, with PurSe of Green-peas. . Veal Cutlets, d la Dreux.

„ d la MacSdoine, Ac. „ d la Pirigord.

Noix of Veal, d la Rigence. „ d la Zingara.

„ d la Toulonte., , d la Duchesne.

Gvenadint of Veal, with Spinach, Ac. „ in Papillotes.

Tendons of Veal, with stewed Peas. Blanquette of Veal, with Mushrooms, Ac.

„ d la Villeroi, with Purie Croquettes of Veal.

of Celery. Veal and Ham Scollops, with Italian sauce.

Veal Kernels, with Parte of Artichokes. Scotch Scollops.

„ d la Talleyrand. Minced Veal, and Poached Ecrgs.

Veal Cutlets, d la Financiire., , d la Portuguaise.

880. FRICANDEAU, WITH PUREE OF GREEN PEAS.

The fricandeau piece consists of that part of the leg of Teal irenemlly called the cushion, and is found on the inner side of the leg, lying im

NOIX OF VEAL. 303

mediately under the udder or fatty covering. This part must be carefully cut out, by making a semicircular incision from one end round to the other, following the evident natural indication. Flatten the piece of veal slightly with a cutlet-bat, and then pare off the upper and under sinewy covering, leaving the surface perfectly smooth. The fricandeau must then be closely larded with the strips of fat bacon in the usual manner. Next, strew the bottom of a fricandeau pan with sliced carrot, onion and celery, and a well-garnished faggot of parsley and green onions; cover these over with thin layers of fat bacon, and then place the fricandeau on the top of all; moisten with good stock or broth of sufficient quantity to reach up to the larding, but not to cover it under; place a round of paper well buttered on the top, and cover with the lid. The fricandeau should be allowed to braize very gently for about three hours, either in the oven or upon a very slow stove-fire, during which time it must be frequently basted with its own liquor; when nearly done, the paper and the lid must be altogether removed, in order to enable the larding to dry, and it should be frequently basted with its own glaze, to give it a bright shiny appearance. Care must be taken to prevent the fricandeau from acquiring too much color during the latter part of the process. Put some puree of green peas (No. 106) in the centre of the dish, and with two forks carefully lift up the fricandeau, and place it upon the puree; pour a little half glaze round the base, and serve.

Note. - Fricandeaux prepared as above may also be served with every kind of vegetable puree or garnish described in this work.

881. FRICANDEAU, A LA MACEDOINE. This must be trimmed and larded as in the foregoing case; then an incision of about three inches in length should be cut through its entire thickness, and a round or oval tin-cutter placed therein to distend the hollow part, so as to give it the appearance of a circle. Prepare and braize the fricandeau as before, and when done place it in its dish upon a base of quenelle force-meat; fill the centre of the fricandeau with a well-prepared Macedoine of vegetables (No. 143), round which place a neatly-arranged border of small spring turnips split into halves, turned in the shape of deep cuts, and filled with green peas: ornament the base of the fricandeau with a border of young spring carrots, nicely glazed: pour some thin Espagnole round the entree, and serve.

882. NOIX* OF VEAL, A LA REGENCE. In this case the udder must be left adhering to the noix, or cushion of veal; it must be neatly trimmed, and the udder made to represent the form of a half-moon, with the lean part (within the inner semicircle) smoothly pared, and larded in the same manner as & fricandeau. This should then be placed in an oval stewpan upon a bed of vegetables, covered with layers of fat bacon, moistened with half a pint of Sherry or Madeira, and about a pint of good stock. The udder must be covered with layers of fat bacon, to preserve it white; then place a thickly-buttered paper over all, and cover with the lid. The noix must be very gently braized on a slow-fire, or in the oven, and fre * Noix is the French technical term for that part of a leg of veal generally used for fricandeaux; the English term for which is cushion, or mouse-piece. ~

304 ENTREES OF VEAL.

quently basted with its own liquor, - care being taken that the larding is nicely glazed; when nearly done the bacon must be removed from the udder, and the noix placed in its dish; garnish it round with a Financi&re ragout (No. 188), incorporated with the glaze from the noix, stick three ornamental silver skewers, previously garnished with a large truffle, cock's-comb, and a eray-fish, in the udder; glaze the larding, and serve.

883. NOIX OF VEAL, A LA TOULOUSE.

Prepare this as in the foregoing case, and when dished up, garnish with a white Toulouse ragout (No. 87), using Allemande sauce for the purpose; stick in three ornamental silver skewers, garnished with a large cock's-comb, a truffle, and a decorated quenelle; keep the udder white, glaze the larding and serve.

Note. - This entree may also be served with a garnish of prepared vegetables a la Macedoine (No. 143).

884. GRENADINS OF VEAL, WITH SPINACH, ETC.

Trim a fricandeau piece of white veal, and cut this into eight or ten fillets, beginning at the thick end; these must be flattened with a cutlet-bat dipped in water, and trimmed somewhat in the shape of fillets of fowl. They should then be closely larded with fat bacon, placed in neat order in a deep sauta or fricandeau pan, upon a bed of sliced vegetables covered over with layers of fat bacon; moisten with sufficient good stock, just to reach up to the larding, place the buttered paper, and cover with the lid. The grenadins will require to be braized for about one hour and a quarter, during which time they must be frequently basted; when nearly "rJone, remove the paper and glaze them. Next, drain them on a napkin, trim them, and dish them on a foundation of force-meat, in close order; fill the centre with some pwee of spinach, pour some half glaze round the base of the entree (made with the liquor from the grenadins), and serve.

Note. - Grenadins may also be garnished with all kinds of ragouts and vegetable garnishes directed to be served with fricandeaux.

885. TENDONS OF VEAL, WITH STEWED PEAS.

Tendons of veal consist of that part which lies along the breast end of the ribs, forming an opaque gristly substance, which in the ox becomes bone. To extract these, an incision must be made right down the extreme edge of the breast of veal, without damaging the tendons, which should then be laid quite bare with the knife up to the commencement of the ribs, where they must be divided from them. The bony part, if any remain, must be pared away, and the tendons put to steep in water for an hour or so. They must then be tied up securely with string, and put to boil in the stockpot for about four hburs; or else, if there be no stockpot boiling at the time, place thorn in a stewpan, with the usual complement of vegetables and seasoning, covered over with a buttered paper; moisten with three quarts of fresh broth or water, set them to braize on a slow fire, for about four hours, and when done, put them in press between two dishes, until they are cold. The tendons must then be cut slantwise, into rather

ENTREES OF VEAL. 305

large scollops, measuring about two inches in diameter, and when neatly trimmed, should be placed in a sauta-pan with some half glaze to warm them in. Twenty minutes before sending to table, put the tendons in the oven, or on the stove-fire, to simmer for ten minutes; then allow them to boil briskly, so as to reduce the glaze, in which they must be gently rolled, to make it adhere to them; dish them up in a close circle upon a base of quenelle force-meat, fill the centre with stewed peas, pour a little thin Ezpagnole sauce into the sauta-pan, to be mixed with the glaze by boiling, use this to put round the entree, and serve.

Note. - Tendons of veal prepared as above, may also be served with every other kind of dressed vegetable garnishes, as well as with all sorts of purees of vegetables; for making which, see those articles.

886. TEXDOXS OF VEAL, A LA VILLEItOI, WITH PUREE OF

CELERY.

Prepare, braize, and trim the tendons, as directed in the foregoing ease; put them on a large earthen dish, and mask them over with a coating of stiffly-reduced Allemande sauce; when this has become firmly set upon the tendons, by cooling, let them lie dipped in beaten es'g, and bread-crumbed, and afterward fried of a light color in clean hog's lard, made quite hot for the purpose. Let them be dished up in a close circle, overlapping each other, fill the centre with some puree of celery (No. 110), pour some half glaze, or a little Supreme or Bechamel sauce round the entree, and send to table.

Note. - Tendons prepared in this manner may also be garnished as the former.

887. TEAL KERNELS, WTTH PUREE OF ARTICHOKES.

Veal kernels are an oblong fatty substance, containing a kind of small kidney of great delicacy, lying to the left of the blade-bone of the shoulder; these must be steeped in water for about half an hour, then parboiled for five minutes, immersed in cold water, drained upon a napkin, and put in press between two dishes. From ten to sixteen kernels suffice for an entree. The kernels must be trimmed without waste, and placed in a deep circular fricandeau pan, upon thin layers of white veal; then moisten with some white wine mirepoix (No. 236), and set them on a slow fire to braize very gently for about three-quarters of an hour, bearing in mind that the heat of the stove is to be so regulated as to cause their liquor to be reduced to one half its original quantity. The kernels must then be carefully removed into a sautapan, and their half glaze, when strained and divested of all grease, poured upon them. Place them on a brisk fire, and let them boil quickly till their moisture is reduced to a glaze, roll them gently in this, causing as much of it as possible to adhere to them, to give them a bright appearance. Then dish them up in a close circle upon a base of force-meat of veal, with a crouton of fried bread of the same shape between each kernel; fill the centre with some puree of arttichokes (No. lH), pour some half glaze round the entree, and serve.

Note. - Veal kernels, prepared and dished up in this manner, may be garnished with all kinds of dressed vegetables and purees. 19

306 ENTREES OF VEAL.

887. VEAL KERNELS, A LA DUCHESSE.

When the kernels have been braized, pressed, and trimmed, as directed in the foregoing part of the preceding article, let them be smoothly masked over with some well-rednced AUemande sauce; and after the sance has been allowed sufficient time to become firm by cooling, bread-crumb the kernels, fry them in properly-heated fryingfat, of a light color, and, having dished them up as directed in the preceding case, let the entree be garnished and sauced similarly.

VEAL KERNELS, A LA TALLEYRAND.

Parboil aud trim the kernels, then place them in a fricandeau pan between thin layers of fat bacon; moisten with some wine mirepoix (No. 236), and braize them gently for three-quarters of an hour; when done, put them on an earthen dish to cool, and mask each of them all over with a coating of stiffly-reduced AUemande sauce, mixed with 1 oz. of truffles, chopped fine; when the sauce has become firmly set, as it cools, dip each in some beaten egg, and bread-crumb them carefully. About twenty minutes before sending to table, fry them of a bright-yellow color, with clarified butter, in a deep sauta-pan; drain them upon a napkin, dish them up in a circle, garnish the centre with a ragout composed of small scollops of fat livers, truffles, mushrooms and cock's kernels, the whole of which must be tossed in good AUemande sauce; pour some thin Espagnole sauce (finished with some of the mirepoix) under the kernels, and serve.

889. VEAL CUTLETS, A LA FINANCIERE.

Procure a neck of very white veaT, saw off the chine-bone and the upper end of the ribs, leaving the cutlet-bones about three inches and a half long; then, divide it into cutlets; flatten these with a bat dipped in water, trim them neatly and lard the lean of the cutlets closely with bacon, in the usual way. Next, prepare the cutlets for braizing in the same manner as directed for a fricandeau; about oue hour and a quarter will suffice to braize them, when they must be nicely glazed, dished up with the larded part of the cutlet uppermost, and the centre of the entree filled with a rich Financiere ragout (No. 188); pour some of the sauce round the base of the cutlets, and serve.

890. VEAL CUTLETS, A LA DREUX. These should be cut rather thicker than usual, but neither flattened nor trimmed; they must be interlarded or studded through the lean part with about a dozen oblong pieces of red tongue, or ham, and black truffles about an inch long and a quarter of an inch in depth and thickness; these must be placed in a braiziug-pan, upon a bed of sliced vegetables covered with thin layers of fat bacon, some mace, four cloves, twelve pepper-corns, and a garnished faggot of parsley and green onions in the centre, and the whole again covered with layers of bacon; moisten with two glasses of Sherry and as much good stock as will suffice to cover the surface of the cutlets, and set them to braize on a slow fire for about one hour and a half, with the lid on; when done, allow them partially to cool in their own liquor. Then put them in press between two dishes, and when cold, let them be trimmed smooth, so as to show the truffle and tongue-studding.

ENTREES OF VEAL. 307

They should next be placed in a sautapan with some half glaze, made from their own liquor, and put away in the larder. Twenty minutes before sending to table, put the cutlets in the oven to be warmed through, then place them on the stove-fire to glaze; dish them up in a close circle, fill the centre with a white Toulouse ragout (No. 187), pour, some thin Espagnole sauce round the base of the entree, and serve.

891. VEAL CUTLETS, A LA PERIGORD.

Trim the cutlets neatly, season with pepper and salt, then dip them in some whipped white of eggs, and afterward in some black truffles chopped very fine; flatten this on securely with the blade of a knife, and place them in clarified butter in a sautapan, in circular order. Twenty minutes before sending to table, fry the cutlets over a gentle fire, on both sides, until done through - taking care that the chopped truffles do not burn; when done, drain them on a piece of paper, glaze, and dish them up, fill the centre with scollops of red tongue and truffles; pour some Perigueux sauce (No. 23), and serve.

892. VEAL CUTLETS, A LA ZINGARA.

Trim the cutlets neatly, season with pepper and salt, and place them in a sautapan with some clarified butter. In another sautapan prepare a similar number of thin oval scollops of raw ham. When about to send to table, fry the cutlets and the ham, glaze both, and dish them up - alternately placing a cutlet and a piece of ham; fill the centre with scolloped mushrooms and truffles, pour some thin Espagnole sauce into the sautapan the cutlets have been fried in, to this add a little cayenne and lemon-juice; simmer these together on the fire, pour the sauce over the cutlets and serve.

893. VEAL CUTLETS, A LA DUCHESSE.

Prepare these in the same way as the cutlets, a la Dreux; and when they have been trimmed, mask them all over with a coating of Atelet sauce (No. 36) and bread-crumb them as for a Villeroi. Fry the cutlets of a bright-yellow color in clarified butter, dish them up, and fill the centre with circular scollops of red tongue and buttonmushrooms tossed in a little thick Allemande sauce; pour some Tomata sauce (No. 22) round the base of the entree, and serve.

894. VEAL CUTLETS, IN" PAPILLOTES.

Trim the cutlets neatly, season with pepper and salt, and fry them in a little clarified butter; when they are nearly done, add some mushrooms, parsley, and three shalots, the whole chopped fine; fry these together over the fire for five minutes, and then add two gravyspoonfuls of Veloute, or any other white sauce, a little nutmeg, lemonjuice, and a small piece of glaze; simmer the whole together over a geutle fire for a few minutes, then add a leason of four yolks of eggs, toss the cutlets about to mix the leason in with the sauce, and let them become cool. In other respects, finish in the same way as directed for mutton cutlets, a la Maintenon (No. 838).

895. BLANQUETTE OF VEAL, WITH MUSHROOMS.

The veal for this purpose must first be roasted, and when cold, cut into round thin scollops about an inch in diameter; to these add

308 ENTREES OF VEAL.

some button-mushrooms also cut into scollops, and enough Allemande sauce (No. 7) for the entree. Just before sending it to table, warm the blanquette, and dish it up with a border of croquettes of veal, of rice or potatoes. This dish may be varied by substituting scollops of truffles, cucumbers, or red tongue, for the mushrooms.

896. CROQUETTES OF VEAL.

Cut about 1 lb. of roasted veal into very small dice, or mince it into very fine shreds; add this to about half its quantity of mushrooms, truffles or red tongue, cut up in the same manner. Xext, reduce by boiling enousrh Allemande, Bechamel, Veloute or Supreme sauce for the entree; and when it has become rather stiff, throw in the mince; season with a little pepper and grated nutmeg; stir the whole well together, and then spread the preparation on a dish, about an inch thick; smooth it over with the blade of a knife, cover with buttered paper, and put it into the larder to cool. It must then be divided into about two dozen pieces, and each of these rolled in breadcrumbs in the form of a common-sized cork or a round ball, or in the shape of a pear, and after being dipped in some beaten egs;, must again be rolled in bread-crumbs, and placed on an earthen dish till within twenty minutes of dinner time; the croquettes must now be fried in clean hog's-lard made quite hot for the purpose, and when done, drained upon a napkin to absorb all the grease, then dished up with fried parsley, and served immediately.

Note. - When croquettes are shaped in the form of pears, some parsley stalks of equal lengths should be stuck in at the pointed ends, before they are fried, to imitate the stalk of a pear.

897. VEAL AND HAM SCOLLOPS, WITH ITALIAN SAUCE.

Procure about 1 lb. of v#al, either from the leg, the chump-end of the loin, or belt end of the neck; cut this into round or oval scollops, season with pepper and salt, and place them in a sautapan with some clarified butter: an equal number of similarly-cut scollops of ham may either be put with these, or separately. Fry the veal and ham scollops nicely brown, pour off the grease, add the brown Italian sauce (Xo. 12) and some button-mushrooms; simmer the whole together for three minutes, dish them up, alternately placing a scollop of veal with the ham; fill the centre with the mushrooms, pour the sauce round the entree, and serve.

898. SCOTCH SCOLLOPS.

Trim the scollops as in the foregoing case, season with parsley and shalots chopped fine, pepper and salt; place the scollops after they have been bread-crumbed in the usual way, in a sautapan with a little clarified butter: mark the scollops of ham separately; prepare also two dozen small round quenelles with some highly seasoned veal forcemeat. When about to send to table, fry the scollops of veal and ham of a light color, glaze them, and dish them alternately in a close circle - first placing a scollop of veal and then one of ham; fill the centre with the quenelles (previously poached), pour a little thickened brown gravy with a little glaze in it, or some well-finished Espagnole sauce, round the entree, and serve.

HEART SWEETBREADS. 309

•

899. MINCED VEAL, AND POACHED EGGS.

Pare off the outside part of 1 lb. of veal, and then let it be chopped very fine, or cut it into thin shreds. Put about half a pint of Bechamel sauce (No. 5) into a stewpan and reduce it by boiling, until it becomes rather thick, then add the minced veal, and a little cream; season with pepper and salt, and a very little nutmeg; stir the whole well together over the fire until warm, and dish it up in a conical form; place six poached eggs round it with a circular scollop of glazed red tongue or ham between each egg; pour a little Bechamel sauce (No. 5) round the base of the entree, and serve.

900. ANOTHER METHOD.

Put a pat of butter into a stewpan on the fire, and when melted, throw in a table-spoonful of flour; stir this with a wooden spoon over the fire for two minutes; then gradually mix in half a pint of broth, put the sauce on the fire, stirring it until reduced to the thickness of Bechamel sauce; then add the minced veal, a gill of cream, a small piece of glaze, and a little nutmeg, pepper, and salt; stir this on the fire for three minutes, and serve as in the foregoing case.

Note. - Mushrooms, truffles, tongue, or ham, either minced or cut into shreds, may be added to the veal, in either of the two foregoing cases.

901. MINCED VEAL, A LA PORTUGUAISE.

See the directions for dressing beef in this method (No. 810).

HEART SWEETBREADS,*

COHPKISING

Sweetbreads, larded, with Stewed Peas, Ac. Sweetbreads, larded, d la St. Cloud. „ „ & la Monarque. „ „ d la Parisieune.

„ „ d la Conti.

902. SWEETBREADS LARDED, WITH STEWED PEAS.

Three heart sweetbreads generally suffice for a dish. They must be procured quite fresh, otherwise they are unfit for table, and should be steeped in water for several hours, and the water frequently changed; the sweetbreads are then to be scalded in boiling water for about three minutes, and immersed in cold water for half an hour; after which they must be drained upon a napkin, trimmed free from any sinewy fat, and put between two dishes to be slightly pressed flat, and then closely larded with strips of bacon in the usual manner. Tlie sweetbreads must next be placed in a deep sauta-pan on abed of thinlysliced carrot, celery, and onions, with a garnished faggot of parsley and

* Sweetbreads, or Pancreas, are the two white glands found in calves; the one being placed immediately below the throat, and the other, of a rounder form, lying nearer the heart; hence they are designated heart and throat sweetbreads: the former is the most delicate, and when in perfection, is white and fat; the latter is of an elongated form, not so fat as the other, and is only used for secondary purposes.

310 HEART SWEETBREADS.

green onions placed in the centre, and covered with thin layers of fat bacon. Moisten with about a pint of good stock, place a round of buttered paper on the top, cover with the lid, and after having put the sweetbreads to boil on the stove-fire, remove them to the oven or on a moderate fire (in the latter case live embers of charcoal must be placed on the lid), and allow them to braize rather briskly for about twenty minutes - frequently basting them with their own liquor. When done, remove the lid and paper covering, and set them again in the oven, to dry the surface of the larding; glaze them nicely, and dish them up on some stewed peas (No. 1115).

Sweetbreads, prepared in this way, may also be served with dressed asparagus peas, French-beans, scollops of cucumbers, braized lettuces, celery, Macedoine of vegetables, Jardiniere, and also with every kind of vegetable puree described in this work.

To raise the sweetbreads above the garnish or sauce served with them, it is necessary to place as many foundations as there are sweetbreads in the dish; these may be made, either by boiling some rice in broth until it becomes quite soft, then working it into a paste; after this has been spread on a dish about an inch thick, a circular tin-cutter must be used to stamp it out. They may also be prepared from veal force-meat, or even fried croutons of bread will serve the purpose.

903. SWEETBREADS, A LA MONARQUE.

These must be larded and braized as the foregoing; then cut a kind of pillar out of a piece of stale bread, of angular shape, about three inches high, each side of the angle measuring about two inches; this should be fried in hog's lard, of a bright-yellow color, and stuck in a perpendicular position in the centre of the dish with a little paste made of flour and egg. The sweetbreads "are to be so arranged as to have one end resting up against this croustade, and between each a decorated minion fillet of fowl is to be placed; crown the top with a row of white double cocks'-combs, stick in an ornamental silver skewer garnished with a large cocks'-comb, a mushroom, a large crayfish, and a truffle; pour a Financiere ragout (No. 188) round the entree, and serve.

904. SWEETBREADS, A LA CONTI.

After the sweetbreads have been scalded and pressed flat, make about a dozen incisions round the sides of their upper surface with the point of a small knife, in a slanting direction, to the depth of half an inch; in these incisions insert circular scollops of black truffle, and repeat this so as to form an inner circle in the same manner. Next, prepare the sweetbreads for braizing, placing them upon a bed of thinlysliced carrot, onion, and celery, covered with thin layers of bacon, layers of the same being placed also over the sweetbreads; moisten with good white stock, and braize the sweetbreads about twenty minutes. When the sweetbreads are done, drain them on a napkin, and glaze them lightly, without drying the glaze on; when about to dish them up, garnish with a ragout composed of small quenelles of fowl, button mushrooms, cocks'-combs, and kernels, crown the whole with a large truffle, place a crayfish between each sweetbread, pour some Perigueux sauce (No. 23) under the entree, and serve.

Note. - The sweetbreads may be varied by scolloping, or vontixcr,

THROAT SWEETBREADS. 311

one-half with truffle, and the remainder with red tongue, or mixing the latter with green gherkins.

905. SWEETBREADS, A LA ST. CLOUD.

These should be scalded and pressed in the usual way, and studded over in neat circular order with pieces of black truffle or red tongue, cut out in the form of large hob-nails; then make twelve openings with a blunt wooden skewer in each sweetbread, and introduce in these the nail-like pieces of tongue perpendicularly. Braize them according to the directions for the foregoing, and when done, dish them up with a white Toulouse ragout (No. 187); garnish the entree round the base with a border of small quenelles decorated with truffles, and place a group of trimmed crayfish-tails, previously tossed iu a little glaze, colored with lobster-coral; slightly glaze the sweetbreads, and serve.

906. SWEETBREADS, A LA PARISIENNE.

After the sweetbreads have been scalded and pressed, let them be larded in the following manner: one with shreds of very black truffles, another with shreds of the tip of a red tongue, and the third with some green stalks of parsley; braize them between layers of fat bacon, and moisten with a wine mirepoix (No. 236). When they are done, dish them up against a triangular croustade, garnished with a well-arranged Parisian ragout (No. 203); stick an ornamental silver skewer, garnished with a double comb, a large truffle and a decorated quenelle, iu the centre of the croustade, and round the base of the skewer, stud a border of crayfish-tails, slightly glaze the sweetbreads, and serve.

Note. - Sweetbreads may also be served roasted for persons of delicate health, being very nutritious, and easy of digestion. In such cases they may be served with a little plain gravy, Supreme or brown sauce.

THROAT SWEETBREADS,

COMPRISING

Epigramme of Sweetbreads. Scollops of Sweetbreads d la Marechale. Scollops of Sweetbreads, with Shalot Gravy. „ „ d la Soubise.

„ „ d la Dauphine. „ „ d la Poulette.

„ „ d la d' Uxellee. Croquettes of Sweetbreads.

907. EPIGRAMME OF SWEETBREADS.

Procure four throat sweetbreads, and steep them in water for several hours, changing the water frequently, until they are freed from redness: they must theu be scalded for five minutes in boiling water, and after being immersed in fresh water to cool them, should be put in press between two dishes, to flatten. Next, put one of the sweetbreads to braize in some white broth: when done, set it aside to get cool, and let it be afterwards cut into small circular scollops, and placed in a small stewpan, with an equal quantity of scollops of red tongue and mushrooms. Cut the three remaining sweetbreads, in a slanting direction, into oval scollops a quarter of an inch thick; bread-crumb one

312 THROAT SWEETBREADS.

half with two coatings of bread-crumbs, by dipping them the first time in beaten egg, and the second in clarified butter; place these in a sautapan with a little clarified butter, and prepare the other half separately in a similar manner, without bread-crumbing them; both must be seasoned with pepper and salt. When about to send to table, fry the bread-crumbed scollops of a light-color, but the others should be merely simmered over a slow fire, in order to keep them as white as possible; glaze the former and toss the latter in a little Bechamel sauce, dish them up, alternately placing a bread-crumbed scollop with a white one; fill the centre with the small scollops of tongue, &c, previously warmed in a little Bechamel sauce, pour some of the sauce round the base, and serve.

908. SCOLLOPS OF SWEETBREADS, WITH SHALOT GRAVY.

Bread-crumb the whole of the scollops, as directed in the foregoing case, fry them of a light color, drain them on a piece of paper, and glaze; dish them up in a close circle, pour some rich shalot gravy (No. 167) under them, and serve.

909. SCOLLOPS OF SWEETBREADS, A LA DAUPHINE.

Cut the sweetbreads into oval scollops, place them in a sautapan, with a little clarified butter, season with pepper and salt, a little nutmeg and some chopped parsley, squeeze the juice of half a lemon over them, and simmer them gently over the fire for ten minutes; they must then be removed into a dish, and when partially cold, covered with a thin coating of puree of fowl, mixed with an equal proportion of reduced Allemande sauce, and when this has become firmly set by cooling, dip them in beaten egg, and bread-crumb them. Twenty minutes before sending to table, let them be carefully fried in plenty of hog's-lard, made hot for the purpose; drain them on a napkin to absorb all the grease, dish them up in a close circle, pour some vuree of mushrooms (No. 122) in the centre, and serve.

910. SCOLLOPS OF SWEETBREADS, A LA D'UXELLES.

These are prepared in almost every particular just as the foregoing except that D'Uxelles sauce (No. 16) must be substituted for X e puree to mask the scollop with. After having simmered, let them be masked with the sauce, and afterwards bread-crumbed; then fried, dished up and served with either of the following sauces: - Brown or white Italian, Poivrade, half glaze, scollops of mushrooms or truffles, puree of truffles, plain gravy, or puree of mushrooms.

911. SCOLLOPS OF SWEETBREADS, A LA MARECHALE.

These must be seasoned with a little pepper and salt, masked over with a thin coating of reduced Allemande sauce, and afterwards breadcrumbed upon this; they should then be placed in circular order in a sautapan with some clarified butter, and fried of a bright-yellow color. When done, dish them up in close order, and let the centre be filled with Toulouse ragout (No. 187).

912. SCOLLOPS OF SWEETBREADS, A LA SOUBISE.

Prepare and dish up these, as the foregoing; fill the centre with SoubUe sauce (No. 119), and serve.

calf's liver, etc. 313

They may also be scored with all kinds of garnishes of dressed vegetables, purees of vegetables, or any kind of sauce served with cutlets.

913. SCOLLOPS OF SWEETBREADS, A LA POULETTE.

When the sweetbreads have been scalded in the usual manner, cut them into circular scollops, place them in neat order in a sautapan with a little clarified butter, and season with pepper and salt, chopped parsley and lemon-juice; simmer them over a moderate fire for about ten minutes, and when done remove them into a stewpan, containing enough sauce a la Poulette for the entree, add some scollops of mushrooms or truffles, toss the whole together gently over the stove-fire until sufficiently hot, and then dish them up in a pyramidal form, and serve with a border of croquettes of potatoes round the entree.

Note. - Scollops of sweetbreads, a la Russe and a la Provengale, are prepared in the same manner as veal cutlets under these names.

914. CROQUETTES OF SWEETBREADS.

When the sweetbreads have been scalded, put them into a small stewpan with two shalots, a little mignionette-pepper and salt, half a bay-leaf and a sprig of thyme; moisten with some stock-pot toppings, and set them to braize gently for about twenty minutes; when done, drain them on a plate to get cold, after which let them be cut up into very small dice, and mix with some stiff-reduced Allemande sauce; season with a little pepper and salt and grated nutmeg; stir the whole gently over the stove-fire for two minutes, spread the preparation on a dish about an inch thick, and put it in the larder to get cold. The croquettes then must be shaped, bread-crumbed, and fried in the same manner as directed for veal croquettes.

Note. - Some red tongue, mushrooms, or truffles, cut into small dice, may also be mixed in with the sweetbreads.

CALF'S EARS, FEET, LITER, AND BRAINS,

COMPRISING

CalFs Ear, d la Tortue. Calf's Liver, fried, with Fine-herbs Sauce.

„ fried, with Tomata sauce. Calf's Brains, with Malelotte Sauce. Calfs Feet, d la Pascaline. „ with Nutbrown Butter.

„ fried, with Italian sauce. „ fried, d la Provengale.

Calf's Liver, braized, with Vegetables. „ Scolloped.

915. calf's ears, a la tortue.

Procure four white calf's ears (cut with a broad base), scald them in boiling water for five minutes, after which plunge them in cold water and let thein be wiped dry; then hold them on the point of a skewer over the flame of a charcoal fire to singe off any remaining hairs; wipe them clean, rub them over with lemon-juice, and braize them in some blanc (No. 235) for about an hour and a half or two hours. When the ears are done, drain them on a wet napkin, and with the back of the blade of a small knife scrape off all the soft skin; trim them neatly, and

314 calf's liver, etc.

with the point of a knife cut the white gristle of each into slits - taking particular care not to draw the knife through - so that when the thin part of the ears is turned down, the stripes may form themselves into loops or curls. When the ears are ready to dish up, fill each with a decorated quenelle or a rouud truffle, garnish with a ragout a la Tortue (No. 189), and serve.

916. calf's eaes fried in - batter, with tomata sauce.

Prepare the ears as directed in the foregoing, and when done let them be trimmed; scrape off the soft skin from the upper part, and cut each ear iuto four pieces lengthwise; put them to steep in a basin with two spoonsful of salad oil, one of vinegar, two sliced shalots, parsley, bay-leaf, and thyme, and a little mignionette-pepper and salt. About twenty minutes before dinner time, drain the pieces of ears on a cloth, dip them in some light batter, and fry them in plenty of hog's-lard, heated to the proper degree for the purpose. When fried, dish them up in a pyramidal form, pour some Tomata sauce (No. 22) under them and serve.

Note. - Calf's ears prepared in this manner may also be served with any of the following sauces: Piquante, Poivrade, Italian, Gherkin, Poor-man's, Provengale, or Richelieu. If, however, this kind of fritter is not eateu as soon as served, it would be better to send the sauce separately.

917. calf's feet, a la pascaline.

Separate each foot into halves by splitting the hoof with a knife, take the boue out, and scald these in boiling water for five minutes; the feet must then be braized fh blanc (No. 235), and when done, drained upon a cloth, cut into pieces about two inches square, and put into a stewpan containing some button-mushrooms and Pascaline sauce (No. 15); toss them in this over the stove-fire until sufficiently hot, and serve with a border of Jleurons or potato croquettes round the entree.

918. CALF'S FEET FRIED IN BATTER, WITH ITALIAN SAUCE.

These are prepared in all respects the same as calf's ears fried, but substituting Italian sauce (No. 12) for Tomata sauce.

919. calf's liver braized, with vegetables.

Choose a liver of a bright pinky color, entirely free from any whitish spots: wash and wipe it dry, and then lard it through with strips of ham and fat bacon - previously seasoned with chopped parsley, pepper, and a very little salt; cover the bottom of a stewpan with veal or other trimmings of meat, place the liver upon them, garnish with two carrots, two onions stuck with four cloves each, two heads of celery, and a garnished faggot of parsley; moisten with two glasses of Sherry and a quart of strong stock; place a buttered paper on the top, cover with the lid, and set the liver to braize very gently ou a slow fire for about two hours and a half, frequently basting it with its own liquor while it is being braized. When done, remove the liver into a deep sautapan with part of its liquor, previously reduced to half-glaze; use the remainder to work some brown sauce

calf's liver, etc. 315

for the entree; put the liver in the oven to be glazed with its own liquor, and when done dish it np with groups of small carrots, turnips, and glazed onions round its base, pour the sauce under it, and serve.

920. fried calf's liver, with fine-herbs sauce.

Cut the liver up into neat scollops about a quarter of an inch thick, season with pepper and salt, and fry them brown in a sautapan with a little clarified butter; when this is done, pour off all the grease, add some fine-herbs sauce (No. 14), simmer the whole together on the fire for about three minutes, and serve.

921. calf's brains, with matelotte sauce.

Steep three sets of brains in water for several hours, care being taken to change the water frequently - and remove the loose skin that contains them; after being washed, and placed in a stewpan, containing some boiling water, and seasoned with a gill of vinegar, some thinly-sliced carrot and onion, thyme and bay-leaf, pepper and salt, let them boil gently for about twenty minutes. The brains must then be drained upon a cloth, and six croutons cut in the shape of large cocks'combs previously stuck on the bottom of an entree dish, so as to form as many compartments; place a lobe of brains in each of these, make a slight incision in each portion of the brains, and insert in it a scolloped circular piece of red tongue; pour a Matelotte ragout (No. 193) over the entree, and serve.

922. calf's brains, with nutbrown butter.

Prepare, and dish up the brains as in the foregoing case; pour some nutbrown butter (No. 93) over them, place a bouquet of fried parsley in the centre, and serve.

923. calf's brains fried in batter, a la provencale.

These must be cleaned, gently boiled in water, vinegar, &c; and when drained, cut into oval scollops, and steeped in a basin with a little oil, vinegar, pepper and salt. When about to send to table, fry them in batter in the usual way (see directions for calf's ears No. 916), after which dish them up with some Provencale sauce (No. 25) uuder them, and serve.

Note. - They may also be served with Tomala, Italian, Piquante, or Poivrade sauce.

924. calf's brains scolloped.

When the brains have been dressed, cut them into rather small scollops, and put them into a sautapan with a few scolloped mushrooms and truffles, season with a little cayenne and grated nutmeg, pour in some Allemande sauce (No. T) and juice of half a lemon; toss the whole gently together over the fire, and with this preparation fill as many silver scollop shells as will hold it; cover these over with a coating of fried bread-crumbs or raspings, place them for two minutes in a hot oven to gratinale, dish them up on a napkin, and serve.

316

ENTREES OP LAMB,

COMPRISING

Shoulder of Lamb, larded, d la Financiire. Lamb Cutlets, bread-crumbed, with AspaNcck of Lamb, d la Itigence. ragus Peas.

Epigramme of Lamb, with Mushrooms. „ d la Chlvreuae.

„ „ d la Villeroi, with Peas. . Braized Carbonnades of Lamb.

Breasts of Lamb, d la Marichale, with New Lamb's Sweetbreads, d la Toulouse, Ac.

Potatoes. Blanquette of Lamb's Sweetbreads.

Lamb Cutlets (plain), with Cucumbers, &c. Lamb's Sweetbreads Scolloped.

925. SHOULDER OF LAMB LARDED, A LA FINANCIERE.

Saw off the upper part of the shank-bone of a shoulder of lamb, then bone it entirely - with the exception of about three inches of the shank or leg bone, which must be left in. Spread the shoulder open, season with pepper and salt, garnish it with a thick layer of veal or fowl forcemeat; then with a small trussing-needle and some fine string draw the outer edges of the skinny part of the shoulder into a purse-like form, and tighten the strings so as to give it the appearance of a cushion; and, after removing the superficial skin in a circular shape, lard it closely. Next, strew the bottom of a stewpan with sliced carrot, onion, celery, and a garnished faggot of parsley; cover this with thin layers of fat bacon, and place the shoulder of lamb upon it; moisten with sufficient good stock to reach up to the larding, place a buttered paper on the top, and cover with the lid; then set it to braize very gently upon a slow fire for about an hour and a half, - with, some live embers of charcoal on the lid - and take care to baste it frequently. When done, remove it into a deep sautapan, and after having strained the liquor, free it from all grease, boil it down to half glaze, pour this on to the lamb, and put it in the oven to glaze, repeatedly basting the larding till the moisture is lessened. The ballotine* or shoulder of lamb must then be placed upon its dish, and garnished with a Financiere ragout (No. 188); put a paper ruffle on the bone, and serve.

926. NECK OF LAMB, A LA REGENCE.

Prepare this in exactly the same way as directed for necks of mutton larded en chevaux-de-frise (No. 611). When braized, glaze it nicely, and place it upon its dish, garnish it with a white Toulouse ragout (No. 187), and serve.

Note. - Necks of lamb prepared as the foregoing, may also be served with a Macedoine of vegetables, or a Jardiniere.

927. EPIGRAMME OF LAMB, A LA TOULOUSE.

Trim a neck of lamb into cutlets, and place them into a sautapan with some clarified butter; then braize a breast of lamb until quite tender, take it up, remove the bones and put it in press between two dishes; when cold, cut it into as many cutlet-shaped pieces as there are

* Shoulders of Lamb, prepared in the foregoing manner - called, in French, " fi i!h iine»" - may also be served with every kind of dressed vegetables, or pui-te* of vegetables.

ENTREES OF LAMB. 317

cutlets from the neck, insert a small piece of bone in each, and breadcrumb them over a coating of Allemande sauce, dip them in some beaten egg, bread-crumb them again, and place them in a sautapan with clarified butter. When about to send to table, fry the cutlets in both sautapans; as soon as they are done, glaze them lightly, and dish them up - alternately placing a plain cutlet and one that is breadcrumbed; fill the centre with a white Toulouse ragout (No. 187), pour some Espagnole half-glaze round the entree, and serve.

Note. - Epigrammes of lamb may also be garnished with a blanquette, with scollops of cucumbers, stewed peas, asparagus-peas, &c.

928. BREASTS OF LAMB, A LA VILLEROI, WITH PEAS.

Braize two breasts of lamb, in the stock-pot, or in any kind of white broth; when done, take them up carefully, remove all the bones, and reserve these for the purpose of making cutlet bones with; put the breast in press between two dishes, and when cold, cut them into about twelve pieces, in the form of an elongated heart, or of a cutlet; stick a small bone in at the narrow end, and spread a coating of reduced Allemande sauce over them; when this is set firm by cooling, roll them first in bread-crumbs, and then dip them in beaten egg, and bread-crumb them over again. When about to send to table, fry these cutlets in plenty of hog's-lard quite hot, dish them up, garnish them with stewed peas, pour some half-glaze round the base, and serve.

Note. - Breasts of lamb prepared a la Villeroi may also be served with spinach, endives, cucumbers, asparagus-peas, Macedoine, &c.

929. BREAST OF LAMB, A LA MARECHALE, WITH NEW POTATOES.

Trim and prepare these in the same way as the foregoing, but the coating of sauce must be thinner in this case; bread-crumb them twice over the sauce, first dipped in beaten egg and then in clarified butter, over which bread-crumb them the second time; put them in shape with the blade of a knife, and place them in a sautapan with a little clarified butter. When about to send to table, fry the cutlets of a light color, drain them on a sheet of paper and glaze them lightly; dish them up, and serve some white Italian sance (No. 13) under them. They may also be served with all kinds of vegetable garnishes.

930. LAMB CUTLETS PLAIN, WITH CUCUMBERS.

In trimming these cutlets, care must be taken not to pare off any more of the fat than is positively necessary to give them shape. When trimmed, place the cutlets in a sautapan with clarified butter, season with pepper and salt, fry them on both sides of a light-brown color, pour off the grease, throw in a little glaze, toss them over the fire in this, and dish them np; garnish the centre with prepared scollops of cucumbers (No. 138), pour a little Espagnole or half-glaze round the entree, and serve.

931. LAMB CUTLETS, BREAD-CRUMBED, WITH ASPARAGUS-PEAS.

Trim the cutlets, season with pepper and salt, rub them over with a paste-brush dipped in yolks of eggs, and roll them in bread-crumbs;

318 ENTREES OF LAMB.

then dip them in some clarified butter, and bread-crumb them over again; put them in shape with the blade of a knife, and place them in neat order in a sautapan with some clarified butter. When about to send to table, fry the cutlets of a light color, drain them upon a sheet of paper, glaze and dish them np; fill the centre with asparaguspeas (No. 148), pour some thin Espagnole or half-glaze round them, and serve.

932. LAMB CUTLETS, A LA CHEVREUSE.

These must be cut rather thick, allowing two ribs for each, but they should not be trimmed; prepare and braize them in the same manner as veal cutlets a la Dreux (No. 890); and when done, pressed, and trimmed, mask them over with a puree of onions mixed with two ouuces of grated Parmesan cheese; when cold they should be dipped in beaten egg, and afterward rolled in bread-crumbs; put them into shape with the blade of a knife, and place them in order upon a dish or sautapan, until dinner-time. Then fry them in heated hog's-lard, of a brightyellow color, dish them up, put a small paper frill on the bone of each cutlet; fill the centre with small circular scollops of truffles, mushrooms, and fat livers, tossed in some Supreme sauce (No. 38), pour some of the sauce round the base of the entree, and serve.

Note. - In addition to the foregoing methods for dressing lamb cutlets, they may also be served in every variety of form iu which veal or mutton cutlets are prepared.

933. BRAIZED CARBONNADES OF LAMB.

Loins of lamb are used for this^-and should be prepared and finished according to the directions for carbonuades of mutton (No. 865).

934. lamb's sweetbreads, a la toulouse.

About ten heart sweetbreads are necessary for an entr&e; steep these in cold water for a couple of hours, and then scald them slightly to set them, for the purpose of being afterward larded; they must next be placed in a deep sautapan, covered with thin layers of fat bacon or else spread with butter; moisten with sufficient strong consomme to reach

nearly up to the larding; place a buttered paper upon them, and put them to boil briskly on a stove-fire for five minutes, then set them in the oven, or cover them with a lid containing live embers of charcoal, ami place them on a moderate stove-fire to simmer gently for a quarter of an hour, frequently basting them with their own liquor. When the sweetbreads are nearly done, remove the lid and the paper, put them in the oven, or pass the red-hot salamander over them to dry the larding, and then glaze them. When dished up, each sweetbread should be placed in the dish upon a base, formed of quenelle force-meat made of fowl or veal, and shaped to resemble a dariole -would: these of course should

lambs' heads, ears, and feet. 319

be previously poached. Fill the centre of the entree with stewed peas, pour some Espagnole sauce round the base, and serve.

Note. - Lambs' sweetbreads prepared as the foregoing, may also be served with asparagus, Macedoine or Jardiniere of vegetables; also with Toulouse or Financiere ragouts; and indeed in every form directed for other sweetbreads.

i 935. BLANQUETTE OP LAMB'S SWEETBREADS.

Throat sweetbreads will serve for this purpose, about eight being sufficient for a dish; steep them in water, scald them, and then braize them in a small stewpan with very little moisture; they will be done in about a quarter of an hour; put them on a dish to cool, cut them into scollops, and put them into a stewpan containing some sauce a la Poulette, toss the whole together till warm, then dish up the Manquette in a conical form, garnish it round with a border of potato croquettes made in the form of pears and serve.

Note. - Mushrooms, truffles, cucumbers, or asparagus-peas may be added.

936. SCOLLOPED lamb's sweetbreads.

Braize the sweetbreads, when cold cut them into rather thin small scollops, and finish these according to the directions for scolloped calfs brains (No. 924).

LAMBS' HEADS, EARS, AND FEET,

COMPRISING

Lamb's Head, d la Pascaline. Lamb's Ears, fried in Batter.

Lamb's Ears, d la Financiere. Lamb's Feet, d la Poulette.

" d la Dauphine. " d la d'Uxelle*.

" d la Venitihme. " fried in Batter.

937. lamb's head, a la pascaline.

The lamb's head must be scalded in the same way as a calf's head for mock turtle, then boned, and filled up with force-meat made of the liver, as for a gratin (No. 249); sew the the head up with a trussing needle and small twine, secure it in shape by fastening it in a napkin previously spread with butter, and set it to braize in a stewpan seasoned with a carrot, an onion, one head of celery, a garnished faggot of parsley, six cloves, and a blade of mace; moisten with good stock, and allow it to boil gently for about an hour and a half.

While the above is in preparation, four lambs' sweetbreads should be larded and prepared ready for glazing; two sets of lambs' brains must also be cleansed, and boiled in a little vinegar and water with sliced carrot and onion, pepper and salt, afterward drained, cut and made into croquettes. Four lamb's tongues, after being braized, must be cut into scollops, and placed in a stewpan with an equal quantity of scolloped mushrooms, and enough of Pascaline sauce (No. 15), for the entree.

320 ENTREES OF LAMBS' HEADS.

When about to send to table, place the head with the ears curled upon its dish, and the larded sweetbreads at its four corners; between these put the croquettes of brains, previously fried, pour the scollops of tongue, mushrooms, and sauce round the head, glaze it and serve.

938. lambs' ears, a la financiere.

Procure a dozen lambs' ears, scald these, then immerse them in cold water; when cold, wipe them dry, and singe them over the flame of a charcoal fire; they must then be gently braized in some blanc (No. 235) for about three-quarters of an hour, and when done drain upon a napkin; the thin part of the ears should be carefully scraped with the back part of the blade of a knife to remove the skin, leaving the white cartilaginous part entire; this last must then be slit in narrow bands, without cutting through the ends, so that when the ears are turned down, these bands by curling over should appear like a row of loops; place the ears as they are trimmed in a deep sautapan or stewpan containing some of their own liquor, cover them with a buttered paper and the lid, and set them aside till dinner-time.

While the ears are braizing, prepare some veal force-meat, and fill a plain low cylinder border mould (previously buttered) with the forcemeat; poach this in the usual way, and when about to send to table, turn it out upon its dish, place the lambs' ears all round the top of it and in each of these put a round ball of black truffle; fill the centre with a rich Financiere ragout (No. 188), pour some of the sauce round the base and serve.

Note. - This entree may also be served with a ragout a la Tortwt (No 189).

939. lambs' ears, a la dauphine.

Soald, singe, braize, and trim the lambs' ears as in the foregoing case, but they must not be slit. Fill them with force-meat made with the fillets of a fowl, or some veal, in which has been mixed a spoonful of white sauce and some chopped mushrooms; mask the ears over with a coating of reduced Allemande sauce, and when this has become firmly set upon tliem, roll them in bread-crumbs, and dip each separately in some beaten ogg seasoned with a little salt, then bread-crumb them over again, place them upon a dish, and set them aside in the larder. When about to send to table, fry the ears in plenty of heated hog'slard, of a fine light color, dish them up in a circular row, or pyramidally, pour some Supreme or Bechamel sauce, containing a few mushrooms cut into shreds or scollops, round and under them, and serve.

940. lambs' ears, a la venitienne.

Prepare these exactly in the same manner as for d la Finandire (No. 938), dish them up in a circle on the dish, fill the centre with small round balls, or croquettes of rice, prepared as follows: l oil four ounces of rice in white broth till done quite soft, then season with a pat of butter, two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, a little nutmeg, Cayenne pepper and salt; mix the whole well together, and form it into small round balls the size of marbles, roll these in flour, and fry them in clarified butter in a sautapan. Pour some Venetian sauce (No. 26) over the ears, and serve.

ENTREES OF PORK. 321

941. lamb's ears, fried in batter. See Calf's ears so prepared (No. 910).

912. lamb's feet, a la roulette.

Remove the shank-bones from a dozen lambs' feet, without tearing or cutting 1 through the part that covers the bone; scald them for about live minutes in boiling- water, and then immerse them in cold water; wipe and singe them over the flame of a charcoal lire, rub them over with lemon-juice, and braize them in some Wane (No. 235) for about an hour; then drain them upon a cloth, trim off the extremities neatly, make an incision in the hoof, and remove the round tuft of wool; place the lamb's feet in a stewpan containing some button-mushrooms and enough sauce a la Poulette for the entree, toss them in this over the stove-lire until quite warm; then dish them up neatly, aud serve with a border of jleurons, or croutons of fried bread.

913. lamb's feet, a la d'uxelles.

Braize and trim the feet as in the foregoing case, cover them with a coating of If Uxellea sauce (No. 16), and when this has become firmly set by cooling, bread-crumb them twice over in the usual manner, and fry them in hog's lard; when done, drain them upon a cloth, dish them up with fried parsley upon a napkin, and serve some Italian sauce (No. 12) separately in a boat.

911. lamb's feet, FRIED IX BATTER. See Calf's feet (No. 918).

ENTREES OF PORK,

COMPRISING

Griskin, or Spare-rib, of Pork, d la Soubise. Pig's Feet, a la Ste. Menehould.

,, „ d la Lyonnaise. „ d In Periyord.

,, „ d In Periyucux. „ d la Richelieu.

Pork Cutlets, with plain gravy. &e. Black Puddings, d la Fmncaise.

„ d la sauce Hubert, Ac., , d I'Anglaise.

,, « I'Aurure. AVhite Puddings, a la lioyale.

,, d V [nil it 'nne.

945. GRISKIN, OR SPARE-RIB OF PORK, A LA SOUBISE.

Trim a griskin of pork, and lard it closely, then put it in a deep dish with sliced onion and carrot, parsley, a gill of salad oil, some slices of peeled lemon, and a little mignionette pepper; allow the griskin to steep in this for several hours, or a whole day, if possible. When about to dress the griskin, twist it round, run a stout iron skewer through, and fasten it upon the spit tightly with string; cover the larding with buttered paper, and roast it before the fire for about an hour; as soon as a kind of vapor arises, and it sputters toward the fire, it is time to take it up. When the griskin is placed upon its dish, pour some Soubise sauce (No. 119) round it, garnish with a border of potatoes fried in clarified butter, "laze the griskin, aud serve. 20

m

322 ENTREES OF PORK.

946. GRISKIN OF PORK, A LA LYOXNAISE.

Prepare and roast this in the same way as the foregoing, and when done, dish it up with some Lyonnaise sauce (No. 24) round it; garnish with a border of toraatas au gratin (No. 1160), glaze the griskin, and serve.

947. GRISKIN" OF PORK, A LA PERIGUEUX.

This must be prepared and roasted as the foregoing; when done, serve with some Perigueux sauce (No. 23), and a border of mushrooms au gratin (1161) aound it.

948. PORK CUTLETS, PLAIN BROILED, WITH GRAVY, ETC.

These cutlets must be cut from the neck or loin of dairy -fed pork, not too fat; they should be trimmed but very little, the rough part of the cbine-bone only requiring to be removed;' thr skin must be left on, and scored in six places. Season the cutlets with pepper and salt, and broil them on a gridiron over a clear fire; coke makes a better fire than coal for broiling, as it emits no gas, and causes less smoke. Take care that they are thoroughly done and not scorched; dish them up with any of the following gravies or sauces, and serve: - Plan sage and onion, shalot, onion, fine-herbs, gravies, or essences: Piquante, Gherkin, Tomata, Poivrade, Poor-man's, Richelieu, and Gasconne sauces.

949. PORK CUTLETS, A LA SAUCE ROBERT, ETC.

Trim the cutlets neatly, observing, however, that nearly half an inch of the fat must be left on, to encircle the fillet of the cutlet; place them in an eartheu dish with a table -spoonful of salad oil; season with a little salt and pepper, and strew some parsley over them. When about to send to table, broil the cutlets nicely with the gravy in them, glaze and dish them up; pour under some sauce a la Robert (No. 67), and serve.

950. PORK CUTLETS, A L'AURORE.

Trim the cutlets neatly, season with pepper and salt, and place them in a sautapan with some clarified butter. About twenty minutes before sending to table, fry the cutlets over a brisk fire, so as to lightly color them on both sides before they are done, then pour off all the grease, leaving the cutlets neatly arranged in the sautapan, and glaze them. Next rub the yolks of six eggs, previously boiled hard, equally over all the cutlets, and pass the red-hot salamander over them to color the yolk of egg a shade darker; then dish up the cutlets with some essence of anchovies (No. 176) poured under them, and serve.

951. PORK CUTLETS, A l'iNDIEN"NE.

Fry the cutlets brown on both sides, then pour off all the grease, adding about half a pint of Espagnole sauce, and a table-spoonful of Cook's curry paste; put the lid on the sautapan, and tamer the cutlets on the fire very gently for ten minutes longer; then add a small piece of glaze, toss the whole together, dish them up in a close circle, fill the centre with rice boiled in plain broth, pour the sauce over the cutlets, and serve.

w

pig's feet. 323

952. pigs'-feet, a la ste. menehould.

For this purpose procure the feet of bacon hogs, as the feet of porkers are not large enough to be worth dressing for the table. They must first be pickled in common salt brine, for about ten days, and then, after being washed, should be gently braized in common broth, seasoned with carrot, onion, celery, and garnished faggot of parsley; if the feet are large, they will require about four hours gentle boiling. When done, drain them on an earthen dish, cut them into halves, and remove all the large bones, press them into shape with the hands, and put them in the larder to cool. Next, season the pieces of pigs'-feet with pepper and salt, rub them over with a paste-brush dipped in clarified butter, then roll them in fresh made bread-crumbs, and pat these closely on with the blade of a knife; broil them on a gridiron over a clear fire, taking care that they are frequently turned until warmed through: they are then to be dished up and served with Piquante sauce (No. 18).

953. PIGS'-FEET, A LA PERIGORD.

These should be braized and the bones taken out, and before they become quite cold, filled inside, and partially covered, with some forcemeat of fat livers, in which has been mixed some chopped truffles; and when this is placed on the feet, some scollops of truffles must also be intermixed with it. The feet must next be wrapped up in appropriatesized pieces of pigs' caul, and then bread-crumbed over this. When about to send to table, broil the feet upon oiled paper placed upon the gridiron, to prevent them from burning or falling to pieces, which, from the delicacy of the force-meat (if properly prepared), they are liable to. When nicely broiled on both sides, glaze and dish them up, and serve with some Perigueux sauce (No. 23) under them.

954. PIGS'-FEET, A LA RICHELIEU.

Braize tne feet, remove all the bones, and cut each foot in halves, lengthwise; spread them all over with a coating of D' Uxelles sauce (No. 16), and when this has become firmly set by cooling, breadcrumb them twice over, the first time dipped in egg,- and the second in clarified butter: place them in a sauta-pan with clarified butter, and fry them over a stove-fire of moderate heat, so as to allow them time to warm through before they acquire muGh color. When done, dish them up, and serve with some Richelieu ragout (No. 207) under them.

955. BLACK-PUDDINGS, A LA FEANCAISE.

To one pint of pig's blood, add rather more than half a pint of boiled double cream, three-quarters of a pound of the fat from the inside of a pig, cut into rather small pieces, and four large onions chopped and fried in a little butter without becoming colored; season with a little chopped bay-leaf and thyme, nutmeg, pepper, and salt; mix well together, and stuff the linings, prepared perfectly clean for the purpose, with the above, taking care to allow room for tying them into lengths of about six inches. Some water must be kept nearly at the boiling-point, and then removed from the fire down to the side, and the puddings immersed, and allowed to remain in it

324 ENTREES OF VENISON.

until they become somewhat firm to the touch; they must not, however, be kept in the water longer than will suffice to set the preparation. The puddings, when taken out of the water, should be hung up in the larder to cool.

956. BLACK-PUDDINGS, A L'ANGLAISE.

The chief difference from the foregoing, in making black-puddings according to the English method, lies in the omission of the nutmeg, bay-leaf, and thyme, and in the addition of boiled Embden grits or rice; in all other respects, the same directions must be followed.

When about to dress the black-puddings, they should be scored all over to prevent them from bursting while being broiled, and when done, are to be dished up with strips of dry toast placed between each piece of pudding: the centre of the dish should be filled with mashed potatoes to keep them quite hot.

957. WHITE-PUDDINGS, A LA P.OYALE.

To half a pound of the breast of roast fowl thoroughly pounded and passed into a puree, add half a pint of boiled double cream, half a pound of fresh made and very fine bread-crumbs, one onion chopped fine, and boiled down in some white broth, and four ounces of butter and eight yolks of eggs; season with pepper and salt, and grated nutmeg; mix well together, put this preparation into the linings, and finish them in the same manner as the black-puddings. When about to send to table, score the puddings before they are broiled, and place them on the gridiron upon a sheet of oiled paper; when nicely broiled, serve them, dished up, with either of the following sauces: - Supreme, Richelieu, Poivrade, essence of shallots, of truffles, or of mushrooms.

ENTREES OP YENISON,

COMPRISING

Baricdt of Venison. Cutlets of Roebuck, & la Chasseur.

Civet of Venison. Fillets of Roebuck, d la Kinnaird. Venison Scollops., , with Poivrade sauce.

Venison Chops. Civet of Roebuck. Venison Fry.

958. HARICOT OF VENISON.

Trim a neck of venison into cutlets without paring off any of the fat, season them with pepper and salt, and fry them quickly brown on both sides before they are more than half done; then pour off all the grease, shake a handful of flour over the cutlets, and toss them about over the fire for three minutes, moisten with a pint of red wine and a quart of good stock; add half a pint of small button-onions, and twice that quantity of turnips and carrots, cut into small fanciful shapes of the size of the onions, and a garnished faggot of parsley; stir the haricot over the stove-fire with a wooden spoon until it boils, and then remove it to the side of the stove to continue gently boiling for about an hour and a half; when, if the cutlets are found to be

SCOLLOPS OF VENISON, ETC. 325

done tender, remove them into a deep sautapan; then add the vegetables with a ragout spoon (with holes in it), and after the sanee has boiled up and been skimmed, reduce it, if necessary, to its proper consistency, and pass it through a tammy into a sautapan containing the cutlets, &c.; then add a little salt, if needed; simmer the whole together on the stove-fire, dish the cutlets in the usual way, fill the centre with the vegetables uour the sauce over the entree, and serve.

959. ANOTHER METHOD.

Fry the cutlets brown, pour off all the grease, add a pint of red wine, a pint of Espagnole, and the same proportion of consomme, season with a carrot, an onion, head of celery, and a garnished faggot of parsley; allow the whole to simmer gently by the side of the stove-fire until the cutiets are tender; they must then be removed into a sautapan, with a little of the sauce to warm them in, the lid put on, and kept warm. The remainder of the sauce must then be strained through a sieve into a smaller stewpan; and after it has been clarified, by gently boiling it by the side of the stove-fire, and thoroughly skimming all that rises to the surface, reduce it by boiling to its proper consistency, and pass it through a tammy into a bain-marie When about to send to table, dish the cutlets up, fill the centre with some glazed carrots and turnips, previously prepared for the purpose; place some groups of small glazed button-onions round the entree, pour the sauce over the cutlets, and serve.

Some neat frills of paper may be put on the bone of each cutlet.

9 GO. CIVET OF VENISON.

This dish, although not very choice, is often served at the tables of wealthy epicures; in general, the inferior parts of venison, - such as the shoulder and scrag end of the neck- - are used for this purpose. The venison must be cut up into pieces, and for its preparation follow the directions for making a civet of hare (No. 1010).

961. VENISON SCOLLOPS.

Venison for this purpose ought to be kept until it has become quite tender: a piece of the end of the neck may be used. Cut. the fillet from the bones, with all the fat adhering to it, remove the outer skin, and then cut it into scollops - taking care not to trim off more of the fat than is necessary; place them in a sautapan with clarified butter, season with pepper and salt, and fry them brown on both sides; pour off all the grease, add some scollops of mushrooms, a piece of glaze, and a glass of Port wine; simmer the whole together over the stove-fire for about three minutes, and then pour in some Poivrade sauce (Xo. 20); toss the scollops in the sauce on the fire until cjuite hot, and then dish them up with a border of quenelles of potatoes (No. 312), and serve.

These scollops may also be served with Portarlington sweet sauce (No. G6), in which case the mushrooms must be omitted.

962. VENISON CHOPS.

CijT the chops about an inch thick, from the end of the haunch or the best end of the neck, flatten them a little with a cutlet bat, trim

326 ENTREES OF VENISON.

them without waste, season with pepper and salt, and broil them on a gridiron, over a clear fire of moderate heat; turning them over everv three minutes while on the fire; when done through with their gravy in them, lift them carefully off the gridiron without spilling the gravy that may be swimming on the surface, dish them up with a little rich brown gravy under them, and serve some currant-jelly or veuison sweet sauce (No. 65), separately, in a boat.

963. VENISON FRY.

Cut the fry into appropriate-sized pieces, season with pepper and salt, place them in a napkin, and shake them up with a handful of flour, then fry them brown and crisp in a sautapan or frying-pan with soma butter; when done, dish them up in a pile with fried paisley round, pour either of the following sauces under it, and serve quite hot: rich brown gravy, essence of anchovies, Poivrade, Espagnole, Italian, or Piquante sauce.

964. CUTLETS OF ROEBUCK, A LA CHASSEUR.

Trim the cutlets in the usual way, and place them in a santapan with clarified butter, season with pepper and salt, and set them in the larder. Put the shoulder on the spit, wrap it in buttered paper, and roast it before a fire of moderate heat until done; all the meat must then be cut from the bone, chopped fine, and thoroughly pounded in a mortar with a spoonful of sauce and a pat of butter, then rubbed through a tammy or very fine wire sieve, into a puree; this must be gathered up into a small stewpan and placed with the cutlets. When about to send to table, fry the cutlets brown, pour off the grease, add a piece of glaze, two large spoonfuls of Espagnole or Poivrade sauce (if the former, add some lemon-juice also); allow the cutlets to simmer over the fire for a few minutes, and then dish them up; fill the centre with the puree - previously warmed with care, and to which a piece of glaze has been added - pour the sauce over the entree, and serve*

965. FILLETS OF ROEBUCK, A LA KINNAIRD.

Cut out the fillets from two necks of roebuck, trim these neatly, and lard them closely; steep them for about two days and nights in some cold marinade (No. 234), and when about to dress the fillets, drain them upon a cloth, place them in a sautapan spread with butter, and moisten with some wine mirepoix (No. 236) in sufficient quantity to reach up to the larding; place a buttered paper on the top, and put them to braize in the oven; baste them frequently with their own liquor, and when done, glaze them nicely, and place them on their dish; garnish with groups of quenelles made with roebuck, and small potatoes cut in the form of large olives and fried in clarified butter; pour some Napolitaine sauce (No. 63) under the entree, glaze the fillets, and serve.

966. FILLETS OF ROEBUCK, WITH POIVRADE SAUCE.

These are prepared in the same manner as the foregoing; when done and glazed, dish them up with a border of potatoes, cut in the form of olives, and fried in clarified butter, pour some Poivrade sauce (No. 29) under them, and serve.

ENTREES OF POULTRY. 327

967. CIVET OF KOEBUCK Is prepared in the same way as civet of hare (1010).

ENTREES OF POULTRY,

COMPRISING

Fricassee of Chickens, with Mushrooms, &c. Chickens, d la Lyonnaise.

„ d la St. Lambej-t. „ d la Diable.

„ d la Dauphine. „ d la Tartare.

„ d la Financiere. „ d I'AljjSrienne.

„ d la Ghevaliere. „ d la Florentine.

„ d la liomaine. Curry of ditto, « I'lndienne.

Chickens, d la Marengo. FritSt of Chickens, with Tomatn Sauce, &c.

„ with Oysters, &c. Capilotade of Chickens, d V Italiinne.

„ with Truffles, &c. Chickens, d la Toscane.

„ d la Provencale. Marinade of Chickens, fried in Batter.

968. FRICASSEE OF CHICKENS, WITH MUSHROOMS, ETC.

Procure two fat, plump chickens, and after they have been drawn, singe them over the flame of a charcoal fire, and then cut up into small members or joints, in the following manner: - First, remove the wings at the second joint, and the legs at the knotty bend of the first joint; then take hold of the chicken with the left hand, and with a sharp knife make two parallel cuts, lengthwise, on the back, about an inch and a half apart, so as partly to detach or at least to mark out where the legs and wings are to be removed; the chicken must next be placed upon its side on the table, and, after the leg and fillet (with the pinion left on the upper side) have been cut, the same must be repeated on the other, and the thigh-bones must be removed. Then, separate the back and breast, trim these without waste, and cut the back across into two pieces: steep the whole in a pan containing clear tepid water for about ten minutes, frequently squeezing the pieces with the hand to extract all the blood. Next, strew the bottom of a stewpan with thinly-sliced carrot, onion, and a little celery, three cloves, twelve pepper-corns, a blade of mace, and a garnished faggot of parsley; place the pieces of chicken in close and neat order upon the vegetables, &c, moisten with about a quart of boiling broth from the stockpot, or failing this, with water, cover with the lid, and set the whole to boil gently by the side of the stove-fire for about half an hour, when the chickens will be done. They must then be strained in a sieve, and their broth reserved in a basin; next, immerse the pieces of chicken in cold water, wash and drain them upon a napkin, and afterward trim them neatly and place them in a stewpan in the larder. Then put 2 oz. of fresh butter to melt in a stewpan, to this add two tablespoonfuls of flour, and stir the roux over the fire for three minutes without allowing it to acquire any color; it should then be removed from the stove, and the chickenbroth being poured into it, the whole must be thoroughly mixed together into a smooth sauce; throw in some trimmings of mushrooms, and stir the sauce over the fire until it boils, then set it by the side to continue gently boiling to throw up the butter and scum. When the

328 ENTREES OF POULTRY.

sauce has boiled half an hour, skim it, reduce it by further boiling to its proper consistency, and then incorporate with it a leason of four yolks of eggs, mixed with a pat of butter and a little cream; set the leason in the sauce by stirring it over the fire until it nearly boils, then pass it through a tammy into the stewpan containing the pieces of chicken, and add thereto half a pottle of prepared button-mushrooms. When about to send to table, warm the fricassee without allowing it to boil, and dish it up as follows:

First, put the pieces of the back in the centre of the dish, place the legs at the angles, the bones pointed inwardly; next, place the fillets upon these, and then set the pieces of breast on the top; pour the sauce over the entree, and place the mushrooms about the fricassee in groups; surround the entree with eight or ten glazed croutons of fried bread cut in the form of hearts, and serve.

Note. - Truffles cut into scollops, or shaped in the form of olives; crayfish-tails, button-onions, or artichoke-bottoms, cut into small pointed quarters, may also be served with a fricassee of chickens.

969. FRICASSEE OF CHICKENS, A LA ST. LAMBERT.

Cut into small dice the following vegetables, &c.: one carrot, an onion, one head of celery, and 4 oz. of raw ham; put these into a stewpan with a small piece of butter, half a bay-leaf, a sprig of thyme, three cloves, a blade of mace, and a few pepper-corns; stir these over a slow fire for about ten minutes, without allowing them to acquire any color, then moisten the whole with a pint of French white wine, and the same quantity of common broth; boil this gently for half an hour, and then strain it through a sieve into a basin. Next, cut the chickens up as directed in the foregoing case 1 *, melt 3 oz. of butter in a stewpan, throw in the pieces of chicken, and toss them over the fire until they become set and feel firm to the touch, without, however, acquiring any color; then shake in two table-spoonfuls of flour, toss the whole together over the fire for two minutes, and pour in the broth prepared for the purpose; stir the fricassee over the fire until it boils, and finish it in the same way as the foregoing. When about to send to table, warm and dish up the fricassee, place about it small groups of glazed carrots, turnips, and French-beans, cut into small fanciful shapes, and garnish the base by placing a border composed of about eight small artichoke-bottoms, nicely turned and boiled, each filled alternately with glazed carrots and green-peas; pour the sauce round the enfree, and serve.

970. FRICASSEE OF CHICKENS, A LA DAUPHINE.

Prepare a fricassee in the same manner as described in No. 068, and place the pieces of chicken, when trimmed, on an earthen dish; after having reduced the sauce to the consistency of Allemande, incorporate the leason, &c, and when this is set in the sauce, pass it through a tammy into a small basin; dip each of the pieces of chicken in this, and replace them on the dish; when the sauce has become set, upon them by cooling, roll them in bread-crumbs, let them be dipped in beaten egg, and bread-crumbed over again. When about to send to table, place the pieces of chicken thus prepared carefully upon the wire lining of a frying-pan, immerse them all at once in plenty of

FRICASSEE OF CHICKENS.

329

clean hog's lard heated for the purpose, fry them of a light color; and when done, drain them upon a cloth, dish them up on a clean napkin with fried parsley, and serve some white Italian sauce (Xo. 13), separately in a boat.

Note.- - This entree may also be dished up without a napkin, and some Allemande or Bechamel sauce, containing a few scollops of mushrooms or truffles, may be poured under, and round it.

971. FRICASSEE OF CHICKENS, A LA FINANCIERS.

Prepare this as directed in Xo. 968, and when it is dished up, garnish it with groups of cocks'-combs, mushrooms, truffles, and some small quenelles of fowl; place eight large crayfish in an upright position round the entree, and a larded sweetbread on the top.

972. FRICASSEE OF CHICKENS, A LA CHEVALIERE. When the chickens have been drawn and singed, remove the legs

and wings, and then, with the point of a knife, slit the skin of the breast, spread it off' the fillets, and remove these with the pinion-bone left on them; each fillet must be trimmed, then closely larded, and placed in a small sauta-pan upon thin layers of fat bacon; the minion fillets should also be trimmed (the sinew being first extracted), then decorated or conlises with black truffle and placed in a sautapan with butter; the remainder of the chickens must be cut up and made into a fricassee in the ordinary way. When this is done, the four

legs must be neatly trimmed and set aside in the larder, and the smaller pieces placed in a stewpan with a few button mushrooms, cocks'-combs and kernels and truffles; then, reduce the same by boiling it to the consistency of Allemande sauce, incorporate these with a leason of four yolks of eggs, a little grated nutmeg, mignionette pepp-er, a small piece of glaze, and the juice of half a lemon; when this has become set in the sauce by stirring it over the fire for two minutes, pass two thirds of it through a tammy on to the fricassee, and reserve the remainder for the purpose of masking the legs with it. These must be afterwards bread-crumbed and fried of a light color. The larded fillets should be moistened with a little half-glaze, and put in the oven, or on a slow stove with fire on the lid, to braize or simmer for about twenty minutes; they are then to be glazed. In dishing up this entree, first place all the small members of the chicken in the bottom of the dish in neat and square order; the legs are next to be added, and then the larded fillets must be placed between these with the taper end pointing upward; the four minion fillets (turned round in the form of rings) should be placed so as to rest upon the upper part of each of the legs, and the whole surmounted with a large truffle, and a border of large crayfish, and white double cocks'combs should be placed round the entree; add the remainder of the sauce, and serve.

I

330 ENTUE33 OF POULTRY.

973. FRICASSEE OF CHICKENS, A LA ROMAINE.

"When the chickens have been cut up and trimmed in the usual way, place the pieces neatly in a sauta-pan with a gill of salad oil, bayleaf and thyme, four shalots, mignionette pepper and salt, a little grated nutmeg, one clove of garlic, and a dozen small pimentos; fry the chickens over a rather brisk fire until the pieces become firm to the touch, but without allowing them to acquire any color; shake in two spoonfuls of flour, toss the whole over the fire for three minutes, and moisten with a pint of Chablis or Sauterne wine, and a pint of white consomme; stir the fricassee on the fire till it boils, then remove it to the side to continue gently boiling for half an hour. Skim off the oil, &c, that has risen to the surface, drain the pieces of chicken on a sieve, reserving the sauce in a stewpan to be reduced and finished in the ordinary manner; trim the pieces of chicken neatly, and put them into a stewpan with the sauce, some button-mushrooms or morels, trimmed crayfish-tails and cocks'-kemels. When about to send to table, warm the fricassee, and add the juice of half a lemon and a pat of butter, previously pounded with six small red pimentos and a piece of lobster coral, and passed through a sieve. Dish this in the same manner to the first, garnish it round with a border of Raviolis (No. 375), and serve.

974. CHICKENS, A LA MARENGO.

Cut up the chickens or fowls into small joints, as for a fricassee; place them in a saucepan with half a gill of salad oil, and half a pound of truffles cut into the form of olives, a garuished faggot of parsley and green onions, a bruised clove of garlic, mignionette pepper, and salt; set the sauta-pan on a moderate fire, and put some live embers of charcoal on the lid. Allow the chickens to fry rather briskly, so as to acquire a deep-yellow or brown color; about twenty minutes will suffice to do them. Then pour off nearly all the oil, and remove the faggot of parsley; add half a pottle of prepared button-mushrooms, a small ladleful of worked Espagnole sauce (No. 3), and a piece of glaze; simmer the whole together on the fire for five minutes, add the juice of a lemon, and dish up the entree in the following order. First, place the pieces of the backs and the wings, next the legs, the fillets, and lastly the pieces of the breasts, theu pour the sauce, &c, over the entree, garnish it round with croutons of bread, and large crayfish, and serve.

975. CHICKENS SAUTES, "WITH OYSTER SAUCE, ETC.

These must be eut up in the ordinary way, and after being neatly trimmed, should be placed in a sauta-pan with some clarified butter, seasoned with pepper and salt, and fried of a light-brown color. Pour off the butter, add three dozen parboiled oysters with their liquor (previously reduce in quantity by boiling), and two large gravyspoonfuls of Espagnole sauce, a piece of glaze, and the juice of half a lemon; set the whole on the fire to simmer for five minutes, and then dish up the entree with fried croutons of bread rouud it.

Note. - This method of dressing chickens or fowls may be varied Insubstituting muscles, cockles, olives, truffles, mushrooms, or morels, for the oysters.

CHICKENS. 331

976. CHICKENS WITH TEUFFLES, A LA FINANCIERE.

Prepare these as in the foregoing case, and when the.)* are fried brown, pour off the grease; add a rich Financiere ragout (No. 188), and half a pound of truffles cut into scollops or round balls; simmer the whole together on the fire for five minutes, and then dish up the entree as directed in the foregoing cases; pour the ragout over it, garnish with croutons and crayfish, and serve.

977. CHICKENS, A LA PROVENCALE.

Cut four large onions into rings, put them into a sautapan with a gill of salad-oil, and fry them of a light-brown color; then add two chickens cut up and trimmed as for a fricassee; season with mignionette pepper, and salt, a garuished faggot of parsley, and a clove of garlic; cover with the lid containing some live embers of charcoal, and set the chickens to simmer briskly over a moderate fire for about half an hour. Put about two dozen morels or mushrooms into a small stewpan with some chopped truffles, shalots, mushrooms, and parsley; moisten with a table-spoonful of salad-oil, and a glass of Madeira; stew these on the fire for five minutes, aud then boil the whole down to a glaze. When the chickens are done, pour off all the grease, add the morels, &c, a piece of glaze, and some Tomata sauce (No. 22); simmer the whole together for five minutes over the fire, then dish up the entree in a conical form, pour the ragout over it, and serve.

978. CHICKENS, A LA LYONNAISE. Cut these up and fry them in butter, as directed for the chickens with oysters; when they are done, pour off all the grease, add some Lyonnaise sauce (No. 24), simmer the whole together on the stove-fire for ten minutes, and serve.

979. CHICKENS, A LA DIABLE.

First draw and singe the chickens, and then twist their legs inside neatly through the sides without tearing the skin; next cut them through the breast-bone, lengthwise, into halves; take out all 'the bones, season with pepper and salt, rub them over with a paste-brush dipped in clarified butter, and broil them on both sides, of a light color; when done, dish them up and glaze them over, pour some sauce a la Diable (No. 17) under them, and serve.

980. CHICKENS, A LA TARTARE.

Bone the chickens as in the foregoing case, season with pepper and salt, rub tham over with a paste-brush dipped in yolks of eggs, breadcrumb them, then spread on some clarified butter, and bread-crumb them over again; pat the bread-crumbs closely together with the blade of a knife, broil them carefully to prevent their acquiring much color, and when done, glaze them lightly, and serve with some half glaze under them. Send some Tartare sauce (No. 96) separately in a boat.

981. CHICKENS, A L'ALGERIENNE.

Cut these up as for a fricassee, place the pieces in a deep sautapan with some clarified butter, and about one pound of raw ham cut into neat scollops; season with cayenne, a garnished faggot of parsley and

1

332 ENTREES OF POULTRY.

green-onions, and a clove of garlic; fry the chickens over a brisk fire until they acquire a fine yellow color; then pour off the grease, and add a glass of Madeira, a teaspoonful of curry-paste, a piece of glaze, two gravy-spooufuls of Espagnole sauce, and half a pottle of mushrooms; simmer the whole together over the fire for ten minutes, thei add a pat of butter and the juice of half a lemon. Dish up the entrct in a pyramidal form, reserving the pieces of breast and the fillets to be placed uppermost; garnish with the ham and mushrooms, pour the sauce over all, place twelve croutons of bread round the base, and serve.

982. CHICKENS, A LA FLORENTINE.

For this purpose, choose two very small spring chickens, bone them in halves, trim them neatly, season with mignionette pepper and salt, and place them in a deep sautapan with half a gill of salad-oil, and a garnished faggot of parsley and green-onions containing a clove of garlic; then add half a pound of raw ham or streaky bacon, cut up into square pieces and parboiled in water for ten minutes, a tablespoonful of the powder of sweet red pimento, half a pint of small button-onions, also parboiled in water for five minutes, the same quantity of small carrots turned in the form of olives, and half a pottle of mushrooms. Set the whole over a moderate fire until the pieces of chicken, &c, acquire a light color, then pour off all the grease, add a glass of Malaga wine and a piece of glaze; simmer the whole together over a brisk fire until the moistening is reduced to a glaze; toss the pieces of chicken. &c, about, in this to make it adhere to them, and immediately dish up the entree, reserving the mushrooms, &c, to be placed in groups about the dish; next, pour a spoonful of Espagnole sauce into the sautapan, udd the juice of half a lemon, allow this sauce to simmer, pour it over the entree, and serve.

983. CURRY OF CHICKENS, A L'lNDIENNE Cut these as for a fricassee, trim them neatly, place them in a sautapan with some clarified butter, and fry them over a stove-fire until they become firm to the touch - r then pour off all the grease, add sufficient curry-sauce (No. 41) for the entree, and set. the curry to simmer very gently over a slow stove-fire until the pieces of chicken have become perfectly tender; the entree may then be dished up, and sauce poured over it, and with some plain boiled rice separately.

984. ANOTHER METHOD. Fry the pieces of chicken or fowl in butter, until they are brightly browned all over, and remove them into a stewpan; then slice up three large onions and two heads of celery, and put these into a stewpan, together with a clove of garlic, a garnished faggot of parsley,;i blade of mace, and four cloves. Fry the whole over a slow fire until they acquire a light-brown color; add a large table-spoonful of Cook's meat-cnrry-paste, and a similar proportion of flour: mix all the above together, and moisten with a pint of good broth or gravy; stir the sauce over the fire and keep it boiling for about twenty minutes, then rub the whole through a hair-sieve or tammy, and afterward pour it to the pieces of chicken. Set the curry to simmer gently over a slow fire until the pieces of chicken become tender, when the entr&e may be served as in the former case.

MARINADE OF CHICKENS. 333

985. FRITOT OF CHICKENS, WITH TOMATA SAUCE, ETC.

The chickens must be cut up as for a fricassee, and the pieces neatly trimmed; then place them in a basin with some slices of onion, parsley, bay-leaf, and thyme, mignionette pepper and a little salt, three tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, and the juice of a lemon; steep them in this for several hours; and when about to send to table, drain the pieces of chicken upon a cloth, shake some flour over them, so as to entirely cover the pieces with a coating of it, form them into shape, drop them into some hog's-lard made hot for the purpose, and fry them of a yellow color. When done, drain the pieces of chicken on a sieve, covered with paper, lay them upon a sautapan, and glaze them over slightly; dish them up in a pyramidal form, garnish the entree round with a border of fried eggs and croutons of bread, placed alternately; pour some Tomata or Poivrade sauce (Nos. 22 and 29) under the fritot, and serve.

986. CAPILOTADE OF CHICKENS OR FOWLS, A L'lTALIENNE.

This entree is mostly served when there happens to be roast fowl or poultry of any kind in reserve. This should be cut up into small joints neatly trimmed, and placed in a stewpan containing some Italian sauce (No. 12), and scollops of mushrooms and truffles; when about to send to table, allow the capilotade to simmer gently on a slow lire until the pieces of chicken have become thoroughly impregnated with the sauce: about ten minutes will suffice for this purpose. The entree may then be dished up, and garnished round with croutons of bread; pour the sauce over it, and serve.

987. CHICKENS, A LA TOSCANE.

Prepare these in the first instance as for a fritot, and after the pieces of chicken have been sufficiently steeped, drain them upon a cloth to absorb all the moisture from the exterior, rub each piece over separately with a paste-brush dipped in yolks of egg, and bread-crumb them upon this; they must then be dipped in, or sprinkled over with clarified butter, and again bread-crumbed upon this; they should next be patted into shape with the blade of a knife, and placed in order in a sautapan with some clarified butter. About twenty minutes before sending to table, fry the pieces of chicken of a fine yellow color, and when done, drain them upon a napkin, glaze them over lightly, and dish them up; garnish with macaroni dressed with cheese, pour some essence of fowl under them, and serve.

Note. - This dish may also be served without the macaroni, and is then called a la Viennoise • in which case some quenelles of potatoes may be added.

MARINADE OF CHICKENS, FRIED IN BATTER.

Roast one or more chickens or fowls; when done, cut them into neatly-trimmed joints, and put these to steep for several hours in the following preparation: - Cut into thin slices a large onion, carrot, celery, parsley-root, a few green onions, some parsley, and a clove of garlic, and put them into a stewpan with two ounces of butter, a bay-leaf, sprig of thyme, blade of mace, and four cloves; fry all these of a light-brown color, moisten with half a pint of Sherry, and an

i

334 ENTREES OF FOWLS.

equal proportion of French vinegar, add a very little salt, and a pinch of mignionette pepper, and allow the whole to simmer gently until the vegetables are thoroughly done; the marinade must then be strained through a tammy«with considerable pressure, in order to extract the flavor of all the ingredients. When about to send to table, drain the pieces of chicken in a napkin, and afterward dip them into some light batter, fry them in hog's-lard of a light color, made hot for the purpose, dish them up on a napkin with fried parsley, and serve with some Italian, Piquante, Poivrade, Provengale, or Tomata sauce; or some essence of anchovies (No. 116), of truffles (No. 168), of shalots (No. 167), or of fine-herbs (No. 170), in a boat separately.

f

ENTREES OF FILLETS OF FOWLS,

COMPRISING

Supreme of Fillets of Fowls, d VEcarlate. Fillets of Fowls, d VIndienne.

„ „ d la Toulouse. „ d la Marichale.

„ „ with Truffles, Ac. „ d la Valenqay.

„ „ d la Parisihme. „ d la lloyale.

„ „ with Cucumbers, „ d la Financit.re, Ac.

d la Belle-vue. „ d la d'Uxelles. „ „ d la Pirigord.

It should be observed that the whole of the following entrees are expensive; with good management, however, much of the cost may be reduced, by subsequently using the^remains of the fowls here required in the preparation of a variety of other dishes; such as those comprised in the last section of entrees of poultry, and also for making galantines, ballotines, cutlets, croquettes, pies, &c.

989. SUPREME OF FLLETS OF FOWLS, A L'ECARLATE.

Take out the fillets of three or four young fowls, in the following manner: - First, slit the skin on the centre of the breast in a straight line, so that, by folding it down on both sides, the fillets will be left bare. Next, draw the point of a knife along the edge of the breastbone, cut through the centre of the merry-thought, and then remove the fillets by dividing them from the breast and ribs, carefully running the point of a knife close to the bones, while the fillet is held up with the fingers of the left hand, so as to prevent the knife from injuring it. The fillets being thus removed entire, divide the minion fillets from the large ones, and after the sinew which runs along these has been carefully extracted without tearing them, they should be trimmed and placed in a small sautapan with some clarified butter, covered with a round piece of paper, and placed in the larder; the larger fillets must also be trimmed in the following manner: - Place the fillet upon the edge of the table, with the pointed end to -the right, and the smooth side downwards; then bear moderately with the fingers of the left hand upon the pointed end of the fillet, and at the same time slip the edge of a sharp knife (dipped in water) into that part, and slide the knife under the hand, closely bearing toward the skin so as not to waste any more of the fillet than is positively necessary for the pur

FILLETS OF FOWLS. 335

pose of removing it; it must then be trimmed neatly round at the thick end, and nearly to a point at the thin end. The fillets should now be arranged, all in the same direction, in a sautapan with some clarified butter; then seasoned with a little salt, covered with a circular piece of buttered paper, and placed with the others. It is necessary to observe that if the large fillets incline from right to left when placed in the sautapan, the minion fillets should be curved in the opposite direction: the latter may be decorated, or contises with truffles or tongue; in which case they must be covered with thin layers of fat bacon. When about to send to table, place the sautapan containing the large fillets over a stove-fire, and as soon as they become set and whitened on one side, turn them over immediately on the other, and do not let them acquire any color; then, quickly pour off all the butter, add a large spoonful of Supreme sauce (No. 38), and having tossed the fillets in it over the fire without allowing them to boil or simmer, dish them in a close circle with a round scollop of red tongue (previously warmed in a little half glaze for the purpose) between each of them; fill the centre with scollops of button-mushrooms tossed in a little of the sauce, place the minion fillets, in a similar row to the others, upon the top of them; pour some Supreme sauce round the entree, and upon each of the fillets, without masking the pieces of tongue, and serve.

990. STJPKEME OF FILLETS OF FOWLS, A LA TOULOUSE.

Prepare the large fillets as in the foregoing case, and when the smaller ones have been trimmed, lard them closely, and place them in a sautapan upon thin layers of fat bacon, in a curved form. A quarter of an hour before sending to table, finish the large fillets as in the foregoing case, substituting Allemande for Supreme sauce, and this should be incorporated with some reduced essence of fowls, a pat of butter, a little cream and lemon-juice. The larded fillets must be moistened with a little half-glaze, placed in the oven for about six minutes, and nicely glazed; then, dish up the large fillets in a close circle with a croutons of bread, cut in the form of a deep crescent, fried in butter, and glazed; fill the centre with a ragout of cock's-combs, truffles, mushrooms, small quenelles, and cock's-kernels, tossed in some of the sauce; dress the larded fillets round the top of the others, pour some of the sauce round the entree, and serve.

991. SUPEEME OF FILLETS OF FOWLS, WITH TRUFFLES.

Prepare this in the same way as in No. 989; decorate the small fillets with truffles, finish and dish up the entree as therein directed, and fill the centre with scollops of truffles tossed in a small stewpan with a little glaze, and a very small piece of fresh butter; pour the Supreme sauce (No. 38) round the base, and on the fillets, and serve.

992. SUPREME OF FILLETS OF FOWLS, A LA PARISIEJSHSTE.

Trim eight Qr ten large fillets of fowls, and decorate them with black truffles, in the following manner: - First, spread the bottom of a sautapan large enough to contain the fillets, with fresh butter; then place the fillets therein, all curved in the same direction, with the smooth side uppermost. Next, rub each fillet over slightly with a

%

336 ENTREES OF FOWLS.

paste-brash, dipped in white of egg slightly beat up; the truffles, after being first cut into thin scollops, and stamped out with tin fancy cutters in various forms, should then be stuck upon this prepared surface, according to taste, forming therewith stars, scrolls, palms, mosaics, &c. When all the fillets are decorated, run some clarified butter over them, in sufficient quantity to cover their surface; place a covering of buttered paper upon them, and set the sautapan aside in the

larder. The minion fillets must also be decorated with red tongue, in the same way as the others. When about to send to table, simmer the fillets on both sides, carefully preventing them from becoming at all colored; when done, drain them upon a napkin, and dish them up in a close circle, placing a fillet of red tongue between each of the large fillets; next place the minion fillet in a close border on the top of the inner edge of these, fill the centre with a ragout a la Parisienne (No. 203), pour some of the sauce round the base of the entree, without in auy way masking the decoration of the fillets, and serve.

993. SUPREME OF FILLETS OF FOWLS WITH CUCUMBERS,

A LA BELLE-VUE.

In this instance the fillets must be prepared and finished in exactly the same way as stated in No. 989=^ but when dishing them up, instead of the fillets of tongue, place between the fillets a scollop of cucumber, prepared as follows: -

Cut two large well-shaped cucumbers into slanting scollops of about a quarter of an inch in thickness; trim these neatly in an oval form, scooping out the seeds, and after having parboiled these oval rings, or links, in salt and water, drain them upon a napkin, and place them in order at the bottom of a sautapan previously spread with butter; then proceed to fill up the centre of these with some quenelle force-meat of fowl, mixed with some chopped and parboiled parsley, to color it green; smooth the surfaces over, place a circular piece of buttered paper upon them, and poach them by pouring some boiling comommr in at the side of the sautapan, so as not to disturb the rings. Let them simmer gently by the side of a stove-fire for about ten minutes, then be carefully drained upon a napkin, lightly glazed, and used as directed above. Fill the centre of the entree with prepared scollops of cucumbers (No. 138), previously tossed in some of the sauce; mask the fillets, without covering the links of cucumbers, with some Supreme sauce, aud serve.

994. SUPREME OF FILLETS OF FOWLS, A LA PERIGORD.

Prepare this according to the directions for Supreyxe a VEcarlate (No. 989); the minion fillets, however, must be decorated with black truffle. When about to send to table, dish up the fillet as usual in a close circle round the base of a small ornamental crbustade of bread, previously fried of a light color, and stuck in the centre of the dish

FILLETS OF FOWLS. 6'6 i

by moans of a little flour-paste; fill this crou?tade with some puree of truffles (Xo. 121), pour some Supreme sauce (Xo. 38) over the plain fillets, and round the base of the entree, and serve.

995. FILLETS OF FOWLS, A LTXDIEXXE.

Trim the fillets of three young fowls, and form the minion fillets into three large ones, by patting them together; when trimmed in shape, place them and the others in a sautapan, with some clarified butter, and a similar number of thin slices of raw ham ('previously soaked in water) cut in the shape and size of the fillets. When about to send to table, fry the fillets of fowls and the ham of a light-brown color, pour off all the grease, then add a spoonful of glaze, a pat of fresh butter, the juice of a lemon, and a little grated nutmeg; toss the whole together gently over the stove-fire until mixed; dish them up, alternately placing a fillet, a piece of ham, and then a fried crouton of bread, of the same shape. Pour some Etpagnole sauce (Xo. 3) and some small scollops of mangoes into the sautapan containing the fillets and ham, simmer this over the fire for five minutes, then pour it over the entree, and serve.

996. FILLETS OF FOWLS, A LA MAEECHALE.

Trim the fillets of three or four fowls, and with the minion fillets form three or four large ones; make a slight incision down the centre of each fillet, so as to hollow it out a little: this must be done on the rough side. Then, chop a truffle, one shalot, and a little parsley very line, and simmer these for five minutes in a small stewpan, with a bit of butter, pepper and salt, nutmeg, and a small piece of glaze, add the yolks of two eggs, and with this preparation fill the hollow made in the fillets, and then mask them over on both sides with a little stifflyreduced Allemande sauce Xo. 7), when this has become firmly set upon them by cooling, bread-crumb the fillets twice over: having on.ee after dipped them in beaten eggs, and again after they have been sprinkled over with clarified butter; put them gently into shape with the blade of a knife, and place them upon a dish in the larder. Twenty minutes before sending to table, cover the gridiron with a piece of oiled paper, place the fillets upon this, and broil them (on both sides) over a clear coke fire, of a bright-yellow color; when they are done, glaze them lightly, and dish them up in a close circle; fill the centre with a white Toulouse ragout (Xo. 187), pour some reduced essence of fowls under them, and serve.

Note. - Fillets of fowls a la Mareehale may also be served with every kind of delicate vegetable garnish; with white or brown Italian sauce; with J fa recJiale, Supreme, Venetian, Proeencale, Periguevx, or Crayfish sauce: and also with either of the following essences: - Anchovy, truffle, line-herbs, or shalot.

997. FILLETS OF FOWLS, A LA YALEXCAY.

Trim eight fillets of fowls, and lay them flat upon an earthen dish. Prepare a sufficient quantity of puree of truffles (Xo. 121), in which incorporate two yolks of eggs, and then spread this over the fillets on both sides; when the coating has become firmly set by cooling, breadcrumb the fillets over twice: once with effir, and the second time, after 21

338 EXTREES OF FOWLS.

being sprinkled over with clarified butter. Then, place the fillets in neat order in a sautapan with some clarified butter; and when about to send to table, fry them of a light color on both sides, drain them upon a napkin, and then dish them up closely in a circle; place the minion fillets (which should be decorated with truffle, and simmered in butter), in a row upon the top of the inner edge of the others; fill the centre with scollops of truffles, previously simmered in a little glaze and a very small piece of butter; pour some Supreme sauce (No. 38) under the entree, and serve.

998. FILLETS OF FOWLS, A LA ROTALE.

Trim the fillets of four fowls without removing the small fillets, then closely lard one-half of them, and decorate the other four with black truffle, in the same way as described for fillets a la Parsienne (No. 992); place these fillets in separate sautapans, the larded ones upon thin layers of fat bacon, and moistened with some half-glaze, and the decorated fillets covered with clarified butter. Just before sending to table, put both in the oven for about five minutes; then withdraw the decorated fillets, glaze the larded ones, put them back for two minutes, and glaze them again. Dish them up, placing alternately a larded fillet with a decorated one; fill the centre with a ragout of scollops of fat livers and truffles tossed in a little Allemande sauce (No. 7); pour some of the sauce round the entree, and serve.

999. FILLETS OF FOWLS, A LA FUSTANCTERE.

Cut out the fillets of four fowls, with the pinion-bones left adhering thereto, trim them in the usual way, and lard the whole of the fillet closely; then place them iu order in a sautapan upon thin layers of fat bacon; moisten with some strong consomme, and set them to braize in the oven, or else covered with a lid containing some live embers of charcoal: about ten minutes will suffice to do them; they must next be glazed, and placed into the oven to dry the larding, and then glazed a second time. The fillets must then be dished up, and arranged in their natural order, that is, the right hand fillets to the right, and the left hand to the left. Fill the centre with a rich Financiere ragout (No. 181), pour some of the sauce round the entree, and serve.

Note. - Fillets of fowls, larded and prepared as the foregoing, may also be served with purees of endive, green-peas, asparagus, a la Macedoine; with stewed peas, scollops of cucumbers, asparagus-peas, &c.

1000. FILLETS OF FOWLS A LA D'UXELLES.

Trim the fillets of three or four fowls, removing the minion fillets, which should be decorated with black truffles as described in No. 992, and afterwards placed in a sautapan with clarified butter. Cover the larger fillets with a coating of D'Uxelles sauce (No. 16), over which, when it has become firmly set upon the fillets by cooling, breadcrumb them twice; once after dipping them in beaten eggs, and the second time after they have been sprinkled over with clarified butter. They must then be gently patted into shape with the blade of a knife, and placed in a sautapan with some clarified butter. Whon about to send to table, fry the fillets on both sides, of a bright-yellow color;

QUENELLES OF FOWL. 339

then drain them upon a napkin, glaze lightly and dish them up in a close circle: place the decorated minion fillets in a row on the top of the inner edge of these, fill the centre with scollops of button-mushrooms tossed in a little Allemande sauce (No. 7), pour some half-glaze under the fillets, and serve.

ENTREES OF QUENELLE-FORCE-MEAT OF FOWL,

COMPRISING

Quenelles of Fowl, d F Essence. Boudins of Fowls d la d'Artois. " d la Toulouse. " d la Cardinal.

" d In Jfarechale. " d la Sorbite.

Boudins of Fowls, d la Richelieu. " d In Beine.

" d la Perigueux. Bouchics d la Pompadour.

" d la Sefton.

1001. QUENELLES OF FOWL, A L'ESSENCE.

Prepare some quenelle force-meat (No. 242), with the fillets of two fowls, in which should be incorporated a spoonful of reduced Allemande sauce (No. 7); this should then be moulded into quenelles in the following manner: First, take up as much of the force-meat as will fill a silver table-spoon, then smooth it over the top in a dome-like form with the blade of a knife dipped in hot water; next with another spoon of the same size and shape which must be dipped in hot water, scoop the quenelle out of the spoon, and lay it upon the under side at the bottom of a deep sautapan, previously spread with butter for the purpose; repeat this until the whole of the force-meat that is meant for the entree be used up, and then place a covering of buttered paper over them, and pour sufficient boiling consomme in at the side of the sautapan to float the quenelles. About ten minutes' gentle simmering by the side of the stove-fire will suffice to do them; they must then be drained with care upon a napkin, dished up in a close circle; pour some bright consomme of fowl (boiled down to nearly the consistency of half-glaze) under them, and send to table.

Note. - Quenelles of fowl prepared in this manner, may also be served with the following sauces: Supreme, Italienne, Perigueux, Allemande, Bechamel, Richelieu.

1002. QUENELLES OF FOWL, A LA TOULOUSE.

For this entree it will be necessary when about to mould the quenelles, first to shake some flour over a slab or table, and then to take up six spoonfuls of the force-meat and drop them separately upon the slab; next shake a little flour over them, and proceed to roll each into the form of an egg; these must then be placed in rows in a deep sautapan (previously spread with butter), about two inches distant from each other, and flattened to a quarter of an inch in thickness, by gently pressing them down with the fingers; after which pour in some boiling broth, and set them by the side of the fire to poach. When the quenelles are done, drain them upon a napkin, trim them neatly, still retaining their oval shape, and place one half of them in a sautapan with a little white consomme; bread-crumb

340 QUENELLES OF FOWL.

the remainder, first masking them over with a coating of Allemande sauce. When about to send to table fry the bread-crumbed quenelles of a light color, iu hog's-lard heated for the purpose, and having warmed the plain ones, and drained them upon a napkin, dish up the entree, alternately placing one of each sort of quenelle; fill the centre with a white Toulouse ragout (No. 187), pour some of the sauce round the base and serve.

1003. QUENELLES OF FOWL, A LA MAEECHALE.

Prepare the quenelles as in the foregoing case; shape them in the form of cutlets, oval, oblong, circular, or like a heart; taking care not to make them more than a quarter of an inch thick. When they have been poached and trimmed, place them upon a dish, and mask them over with some Allemande sauce; when this has become firmly set upon the quenelles by cooling, bread-crumb them over twice in the usual way: once with egg, and the second time, after they have been sprinkled over, with clarified butter. They must then be broiled upon oiled paper, and when done of a light color on the one side, great care must be used in turning them over, to be equally broiled on the other. When done, dish them up in a close circle, fill the centre, either with scollops of truffles, mushrooms, fat livers, cock'scorabs, and kernels; with Allemande or Supreme sauce, or with essence of fowl, and serve.

1004. BOUDINS OF FOWL, A LA EICHELIEU.

Prepare some quenelle force-meat with the fillets of two fowls, in the usual manner (No. 242), form this into a dozen flat oblong quenelles, and poach them delicately in broth, as directed in the foregoing cases; when this is done, drain them upon a napkin, and after making an opening on the surface to the extent of two inches long, by one inch wide, and then carefully scooping out the inside of the quenelles to the depth of two-thirds of their thickness, fill this cavity with the following preparation: cut a large onion into very small dice, aud fry these in a small stewpan with a little butter, of a light-yellow color; then add an equal proportion of truffles, also cut into very small dice and some mushrooms in the same manner; next, add a spoonful of Allemande sauce (No. 7), a little nutmeg, mignionette pepper, and a small piece of glaze; stir the whole over the fire for about five minutes, and then use it as directed above. When the preparation with which the quenelles have been filled up has cooled, spread a layer of force-meat over the entire service of each; then place them in a sautapan previously spread with butter to receive them, rub them over carefully with a paste-brush dipped in white of egg and decorate them with truffle and tongue. When about to send to table, poach the boudins by pouring some boiling consomme on them, taking care not to disturb the decoration; when they have been allowed to simmer gently by the side of a stove-fire for about ten minutes, drain them upou a napkin, glaze them lightly, and dish them up in a close circle; pour some Richelieu ragout (No. 207) under them and serve.

Note. - This entree may also be served with a puree of mushrooms, truffles, or with scollops of fat livers.

BOUDINS OF FOWL. 341

1005. BOUDINS OF FOWL, A LA PEKIGUEUX.

These must be prepared, in the first instance, in the same manner as the foregoing: after the centre has been scooped out, the cavity of these should be filled up with some puree of truffles (No. 121); then, the boudins must be closed in with a thin coating of the force-meat, and after being rubbed over with a paste-brush, and dipped in some beaten white of egg, should be sprinkled over with black truffles, chopped very fine, and must be poached and afterward dished up in a close circle. Pour some Perigueux sauce (No. 23) under them, and serve.

1006. BOUDINS OF FOWL, A LA SEFTON.

Prepare the force-meat in the usual way, and before using it, incorporate therewith about two table-spoonfuls of puree of mushrooms (No. 122); then divide the force-meat into three equal parts, roll these, with the aid of a little flour shaken over them, into square oblong shapes,* measuring about six inches in length; place these in a deep sautapan, previously spread with butter to receive them, and poach them as directed in former cases; when done, drain them upon a napkin, dish them up in the form of an angle, or in a row, side by side; place two minion fillets that have been larded and glazed across the ends of each, garnish with a white Financiere ragout (No. 188), and serve.

1007. BOUDINS OF FOWL, A LA D'AETOIS.

Prepare about twelve small oval or oblong flat quenelles of forcemeat of fowls, and when they have been poached, drained, trimmed, and then scooped out as directed for the quenelles a la Marechale, fill the cavities with a salpicorf composed of truffles, mushrooms, and red tongue mixed with a little reduced Allemande sauce; spread a thin layer of force-meat over the surface, bread-crumb the boudins carefully, and place them with this side uppermost in a sautapan with clarified butter. When about to send to table, fry the boudins of a light color, on both sides, drain them upon a sheet of paper and glaze them lightly, and then dish them up in a close circle; fill the centre with a Financiere ragout (No. 188) in some Madeira sauce (No. 8), pour some of the sauce round the base, and serve.

1008. BOUDINS OF FOWL, A LA SOUBISE.

First, prepare some force-meat with the fillets, of two fowls (No. 242), and in finishing this, instead of sauce, add two table-spoonfuls of puree of onions (No. 119); form this force-meat into about sixteen small oblong quenelles, by rolling them upon the table or slab with a little flour: then cut each of these in two, lengthwise, spread out the

• There are fancy copper or tin moulds made for this purpose, and may be had at all braziers' shops. Previously to filling the moulds with the force-meat, they must be carefully and thinly spread with butter. These must be merely steamed in water, in the same manner as a pudding, and, when done, turned out of the moulds, and finished as directed for the others.

f Snlpicon means, literally, anything savory, such as truffles, tongue, mushrooms, sweetbreads poultry, or game, that has undergone the process of mincing, preparatory to being mixed with some Bechamel, Allemande, or Espagnole sauce; to be afterward used for such purposes as the above, and also for garnishing patties with.

342 BOUCHEES OF FOWL.

sides of these halves a little with the point of a small knife, and then insert between them a small portion of salpicon, prepared as for the boudins a la d'Artois; this, after being spread out to the thickness of rather less than a quarter of an inch, and allowed to become cold and firm, must then be cut up into small strips, or bands, for the purpose of being inserted in between two halves of the quenelles or boudin; the sides of these should then be securely closed in, and patted smooth all over with the blade of a knife dipped in flour, and are then to be placed in a sautapan, previously spread with butter to receive them. Pour some boiling broth to the boudins, and poach them in the usual way; then drain, trim, and bread-crumb them with beaten egg, and place them carefully in a sautapan with some clarified butter. When about to send to table, fry the boudins of a light color, glaze them lightly, dish them up in a close circle, fill the centre with some Soubise sauce (No. 119), pour some half-glaze or essence of fowls, under the entree, and serve.

1009. BOUDINS OF FOWL, A LA REIXE.

Roast two fowls, remove all the brown skin, cut off all the meat from the bones, and use the latter to make some essence with. Chop the meat fine, and then pound it in a mortar with a pat of butter and a large spoonful of reduced Bechamel sauce; season with a little pepper and salt and grated nutmeg, and rub the whole through a very fine wire-sieve, or tammy cloth; then put this puree into a small stewpan, and after adding thereto half a gill of scalded double-cream, and a piece of glaze as big as a walnut, stir it over the fire until the whole is mixed, and spread this preparation on a dish, in a square form about two inches in thickness, and set tt in the larder to become cold. Then, cut the square into two oblong pieces, and divide these again, each into about eight small oblong slices, about three inches long by two in width, and a quarter of an inch thick. Spread each of these over with a thin coating of some very delicate force-meat of fowl; flour them over, then dip them separately in some beaten egg, breadcrumb them, and set them on a dish in the larder until dinner-time. The boudins mnst then be placed upon the wire drainer of a frying pan, and immersed in some clean hog's-lard made quite hot for the purpose, and fried of a light-fawn color; they should be drained, and dished up in a close circle, with some Bechamel or Supreme sauce poured under them, and then sent to table.

1010. BOUCHEES OF FOWL, A LA POMPADOUR

Prepare some very delicate force-meat with the fillets of two fowls; when finished, incorporate therewith two spoonfuls of puree of mushrooms, made with double cream (No. 122). Form this into about sixteen small oval, or circular flat quenelles, or boudins^ about a third of an inch in thickness; place them in a buttered sautapan, and poach them delicately: that is, let them be only two parts done; drain them upon a napkin, then place them on a dish, covered over with a sheet of buttered paper, and put them in the larder until dinner-time. The bouchees should then be dipped in some very light batter, mixed with whipped cream, instead of water, and fried in plenty of clean hog's-lard, made hot for the purpose; they must then be dished up in circular order, and the centre filled either with stewed peas, asparagus

ENTREES OF FOWLS. 343

peas, or puree, a Macedoine of summer vegetables, Poivrade, or Tomata sauce. If garnished with dressed vegetables, some essence of fowl should be poured round the base of the entree.

ENTREES OF FOWLS OR CHICKENS,

COMPRISING

Galantines of Legs of Fowl, d la Financiere. Minced Fowl, with Rice.

„ „ d la Jardiniere. Scollops of ditto, an gratiu.

Minced and Grilled Fowl. Kromeskys of Fowl, a la Russe.

Minced Chicken, and Poached Eggs. Croquettes of Fowl, with Mushrooms, &e.

Minced Fowl, with Macaroni. Mince, or Salpicon, for Patties.

1011. GALANTINES OF LEGS OF FOWLS, A LA FINANCIERE.

The legs must be carved from the carcasses of the fowls with the whole of the skin from the back left adhering thereto; then bone these entirely without dividing the leg, or, as it is commonly called, the drum-stick part. The feet should be cut with part of the leg-bones left on, scalded, and the outer skin carefully removed, without tearing them; trim these neatly, leaving only part of the claws in, and stick them into the small aperture of the legs, whence the drum-stick bones have been removed: when properly done, this gives them a neat and plump appearance. They must then be spread out upon the table, seasoned with pepper and salt, and about a dessert-spoonful of forcemeat, in which has been mixed some fine-herbs, placed in the centre; a large needle and some coarse thread should be used to draw the skinny part of the legs up into a purse, and must then be fastened to secure them in shape. The galantines must next be larded closely on the plump part of the thigh, in the same manner as a sweetbread, and then placed in a deep sautapan, the bottom of which should be strewn with sliced carrot, onion and celery, and a garnished faggot of parsley, and covered with some thin layers of fat bacon, upon which the galantines are to be placed. Moisten with sufficient consomme or broth to reach nearly up to the larding: place a buttered paper on the top, cover with the lid containing some live embers of charcoal, and set them to braize gently for about half an hour over a moderate stovefire, or else in the oven, frequently basting them with their own liquor. When they are done, remove the lid and the paper, and put them in the oven for a couple of minutes to dry the larding; then glaze them nicely, drain them upon a napkin, and dish them up in a close circle similarly to cutlets; fill the centre with a Financiere ragout (No. 188), pour some of the sauce round the entree, and serve.

Note. - Galantines dressed in this manner may also be served with endive, sorrel, puree of green-peas or asparagus, stewed peas, or a la Macedoine.

1012. GALANTINES OF LEGS OF FOWLS, A LA JARDINIERE.

In this case, the legs of the fowls should be entirely laid open with the knife, and all the bones removed; they must then be spread out upon the table, seasoned with pepper and salt, and a table-spoonful of force-meat, mixed with fine-herbs, placed in the centre of each; then

344 ENTREES OF FOWLS.

sew them up in an oblong or oval form, and place them in a stewpan on a bed of sliced carrot, onion, and celery, covered with thin layers of fat bacon, and braized as directed in the foregoing case. When the galantines are done, put them in press between two dishes until they become cold; they should then be trimmed and placed in a sautapan with a little consomme covered with a buttered paper. When about to send to table, put the galantines in the oven to simmer gently for a quarter of an hour; then glaze and dish them up in a close circle, with a braized lettuce, nicely trimmed (No. 164), placed in between each; fill the centre with a Jardiniere (No. 144), pour some half-glaze or Espagnole sauce round the base of the entree, and serve.

1013. MINCED AND GRILLED FOWL.

Cut off the legs of a roast fowl, trim and score them over on both sides, and season them with pepper and salt; then cut the meat off the breast, &c, into fine shreds, and put this into a small stewpan, with a little Bechamel sauce (Xo. 5). When about to send to table, broil the legs of a fowl over a clear fire, glaze them, and having previously warmed the mince, pour it out into the centre of the dish, place the legs upon it, and serve.

1014. ANOTHER METHOD.

Trim the legs and cut up the mince as in the foregoing case. Next, put an ounce of fresh butter into a small stewpan over the fire to melt, incorporate therewith a spoonful of flour, and stir these together for two minutes; then add about a gill of broth, and the same proportion of cream; season with pepper and salt, grated nutmeg, and a small piece of glaze: stir this sauce on^ the stove, keep it boiling for ten minutes, and then add it to the minced chicken. In all other respects, serve this entree in the same way as the foregoing.

1015. MINCED CHICKEN, AND POACHED EGGS. Cut up all the white meat of a roast or boiled fowl into mince or shreds, and put these into a small stewpan with a gravy-spoonful of good Bechamel sauce; when about to send to table, warm the mince, dish it up, and place the poached eggs round it with a scollop of glazed tongue or of ham, and a fried crouton of bread in between each egg; pour a little white sauce round the entree, and serve.

1016. MINCED CHICKEN, WITH MACARONI. In this case prepare the chicken or fowl in small thin scollops, and add to them some Bechamel: when about to dish them np, first, place some macaroni (dressed with grated Parmesan cheese and a spoonful of -Bechamel sauce) round the bottom of the dish in the form of a border, and put the mince in the centre piled up like a cone; pour a little white sauce round the entree, and serve.

1017. MINCED CHICKEN, WITH RICE. Prepare the mince as directed in the foregoing instance. Put six ounces of Carolina rice, after it has been well washed, into a stewpan with a pat of butter and a pint of broth, a little salt and mignionette pepper: set the lid on and place it over a slow fire to boil very gently until the grains are become quite soft, and all the moisture is absorbed; then add the yolks of two eggs and a spoonful of saure;

KROMESKYS OF FOWL. 345

work the rice with a wooden spoon, then fill a circular border mould (previously buttered inside) with it, and turn it out upon its dish; fill the centre of this with the mince, and serve.

1018. MINCE, OR SCOLLOPS, OF FOWL AU GRATIN. Cut the meat off the breast and other white parts of a roast or boiled fowl, either into shreds or scollops; put these into a small stewpan with some Allemande sauce (No. 12), about a table-spoonful of grated Parmesan cheese, a little nutmeg, pepper, and salt, a small piece of glaze, and half a gill of cream; toss the whole together over the fire until well mixed, and then place the scollops in the dish, piled up in a dome; cover this entirely with a coating of fried bread-crumbs mixed with grated Parmesan cheese, in the proportion of two-thirds of the former with one-third of the latter; sprinkle a very little clarified butter over the surface, place round the entree a border of neatly cut fancy croutons of bread, of jleurons, of croquettes of rice, or of potatoes (previously fried), and then put it into the oven for about ten minutes, taking care that it does not get burnt. Next pour some Bechamel sauce round the base of the entree, and serve.

1019. KROMESKYS, A LA RUSSE Ctjt the fillets of a roast fowl into very small neat dice, and put them on a plate with half their quantity of mushrooms and truffles, also cut into small dice. Stir the Bechamel or Allemande sauce over the fire until stiffly reduced, and then throw in the minced chicken, &c, mix the whole well together, to spread it out upon a dish about an inch thick, and put it to cool in the larder. Next, cut this preparation into small pieces somewhat in the form of a common cork, and place them on an earthen dish. A calf's udder, previously braized for the purpose, must be cut, when cold, into very thin layers, just large enough to wrap one of the Kromeskys round with; they must then be dipped in some light batter, and fried crisp in plenty of hog's-lard made hot for the purpose. Dish them up with fried parsley in the centre and round the base, and serve them the moment they are done.

1020. CROQUETTES OF FOWL AND MUSHROOMS.

The mince for these is prepared in the same way as for Kromeskys, and when it has become cold, must be cut up in pieces about the size of a plover's egg, and rolled with a little bread-crumb, either in the form of corks, pears, or very small cutlets; they must next be dipped in beaten eggs and bread-crumbed a second time; roll them smooth, and if they have been shaped like pears, a stalk of green parsley should be stuck into each to imitate the stalk of pears. Just before sending to table, fry the croquettes of a light color in hog's-lard made quite hot for the purpose, dish them up on a napkin with fried parsley, and serve.

1021. MINCE, OR SALPICON FOR PATTIES.

Cut the fillets of a roast fowl into small dice, then take two dozen mushrooms, one truffle, and a small piece of red tongue, and cut these also in a similar way; mix all these with the fowl, add enough sauce, either Bechamel, Allemande, or Espagnole, and use this for garnishing patties, or croustades.

346

ENTREES OF PIGEONS AND DUCKLINGS,

COMPRISING

Pigeons, d la Gauthier. Fillets of Pigeons, a la Borghese.

„ d la Crapaudine. „ d la Bourgnignotte.

„ d la Bucheate. „ d VAllemande.

„ d la Seville. Ducklings, d la Boue'iinnise.

„ an gratin, in a case. „ stewed with Olives.

„ d la Maintenon. „ with stewed Peas.

Compote of Pigeons, with Mushrooms. Fillets of Ducklings, d la Bigarrade. „ with Peas. „ d la Macedoine.

Fillets of Pigeons, d la Villeroi. Salmis of Fillets of Ducklings.

1022. PIGEONS, A LA GAUTHIER. Procure four young fat pigeons, draw, singe, and truss them with their legs thrust inside. Next, put a half pound of fresh butter into a small stewpan with the juice of a lemon, a little mignionette pepper, and salt; place this over a stove-fire, and when it is melted, put the pigeons, with a garnished faggot of parsley, in it, cover the whole with thin layers of fat bacon and a circular piece of buttered paper, and Bet them to simmer very gently on a slow fire for about twenty minutes, when they will be done. The pigeons must then be drained upon a napkin, and after all the greasy moisture has been absorbed, place them in the dish in the form of a square, with a large quenelle of fowl (decorated with truffles) in between each pigeon; fill the centre with a ragout of crayfish-tails (No. 196), pour some of the sauce over and round the pigeons, and serve

1023. PIGEONS, A LA CRAPAUDINE. After the pigeons have been cut in halves, lengthwise through the breast, flatten each of these with a cutlet-bat, and then remove the bones from the breasts and legs; season with pepper and salt, and simmer them in a sautapan with some clarified butter over the fire until they become partly set; they must then be put in press betwwen two dishes, and when they have become cold, should be bread-crumbed twice: first after being dipped in the beaten egg, and the second time in clarified butter. When about to send to table, broil the pigeons of a light color over a clear fire; then glaze them lightly, and dish them up, pour some Poivrade sauce (No. 29), to which must be added some chopped and parboiled shalots and parsley, and serve.

1024. PIGEONS, A LA DUCHESSE. Remove the bones entirely from six very young pigeons; stuff them with some quenelle force-meat of veal mixed with a spoonful of sauce and some chopped mushrooms; sew them up neatly so as to give them an appearance of plumpness; put them in a stewpan with Borne white poele (No. 230), and braize them very gently over a slow fire for about twenty minutes; the pigeons must next be removed on to a dish and allowed to become partially cold; they should then be covered all over with a thin coating of reduced Allemande sauce (No. 7), and when this is become set upou them by cooling, roll them first

PIGEONS, ETC. 347

in bread-crumbs, then clip them in beaten egg and bread-crumb thorn over again, and place them on a dish in the larder. About twenty minutes before dinner-time, place the pigeons carefully upon the wire lining of a frying-pan, and immerse them in plenty of clean hog's-lard, made quite hot for the. purpose; as soon as they have acquired a lightbrown color, remove them from the frying-pan on to a napkin to absorb any grease. Then pile up some Jlacedoine of vegetables (Xo. 143) in the centre of the dish, place the pigeons round this in circular order, with the breasts resting on the bottom of the dish; put a decorated fillet of chicken in betwen each pigeon, surmount the entree with a group of nicely-turned small vegetables, pour some Allen i a rule or Bechamel sauce round the base of the entree, and serve.

1025. PIGEOXS, A LA SEVILLE.

Tuk.se are prepared, in the first instance, in the same way as the foregoing, excepting that they must be braized in some wine ralrepoix (No. 23G), and they should be also covered with thin layers of fat bacon, and only moistened half their depth; braize them gently for about twenty minutes, frequently basting them with their own liquor. When the pigeons are done, drain them upon a napkin, remove the strings, and dish them up with their backs resting up against a small crou.itadc of fried bread, previously made fast on the bottom of the dish; garnish with a Spanish ragout, place a large crayfish between each pigeon, and a decorated minion fillet of fowl upon their breasts, surmount the whole with a small larded sweetbread, and serve. The roymt above alluded to consists of small truffles, carrots, pieces of ham, mushrooms, and a few boiled garbancas, or yellow peas; these must be first slightly fried in a little oil, and a spoonful of Tomata sauce, a glass of Malaga or Madeira, with a pinch of the powder of the sweet red Pimento, and a piece of glaze added; simmer the whole together over a slow fire until the carrots are done; then skim off all the grease, add a small ladleful of finished Expagnole sauce (Xo. 3), and two dozen cloves of garlic, previously boiled in water; the ragout must be allowed to boil gently by the side of the stove for live minutes longer; then, after it has been skimmed, add the juice oil half a lemon and use it as directed.

1026. PIGEOXS, AU GRATIX, IX A CASE.

Remove all the bones from six young pigeons, then make some force-meat of fat livers (Xo. 249), and stuff the pigeons with this; they must next be trussed and gently braized for about a quarter of an hour in a small quantity of moistening, after this removed on to a dish and placed in the larder to become cold. Make a circular case of stout paper, oil it over, and place it in the oven for a few minutes to make it firm; line this case with some of the force-meat, and place the pigeons in it in neat order; fill up the cavities with the remainder of the force-meat, cover them over with very thin layers of fat bacon, and then set the case in the oven to be baked for about half an hour. The bacon must then be removed, and all the grease absorbed by gently pressing a clean napkin upon it, and put on its dish. Place some scollops of mushrooms and truffles, simmered wtth a spoonful of fineherbs on the top, pour some brown Italian sauce (Xo. 12; over the entree, and serve.

348 ENTREES OF PIGEONS.

1027. PIGEONS, A LA MAINTENON. Split four young pigeons lengthwise, flatten and bone them, and then season with pepper and salt; fry them in a sautapan with a little butter, some chopped mushrooms, parsley, and two shalots, and when this is done, add a large spoonful of Allemande sauce, a little essence of mushrooms, grated nutmeg, and lemon-juice; simmer the whole together for five minutes, and allow them partially to cool. Next, trim off the corners from as many sheets of note-paper as there are pieces of pigeon, and after the paper has been oiled over with a pastebrush, place the pigeons in them - dividing the sauce equally; twist the edges of the paper neatly and firmly, so as to secure the sauce from oozing out, and broil them over a very moderate fire; dish them up in close circular order upon a napkin, and send to table with some brown Italian sauce (No. 12), separately in a boat.

1028. COMPOTE OP PIGEONS, WITH MUSHROOMS.

Truss and then braize four pigeons with three quarters of a pound of streaky bacon. Peel half a pint of button onions, and after they have been parboiled in water, drain and fry them in a little butter over a very slow fire without allowing them to acquire any color; they must then be drained upon a sieve, and afterward placed in a small stewpan with half a pottle of mushrooms, and the bacon cut up in square dice. With the broth from the pigeons, make enough brown sauce for the entree, and as soon as it has been sufficiently worked, add this as well as a glass of white wine to the onions, &c, and set the whole to boil very gently by the side of a stove-fire for about ten minutes: then skim off the grease, and place this ragout in a stewpan with the pigeons. When about to send to table, make the compote of pigeons hot, dish up the pigeons with a crouton of fried bread between each, put the pieces of bacon in the cavities formed between the pigeons, group the mushrooms and onions in the centre, pour the sauce over the entree, and serve.

1029. COMPOTE OF PIGEONS, WITH PEAS.

Truss the pigeons as for boiling. Parboil three quarters of a pound of streaky bacon in water for a quarter of an hour, and then cut it into rather large dice-shaped pieces; put these into a middle-sized stewpan and fry them of a light color over a stove-fire, remove these on to a plate, and then throw in the pigeons and fry them also, until they acquire a light-brown color, and place them with the bacon. Next, add two table-spoonfuls of flour to the fat in the stewpan, and stir this roux over the fire until it acquires a light color, then gradually mix in with it a quart of broth; stir the sauce over the fire until it boils, add the pigeons, bacon, a quart of green-peas, a faggot of parsley, and green onions, and a little mignionette pepper, and keep the eomi, t . gently boiling by the side of a stove-fire for about three quarters of an hour; then skim off all the grease, and remove the faggot, and if the sauce is not sufficiently reduced, place the pigeons in another stewpan, and with a colander-spoon remove the peas and bacon also; allow the sauce to boil briskly on the fire, stirring it the while, until reduced to its proper consistency, and then pour it to the compote. When about to send to table, make the compote quite hot, and dish it up in the same way as the foregoing.

FILLETS OF PIGEONS. 349

1030. ANOTHER METHOD.

Braize the pigeons together with a piece of streaky bacon (after it has been parboiied); when these are done, prepare a quart of young peas for stewing in the usual way, to which add about half a pint of the liquor from the pigeons to moisten and flavor them with, and when these have been stewed, and all their moisture boiled down to a glaze, thicken them by adding two ounces of fresh butter kneaded with a dessert-spoonful of flour; cut the bacon into fluted oval scollops, dish up the pigeons, first placing some of the peas in the centre of the dish to support them upright, then place the scollops of bacon in rows between the pigeons, or round them, pile the peas up in the centre; pour some bright Espagnole sauce, worked with some of the liquor from the pigeons, round the entree, glaze the pigeons and the bacon, and serve.

1031. FILLETS OF PIGEONS, A LA VILLEROI.

Fillet six pigeons, remove the thin skin from them, and also the sinew from the under fillet, which must, however, be left adhering to the upper; flatten them slightly with a small bat, or the handle of a knife, dipped in water, and trim them; they must then be covered entirely with a coating of D'Uxelles sauce (No. 16), and when this has become firmly set upon the fillets by cooling, they should be breadcrumbed twice; once, after being dipped in beaten egg, and then after being dipped in clarified butter. Use the bones from the legs to imitate the bones of cutlets; and place the fillets carefully in a sauta-pan lined with clarified butter. Just before sending to table, fry the fillets of a light color on both sides, drain them on paper, glaze them lightly and dish them up in a close circle; fill the centre with a Macedoine of vegetables, asparagus-peas, French beans, or stewed peas; pour some bright half-glaze (made from the carcasses of the pigeons) round the entree, and serve.

1032. FILLETS OF PIGEONS, A LA BORGHESE.

Trim the fillets, insert the cutlet-bone in each, as in the foregoing case, and put them on an earthen dish: next, bone the carcasses of the pigeons, and remove the skin and sinews from the flesh, and with this make some quenelle force-meat (No. 244). Season the fillets of pigeons with a little pepper and salt, and neatly mask them over with a coating of the force-meat, thus increasing their size about one-half; cover the bottom of a sauta-pan with some clarified butter, about oneeighth of an inch thick, and having allowed this to become quite cold, put in the fillets thus prepared in circular rows, and cover them with some clarified butter, which, however, should not be poured over them until it has become nearly cold. About a quarter of an hour before sending to table, place a sauta-pan containing the fillets upon a rather brisk fire, and allow them to simmer quickly; and when they are done on both sides, drain them upon a napkin, and glaze them brightly; dish them up in close circular order, in the same way as cutlets, fill the centre with scollops of truffles, previously tossed over the fire with a small piece of glaze, half a pat of fresh butter, and a spoonful of sauce; pour some Madeira sauce (No. 8) round the base of the entree, and 6erve.

350 ENTREES OF PIGEONS.

1033. FILLET3 OP PIGEONS, A LA BOURGUIGNOTTE.

Prepare these in the same way as the foregoing, and when about to send to table, simmer them briskly over a stove-fire, and when done, drain, glaze, and dish them up in a close circle; fill the centre with a ragout & la Bourguignotte (No. 195), pour some of the sauce round the entree, and serve.

1034. FILLETS OF PIGEONS, A L'ALLEMANDE.

Prepare these in all respects according to the foregoing directions, and when the fillets have briskly simmered over a sharp fire, so as to become firmly set before they are more than half done, they must be immediately removed from the sauta-pan on an earthen dish, and after being separately dipped in some light-made batter, mixed with good cream, should be fried crisp in plenty of clean hog's-lard, made quite hot for the purpose; when done, drain them upon a napkin, and dish them up in a close, circle; fill the centre with a puree of green peas, artichokes, or asparagus, with either a Jardiniere, or Macedoine, stewed peas, or dressed young Windsor beans; pour some bright half-glaze (made from the carcasses) under the entree, and serve.

1035. DUCKLINGS, A LA ROUENNAISE.

Truss two fat ducklings for boiling, put them in a stewpan, with about three-quarters of a pound of streaky bacon (previously parboiled), a carrot, an onion, and a garnished faggot of parsley, and cover them with thin layers of fat bacon and a round of buttered paper; moisten with a quart of white broth, and then set them to braize gently for about three-quarters of an houY Cut a bunch of young turnips into the shape of large olives, or half-moons, and fry these in a stewpan with two ounces of clarified butter, and a dessert-spoonful of pounded sugar, over the fire, until they acquire a deep yellow color; then strain off the butter, and put the turnips into a smaller stewpan containing sufficient bright Espagnole sauce (No. 3) for the entree; add a little of the liquor from the ducks to flavor them, and set them to boil gently by the side of a stove-fire until they are done, at the same time attending to the reduction of the sauce to its proper consistency. When about to send to table, the ducks may either be served whole, or cut up into small joints and neatly trimmed; pile these in the same manner as for a fricassee, keeping the fillets and breasts for the top; garnish the entree with the turnips, place a border of scollops of streaky bacon round the base, pour the sauce over the ducks, aud serve.

1036. DUCKLINGS, STEWED WITH OLIVES.

Prepare these as in the foregoing case, and when done, cut each up into neatly-trimmed small joints, consisting of two legs, and two fillets with the pinions left on them; then cut the breast into two pieces, and also the back; clarify the liquor, and after it has been reduced by boiling to half-glaze, warm the pieces of ducklings in it, and dish them up as before directed; garnish the entree with a ragout of olives, place the scollops of streaky bacon round the entree, pour the sauce over the ducklings, and serve.

FILLETS OF DUCKLINGS. 351

1037. DUCKLINGS, WITH STEWED PEAS.

Prepare these as directed in the foregoing cases. Stew a quart of young peas (No. 146), and finish them with a little of the glaze made from the liquor in which the ducklings have been braized; the members or small joints of the ducklings must also be warmed in some of the same glaze, and dished up in a pile upon some of the stewed peas; garnish the base of the entree with the remainder; place a row of scollops of the streaky bacon upon these, pour some bright Espagnole sauce (No. 3) over the entree, and serve.

1038. FILLETS OF DUCKLINGS, A LA BIGARRADE.

Draw and singe these, and pick out any remaining stubble-feathers on the ducklings; then separate the breast from the legs and backs, by running the knife in just above the thighs and cutting through the upper part of the back under the wings; roast the backs and use them for making the Bigarrade sauce with (No. 33). Place the breasts in a deep earthen dish, season with a little mignionette pepper, salt, parsley, bay-leaf, thyme, three table-spoonfuls of salad oil, and 'the juice of a lemon, and allow them to steep in this for several hours; about three-quarters of an hour before dinner, run a large iron skewer through the breasts of the ducklings, and tie them on a spit, then place the whole of the seasoning upon them, wrap them up with a large sheet of .oiled paper, and set them before the fire for about twenty minutes: at the end of that time, remove the paper and seasoning, and allow the ducklings to acquire a bright color; then remove them from the spit, observing that they should be done with the gravy in them. The fillets must then be taken out, slightly trimmed and scored, and placed in a sautapan with a little half-glaze or some of the sauce, and allowed barely to simmer over a stove-fire to warm; they should then be dished up in a close circle with a fried crouton of bread in between each fillet; pour the Bigarrade sauce over the entree, and serve.

1039. FILLETS OF DUCKLINGS, A LA MACEDOINE. These must be prepared in the same manner as the foregoing;

when the fillets are trimmed, place them in a sautapan with some halfglaze made from the carcasses, and when about to send to table, warm them without allowing them to boil, as that would make them tough; dish them up in a close circle with a crouton of fried bread in between each fillet, fill the centre with a Macedoine of vegetables (No. 143), pour some bright half-glaze round the base, and serve.

1040. SALMIS OF FILLETS OF DUCKLINGS. Prepare the breasts of the ducklings, and roast them off in the manner directed for those a la Bigarrade; cut them out, trim and score them, and place them in a sautapan with a little half-glaze. Next, roast the legs of a light-brown color, and when done, break them up, and put them into a stewpan with four shalots, a handful of parsley, a dozen pepper-corns, some mushroom trimmings, a bay-leaf, and sprig of thyme; moisten with a pint of Claret or Sauterne wine, and set this to boil very gently over a slow fire for about half an hour; then, strain it off through a sieve, add this extract or essence to an equal proportion of Espagnole sauce (No. 3), and work it in the ordinary manner: when it has been cleared by gentle ebullition, and

352 ENTREES OF QUAILS.

afterward reduced by boiling to its proper consistency, strain it through a tammy into a bain-marie. When about to send to table, warm the fillets carefully, dish them up as in the former cases, fill the centre with scollops of truffles and mushrooms, pour the sauce over the entree, and serve.

Note. - In addition to the foregoing methods for dressing ducklings for entrees, they may also, if intended to be served whole, be treated according to the directions for dressing ducks for removes and flanks; for which, see those articles.

ENTREES OF QUAILS,

COMPRISING

Quails, with stewed Peas. Cutlets of Quails, d la Bordelaise.

„ d la Perigueux. Fillets of Quails, d la Talleyrand.

„ d la Financiere. „ d la Parisie'itne.

„ d la Royale. Scollops of Quails, with Truffles. Cutlets of Quails, d la Marichale. „ with Cucumbers.

1041. QUAILS, WITH STEWED PEAS.

Truss eight quails in the same manner as chickens are trussed for boiling, put them into a stewpan with half a pound of streaky bacon, and a garnished faggot of parsley in the centre, cover them with thin layers of fat bacon, moisten with some wine mirepoix (No. 236), and braize the quails gently for about three-quarters of an hour. Prepare about a pint of stewed peas, and finish them with a little of the mircpoix reduced to a glaze; dish op the quails in a circle with their breasts placed outward, fill the centre with the stewed peas, place a scollop of streaky bacon in between each quail, pour some Espagnole sauce, finished with some of the mirepoix, round and over the entree, and serve.

1042. QUAILS, A LA PERIGUEUX.

Draw eight fine fat quails, taking care not to tear the pouch, or skin of the throat; fill each with some truffles cut into very small olives, and prepared as for stuffing fowls, &c, a la Perigueux (No. 660); then truss them in the same manner as fowls for boiling. Next, cover the bottom of a stewpan with thin layers of bacon, and place the quails thereon; put a garnished faggot of parsley, and a clove of garlic in the centre, cover them with layers of bacon, and moisten with some wine mirepoix (No. 236): braize them gently for about threequarters of an hour, and when done, dish them up with their backs resting upright against a small ornamental croustade of fried bread previously fastened on the centre of the dish; place a large white cock's-comb between each quail, and some double cocks'-combs in the centre, with a large truffle to crown the whole; pour some Perigueux sauce (No. 23) over the entree, and serve.

1042. QUAILS, A LA FINANCIERE.

Remove the bones entirely from eight fat quails, reserve the livers, and add to them half a pound of fat livers of fowl, with which prepare some force-meat (No. 249), and stuff the quails with part of this;

CUTLETS OF QUAILS. 353

they must then be trussed in the usual manner, and placed in a stewpan with thin layers of fat bacon under them, a garnished faggot of parsley in the centre, and covered with layers of fat bacon; moisten with some wine mirepoix (No. 236), and braize them gently for about threequarters of an hour. Prepare a rich Financiere ragout (No. 188), the sauce of which must be finished with some of the liquor in which the quails have been braized. When about to send to table, warm the quails, drain and dish them up, garnish the centre with the Financiere, pour some of the sauce round the entree, and serve.

1044. QUAILS, A LA EOYALE.

Bone eight quails, then stuff them with some quenelle force-meat, and truss them in the usual manner; place them in a stewpan with some sliced carrot, an onion, two cloves, and a garnished faggot of parsley; moisten with a pint of white broth, cover with a round of buttered paper, put the lid on, and set them to braize very gently by the side of a stove-fire for about three-quarters of an hour; then allow them partially to cool in their own liquor, after which they must be taken out and placed upon a dish in the larder to become cold; the

strings should then be removed, and the quails entirely covered with a coating of cPUxelles sauce (No. 16); when this has become firmly set by cooling, roll them in bread-crumbs, afterwards dip them in beaten esrg, and bread-crumb them over again. When about to send to table, place the quails upon the wire-lining of a frying-pan, and immerse them in plenty of clean hopc's-lard made quite hot for the purpose; fry them of a light-brown color, then drain and dish them up on a border of quenelle force-meat previously turned out on the dish; fill the centre with a white Toulouse ragout (No. 187), place a decorated minion fillet of chicken betweeu each quail, pour some Allemande sauce round the base of the entree, and serve.

1045. CUTLETS OF QUAILS, A LA MARECBALE,

Split the quails into halves, remove the breast, pinion, and part of the back-bones, leaving the leg entire, which must be passed through the skin of the thigh to give them the appearance of cutlets; flatten them slightly with a small bat, season with pepper and salt, then mask them over with a thin coating of Allemande sauce (No. 7), and breadcrumb them twice upon this: once after being dipped in beaten egg, and then in clarified butter: pat them into shape with the blade of a knife, and place them in neat order in a sautapan with some clarified butter. Fry the cutlets of a light color over a rather brisk fire; when done, drain and glaze them lightly, and dish them up in the same way as other cutlets; fill the centre with either a Macedoine of vegetables (No. 143), or scollops of cucumbers, stewed peas, asparagus-peas, or a puree of artichokes; pour some half-glaze, or a little Supreme sauce, round the entree, and serve. 22

354 ENTREES OF QUAILS.

1046. CUTLETS OF QUAILS, A LA BORDELAISE.

Trim the quails into cutlets in the same way as directed in the foregoing case, season them with pepper and salt, and place them in a sautapan with a little clarified butter; fry them over a brisk fire, and as soon as they have acquired a light color on both sides, pour off all the grease, add a spoonful of glaze, and toss them in it over the fire; then dish them up in a close circle with the legs uppermost, fill the centre with scollops of truffles and mushrooms, pour some Bordelaise sauce (No. 57), over the cutlets, aud serve.

1047. FILLETS OF QUAILS, A LA TALLEYRAND.

Fillet eight quails, and with the carcasses make some essence (No. 218); trim the fillets, and stick a short bone (reserved from the legs) into them, to imitate cutlets; then place them in a sautapan with some clarified butter. Prepare sixteen fried croutons of bread cut in the shape and size of the fillets, and fill these with some farce made from the quails' livers; prepare also some scollops of fat livers, truffles and mushrooms, and put them into a small stewpan with a little Allemande sauce (No. 7); finish some Supreme sauce (No. 38) by incorporating therein the reduced essence of quails, and keep it in a small bainmarie. Just before sending to table, simmer the fillets over a moderate stove-fire, and when done, pour off all the grease, add a little of the Supreme sauce, toss the fillets in it, and dish them up as follows: -

First, place eight of the croutons (previously warmed in the oven) at the bottom of the dish, so that the points meet in the centre; then place a fillet upon each of these, after which repeat the croutons, and then place the last row of fillets; fill the centre with the scollops, pour the Supreme sauce over the fillets, and serve.

1048. FILLETS OF QUAILS, A LA PARISIENNE.

Prepare the fillets and the croutons as directed in the foregoing case, and finish and dish them up in the same way; fill the centre of the entree with a Parisian ragout (No. 203), pour some of the sauce over the fillets, aud serve.

1049. SCOLLOPS OF QUAILS, WITH TRUFFLES.

Fillet eight quails; trim each fillet into two scollops, and place the whole of these into a sautapan with some clarified butter; season with a little pepper and salt, and place a round of buttered paper over them. Use the carcasses to make some extract or essence with, which when done must be clarified, boiled down to glaze, and incorporated with some finished Espagnole sauce (No. 3), and put into a small bainmarie. Simmer the scollops over a moderate fire, aud as soon as they are done, pour off all the butter, and add half the sauce with about half a pound of truffles cut into scollops; toss them over the stove-fire for two minutes without allowing them to boil; pile them up in the centre of the dish, pour the remainder of the sauce over them, garnish the entree with a border of potato croquettes or Jleurons, and serve.

1050. SCOLLOPS OF QUAILS, WITH CUCUMBERS.

These are prepared in the same manner as the foregoing. When about to send to table, simmer them over the stove-fire, and when

ENTREES OF LARKS. 355

done, pour off the bntter, add some scollops of encumbers (No. 138), and some of the essence made from the carcasses boiled down to a glaze; toss them over the fire for two minutes, and pile them up in the centre of the dish; garnish the entree round with a border of croquettes made with the legs, and serve.

ENTREES OF LARKS,

COMPRISING

• Larks, d la Minute. Larks, with Fine-herbs.

„ a la Chipolata. „ with Truffles, d Vltalilnne.

1051. LARKS, A LA MINUTE.

Cut off the legs, and pick out the gizzards with the point of a small knife; then place the larks in a deep sautapan previously spread with butter; season with pepper and salt, and fry them over a brisk fire until they have acquired a brown color, and are nearly done; all the grease must be poured off, and a large gravy-spoonful of Espagnole sauce, half a pottle of mushrooms, a small piece of glaze, a pat of butter, and the juice of half a lemon, should then be added; toss them over the stove-fire until the whole is well mixed, then dish up the larks with fried croutons of bread round them, pour the mushrooms and sauce over the entree, and serve.

1052. LARKS, A LA CHIPOLATA.

Prepare and fry the larks as directed in the foregoing case, and when done, pour off the grease, and add some Chipolata ragout (No. 190); toss and simmer this over the stove-fire for five minutes, then dish up eight of the larks upon as many small oval croutons, place eight more croutons on these, and set a like number of larks upon them; fill the centre with the ragout, pour the sauce over the entree, and serve.

1053. LARKS, WITH FINE-HERBS.

Trim the larks and draw the gizzards, place them in a sautapan with a little butter, pepper and salt; fry them of a light brown color over a brisk fire, and then add a table-spoonful of chopped mushrooms, an equal proportion of parsley, and two shalots also chopped; simmer these with the larks for five minutes longer, then add a gravy-spoonful of Espagnole sauce (No. 3), a small piece of glaze, a pat of butter, the juice of half a lemon and a little grated nutmeg; toss the whole well together over the fire for two minutes, and dish them in a neat pyramidal form, place some croutons of fried bread round the entree, pour the sauce over it, and serve.

1054. LARKS, WITH TRUFFLES, A L'lTALIENNE,

Fry these as directed in the foregoing cases, and when they have acquired a light-brown color, pour off the grease, add some brown Italian sauce (No. 12), half a pottle of mushrooms, and about two ounces of truffles cut into scollops; toss the whole together over the

356 ENTREES OF RABBITS.

fire for five minutes, dish up the larks in double rows, with croutons of bread in between each row, fill the centre with the truffles and mushrooms, pour the sauce over the entree, and serve.

ENTREES OF RABBITS,

COMPRISING

Rabbit, d la Chasseur. Fillets of Rabbits, larded, d la Toulouse, jkc. „ fried in Batter, with Poivrade „ d la Murechak, Ac.

sauce. Blanquette of Rabbit, d I'Eearlate.

„ d la Bourguignonne. Polpettes of Rabbit, d Vltalibme. „ d la Pirigueux.

1055. RABBIT, A LA CHASSEUR.

Cut up the rabbit into small joints, as follows: - first, take off the hind legs even with the loins, then remove the shoulders, split the head into halves, and divide the loins into six pieces; trim these neatly without waste, and place them in a sautapan with two ounces of clarified butter, pepper and salt. Fry them of a light-brown color over a rather brisk fire, and add a table-spoonful of chopped fine-herbs, consisting of mushrooms, truffle, parsley, and shalot; then put the lid on, and set the rabbit over a slow fire for about ten minutes longer; next pour off all the grease, add a large gravy-spoonful of Espagnole sauce, some scollops of mushrooms and truffles, two dozen small quenelles of rabbit, a small piece of glaze, a little nutmeg, and the juice of half a lemon; simmer the whole together on the stove-fire for three minutes, then pile up the pieces of rabbit in the dish;=-arrange the ragout over this in neat groups, pour the sauce over the entree, place some croutons of fried bread round it, and serve.

1056. RABBIT FRIED IN BATTER, WITH POIVRADE SAUCE.

Cut the rabbit up as in the foregoing case, and theu follow the directions given for dressing chickens in this manner (No. 988).

1057. RABBITS, A LA BOURGUIGNONNE.

Cut the rabbits up into small joints, season with pepper and salt, and fry them slightly over the fire, without allowing them to acquire much color, adding half a pint of button-onions previously parboiled in water, a very little grated nutmeg and half a pottle of mushrooms; toss these over the fire for five minutes, then add a tumblerful of French white wine (Chablis or Sauterne), and set this to boil sharply until reduced to half the quantity; next, add two large gravy-spoonfuls of Veloi'tr sauce (No. 4), simmer the whole together gently for ten minutes longer, and finish by incorporating a leason of four yolks of eggs, the juice of half a lemon, and a dessert-spoonful of chopped parboiled parsley; dish up the pieces of rabbit in a pyramidal form, garnish the enlrre with the onions, &c, placed in groups round the base, pour the sauce over it, and serve.

1058. RABBITS, A LA PERIGUEUX.

Cut these up, and fry them with a little butter of a light-brown color: pour off the grease, add some Perigueux sauce (No. 23), four

BLANQUETTES OF RABBITS. 357

ounces of truffles cut into scollops, and two dozen small quenelles of rabbit, and simmer the whole together over the stove-fire for five minutes; dish up the entree with croutons round it, garnish with the ragout, pour the sauce over it, and serve.

1059. FILLETS OF RABBITS LARDED, A LA TOULOUSE.

Fillet four or six rabbits (according to the number of guests), trim the fillets and lard two-thirds of each - beginning at the thick end; then place them in a circular row, all curved in the same direction, in a sautapan, the bottom of which should be lined with thiu layers of fat bacon. About twenty minutes before sending to table, pour a little strong consomme or thin half-glaze to the fillets, place a round piece of buttered paper upon them, and set them in the oven to simmer for ten minutes; then remove the paper, dry the larding and glaze it, frequently basting the fillets with their own glaze; next, drain them upon a napkin, trim and dish them up in a close circle, fill the centre with ragout d la Toulouse (No. 187), pour some of the sauce round the base, glaze the larding of the fillets, and serve.

Note. - Fillets of rabbits larded, may also be garnished with either a ragout a la Parisienne, or a la Financiere; with small quenelles, scollops of truffles, of mushrooms, or of cucumbers; and with any kind of dressed vegetables or purees.

1060. FILLETS OF RABBITS, A LA MARECHALE.

Fillet four rabbits, slightly flatten, and then trim the fillets, making an incision round the interior part of them; fill this with some (VUxelles sauce (No. 16); mask them over with a thin coating of Allemande sauce, and when this has become firmly set by cooling, bread-crumb them twice: once dipped in beaten egg, and then, after being sprinkled over with clarified butter; broil the fillets over a clear fire of moderate heat, with a sheet of oiled paper placed upon the gridiron; when done of a light color on both sides, dish them up in a close circle, fill the centre with scollops of the kidneys and inner fillets, mixed with truffles and mushrooms, and tossed in a little Allemande sauce; glaze the fillets, pour some bright Espagnole sauce, worked with essence made from the carcasses, round the base of the entree, and serve.

Note. - These fillets may also be served with some bright aspic, with cucumbers, a puree of celery, or white Italian sauce.

1061. BLANQUETTE OF RABBITS, A L'ECARLATE.

Fillet three rabbits, cut off the hind-quarters, place them upon an iron skewer; lay this upon a large sheet of thickly-buttered paper, season with pepper and salt, and strew upon it some thinly-sliced carrot, an onion, parsley, thyme, and bay-leaf; wrap the paper round them, and then tie the skewer upon a spit, and roast them before the fire for about twenty minutes; then take them up on a dish, and leave them in the paper till they have become cold; the meat must next be peeled off, cut into small dice, and made up into croquettes (No. 1020). Trim the fillets, and place them in a sautapan with a little clarified butter, pepper and salt, and simmer them in the oven or over a slow fire for about ten minutes, without allowing them to

358 ENTREES OF HARE.

acquire any color; then drain them, and cut them into sloping scollops; put these into a stewpan with one-third of their proportion of scollops or red tongue and some mushrooms; add two gravy-spoonfuls of Allemande sauce (No. T), warm the Blanquette, gently tossing it over the fire, and dish it up in the form of a dome; garnish it round with the croquettes, previously fried, mask the Blanquette with a spoonful of the sauce, and serve.

1062. POLPETTES OF RABBITS, A L'lTALIENNE.

Roast two rabbits, and when they are cold, cut off all the meat and chop it up fiue; put this into a stewpan with a tablespoonful of chopped mushrooms, an equal proportion of parsley and two shalots, also chopped, four ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, a little grated nutmeg, and two gravy-spoonfuls of reduced Veloute sauce; stir these together over the fire until well mixed, then add the yolks of four eggs, and spread the preparation out in a square, about half an inch thick, upon an earthen dish; when this has become cold, stamp the Polpettes out with a circular tin-cutter about an inch and a half in diameter; bread-crumb them twice in the usual manner, place them in a sautapan with some clarified butter, and fry them of a light color over a brisk fire; when done, drain them upon a napkin, dish them up iu double circular rows, pour some brown Italian sauce under them, and serve.

Note. - Besides the foregoing methods of dressing rabbits for entrees, they may also be served in almost every variety of form in which chickens or fowls (previously cut up into small joints) are directed to be prepared; purees, minces, salpicons, and every kind of quenelles and boudins, may also be made with rabbits; for which consult those articles in that part of the work treating of entrees of chickens and fowls, and proceed in the same manner.

ENTREES OF HARE,

COMPRISING

Fillets of Hare, larded, with Poivrade Sauee. Cutlets of Hare, & VAncienne.

„ & la Chasseur. Scollops of Hare, with Fine- Herbs.

„ u I' Allemande. „ d la PSrigtietix.

Cutlets of Hare, d la Porttiguaise. Civet of Hare, with Mushrooms.

1063. FILLETS OF HARE LARDED, WITH POIVRADE SAUCE.

If the hares used for this purpose are full grown, three will suffice; they must be filleted, and each fillet split into halves; these should be trimmed and larded, and placed in a curve at the bottom of a sautapan lined with thin layers of fat bacon. Moisten with some mirep om (No. 236), place a round of buttered paper upon the fillets, and set them in the oven to simmer for twenty minutes, frequently basting them with their own liquor; when they are nearly done, remove the paper, dry the larding and glaze it; drain the fillets upon a napkin, trim and dish them up iu a close circle, pour some Poivrade, Toinata, or Italian sauce under them, and serve.

CUTLETS OF HARE. 359

Note. - These fillets may also be garnished iu the same way as directed for fillets of rabbits.

1064. FILLETS OF HARE. A LA CHASSEUR. Prepare the fillets and place them in a sautapan as directed in the

foregoing case. Use the carcasses for making some extract, ov fumet, reserve the hind-quarters, run them on a large iron skewer, place them on a large sheet of paper thickly buttered, season with pepper and salt, and strew over them some thinly-sliced carrot and onion, parsley, bay-leaf, and thyme; wrap the paper round the legs, and fasten the skewer on the spit with string, then roast them before the fire for about half an hour, basting them frequently. When done, pare off all the meat, chop it very fine, and pound it in a mortar with a pat of butter and a spoonful of Espagnole sauce; rub it through a fine wire sieve or tammy, and put the puree into a small stewpan. When about to send to table, braize and glaze the fillets as directed in the foregoing case, dish them up in a close circle, fill the centre with the puree, pour round the base of the entree, and mask the puree with some bright Espagnole sauce worked with the fumet; glaze the larding of the fillets, and serve.

1065. FILLETS OF HARE, A L'ALLEMANDE.

Lard the fillets as in the foregoing cases, steep them in some marinade (No. 234) for six hours at least; drain and put them in a sautapan lined with thin layers of fat bacon, moisten with some wine mirepoix, braize and glaze them in the usual manner, and when done, dish them up in a close circle; fill the centre with large prunes stewed in red wine with a small stick of cinnamon, pour some cherry sauce d la Victoria (No. 64) round the base, place a border of quenelles of potatoes (No. 312) round the entree, and serve.

1066. CUTLETS OF HARE, A LA PORTUGUAISE. Fillet three hares, cut each fillet across into halves, flatten these slightly with a bat, trim them into the shape of cutlets, and scrape some of the ribs to resemble cutlet-bones; season with a little pepper and salt, mask them over with a thin coating of Allemande sauce, and bread-crumb the cutlets twice; once dipped in beaten egg, and afterward sprinkled with clarified butter; pat them gently into shape, and place them in a sautapan with clarified butter. When about to send to table, fry the cutlets of a light color, drain, glaze and dish them up in a close circle, till the centre with yams previously cut into the form of olives, and fried in butter; pour some Portuguese sauce (No. 59) round the base, and serve.

1067. CUTLETS OF HARE, A LAXCIENNE. These must be trimmed as directed in the foregoing case, and placed in a buttered sautapan without being bread-crumbed; then season with pepper and salt, pour a little clarified butter over them, and with half the hind-quarters make some puree in the usual way - keeping this rather thick. Use the carcasses to make some fumet with, to be worked into some Espagnole sauce for the entree. Cut as many croutons of bread as there are cutlets, and of the same shape; draw the point of a small knife round the inside of the edge of the croutons, and when they are fried of a light color, remove the inner

360 ENTREES OF HARE.

piece, fill the cavities of the croutons with the puree, and place them in a sautapan with a round of buttered paper upon them. Just before dinner-time, simmer the cutlets over a gentle fire for about five minutes, turn them over when done on the under side, and allow them to remain two minutes longer; pour off the butter, add a little glaze and a spoonful of the sauce, toss them in this, and dish them up in a close circle; placing one of the croutons (previously warmed) in between each cutlet; fill the centre with scoliops of the kidneys and small fillets, truffles and mushrooms tossed in a little of the sauce, pour the sauce round the base of the entree, and serve.

1068. SCOLLOPS OF HARE, WITH FINE-HERBS.

Cut the fillets of three hares into scollops, flatten them slightly with the handle of a knife dipped in water, trim them neatly and place them in a sautapan with clarified butter, season with pepper and salt, and fry them on both sides over a brisk fire for about five minutes; pour off the butter, add some fine-herbs sauce (No. 14) and half a pottle of mushrooms; simmer the scollops over the fire for two minutes, pile them up in the centre of the dish, pour the sauce over them, garnish round with croquettes, made with the hind-quarters, as in No. 1020, and serve.

1069. SCOLLOPS OF HARE, A LA PERIGUEUX.

Prepare the scollops and fry them as directed in the foregoing case; pour off the butter, add some Perigueux sauce (No. 23) and some scollops of truffles; simmer them over the stove-fire for three minutes, dish them up in the form of a dome, garnish round with croquettes in the form of pears, anjl serve.

Note. - Scollops of hares may also be finished with the following sauces: - Poivrade, Italian, Tomata, Espagnole, and Bourguignotte; in either case scollops of truffles, tongue, or mushrooms, may be added.

1070. CIVET OF HARE, WITH MUSHROOMS.

Cut the hare into small joints, then parboil one pound of streaky bacon, and cut it into square pieces the size of small walnuts; fry these in a stewpan until they acquire a light-brown color, then take them out on a plate, and fry the pieces of hare brown also. Next, shake a handful of flour over them, and toss them over the fire for three minutes; add the fried bacon, a pottle of mushrooms, an onion stuck with four cloves, a carrot and a garnished faggot of parsley; season with pepper and salt, moisten with a pint of port wine, and a quart of good broth, stir the civet on the fire till it boils, and then remove it to the side that it may clarify itself by gentle ebullition. Fry half a pint of button onions in a small stewpan with a little butter, for five minutes, and when the civet has boiled about half an hour, throw these in; as soon as the pieces of hare become tender, remove the scum and grease from the surface, take out the onion, carrot, and faggot; and if there appear to be too much sauce, pour it into another stewpan, and reduce it by boiling, stirring it with ¦ wooden spoon to prevent its burning, then pass it through a tammy upon the civet. Pile up the pieces of hare in the centre of the dish, and gat nish round with the mushrooms, &c.; pour the sauce over it, place a

ENTREES OF PHEASANTS. 361

dozen of croutons of fried bread cut in the shape of a heart round the the base and serve.

Leverets, when cut up in small joints, may be dressed in the same manner as rabbits; which see.

ENTREES OF PHEASANTS,

COMPRISING

Salmis of Pheasant, d la Bourguignotte. Scollops of Pheasant d la Richelieu. " d la Brisililnne. " d la Victoria.

" d la Paysanne. " d la Palerme.

" d la Chasseur.

1071. SALMIS OP PHEASANT, A LA BOURGUIGNOTTE.

Roast the pheasant, let it become cold, and then cut it up as follows: - First remove the legs, then cut off the fillets with the pinionbones adhering thereto, separate the breast from the back, trim them both, cut them crosswise into halves, and place all the pieces in a stewpan. Next chop up the trimmings and put them into a stewpan with three shalots sliced up, a small bay-leaf and sprig of thyme, a few pepper-corns, a blade of mace, and a pat of butter; fry these over a stove-fire until they are slightly browned, moisten them with half a pint of Claret or Burgundy, and set the whole to boil upon the stove until reduced to half the quantity; then add half a pint of white consomme, and after ihefumet has simmered by the side of the stove for a quarter of an hour, pass it through a sieve into a stewpan containing sufficient Espagnole sauce for the entree, and work it in the usual manner (by clarifying and reducing it), then pass it through a tammy into a basin. Pour one-third of the sauce over the pheasant and put the remainder into a bain-marie containing some button-mushrooms, small truffles, glazed button onions, and about twenty very small quenelles. When about to send to table, warm the members of pheasant without allowing them to boil; dish them up, first placing the pieces of back, then the legs, and the fillets, surmounting the whole with the breast, garnish the salmis with the ragout disposed in groups round the base, place some heart-shaped croutons between these, pour the remainder of the sauce over the entree, and serve.

1072. SALMIS OF PHEASANT, A LA BRESILIENNE.

Roast the pheasant, and afterward cut it up into small joints as in the foregoing ease. Make a little farce with four pheasants' livers (or these failing, fowls' livers may be substituted), and use this to fill eight heart-shaped croutons of fried bread. Chop the trimmings, and put them into a stewpan with two cloves of garlic, some chopped mushrooms, a blade of mace, bay-leaf, sprig of thyme, twelve peppercorns, and a teaspoonful of the powder of sweet red pimento, four ounces of lean ham, and a good table-spoonful of salad oil; fry these over a moderate stove-fire for five minutes, then add six ripe tomntas, and after these ingredients have been stirred over the fire until the

362 ENTREES OF PHEASANTS.

tomatas are melted, pour in half a tumblerful of Madeira; boil this down to half its quantity, add half a pint of consomme, allow the fumet to boil gently for twenty minutes, and pass it through the tammy with pressure into a stewpan containing a small ladleful of Espagnole sauce; work this in the usual manner, and pass it through the tammy into a basin; add one-third to the pieces of pheasant, and pour the remainder into a bain-marie containing some button-mushrooms and small truffles. Dish up the pheasant as usual, place the croutons (warmed in the oven and glazed), round the salmis, garnish with the ragout and sauce and serve.

1073. SALMIS OP PHEASANTS, A LA PAYSANNE.

Roast the pheasant, just before dinner, with some croutons of toast placed under it, cut it up into small joints and dish them up immediately; place the croutons of toast round the salmis, and pour the following sauce over it: - Chop three shallots, some parsley and mushrooms, put these into a stewpan with a dessert-spoonful of oil, thyme and bayleaf, and a little Cayenne pepper; fry these ingredients over a moderate fire for five minutes, add two glasses of white wine, a small piece of glaze and half a pint of good consomme; boil the sauce briskly until reduced to half its original quantity, then add the juice of half a lemon, and use it as directed.

1074. SALMIS OF PHEASANTS, A LA CHASSEUR.

Roast two yomng hen-pheasants, cut them up as usual, and put the fillets, the pieces of the breasts and backs, into a stewpan; using the legs to make some puree with. Prepare the salmis sauce (No. 108), with four shalots and some parsely, chopped and parboiled, which are to be added together with the juice of half a lemou when sending to table. Warm the salmis in the sauce, dish it up in a pyramidal form, garnish it round with a dozen small croustades of fried bread, about an inch and a half high, and the same in diameter, filled with the puree; pour the sauce over the entree and serve.

1075. SCOLLOPS OF PHEASANTS, A LA RICHELIEU.

Fillet the two pheasants, pare away the sinews without trimming, and simmer the fillets in a sautapan with a little butter, pepper and salt; then cut them into scollops, and put these into a stewpan with some Richelieu ragout (No. 20T). Just before sending to table, warm the scollops without letting them boil; dish them up, garnish round with croquettes made with the legs, and serve.

1076. SCOLLOPS OF PHEASANTS, A LA VICTORIA.

Fillet two young pheasants, and prepare the scollops as directed in the foregoing case. Make some puree with the legs; this must be kept stiff, and mixed with one third of its quantity of reduced Allemande, then spread out half an inch in thickness upon a dish, and when cold, cut into small heart-shaped croquettes and bread-crumbed in the usual manner. Use the carcasses to make some essences with, which, after being reduced to glaze, must be mixed some Supreme sauce (No. 38), and poured on the scollops. Ten minutes before sending to table, fry the croquettes of puree, dish up the scollops in the form of a dome, place the croquettes in a close circle round the entree, and serve.

ENTREES OF PARTRIDGES. 363

1077. SCOLLOPS OF PHEASANTS, A LA PALERME.

Prepare some scollops with the fillets of two hen-pheasants, use the legs to make some puree with (No. 1062), finish some Poivrade sauce (No. 29) with the essence made from the carcasses, and pour this to the scollops, and add to these some scolloped tongue, mushrooms, and truffles. Prepare also a dozen small croustades of nouilles (No. 1266), fry them of a light-yellow color, empty them, and fill them with the •puree, dish up the scollops, place the crdustades round the entree, and serve.

Note. - Fillets of full-grown pheasants are too large to dress for entrees; but when young pheasants are used for such a purpose, the fillets may be treated according to the various methods directed for dressing fillets of fowls.

For the preparation of boudins and quenelles of pheasant, follow the directions given for making boudins and quenelles of fowl.

ENTREES OF PARTRIDGES,

COMPRISING

Salmi$ of Partridges, d la Financiire. Fillets of Partridges, d I'Ancihme.

„ d la Provencale. „ d la Parisienne.

„ d la Pirigord. Scollops of Partridges, with Truffles.

„ with Mushrooms, Ac. „ with Fine-herbs, in

Fillets of Partridges, d la Lucullus. cases.

„ d la Prince Albert.

1078. SALMIS OF PARTRIDGES, A LA FINANCIERE.

Truss three partridges, rnn them upon an iron skewer, wrap them round with a large sheet of buttered paper, fasten the skewer upon a spit with string, and roast the partridges before a moderate fire for about five-and-twenty minutes; then take them up, place them upon their breast in a dish, without removing the paper, and when cold, cut them up into small joints; first taking off the legs, next the fillets with the pinion-bones left on, then dividing the breast and back, and trimming these whole; place these joints in a stewpan, beginning with the pieces of breasts, the fillets, and then the legs and back. Make some essence with the trimmings, to be used for working the sauce with; pour a little of this to the pieces of partridges, and warm them without boiling; dish them up with the inferior joints under, garnish the salmis with a Financiere ragout (No. 188) finished with the essence, place a dozen heart-shaped croutons of fried bread round the entree, and serve.

1079. SALMIS OF PARTRIDGES, A LA PROVENCALE.

Roast, cut up, and trim the partridges as in the foregoing case; chop the trimmings, and put them into a small stewpan with three shalots, a clove of garlic, bay-leaf and thyme, a few pepper-corns, and a small blade of mace, two ounces of chopped lean of ham, and two table-spoonfuls of salad oil; fry these ingredients over a moderate fire

364 ENTREES OF PARTRIDGES.

for five minutes, and then add half a pint of French white wine. Boil this until reduced to half its original quantity, then add half a pint of good consomme and a ladlefuji of JEspagnole sauce (No. 3), stir the sauce over the fire till it boils, then remove it to the side to clarify by gentle ebullition; after a quarter of an hour's simmering, remove the grease and scum, pass the same through a tammy, and boil it down over a brisk stove-fire, then incorporate a small piece of anchovy butter and the juice of half a lemon, and pass it again through a tammy into a basin; pour one-third to the partridges, and put the remainder into a bain-marie containing some scollops of truffles and mushrooms. When about to send to table, warm the salmis without boiling, dish it up in the usual order, mask it with the ragout and sauce, garnish round with glazed croutons, and serve.

1080. SALMIS OF PARTRIDGES, A LA PERIGORD.

Prepare the partridges as before directed; chop the trimmings, and use them to make the sauce as directed in No. 10T8. Cut out a dozen small heart-shaped croutons of bread about a quarter of an inch thick, make an incision round the inside of the edges, fry them in batter, empty them, and then fill the cavities with some puree of truffles (No. 121); warm the salmis with a little of the sauce, and dish it up so as to form a well in the centre; place six of the croutons round the top of the entree, fill the centre with small quenelles of partridges, pour the sauce over the salmis, garnish the base with the remainder of the croutons, and serve.

1081. SALMIS OF PARTRIDGES, WITH MUSHROOMS.

Roast and trim the partridges^s usual, use the trimmings to make the sauce (No. 10), then pour it to the partridges, and add some button-mushrooms or truffles; warm the salmis, dish it up in a pyramidal form, pour the sauce over it, garnish with croutons, and serve.

1082. FILLETS OF PARTRIDGES, A LA LUCULLUS.

Fillet four young partridges, trim the large fillets and place them in a sautapan with some clarified butter; season with a little salt, and place a round of buttered paper upon them; remove the sinew from the minion fillets without tearing them, trim them neatly, and place them in a small sautapan spread with butter; dip a soft paste-brush in some beaten white of egg: and pass it over their surface, and then decorate them with black truffles. After this is completed, mask them with clarified butter, and place some very thin layers of fat bacon upon them. Use the carcasses to make some fumet, which must be boiled down to half glaze, and part of it incorporated with some white puree of mushrooms* (No. 122); place the fillets on the stove-fire for five minutes. then turn them over, and when done on both sides, without having acquired any color, drain off the butter, add a little of the puree of mushrooms, toss the fillets over the fire for a minute, and dish them up with a heart-shaped crouton of fried bread between each; sauce the fillets with the puree, place the decorated fillets (previously simmered in the oven for about five minutes) across the croutons, 611 the centre with scollops of truffles, pour the sauce or puree rouud the base, and serve.

* This purie must be of the consistency and color of Supreme sauce.

SCOLLOPS OF PARTRIDGES. 365

1083. FILLETS OF PARTRIDGES, A LA PRUSTCE ALBERT.

Fillet four young red-legged partridges, leaving the pinion bones on the fillets; trim these neatly, lard them closely, and place them in a sautapan lined with thin layers of fat bacon; moisten with some white-wine mirepoix (No. 236), place a round of paper upon them, and braize the fillets over a moderate fire or in the oven, and when they are nearly done, glaze them nicely. Dish them up in a close circle, with a decorated minion fillet between each; fill the centre with a ragout of crayfish-tails tossed in a little partridge glaze with some lobster coral; pour some Allemande sauce mixed with some timet of partridges round the entree, and serve.

1084. FILLETS OF PARTRIDGES, A L'ANCIEjSnSTE.

Run an iron skewer through four young partridges, place them on a double sheet of thickly-buttered paper, cover them with some reduced mirepoix (No. 236), with the vegetables left in it; wrap the paper round, fasten them on a spit, and roast them before a brisk fire for about half an hour; then, take them up on a dish, and set them to cool without removing the paper. Cut the fillets out of the partridges, remove the skins, and trim them neatly without waste; place them in a sautapan with a little half-glaze made with the carcasses. Make some puree with the meat from the legs, and use the gravy that runs from the birds after roasting, to moisten it with. Warm the fillets without boiling, dish them up with a" heart-shaped crouton of fried bread between each, fill the centre with the puree, pour some salmis sauce (No. 11) over the entree, and serve.

1085. FILLETS OF PARTRIDGES, A LA PARISIENJSTE .

Trim the fillets of four young partridges, mask them over with a coating of Allemande sauce (No. 7), dip them in beaten eggs, and bread-crumb them; then, sprinkle them over with clarified butter, and bread-crumb them again; pat them gently into shape, and place them in circular order in a sautapan with some clarified butter. Contises the minion fillets with black truffles, lay them in a buttered sautapan in the form of crescents, and cover them with clarified butter. Fry the large fillets of a bright-yellow color, drain them on a napkin, glaze them slightly, and dish them up with a circular scollop of red tongue between each; fill the centre with some Parisian ragout (No. 203), place the minion fillets round this, pour some of the sauce round the base, and serve.

1086. SCOLLOPS OF PARTRIDGES, WITH TRUFFLES.

Fillet the partridges, remove the sinews from the fillets, arfd place them in a sautapan with some clarified butter; season with a little salt, and simmer them in the oven or over a slow fire for five minutes; then, turn them over, and when done on both sides, drain them upon a napkin, and cut them into scollops; place these on a stewpan with four ounces of truffles (previously simmered with a small piece of butter and glaze), and to these add some Espagnole sauce worked with a fumet made from the carcasses. Warm the scollops without boiling, dish them up in the form of a dome, garnish round with some croquettes made with the legs; or, the minion fillets may be reserved,

366 ENTREES OF PARTRIDGES.

and when decorated or fried in batter, used to place round the scollops.

1087. SCOLLOPS OF PARTRIDGES, EST CASES.

Fillet three young partridges, cut the fillets into small scollops, and place them neatly in a large sautapan with two small pats of very fresh butter, merely melted in the sautapan without being clarified; season with mignionette-pepper, salt, and nutmeg, chopped mushrooms, parsley, truffles, and two shalots; simmer the scollops briskly over the stove-fire, and when done, add two large gravy-spoonfuls of Espagnole sauce worked with some fumet or extract (made from the carcasses), and the juice of half a lemon: toss the whole together over the fire for a few minutes, and fill eight or ten small plaited circular, or heartshaped, paper cases that have been oiled and baked in the Oven for five minutes to make the paper firmer. Place the cases upon a bakingsheet lined with clean paper, and lay a thin circular layer of fat bacon upon each case. Twenty minutes before sending to table, put the cases of scollops in the oven to be warmed through, then dish them up, pour a little of the same sauce in each, and serve.

Note. - Scollops of partridges may be dressed as directed for scollops of pheasants; fillets may also be served in every variety of form directed for the trearaent of fillets of fowls.

1088. CUTLETS OF PARTRIDGES, A L'ALGERIENNE.

Split four young partridges into halves; remove the breast and backbones, and pass the legs through the skin of the thighs, so as to give them the form of cutlets; ^trim them without waste, and place them in circular order in a sautapan with two pats of fresh butter simply melted; season with mignionette-pepper, salt, and a little nutmeg, and then finish them as directed for spring chickens, d la Algerienne (No. 981).

1089. CUTLETS OF PARTRIDGES, A LA MAITRE D'hOTEL.

Prepare these as in the foregoing case, then mask them with (VUxelles sauce (No. 16), bread-crumb them twice, in the usual manner, pat them into shape, and place them in a sautapan with some clarified butter; fry them of a bright yellow color, drain them upon a sheet of paper, glaze them slightly, and dish up; pour some Maitred'Hotel sauce (No. 43), mixed with a piece of partridge glaze under them, and serve.

^Tofe.^-Cutlets of young partridges may also be dressed d la Pompadour, a la Marechale, or d la Valengay (see No. 997).

1090. PUREE OF PARTRIDGES, WITH PLOVER'S EGGS.

Roast the partridges, remove the skin, pare off all the meat, and use the bones to make some fumet or extract (No. 218); chop the meat quite fine, pound it in a mortar with a pat of butter and a spoonful of sauce, and rub this through a tammy or a very fine wire sieve. Put the puree into a stewpan, add some of the fumet (boiled down to glaze), and, if necessary, a little Allemande or Bechamel sauce; warm the pun'e with care, to prevent it from becoming rough, which would be the case

BOUDIXS OF PARTRIDGES. o'ol

if allowed to boil; dish it up in a conical form, place some poached eggs or plover's eggs (if in season) round the base, with a scollop of red tongue cut in the form of a cock's-comb between each egi:; pour a little bright Espagnole sauce over the puree without masking the eggs, and serve.

1091. MIXCED PARTRIDGES, WITH POACHED EGGS.

This entree is mostly served when there happens to be any roast partridges or pheasants in reserve from a previous day's dinner: the same remark may in some degree apply to salmis: although it must be admitted that a salmis made with fresh-roasted game is preferable.

Cut the meat from the birds, either into shreds, or very small thin scollops or dice; add a little pepper and salt, and as much salmis, AUemande, Bechamel, or Supreme sauce, as will suffice to moisten tlie mince; some truffles, mushrooms, or red tongue, cut up in the same manner, may also be added if approved of. Warm the mince, dish it up, garnish it round with poached c^s, or potato croqueUen, and serve.

BOUDIXS, QUEXELLES, AXD SOUFFLES OF PARTRIDGES,

COMPRISING

Boudins of Partridges, n In d'Orsay. Crfphiettes of Partridge?. ? ? ¦ d'Ext'iing.

,, a la PriuCaniere. Sonjjiis „ a In ltoyale.

1092. BOUDIXS OF PARTRIDGES, A LA D'ORSAY.

Prepare some quenelle force-meat with the fillets of three partridges (No. 2UJ). Take two ounces of French truffles, about the same proportion f mushrooms, red tongue, and dressed calf's-udder; cut all these into even-shaped and very small dice, and add them together witli a large spoonful of puree of mushrooms (Xo. 122) to the forcemeat; mix thoroughly, and mould this preparation into three oblong boudins, about six inches in length, and two inches square: place these upon similar-sized pieces of buttered paper laid on a stewpan-lid, and slip them off into a stewpan containing some boiling broth; allow iliem merely to simmer gently by the side of the stove-lire for about twenty minutes, and when done through, drain them upon a napkin, trim them square, mask them over with some reduced Supreme sauce, place three larded minion (diets across each botidin, garnish the entree with a ragout a la Parisienne (Xo. 208), and serve.

1093. BOUDIXS OF PARTRIDGES, A LA PRIXTAXIERE.

Prepare some force-meat with the fillets of three partridges (Xo. 243), and mould this into three boudins, as directed in the foregoing case, poach them in the same manner, and when done, mask them with some Printanicre sauce (Xo. 21), mixed with some partridge glaze: place a decorated minion fillet at each end of the boudins, and a larded lamb's-sweetbread in the centre of these; fill the well of the

368 ENTREES OF WOODCOCKS AND SNIPES.

entree with some prawns' tails tossed in a little glaze and lobster coral, pour some Printaniere sauce round the base, and serve.

1094. CREPINETTES OF PARTRIDGES, A LA D'ESTAING.

To the quantity of quenelle force-meat named in the foregoing article, add half that proportion of fat bacon (previously boiled), and four ounces of French truffles, both cut into small dice, also a tablespoonful of Espagnole, and a similar quantity of partridge glaze (in a liquid state), and season with a little cayenne; mix well together, and then drop this preparation in table-spoonfuls upon a slab or table, over which some flour has been previously sprinkled; mould the crepineltes into the form of so many eggs, and wrap each of these in a proportionate-sized piece of pig's-caul; flatten them slightly by pressing upon them with the fingers, dip them in clarified butter, and fry them over a brisk stove-fire to a light color; drain them upon a napkin, dish them up in a close circle, pour some half-glaze of partridges mixed with a small pat of butter, and the juice of half a lemou, and serve.

1095. SOUFFLES OF PARTRIDGES, A LA ROYALE.

Prepare some puree of partridges (No. 1090), warm it, then add five yolks of eggs, whisk the five whites and mix them in lightly also. Fill a dozen small plaited fancy-paper cases with this preparation, pass a soft paste-brush dipped in half-glaze over their surfaces, put them on a baking-sheet, and bake them in a moderately-heated oven for about twenty minutes; then dish them up on a napkin, and serve.

These souffles may be served in lieu of patties, after the fish.

Note. - Partridges dressed whole are also served for entrees, for which see Removes (No. 724).

ENTREES OF WOODCOCKS AND SNIPES,

COMPRISING

Woodcocks, d la Financitre. Salmis of Woodcocks, d la Minute.

„ d la Ptrigord. „ d la Bnu giiigno(t«.

Fillets of Woodcocks, d I'Anrienne. „ d la Bordelaise.

„ d la Plrigueux.

1096. WOODCOCKS, A LA FINANCIERE.

Truss three woodcocks in the usual way, and lard the breasts closely; place them in a stewpan lined at the bottom with thin layers of fat bacon; moisten with some wine mirepoix (No. 236), place a round of buttered paper upon them, cover with the lid containing live embers of charcoal, and set them to braize gently for about threequarters of an hour over a moderate fire, or in the oven; frequently basting them with their own liquor. When the birds are nearly done, remove the lid and paper, to dry the larding for a minute or so, then glaze the woodcocks, and drain them upon a plate; remove the strings. and place them in the dish with their backs resting upright' against a

FILLETS OF WOODCOCKS. 369

croustade of fried bread, about four inches high, and cut in an angular form; place a decorated quenelle between each woodcock, a large truffle on the top of the croustade, and a border of white coeks'-coinbs round this; garnish the entree with a Financiere ragout (No. 188), glaze the larding, and serve.

1097. WOODCOCKS, A LA PERIGORD.

Draw three fine fat woodcocks, reserving the livers and trail; stuff them with the usual preparation of truffles (No. 660), and truss them as for roasting; then, run an iron skewer through the birds, and place them upon a double sheet of paper thickly spread with butter; cover them with some reduced mirepoix (No. 236), having the vegetables left in it; wrap the paper round them and secure it with string; tie the woodcocks both ends upon a spit, and roast them before a rather brisk fire, for about three-quarters of an hour: they must then be taken off the spit, and dished up in the form of an angle; fill the centre with small quenelles, pour some Perigueux sauce (No. 23) over the woodcocks, place a dozen croutons round the entree, and serve.

The above-named croutons are thus prepared: - Fry the trail, &c, in a small stewpan with a little butter, a table-spoonful of chopped mushrooms, parsley, and half a shalot; season with pepper, salt and nutmeg, and then add a table-spoonful of reduced Espagnole sauce (No. 3); rub this through a tammy, and spread it upon twelve heartshaped crouton^ of fried bread. These croutons should be placed in the oven for three minutes, to warm them.

1098. FILLETS OF WOODCOCKS, A L'ANCIENNE.

See "Fillets of Partridges" (No. 1084). Add the trail to the legs of the woodcocks; prepare an essence with the carcasses, and use this to work the sauce; in all other respects proceed in the same manner.

1099. FILLETS OF WOODCOCKS, A LA PERIGUEUX.

Trim the fillets of three woodcocks, using the under or minion fillets to form three more, by patting them together with the handle of a knife; place them in a sautapan with clarified butter, and season with pepper and salt. Prepare some farce with the trail, as in No. 1097, and spread it upon as many croutons of fried bread as there are fillets. Simmer the fillets over the fire without allowing them to acquire any color; drain off the butter, then add a little of the Perigueux sauce (No. 23), worked with the essence made from the carcasses, toss the fillets in this, and dish them up in a close circle round a small croustade of fried bread, cut in the form of a vase; place one of the croutons (previously warmed in the oven for three minutes) between each fillet; fill the croustade with some puree of truffles (No. 121), pour the Perigueux sauce over the fillets, and serve.

1100. SALMIS OF WOODCOCKS, A LA MINUTE.

Roast three woodcocks just before dinner-time; cut them up into small joints in the usual manner, reserving the trail, which must be made into a puree and spread upon a dozen small heart-shaped crou23

370 ENTREES OF WILD FOWL.

tons. Prepare the sauce as directed in No. 11, and add it to the woodcocks. Warm the salmis without boiling, dish it up in a pyramidal form, and place the croutons round the base; add a dessertspoonful of chopped and boiled parsley to the sauce, pour it over the entree, and serve.

1101. SALMIS OF WOODCOCKS, A LA BOURGUIGNOTTE.

Roast the woodcocks, cut them up, and prepare the croutons as in the foregoing case; make an essence with the trimmings, and add this to a Bourguignotte ragout (No. 195). Warm the salmis with a little of the sauce, dish it up, garnish with the ragout and sauce, place the croutons round the base, and serve.

1102. SALMIS OF SNIPES, A LA BORDELAISE.

Roast six fat snipes, split them into halves, and prepare a dozen croutons with the trail, as directed in No. 1097; dish up the snipes in double circular rows, first placing a row of croutons, then six pieces of snipes upon these, and again the croutons, closing with the remainder of the snipes; fill the centre with a ragout of button-mushrooms, truffles, and small quenelles, pour some Bordelaise sauce, (No. 57) over the entree, and serve.

ENTREES OF WILD FOWL.

COMPRISING

Salmis of Wild Duck. Fillots of Widgeon, d la Proven&tle.

" Widgeon, or Teal. Widgeons, d I' Amiricaine.

Fillets of Widgeon, d la Bigarrade. Fillets of Teal, d I'Anylaise.

1103. SALMIS OF WILD DUCK.

Roast a wild duck before a brisk fire, for about five-and-twenty minutes, so that it may retain its gravy; place it on its breast in a dish to get cool; then, cut it up into small joints - comprising two fillets, two legs with the breast and back, each cut into two pieces - and place the whole in a stewpan. Put the trimmings into a stewpan with half a pint of red wine, four shalots, a sprig of thyme, and a bay-leaf; the rind of an orange, free from pith, the pulp of a lemon, and a little cayenne; boil these down to half their original quantity; then add a small ladleful of worked Expagnole sauce (No. 3), allow the sauce to boil, skim it, and pass it through a tammy on to the pieces of wild duck. When about to send to the table, warm the salmis without boiling, dish it up, pour the sauce over it, garnish the entree with eight heart-shaped croutons of fried bread, nicely glazed, and serve.

1104. SALMIS OF WIDGEON, OR TEAL.

Truss three of these for roasting, place them in an earthen dish, and strew about them thinly-sliced carrot and onion, parsley, thyme, and bay-leaf; season with mignionette-pepper, a little salt, the juice of a lemon, and a gill of salad oil, and allow them to steep in this marinade

FILLETS OF WILD FOWL. 371

for twelve hours (time permitting), frequently turning them over, that they may become thoroughly impregnated with its flavor. When about to dress the widgeons, run them upon an iron skewer, placing the vegetables, &c, on their breasts; wrap them round with two sheets of oiled paper, fastened on with string; tie them on the spit at both ends, and roast them before a brisk fire for a space of time proportionate to their size, in comparison to wild ducks, observing that they must be roasted with the gravy in them; allow them to cool, cut them in the ordinary way for salmis, use the trimmings and the gravy that has run from the wild fowl into the dish, to make the sauce with, which is to be prepared as directed in No. 28. Pour the sauce, when finished, on to the pieces of wild fowl, adding some button-mushrooms; warm the salmis without boiling, dish it up in a pyramidal form, garnish with croutons, pour the sauce over it, and serve.

1105. FILLETS OF WILD DUCKS, WIDGEON", OR TEAL, A LA BIGARRADE.

Prepare these, in the first instance, as directed in the foregoing article; spit them, and cover the breasts with their seasoning, wrap them up securely with paper, and roast them before a brisk fire; when nearly done, remove the paper, &c, and set them closer to the fire, that they may acquire a light-brown color. Take them up, and fillet them, leaving the pinion-bones on; score, trim, and dish them up at once, placing a crouton between each fillet; add the gravy that runs from the wild fowl to some Bigarrade sauce (No. 33), pour this over the fillets, and serve.

1106. FILLETS OF WILD FOWL, A LA PROVENCALE.

Prepare the fillets as above, dish them up in the same manner, pour some Provengale sauce (No. 25), to which has been added a glass of Madeira, over the entree, and serve.

1107. WIDGEON", A L'AMERICAINE.

Roast these quite plain, basting them frequently with fresh butter while roasting: when done, cut them up into small joints, and place these in a stewpan with half a pound of red-currant jelly, the juice of a lemon, and two glasses of Port wine; allow the whole to simmer gently over a moderate stove-fire for ten minutes; dish up the entree with fried croutons round it, pour the sauce over the widgeon, and serve.

1108. FILLETS OF TEAL, A L'ANGLAISE.

Roast the teal quite plain; when done, cut the fillets out, score them across, and dish them up with crdutons of fried bread; pour some essence of orange (No. 171) over the fillets, and serve.

372

ENTREES OF ORTOLANS AND WHEATEARS,

COMPRISING

Ortolans, in Cases, with Madeira sauce. Wheatears, in Cases, with Fine-herbs, in Cr6u*tades, d la Provenqale.

1109. OKTOLANS IN CASES, WITH MADEIRA SAUCE.

These very delicious birds are a great rarity in England; they are in season in September, and are to be had only of first-rate poulterers, who mostly import them from Belgium.

Cut four fat livers of fowls, and an equal quantity of fat bacon, into square pieces; first fry the bacon in a sautapan over a brisk fire, then add the livers, with a tablespoonful of fine-herbs, and season with pepper, salt, and a little nutmeg; when all this is fried brown, add to it half its quantity of panada (No. 239), and pound the whole together in a mortar until well mixed; add three yolks of eggs, then mix the above well together by pounding, and take 1 he arce up into a basin. Next, cut eight small oval croustades of bread, just large enough to hold an ortolan each, making a slight incision round the inside of the edge of each crdustade, and fry them in butter, of a light color; remove the inside crumb, line them with a thin coating of the farce, place an ortolan in each, then put them on a baking-sheet with a little oil, and bake them in the oven. When they are done, glaze and dish them up, pour over them^ome Madeira sauce (No. 8) mixed with a small pat of anchovy-butter, and the juice of half a lemon, then serve.

1110. ORTOLANS IN CROUSTADES, A LA PROVENCALE.

Place the ortolans in a sauta-pan with three table-spoonfuls of salad oil, a bruised clove of garlic, some chopped truffles, mushrooms, and parsley; season with miguionette-pepper, salt, nutmeg, and the juice of a lemon; fry them in this over a brisk fire for about ten minutes, adding a small piece of glaze and a spoonfnl of Espagnole sauce when done; toss the whole together, and then put the ortolans into small oval croustades of bread, fried iu oil. Pour the fine-herbs over them, and place them upon a baking-sheet in the oven for about a quarter of an hour, that they may acquire a bright light-brown color; then, dish them up, pour some Provengale sauce (No. 25) over them, and serve.

1111. WHEATEARS IN CASES, WITH FINE-HERBS.

These are in season