A Foods of England online text. For more see Cookbooks

TITLE: Cassell's Dictionary of Cookery
AUTHOR:
PUBLISHER: Cassel, Petter & Galpin, London, Paris and New York
DATE: 1883?
THIS VERSION: This text prepared from the version at archive.org, digitized from an edition in the collections at Boston Public Library. This is an Optical Character Recognition scan, it has been partly edited, but still contains very significant errors.


Cassell's Dictionary of Cookery, 1883

A Foods of England online text. For more see www.foodsofengland.co.uk

TITLE: Cassell's Dictionary of Cookery
AUTHOR:
PUBLISHER: Cassel, Petter & Galpin, London, Paris and New York
DATE: 1883?
THIS VERSION: This text prepared from the version at archive.org, digitized from an edition in the collections at Boston Public Library. This is an Optical Character Recognition scan, it has been partly edited, but still contains very significant errors.


CASSELL'S

Dictionary of Cookery,

NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS

FULL-PAGE COLOURED PLATES.

Contain in all about Nine Thousand Becipcs,

Cassell Fetter & Galpin:



PREFACE.

The art of Cookery is every day receiving increased attention : and no wonder. Life is made all the brighter by satisfactory feeding ; and he is a dull philosopher who despises a good dinner. The pleasures of the table — as has been pointed out by the celebrated Dr. Kitchiner — are enjoyed by us more than a thousand times every year, and whoever thoroughly realises that fact will need neither argument nor eloquence to persuade him to an experimental acquaintance with all possible cooking processes and all possible recipes.

But the strong point of good cookery is not its gratification of the palate, but its influence on health. This is a matter of far greater importance than is generally thought. It is no exaggeration to say that the explanation of many fatal disorders is to be found in nothing but badly-cooked and illassorted viands. Our households would enjoy better health, and be better able to withstand sickness when it came, if pains were only taken to have food well chosen and properly made ready. Every housekeeper, then, will give the subject of eating and drinking a prominent place in her daily round of duties.

A desire to aid in the diffusion of knowledge on such an important topic induced the Publishers to project a Work on Cookery which would be at once the largest and most complete collection of recipes ever produced in this country. Experience and energy were brought to -bear on the undertaking, and the result is now before the reader.

The practical part of the following work has been preceded by a complete treatise on the " Principles of Cookery."'' This has been written by a gentleman in every way entitled to speak with authority, thus making our Dictionary a marked contrast to many .publications of a similar kind. " Too many,"" says a distinguished chef, " who have presumed to write upon the art and science of Cookery are far from possessing any real or adequate knowledge of what they so recklessly attempt to teach."" By reading these "Principles of Cookery"" the cook will become possessed of the whole alphabet of her art.

In the arrangement of the recipes the dictionary form has been chosen as the most convenient. Cross-references have been inserted where they were needed, and it is believed that any article in the work niay be found without

Jifncuity and at a moment's notice. Classified lists of recipes are to be met witli under such heads as "Biscuits ' "Ices ' "Jams ' "Jellies ' "Puddings ' " Sauces '' " Soups ' &:c.

The recipes are the tried recipes of g-ood artists, and their intrinsic excellence will certainly recommend them. They have been chosen with a view to the varied capabilities and requirements of English households, and no branch of Cookery up to the elaborate dishes of high life has been ignored.

Not only everyday fare, but fare for extra occasions has been included. Cold meat cookery, the cooking^ of Australian meat, cookery for invalids, beverages of every kind, and the best methods of carving, have all received ample notice. The wholesomeness or unwholesomeness of many different kinds of food has been pointed out, and their nutritive value has been stated. Prices have been added in most cases, and the greatest pains has been taken to secure accuracy.

In the Appendix have been given short articles on Kitchen Utensils, Seasonable Foods, and Terms used in Cookery.

Great pains have been taken to give the work a practical character, and it is hoped that the illustrative woodcuts and coloured j^lates will add greatly to its intelligibility and interest.

The directions have been put in the simplest form and the plainest language, so that the recipes may be as easily understood in the kitchen as their results are sure to be popular in the dining-room.

If the promise of this Preface is good, the performance of the body of the work will be found to be better. To its countless recipes then we leave the reader, parting from him with the words of Horace, " Should you know better precepts than these, candidly tell us ; if not follow them, as we do."

CONTEIslTS.

PAGE

Preface iii

Principles of Cookery i- — xevi

Dictionary, A — Z 1 — 1158

Appendix : —

A. — Kitchen Utensils 1159

B. — Seasonable Food 1173

C. — Glossary of Terms used in Cookery . . . 11^76

PRINCIPLES OYSTER SAUCE STEAKS OMELETS.

table-spoonful of cold milk will do. Now add a little pepper and a tea-spoonful of ancliovy sauce. It is wondeiful how anchovy sauce brings out the flavour of oysters. I would advise cooks to taste the sauce which is flavoured only with the oyster liquor and beards, before adding the anchovy sauce, and after it has been added. The cliange in the flavour is so wonderful that they will have a good practical lesson of the impcrtance of little things for flavouring purposes.

The next point is the oysters, which we left in a little basin. First have ready the sauce tureen, empty, but thoroughly hot. Have also ready on the fire a large saucepan or stewpan with boiling water. Next take a small strainer in the right hand, and hold it in the boiling water till the water boils with the metal part of the strainer in it. Lift the strainer just above the boiling water, and pour the oysters out of the little basin into it. Let the oysters be in contact with the boiling water not more than two or three seconds, let the water strain ofi" them, and then throw them into the hot tureen. Povir the sauce on to them, and the oyster sauce is ready.

Now a moment's consideration will show that we have treated the oysters just on the same principle that we did the leg of mutton, viz. , we have suiTOunded each oyster with a very tliin film that keeps in the flavour. Had we allowed the oysters to have remained in the boiling water for two or three minutes instead of two or three seconds, we should have made them as tough as leather ; had we- not put them in at all, they would have lost much of their flavour as soon as they were put into the sauce, besides having a somewhat flabby taste. By doing what I have said, the hardening process went on just long enough to surround each oyster with a coating not thicker perhaps than a piece of gold-beater's skin, but then, when the oyster arrived at its destination, the mouth, the moment this coating was broken, the whole of the flavour could be tasted.

Wliy does a well-cooked chop or steak look black outside and red in, and why does it require a clear bright fire 1 Because this is the only way in which it can be cooked to keep in the flavour^ The fierceness of the fire surrounds the chop or steak, as the case may be, with a hard coating almost directly the meat is placed on the gi'idu-on. When the steak comes up and is cut, you can then see the red gravy run out, and not before. Many a chop and steak is spoilt by turning it with a fork, as of course it lets out the gravy, which runs into the fire.

I will now tiu-n to quite another subject, viz., omelets. The principle of cooking here to be considered is how to make things light. Now how often do you get an omelet in a private house fit to eat 1 Never — at least, that is my experience. And yet an omelet is really a very easy thing to make. The secret of a light omelet is to froth the eggs. But I will go through the recipe ab initio.

Suppose first the omelet to be a savoury one. First take a new frying-pan, or one that has only cooked omelets before — it is no use trying to make an omelet in a frying-pan that has been used for all sorts of purposes. Take thi-ee eggs, and break them one by one into a cup, to see if they are good, and put them in a basin. Add a piece of onion, chopped finely, as big as the top oS^ the first' finger down to the nail, and about half a tea-spoonful of equally finely chopped parsley, about a saltspoonful of salt, and half a one of pepper. Add t^^ ฃable-spOonfuls of milk.

Now place in the smaH-newfiying-pan — which mustfii'st be cleaned with boiling soda and water, as new tin is sometimes poisonous — two ounces of fresh buttei\ Place the frying-pan on the fire, to melt the butter till it froths. Next, with a foi'k — a wooden fork is best— beat up the eggs with the milk, chopped onion, and parsley, and pepper and salt, till it is quite frothy. Keep on beating till the last

cassell's dictionary of cookery.

moment, and then pour it quickly into the butter, which, as I have said, must be frothing in the frying-pan.

Take a large spoon and stir it all up very quickly, scraping the bottom of the frying-pan all the time, to prevent the omelet from sticking and burning. As soon as it begins to set, take the frying-pan a little from the fire, and work the omelet with a spoon into a half-moon shape. When it is nearly set, take the fiying-pan off the fire, and hold it in front of the fire, resting the edge of the pan on the bottom bar, and slanting the pan as much as possible ; but, of course, care must be taken not to let the omelet slip right into the fire. Hold the frying-pan like this for a couple of minutes or so. This causes the omelet to rise, and it thereby becomes lighter. In large French kitchens, where there is no open fire, they hold a red-hot salamander over the omelet, which has the same effect. A red-hot shovel does very well if you have a shut-up range.

A sweet omelet is made in. exactly the same manner, only of course there is no pepper, onion, or parsley, and only a tiny pinch of salt. Add, however, instead, a tea-spoonful of very finely powdered sugar, and half a tea-spoonful of essence of vanille. This last is an immense improvement. When an " omelette au confiture " is required, the omelet must be kept in the frying-pan round, a spoonful of the jam placed on the one half, and then the other half lifted over on to it with a slice, or something broad, so as not to break it. An omelet must be served directly it is cooked ; so if you want a good one, always take care not to begin to prepare it untQ just before it is required to be eaten, as it only takes two or three minutes to make. No great harm is done even if you have to wait for it.

As 1 said before, the secret of a light omelet is frothing the eggs. Why ? Because by so "doing you mix the omelet up with an infinite number of tiny air-bubbles. Now we all know that heat expands everything, air included. These little bubbles, therefore — some, perhajis, the size of a pin's point — become under the action of heat the size, possibly, of a pin's head ; and as long as the omelet remains hot it is light — puffed out, in fact, by air-bubbles expanded by heat.

If you let the omelet get pai-tially cold, it in consequence gets heavy. This point is, however, more strongly exemplified in the case of souffles. A cheese souffle is a very nice thing to finish dinner with, and if you know how to make one, is a capital extra dish in case some one comes in to dinner quite unexpectedly. I will try and tell you how to make it, and also, as far as I can, explain why.

I will describe how to make as small a one as possible, as it is easy to increase the size, and experiments are always most economical on a small scale. Take a i-ound tin about four inches in diameter, and quite three deep. Have a piece of ornamented white paper ready to pop round the tin quickly. Next take two table-spoonfuls of finely-grated cheese — of course a dry cheese gi'ates the best — and place it in a basin with a quarter of a pint (half a tumbler) of milk, about half a salt-spoonful of salt, and a quarter of that quantity of pepper. Next break a couple of eggs, keeping the whites separate from the yolks in a small basin. Mix up the yolks with the milk, cheese, &c., thoroughly. Now take these two whites, and whip them up into a stifi" froth, and then mix in quickly the milk, kc. Butter the inside of the tin, and put it ra the oven till it is very hot. Pour the mixture into the tin quickly, and place it in the oven. The oven must be of moderate heat, othei'wise the souffle gets burnt outside and remains pappy in the middle. The average time of baking is about twenty -five minutes to half-an-hour. The soufll6, Avhich when placed in the tin did not half fill it, will rise up a couple of inches above the tin. Everything, howevei',

PRINCI PLES FRYING.

depends upon its being served quickly. Probably the souffle, if it is two inches above the edge of the tin when it leaves the oven, will sink nearly level with the top before it reaches the table. This cannot be helped, but everything that saves time must be thought of beforehand. For instance, some people delay to pin a dinnei-napkin round the tin. Of course the best plan is to have a silver-plated souffle-case, and then there is no occasion for any delay. These, however, are rare.

Have a piece of clean white ornamented paper with a frill ready, and kt there be plenty of room. Now the souffle very often bulges out at the top, and there is no room to put the paper over the tin. Don't let this, however, put you out. Drop the tin into the round pa])er, which should not be higher than the edge of the tin ; but whatever you do, or however you do it, be quick ; have a hot cover ready to pop on, and run with it to the dinner-table.

The next point to consider is. Why did the souffle rise 1 Because of the airbubbles. It is easy to whisk the whites of eggs into- a foam, but not the yolks. By separating the whites, therefore, and beating them up separately, we increased our number of air-bubbles to an enormous extent. These bubbles expand with the heat, hence the lightness of the souffle. On the other hand, as the souffle cools, the bubbles contract, the souffle goes down, and a cold souffle would be as heavy as a hot one is light.

Now the principle is the thing to grasp. For instance, in making a cake, you want, of course, to make it light; therefore i-emember the souffle— i.e., beat the whites up separate from the yolks. This will have the effect of considerably lightening the cake, though, of course, as the process of baking a large cake is slower than that of baking a souffle, the cake would not rise in anything like the same proportion.

Another important point on which we ought to examine into the principles of cooking, is that of frying. There are probably few dishes that test the cook's capabilities, more important than that of frying. Contrast for one moment the discoloured dish, too often met with in private houses, in which, say, a " little bit of fish " is sent up, and presents what may be called a parti-coloured appearance. Some part is burned black as a cinder ; another part looks the colour of underdone pie-crust. Again, other parts may present the appearance of having those bald patches, as if the cook had accidentally spilled some boiling water on a cat's back. I say contrast this with the beautifully rich, golden-coloured dish that will make its appearance at the table where the master-mind of one like Francatelli has presided, or with a d-ish tliat one would meet with in a Parisian cafe — the bright silver dish contrasting temptingly with the golden-coloured food and the crisp, dark-green parsley piled in the centre. What now is the difficulty '? To keep to our subject, viz., the principles of cooking, we will briefly state that the generality of cooks find their difficulty to exist as follows : — They cannot obtain a nice colour without over-cooking their fish. The ordinary way in which cooks Avill prepare a fried sole (and we presume they will know something of their art) is, having dried the fish and floured it, they dip it in egg well beaten up, covering it over with some fine dried bread-crumbs, and having given it a gentle tap all round, somewhat resembling a young mother getting her first baby to sleep, they place the fish in the frying-pan, in which a dab of butter or dripping has been placed. One side is cooked before the other is commenced, part of the fried egg and bread-crumb peels off in turning, and the result, both in appearance and flavour, is most unappetising.

Having now described how not to do it, let me proceed to explain how to do it. First, the colour. Order in from your baker's a small bag of nice rich, golden, brown

cassell's dictionary of cookery.

bread-raspings. You need not fear the expense, as yoiir baker will probably supply you with tbem for notbing. Have tbis always ready in a small flour-dredger on the kitcben mantelpiece. Having dried your fisb tborougbly, floured it, and egged and bread-crumbed it with small, fine, diy bread-crumbs, take this dredger contaioing the golden-brown bread-raspings, and before gently patting your fish, cover it over lightly with a brown film of fine raspings, and, lo and behold ! your fish, before even it reaches the frying-pan, has obtained the colour you desire. All you have now to do is to concentrate your mind on cooking the fish, so as to hit upon that happy medium between its being dried up so that it is tough and unpalatable on the one hand, and an appearance of redness and stickiness along the back-bone, which are sure and certain signs that the fish is not sufiiciently well cooked, on the other. To attempt to convey an idea with regard to the time that a fish takes to cook would be necessarily impossible. Of course this entirely depends upon the thickness of the fish. Nor would I confine my du-ections to the cooking of fish solely. A. sweetbread is an exceedingly nice dish when properly fried and sent to table, presenting an ornamental appearance. I woidd, however, remind you that in all cases where the substance to be fried is beyond a certain thickness, it must previously be what cooks call parboiled. I would also impress upon you the importance of erring on the side of under-cooking rather than on over-cooking. Suppose, for instance, you have to fry a sole of somewhat imusual thickness. Fii'st take care that the fat in which you fry it is amply sufficient to cover the fish. Suppose now, you leave this fish in boiling fat for the minimum of time you think will be requisite to cook it. It is easy to remove the fish from the boiling fat carefully with a slice, and with a small knife cut the meat away from the back-bone in that part of the fish which is thickest. Should you find the meat adhere to the bone, and at the same time present a red appearance, you will know that the fish is not sufficiently cooked. In this case all you have to do is to place the fish back again for a few minutes longer in the boiling fat. Had, however, you waited for the maximum time, and found it overcooked, I know of no method by which you could undo the harm you have done. One hint as to mending what we may term patches. In cutting the fish you will probably displace a small portion of the outside, and thereby make one of those extremely disagi-eeable-looking places which we before likened to a scalded cat's back. If you have by you in readiness the dredger containing the bread-raspings, one sprinkle will hide the patch. Cooks with a very slight effort of ingenuity might often cover over these necessary little borings of discovery.

I woidd, in passing, remind cooks that the secret of successful frying to a great extent depends upon the fat being boiling. You cannot fry properly over a slow fire. Now when you have placed a good-sized frying-pan upon the fire, full 6f melted lard, it is not always easy to know when this fat is really boiling and when it is not, for the simple reason that boiling fat will not bubble up like boUing water. To know, therefore, if the fat be boUing, dip your finger into cold water, and let one di'op fall into the middle of the fat. Of course, the cold water, having greater specific gi-avity than the fat, would instantly sink, and if the bottom of the frying-pan be sufficiently heated, this drop of water will cause a hissing sound, from its instantaneous conversion into steam, resembling that of plunging a red-hot poker into water. I would, however, warn young beginners against throwing in, in tlieir hurry, too much water at a time, as the sudden conversion into steam of the water thus thi-own in will very probably cause the fat to splash, and a few drops of really boiling fat upon the hands and aims will be found

PRINCIPLES ECONOMY.

to be anything but agreeable. We must not, however, lose sight of the very soul of cookery, namely, economy ; and, perhaps already, some young housekeeper may have exclaimed, " Ah ! it is all very well ; but we cannot afford to waste all this fat in just cooking one or two fish." Wait a moment, however. Are you aware that the fat that would cook fish once will cook it twenty, thirty, even fifty times 1 Are you aware that if, after the fish is cooked, you pour the fat carefully into a basin containing boiling water, and stir it up and let it settle, the loose bread-crumbs, and the bad part of the fish, &c., will sink to the bottom of the water, and the fat present a clean and wholesome appearance next morrdng when it has got cold ? Let this fat, therefore, be carefully removed in a thick cake from the top of the basin into which it has been poured. Scrape ofi" carefvilly the rough pieces adjoining the water, and place the fat by in a small basin by itself, and label it " for frying fish." I have no hesitation in saying that this fat will keep perfectly good in winter-time for two or three months. It is far cheaper in the long run to use two pounds of fat and cook things properly, and make the same fat do fifty times, than to use two ounces, cook the fish badly, and let the remauis of the fat help to swell that bugbear of young housekeepers, the " cook's grease-pot." In conclusion, with regard to frying, be careful in removing the fish from the fat, that, before you place it on a dish, you let it rest a few minutes on a hot cloth, which wiU absorb the grease. At the same time, be equally careful that you do not place it in an oven to keep it warm. For fried fish to taste properly, but a very few minutes should elapse between the frying-pan and the dinner-table. A snow-white cloth at the bottom of the dish, some sprigs of bright gi-een parsley placed alternately with a few slices of lemon, will give the dish a better appearance.

I have, however, mentioned that I believe economy to be the soul of cookery. There is, perhaps, no word in the English language so little understood as this word economy. Just as political economists are too often considered by the vulgar to be men of hard hearts, so, too, in the art of cookery is economy often associated with meanness and stinginess. I have no hesitation in saying it will be invariably found that the better the cook, the more economy will be practised. There is more waste in the cottage than in the palace, for the simple reason that the cottage cook is entirely ignorant of an art which the chef has brought to perfection. What your so-called good plain cooks thi'ow away, an ingenious French artiste will make into entrees. The French are a nation of cooks, and they cannot afford to dine without soup. Probably the contents of the dust-bins of England would more than fill the soup-tureens of France. I will give a very simple instance of what I term economy in the ordinary living of middle-class families. We all know that grand oldfashioned piece de resistance, the British sirloin. Who has not seen it in its last stages 1 — the under-cut gone ; the upper part dug out, on which some greedy individual has evidently gi-asped after the under-done piece in the middle, but who, at the same time, has entirely ignored the end. The kitchen more than follows suit to the dining-room, and what is despised above is scorned below, and perhaps the real destination of the end of the sirloin, which the young housekeeper fondly imagines has done for the servants' supper, has in reality supplied the kennel. Suppose, now, this end had been cut off" before the joint was roasted, and placed in a little salt water, a nice, wholesome, and agreeable hot dinner would have been obtainable with the assistance of some boiled greens and potatoes. A little forethought in these matters constitutes real economy. Scraps of meat, fag ends of pieces of bacon, too often wasted, will, with a little judicious management, make a nice dish of rissoles.

CASSELLS DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

I have called attention above to tlie principles on which joints should be boiled, and I will now say a few words on an equally important subject, namely, the principle on which joints should be roasted. Just as in the former case, so in the latter, the one point to be borne in mind is to keej) in the flavour. Now in roasting a joint, perhaps some of you may think that to lose the flavour is impossible. Such, however, is not the case. Just as in turning a steak on the gridiron you let out the gravy if you stick a fork in it, so in roasting a leg of mutton do you, to a certain, though not equally great, extent, let out the gravy if you run a hook right into the meat itself There are ingenious machines made — which, however, are chiefly intended for haunches, particularly haunches of venison — by which the whole joint is surrounded by thin metal rods expressly intended to obviate the necessity of sticking anything into the meat. These cradles, however, are very rarely met with. Some little ingenuity will be suflicient, however, for the purpose in point. All practical cooks know the difficulty of hanging a leg of mutton or a haunch on the spit. After an hour or so the joint, under the influence of the heat, is apt to give, and the thin bone adjoining the shank breaks away. Now by placing a small piece of wood underneath the bottom of the joint, and fastening a piece of copper wire to either end of the wood, and bringing it up to the top or knuckle end, the joint is supported in a kind of cradle. The copper wire, however, is veiy apt to slip, but by tying two pieces of string round the centre of the joint, this difliculty will be overcome. Again, in basting a jomt, that part requires most basting which is least covered with fat. Should, therefore, you have a haunch in which a part of what we may term the breast had the appearance when raw of being somewhat lean, then slices of fat placed over it, and tied on to it, not skewered in, or a few sheets of well-oiled foolscap paper, will have the efiect of checking the heat during the earlier period of roasting, and consequently will prevent the joint from having the outside dried up, a fault too often met with. "When the joint is very large, as, for instance, a haunch of venison, which may weigh perhaps twentyfive pounds, and consequently require five or six hours to roast, so important is it ฆconsidered by good cooks to check the action of the heat in the eaiiy period of the roasting, that they cover over the haunch with a flour-and- water paste, by which means the whole joint gets thoroughly warmed through, and the outside is not burned, while the portion adjoining the bone is probably nearly raw. Of course, this paste must be removed an hour or half an hour before sending to table. The outside must then be browned, and at the finish frothed with a little butter and flour.

There can be no doubt that the most economical institution in any kitchen is the stock-pot ; and it is in this respect that our French neighbours show their enormous superiority over ourselves. It is obvious that the larger the kitchen, and the greater the number of the persons to be supplied with food, the greater will be the number of odds and ends that find their way back from the dining-room. In private houses it will be too often found that huge plates of .what are ingeniously termed " broken victuals " are given to the dog, the greater portion of which, if placed in the stock-pot, would have been converted into most excellent soup. Now, it is unquestionably not agreeable to the English taste to use for culinaiy purposes bones that have been left upon plates. The economy of honing a joint — for instance, & loin of mutton — before cooking it, is very considerable, as the bones, which in the one case would have been left only half scraped upon the plates, are in the other converted into excellent soup.

PRINCIPLES PRACTICAL APPLICATION.

With, regard to boiling and roasting meat, we have already noticed that the great principle is to keep in the flavour by causing the whole joint or piece of meat to be surrounded by a thin rim, which rim has been rendered hard by the albumen contained in the meat coagulating under the action of heat.

Now, this substance albumen is so important in all cooking operations, that we think it desirable to explain more fxiWj its natiu-e and its properties. One of the purest, and at the same time easiest, forms in which albumen is seen is the white part of an egg. We all know how liquid the white part of a new-laid egg is before it is boiled, but how solid it becomes under the action of heat ; for instance, compare a fresh egg just broken into a cup and a hard-boiled egg, and then remember that the liquid transparent part of one is albumen before it has sufiered from the action of heat, and that the solid opaque part of the other is albumen that has been, so to speak, changed by the heat into apparently a different substance. Meat contains in its juices a considerable amount of albumen ; when, therefore, meat is placed in boiling water, or exposed to considerable heat, as in roasting, the same change takes place in the albumen in the meat as in the egg. It will be at once evident how the coagulation of the albumen assists in stopping up all the little pores in the meat through which the flavour and gravy would have escaped.

In fact, we may faii-ly compare a well-cooked joint to an ordinary well-boiled egg. It is generally known that an egg requires about three minutes to three minutes and a half to boil. When it is cracked, if done properly, the inside will be liquid, but surrounded by a coagulated film of albumen. This is just the same with a properly boiled leg of mutton ; the outside thin rim is hard, but the inside tender. Just as in. the case of the egg, had it been allowed to boil for twenty minutes instead of three, the whole would have become solid, the whole egg consisting chiefly of albumen ; so, too, with the leg of mutton, if it had been exjjosed to a boiling temperature the whole time, the albumen in the whole of the joint v.^ould not merely have coagulated but would have hardened, thereby rendering the joint tough.

As we have before pointed out, when once the principles of cooking are understood, one recipe will often lead to another. Cooking is an art — a high art — and cannot be learnt in a day, nor can it be learnt by simply reading a book on the subject. The study of cookery must be combined with practice. Now there is perhaps no part of this practice so important as the knowledge of varjjing recipes as occasion may require. It will be evident that no work on cooking, however large or however good, can adapt its recipes to meet the requirements of every family in quantity as well as quality. We have endeavoured, therefore, when it is possible, to give in ovir pi^esent work different methods of preparing the various dishes, &c. ; but, of course, it would be impossible to give recipes, one adapted to a family of two, another for one of six, and another of twelve persons.

We will illustrate what we mean by referring to an excellent recipe for preparing bechamel sauce on page 48. We have here recommended the cook to boil down an old fowl, three pounds of knuckle of veal, and three pounds of very lean ham. This is, of course, for the preparation of a large quantity. Now, we will suppose the case of a family consisting of but two persons, and say two servants — a by no means uncommon occun-ence. Of course, to purchase such quantities for two would be extravagant to a degi-ee ; however, are we, say our newly-married couple, to be debarred from the occasional taste of sauce bechamel? By no means. If the cook is in possession of some little education and common sense, she would have no difficulty whatever in grasping the 2J' 'inci2)le of the recipe to which we have referred on

CASSELL S DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

page 48. We will suppose the house to possess such very ordinary dishes as the remains of a cold fowl and a piece of boiled bacon.

Now, suppose the cook to read the recipe carefully, and see in about what proportions the different iiigredients should be mixed. The carcase of the fowl is cut up and placed in a saucepan, with one or two of the bacon bones, which, being lean, form the best substitute for the lean ham. A little piece of veal — say a quarter of a pound, or indeed a spoonful of gelatine would do — must be added. Add to these a slice of carrot, or even the whole of a small one, a good slice of onion, a tiny piece of mace, one or two peppercorns, and add salt to taste. Let all these simmer gently for a couple of hours or so, and then strain it off, water having been added in a due proportion. Now, this stock would, of course, make excellent bechamel sauce, for the simple reason that every ingredient in the recipe has been used, the difference between the lean bacon bones and the lean ham being too trifling to make any material change in the flavour. If this broth be well strained and well skimmed, and every particle of grease removed, and then be simmered down to about three-quai-ters of a tumbler in quantity, it has, of course, just like the other broth, only to be mixed with an equal quantity of good boiling cream, and slightly thickened with a little arrowroot, to be equal in flavour and excellence to any bechamel sauce served up in a first-class large hotel.

In many hundreds of the recipes we have given, and shall give, it will be the duty of the cook, in order to render such recipes practical, or, in other words, to make the recipe fit in to the exceptional circumstances of the family or place, to make such little alterations as we have described. Of course, in some instances, the quantities must be increased, such as in the case of large schools, and in others decreased.

One of the first principles of cookery is, as we have already stated, economy ; and we will broadly define economy as the art of extracting the gi-eatest amount of nourishment out of the various' materials used, and not simply buying cheap things out of which to make dishes. For instance, poor persons will buy peas to make soup ; and having boiled them as long as possible in some water, with a piece .of bacon, will strain it off, and throw away the peas, thereby losing half the nourishment. A good cook would, of course, rub all the peas through a tammy, thereby rendering the soup twice as nourishing and twice as nice. This is an instance of want of economy, which we have said is more common in the cottage than the palace.

STUDYING APPEAEANCES.

In addition to the first and primary principle of cooking, i.e., of supplying the body with nourishment, there are two other important principles to be constantly borne in mind — one is to please the palate, the other to please the eye. We have called them two principles, but in reality they are one, for the reason that the palate is pleased by means of the eye. There are some good old sayings pregnant with meaning, such as. " It makes one hungry to look at it," or " It makes one's mouth water." Have you ever obsei-ved a very hungry animal tied up, or iii a cage, just before it is fed, when a fine and to him tempting piece of juicy meat is brought in view 1 Making the mouth water is no figure of speech, but a reality that can be witnessed any day at the Zoological Gardens.

I believe that in teaching young cooks one cannot begin too soon to impress upon them the importance of appearances.

For instance, in making a mayonnaise salad, it is almost as easy to make an elegant dish as a plain one. Why not therefore do so on every occasion? The

PRINCIPLES APPEARANCES.

lettuce, (fee, inside, the sauce made as tliick almost as buttei', and spi-ead over the salad. A little lobstei' coral or fine-chopped green parsley, sprinkled with a few bright green capers on the white sauce. A few little strips of red beetroot added, and, if the salad bs a chicken one, a few slices of white chicken, stamped in the shape of a cock's comb, placed alternately with some similar shaped pieces of red tongue, placed round the base ; some filleted anchovies and stoned olives will be found an improvement. What a difierence to all the ingredients being piled together in a dish anyhow without regard to appearances.

1 will take another instance. In London, at times, in cheap eating-houses, will be seen a window with perhaps fifty or a hundred cold roast fowls all heaped up together, going cheap. Does it make your mouth water even if you are hungry ? No. Suppose, however, we were to take one of these fowls, and put it on a nice bright silver dish, and ornament it with some green double parsley, and a few thin slices of cut lemon — the dish must be placed on a cloth as white as snow — what a difierence !

Again, look at a sirloin of beef that has got cold in the dish in wliich it was originally cooked. The gravy has settled, and the whole joint is studded with wafers of fat ; the edge of the dish, too, is gi'easy. Suppose some stupid servant were to bi-ing up the joint just as it is. It is perfectly wholesome, but would it look tempting 1 On the other hand, look at a cold sirloin on the sideboard, in a large clean dish, with plenty of curly white horse-radish and parsley. There are to my mind few dishes more tempting ; and yet, bear in mind, the difierence between the two is simply that of appeai-ance.

Take, again, butter, especially in summer time ; the same butter on a smeary plate looking like pomatum, or in a bright cut-glass dish done tip into neat little pats, with here and there a tiny piece of parsley to set it ofi".

I have known cooks exclaim — " Oh, never mind what it looks like as long as it tastes all right." This is, however, a great mistake. Now, in boiling fish, not only should the cook endeavour to boil it properly, i.e., not too much or too little, but also endeavour to make the fish white. How, you may ask, can this be done 1 By bearing in mind that the colouring matter in fish is afiected and partially dissolved by acids. Suppose you have a large turbot. Before putting it into the fish-kettle, all you have to do is to rub the fat, white side of the tui-bot with a slice of lemon, the efiect of this being to render the fish far whiter when it is taken out of the water than it otherwise would be. Here, again, when you know the principle, it is a guide to boiling all large fish. Of course, too, in lifting the fish out of the water, the scum floating on the top of the water should in every case be first removed, as it would otherwise settle on the fish, and destroy, not only the appearance, but even the flavour.

In boiling all large white flsh, regard should be had to appearances ; no fish should be sent up quite plain. If the cook wonld always have in his or her possession a small quantity of lobster coral, a little could be easily sprinkled over the surface of the fish. It is wonderful how a fish is improved in appearance by such a simple means as this. If, in addition, some fresh parsley, cut lemon, and a few good-sized prawns are used by way of ornament, the fish that would otherwise present quite an ordinary appearance is made into a really elegant dish.

This principle of " making things look white " will extend beyond the region of fish. For instance, good cooks will jjut a few di'ops of vinegar into the water in which they poach eggs. Why 1 For the simple reason that the eggs will look whiter ; the colouring matter mixed in with the eggs is more soluble in boiling water slightly acid than in ordinary water, and, consequently, poached eggs treated this

CASSELLS DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

way will come to table presenting that snowy appeai-auce that renders them far more appetising — not that they taste better, but that the palate is affected through the eye.

COOKING A STEAK.

As we have already adverted to those good old sayings current upon the subject of the principles of cookery, we would refer to that perhaps most common one of all, viz., " The test of a good cook is to cook a steak and boil a potato." Let us dwell for a few moments on the important dish in all English households — " a steak," or a chop.

I candidly confess that I think a chop or steak one of the very best tests of a good cook, for the simple reason that the proper cooking of either calls forth certain qualities on the cook's part, which nothing but experience can give.

These qualities may be briefly summed up in the woi'ds — forethought, patience, and common sense. In the first place, the state of the fire is of paramount impoi-tance ; and probably the chief cause of chops and steaks being, as a rule, inferior when cooked in private houses to those prepared in public establishments is the difficulty of maintaining a clear fire in the former. To attempt to cook a chop over a fire on which coals have been recently placed is simply an act of insanity. Here, therefore, comes in the quality of forethought, to which we have alluded. By keeping the fire bright, and supplying it with judicious ashes or pieces of what we may term home-made coke, much may be done to rival " the grill " of large establishments.

We will, therefore, suppose a moderately bright fii'e, free from gassy exhalations, and also suppose the cook to be above the barbarism of even thinking of a frying-pan as an easier, and, with a view to the " grease-pot," a more profitable piece of machinery than the gi-idiron.

First, place the gridiron on the fire for a minute or so, and then take it ofi" and smell it. It may seem to some absurd to mention such trifling matters of detail, but then cooking — good cooking — consists in constantly observing details. As we said, smell it, for the simple reason of flnding out if it has been properly cleaned. Suppose, for instance, it has cooked a bloater on the last occasion ; the heat will bring out the possible omission of cleanliness on the part of the person whose duty it was to see the gridiron put by in its proper state. Having, therefore, warmed it, rub it carefully with a piece of paper ; and let those who doubt the advice thus given go down themselves to their kitchens and try their own gi^idiron, and observe the colour of the paper after this very necessary operation. If the gridiron has been used on the last occasion for fish, it will be found a good plan, after wiping it with paper, to finish with rubbing the bars with a small slice of onion. By this means a flavour highly objectionable is destroyed, and one that, even if detected, would do no harm is given. Suppose, thei^efoi^e, the gridiron clean, and the chop or steak placed on it. No advice with regard to time is here possible. The cook has to depend entirely on his judgment. The state of the fire, the size and especially the thickness of the meat, and also the time of year. A chop will require longer cooking in winter than in summer; and for this reason it is always advisable to have chops or steaks placed in the kitchen in winter for some hour or two previous to their being cooked. By this means, that nasty -looking blue appearance in the middle may often be avoided. . Next, cook the chop or steak quickly in the early period ; the i-eason of this — to keep to our subject, the principles of cookeiy — is in order that we may surround it

PRINCIPLES CHOPS AND STEAKS.

with that hard rim that keeps in the flavour. Next, do not be too much afraid of what cooks call "a flare." In fact, err, if possible, on the side of encouraging a flare. Sometimes it will be found advisable, when you think the cooking process is not going on sufficiently quick, to drop a little piece of fat or dripping into the fire to make a blaze. The end desired is red inside, black out. The difiiculty is to know when the chop or steak is done; and the only proper method to find this out is to pinch the meat. Uncooked meat is Jlahhy, over-cooked meat hard. A wellcooked chop hits on the happy medium between these two alternatives.

The proper thing with which you should turn or test a chop or steak is a pair of cooking tongs made specially for the purpose. Whatever you do, however, do not cut it to look at it, for in this case you sacrifice all the first pi'inciples of cookery, and commit that most deadly sin for a cook, viz., you let out the gravy. Suppose, therefore, you pinch the steak with the tongs, or press it with the side of a fork on the gi-idiron, and it feels spongy ; this means that the inside is not simply red but blue, and that, therefore, it requires a little longer cooking. Suppose, however, it feels firm, not hard ; this means it is done, and the outside appearance of being black, which, for fear of being misunderstood, we will call being well browned, like the outside of a well-roasted sirloin of beef, should for this very reason have been acquired early in the cooking, as any further attempt to obtain colour would be attended with the risk of over-cooking and, consequently, drying up the meat.

There are many things best cooked on the gridiron besides chops and steaks ; for instance, kidneys, mushrooms, tomatoes, bloaters, &c. ; but we would here mention one case of the use of the gridiron, not perhaps generally known, and tliat is of cooking substances wrapped up in oiled paper ; for instance, a slice of salmon grilled. It is, of course, at once apparent that a clear fire is here indispensable. Should any blaze exist, the paper would catch fire, and there would be an end of the attempt. The principles of cookmg, however, are here very clearly exemplified. Why should the slice of salmon be wrapped up in this oiled paper 1 Simply for the good old reason of keeping in the flavour. Just as in cooking mutton cutlets en papillate, all the flavour that would otherwise escape is by this means kept in the meat. To grill, therefore, properly, it is requisite that the cook should possess patience. It is no use placing a chop on a gridiron, and leaving it to look after itself for a few minutes. It may, for instance, stick to the gridiron a few seconds^ after it is put down; and the smaller the fire and the gridiron, the more likely is this to occur. To obviate this possible contingency, a push, if only to move the chop an eighth of an inch, is requisite. Again, if the chop appears to be cooking slowly, lower the gridiron to the fire ; on the other hand, if it appears to be doing too fast, raise the giidiron ; and, as we have before siiggested, if the browning process does not take place as it shovild, make a flame by means of throwing in a little piece of fat or a little dripping.

In serving up a chop or steak, it should be borne in mind that, like a soufil'6, it should be sent up directly. A mutton chop to taste right should burn your mouth. This principle is well recognised in some of our public restaurants which possess their "grill room." You cannot warm up a chop or steak any more than you can warm up an omelet.

In removing the chop from the gridiron, especially if it be in a flaring state, take care to let it rest for a few seconds in mid-air to let the fat drop from it, as, should it be placed on the dish just as it is, a little of the fat will nin ofl" it and give a greasy appearance to the dish that is for from desirable. Of course, too.

CASSELLS DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

the disli on which the chop is placed, as well as the cover which goes ovei' it, should be made not merely warm, but hot.

CLEANLINESS.

Of all the principles upon which really good cooking depends, there is perhaps none so important as that of cleanliness. I would here remark in passing that real cleanliness is by no means so common as many would imagine, the reason being that often sei*vants do not know how to be properly clean. I will give one very simple example — a wine decanter that looks dull. You will be told it has been thoroughly washed, and perhaps some brush inserted, with great difficulty and loss of time, down the neck. Stdl the decanter does not look bright. Suppose, however, the person in charge of the glass had been properly instructed — a handful of silver sand jiut in the decanter with a little water — what a difference ! The decanter, after being well rinsed so as to get rid of eveiy particle of sand, reassumes that bright appearance that it originally possessed when, sparkling on the velvet stand under the sunlight in the window, it tempted the passei'-by to enter the shop and purchase it.

It may seem a I'ude statement, but nevei-theless true, that the ignorance of some persons, especially women, is simply unfathomable. There are cases on i-ecord in which attemjits have been made to wash greasy things without soda. Tliis ignorance is, of course, rare ; but, too often, cooks wash up incompletely for the sole reason that they will not use enough soda. Various causes for this will they assign. They say it chaps their hands, but I would remind cooks that very often they moisten their hands with hot soda and water very unnecessarily. It is easy, with a little management, to avoid strong soda and water touching the backs of the hands and wrists at all, and these are the pai-ts principally affected. A little grease, too, rubbed on the backs of the hands is a gi-eat protection.

Another point often omitted is the washing of the lids of the saucepans as well as the saucepans themselves. The saucepan may be perfectly clean ; but mairy a dish has been spoiled by a dirty lid having been placed on it, the perhaps decomposed flavour of the last ingredients cooked in it dropping down with the condensed steam.

Take, for instance, the case of a large fish-kettle which will take in a turbot whole or a salmon. Now, the water in which fish has been boiled will often turn to jelly when cold, and little pieces of fish are very apt to stick in corners, &c. I would strongly recommend eveiy cook, before filling the fish-kettle, to put it for an instant on the fire, just long enough to make it warm ; then smell the kettle ; the warmth will be sufficient to melt any little congealed particles that may by chance have remained behind. Many a fine fish has been utterly spoilt, and the fishmonger blamed when the real party at fault has been the cook.

In speakmg of omelets I recommended either a new frying-pan or one that had only been used for omelet purposes. The reason of this is that, however careful the cook might be, the difficulty of absolutely cleansing the frying-pan, suppose, for instance, it had been used for the purpose of frying onions, is really greater than many persons would suppose. Now, a sweet omelet, in which the delicate flavour of vanilla assists, would be ruined by the slightest tinge of onion flavour. Let those who blame a cook for imperfect washing, themselves wash an old eau-de-Cologne bottle tlwroughly, cork it down tightly, and smell it at the end of a week ; they will then be the better able to understand how certain " flavours" possess the property of clinging to hard substances, such as glass, and will be more lenient when they find fault with others.

PRINCIPLES SMOKE AND SMELL.

Another important point in the principles of cookery for cooks to remember is, to avoid sending things up " smoky." Have you ever tasted a really smoky dish 1 say soup, and have you any idea how it is rendered so 1 for the only way to avoid the disaster is to understand the cause. We will suppose the house well ordered, the kitchen chimney swept regularly, the kitchen stove properly cleaned, and the soot regidarly and carefully brushed away, not only from the back and sides of the gi-ate, but from the outsides of the saucepans. Yet the soup comes up smoky.

I will describe the performance of smoking soup. We will suppose the saucepan boiling gently on the fire, which is getting somewhat low ; the cook very properly puts on some coals, which, of course, causes the smoke to rise ; shortly afterwards she looks at the soup to see how it is getting on, or whether it is boiling too fast. We will suppose her young and careless ; and she replaces the lid with a bang, and, in so doing, shuts in some of the smoke into the saucepan. Alas ! the deed is done, and the soup, or indeed any other food, ruined, so far as taste goes.

The moral of all this is. Bo not take off the lids of saucepans at all over a smoky fire. There are, of course, many persons to whom these simple elementary truths are so familiar that they may smile at the caution. On the other hand, however, they should recollect it is our duty to teach the ignorant and not the educated ; and we can assure our readers that there are in this country hundreds of so-called cooks, or we may say women who do the cooking, who have sent up dishes smoky from the very cause we have named, who have not the slightest notion of why they became so. Another way of rendering dishes smoky, even when the fire is fairly clear, is to rest the lid of the saucepan on the hob while its contents are being inspected.

We would ask some young cook to rest the lid on the hob as we have described, and, instead of re-covering the saucepan, to smell the lid. The lesson would be a very practical one.

In cooking, as in every other art and science, to be forewarned is to be forearmed.

We have already called attention to the fact that the palate is considerably affected by the eye, so also is it affected by the nose. The best illustration of this is a glass of fine old Burgundy or Chateau Margaux claret, in which, in addition to the flavour, and the colour or brightness, we have the magnificent bouquet, which appeals to the palate through the organs of scent.

Accordingly it becomes an important princvple in cooking to consider not only the flavour and appearance, but also to use the sense of smell as a criterion whether a dish is being properly prepared or not. Who does not recollect occasionally passing outside some large restaurant or first-class hotel and being greeted with a rich perfume arising through the railings, which somehow inspired perfect confidence in the dinner about to be sei'ved % On the other hand, has it been your fate to dine where you have had placed immediately in front of you a dish of greens improperly strained % To some persons of sensitive palate and nose a dinner is absolutely spoilt by a little contretemps of this kind.

In the preparation of all dishes, therefore, the cook should constantly bear in mind the importance of using her scent as well as her palate and her eye. Many a good dish has been utterly spoilt by one of the many ingredients being bad which when added has contaminated the whole, which a very little care in smelling would have prevented. For instance, gravy that has been left, or the remains of beef-tea, is always added to the stock-pot or mixed up with the soup. Now it often happens, especially in hot weather, that little quantities of this kind turn sour, and

cassell's dictionary of cookery.

ill fact get putrid ! This is easily and instantly detected by smelling. Again, tlie flavour of anything burnt or smoky is best detected by the nose. Who has not at times had soup served that tastes smoky, or an omelette that tastes burnt ] Here again the nose is the quickest organ to detect the fault — a very good proof of which is the common observation heard in the higher regions, such as the staircase or dining room, " Ah, there's something burning !" Sauce i iquant, if too acid, can be detected by the smell ; soup too greasy can likewise be detected by the smell, as well as dishes over-spiced ; but experience alone will tell when the nose can be used instead of the palate, and it must be borne in mind that good cooks never liQ&p tasting, as the result of that is invariably temporary suspension of palate altogether.

KITCHEN MANAGEMENT.

Another important pomt in the princij)le of cookery is the management of the kitchen. Now, of all the various points that comprise kitchen management, perhaps none is more important than what we will call "clearing up as you go along."

Contrast a well-ordered kitchen with a badly-managed one at that trying moment that cooks call dishing up. In the latter you will find the cook with a flushed face and hurried manner, surrounded by a perfect chaos of dirty saucepans, dishes, spoons, basins, knives and forks ; and woe be to that natural enemy of the cook, the Buttons, who speaks to her under these circumstances. " There, don't bother me, I don't know which way to turn !"

Who has not at some dinner-parties witnessed those awful pauses between the courses, and have quite felt for the hostess, whose utmost endeavours to appear unconcerned are but ill-concealed, and whose eyes turn anxiously towards the door tlirough which nothing seems to make its appearance %

But if the mistress is to be pitied above, much more is the maid to be pitied below, whose flurry of agitation is increased by the footman's, " Come, cook, make haste, they are all waiting !"

Now all this confusion arises from want of forethought. The good old maxim, " Never put off" till to-morrow what can be done to-day," never applies with greater force than in the arrangement of a good dinner. As far as possible let everything be arranged beforehand in proper order. The soup of course should always be made beforehand if possible, and be of a nature that will keep. There are so many little things that can only be done the last moment, that it is of the utmost importance that everything that possibly can be done before should be finished and i:)ut by. I will give an illustration of a dinner — a very ordinary one — in which the cook can have plenty of time to herself at the finish. Suppose now a long dresser neatly covered over with old newspapers, on wliich are stood in row cooking utensils as follows : — Fu-st, a saucepan, containing mock-turtle soup ; second, a stewpan, containing say some stewed eels ; third, a tin of oyster patties ; fourth, a stewpan, with some haricot beef; here a saucepan containing some rich brown gravy, and another in which an onion reposes quietly imbosomed in bread-crumbs and milk.

Now, all these things might have been placed there hours before dinner. Say the number of persons for dinner is eight. Now, on the dresser in front of the soup-tureen should be placed a pile of eight clean-dusted soup-plates, and a pile of eight ordinary plates in front of every other dish. We will supj^ose two roast fowls

PRINCIPLES — MANAGEMENT.

to be twirling round in front of the fire, and that the cook, when she put them down, took into her calculations the time it would take to consume the soup, fish, and two entrees of oyster patties and hailcot, and also the average length of delay common to the family ; for masters of families who have a trick of ordering dinner at seven o'clock, and coming home at half-j)ast, must put up with two alternatives — one to have dinner regularly half an hour late, the other to have the dinner at times utterly spoilt, from nearly everything being overcooked.

We might have added to our list a saucepan full of cold water, in which float sufficient peeled potatoes, and a basin of water, in which float some well-washed brussels sprouts. Now, if a cook arranges all these things a good hour before dinner, has a good clear iire, and everything round bright and clean and washed up, I defy her to get into a muddle. The soup-tureen and the vegetable-dishes must be filled with boiling water some time before they are wanted.

If there is a proper plate-warmer the plates can be placed in it at the right moment, and ever3rthing will go straight.

Some cooks, however, with such a simple little dinner to aiTange as we have described, would, from simple ddatoriness, get into a muddle just at the finish. You will perhaps find them skimming the gravy or making the bread-crumbs all of a hurry when it wants but half an hour to dinner-time.

Another instance in which a little forethought will save a gi-eat deal of trouble is that of pouring a little boiling water into a saucepan directly it comes ofi" the fire and is emptied. "We shall have, another time, to speak of the enormous power enamel saucepans possess of retaining heat. Now, suppose the cook boils up the gravy, pours it into the hot tureen ready for it, and puts the saucepan down just as it is. The dregs of the gravy cake on as hard as ii-on from the action of the heat, and the saucepan requires three times more washing than if the cook had had the common sense to put the saucepan under the boiler tap for a second or two, and given it a i-inse round.

Having now briefly pointed out in these papers the outlines of the fii'st principles on which good cookery depends, we will proceed to discuss these principles more in detail. In all large works on cookery it must be borne in mind that receipts are of necessity brief A certain amount of knowledge on the pai't of the cook must be pre-supposed. For instance, in cooking fish — say, a fried sole — the directions given would be — " Egg and bread-crumb the sole," &c. In recollect once asking a person of good education (an M.A. of Cambridge) what he would do were he to egg and bread-cnimb a fish. He candidly confessed he had not the slightest idea ; and on being pressed for an answer, guessed that the best method would be to first boil the egg and chop it fine, &c. . . . Now, of course, this is ignorance of a certain kind, but a very common form of ignorance which,, indeed, does not deserve the name. Ignorant persons with a little knowledge of a special kind are very apt to laugh at others who, while ten times better educated and better informed than themselves, happen to exhibit a little ignorance on the special subject on which they themselves are informed. For instance, a carpenter's appx'entice would probably laugh at and feel great contempt for a man who should walk into his Avorkshop and be unable to pick out a jack-plane from the others. For all that, however, this man might be the most brilliant statesman of the age. Again, the greatest living scholar or historian might be svipi-emely ignorant as to the best method of cleaning pewter, and might very possibly be regarded in consequence as a fool by the pot-boy. We consider it therefore, necessary in our

cassell's dictionary of cookery.

present work to supply for the benefit of absolute novices a few simple directions and exj^lanations which, if given in each receipt, would magnify the present work into ten times its present size. For instance, there is a story on record of a certain royal personage many years ago who remarked that he wondered how the apple?, were got into the dumpling. Now, why should an ignorant person any more than an educated one be ashamed of saying — "It is all very well to say, Baste it thoroughly ; but what do you mean by ' basting?' " Probably any cook of exceedingly elementary knowledge would laugh at the idea of explaining anything so simple. On the other hand, a professed French cook might as well laugh at her for not knowing how to bone a turkey, or to lard a fillet of beef, or make mayonnaise sauce. In teaching cooking, as in teaching everything else, the gi-eat art for the teacher is to bring down his own mind and thoughts to the level of the pupil. We wish, therefore, in the present work to take nothing for granted. The greatest astronomer commenced his course of study by learning the axioms of Euclid, the first of which is the self-evident fact that " things that are equal to the same thing are equal to one another." There was a period in the life of Francatelli — probably an early one — when he did not know what it meant to baste a joint, and was ignorant of the fact that a greasy saucepan required soda in the hot water in order that it could be properly cleaned.

GEAYY.

One of the best tests of a good cook, in our opinion, is good gravy. Good gi'avy should be perfect in all the four following particulars : — Flavour, colour, smell, and consistency. How very often, especially in private houses, do you get gravy — or rather so-called gravy — in the shape of thin beef-tea, or else it comes up resembling gruel not only in colour, but absolutely in taste !

In spealdng of gravy, we will first refer to the gravy that is naturally formed in roasting a joint; and secondly, to that far higher branch of cooking, viz., good gravy served in a small tureen with chickens, ducks, game, &c.

First, the gravy naturally formed in roasting a joint — say a, leg of mutton. We "svill compare two legs of mutton as they appear when sent to table, which we will call, respectively, the cheap lodging-hoiise leg, and the gentleman's-house leg. The first ^vill be generally sent to table surrounded with a thick greasy gravy resembling lightbrown gruel, and indeed differs but little in appearance, flavour, and consistency from the gravy generally sent up surrounding roast veal. The method pursued is as follows : — First, the joint has been hung up before the fire in the usual way, a large pan (called the drijjping-pan) having been placed underneath it to catch the fat tliat after a short time always drops from a joint placed in front of the fire. The joint, having been roasted sufliciently, has been probably dredged with flour, i.e., some flour has been shaken over it from a round tin bo:x with holes in the lid. After a time, the woman cooking the joint has unhooked it, and placed it on a dish which ought to be a hot one ; she has then taken a basin and poured off" the greater portion of the fat in the dripping-pan into it, leaving the sediment or dregs in the pan. She has then poured a little water into the dripping-pan, and given it a rinse, and poured this into a saucepan or frying-pan ; but as this appears to her too thin, she proceeds to thicken it in the folloAving rough-and-ready way : — She first adds to the contents of her saucepan a tea-spoonful or more of ordinary flom-, this latte:- being first mixed

^

PRfiNCIPLES A ROAST LEG OF MUTTON.

with a little cold water, and the whole is then briskly stirred with a spoon, brought to a boil, and poured over the meat. This is the ordinary elementary and most unscientific method of thickening gravy. There are many small families where the master of the house goes out early every morning, returning home to supper, and where but one joint is cooked a week — viz., the Sunday early dinner. The leg of mutton is the usual joint, and is invariably prepared in the way we have described.

Now, there are thousands of persons who prefer a leg of mutton cooked this way to any other, just as they would prefer a lettuce with half a jjint of vinegar with it, to one dressed with mayonnaise sauce from the hands of a Soyer. It is, perhaj)s, as well that all our tastes are not alike. The proper method of serving up the gravy is as follows : — Avoid two things, viz., floiir and grease. Have you ever seen a spoon dipped in the gravy of a joint, and lifted '? On one side a film of fat hangs. Now, when I see this, the efiect on the appetite is exactly similar to a sudden lurch on board ship, when, after a little misgiving, you have taken your seat in the cabin at breakfast. We will suppose the leg, as before, sufiiciently roasted. Then take the dripping-pan carefully, and pour ofi" slowly from a corner of the dripping-pan all the fat into a small basin. At the bottom of the clear hot fat or dripping iir the dripping-pan will be seen a brown sediment. This is really the concentrated gravy, and the cook's object is to pour off" all the grease and yet retain the sediment. With a little care tliis can be done easily. Next place the tkipping-pan under the boilertap, and pour about half a pint or a little more of boiling water into it, and with an iron spoon simply wash off" all the brown sti'eaks and spots on the dripping-pan. These brown marks are really gravy dried up from the action of the heat, and very much resemble in composition what is known as extract of meat. Having stirred up all the water thoroughly in the well of the dripping-pan, the gravy can now be poxired through a strainer over the joint. This gi'avy should be clear and bright, and very nearly free from fat. Of course, some little amount of fat is unavoidable, and this will make its appearance in the shape of wafers during the cooling process which takes place during carving, but if proper care has been exercised the gravy will not be speedily covered with large cakes of fat, nor will that dreadful hanging from the spoon take place, with the result of setting you against your dimier almost before you commence. Some will say, however, " Ah, but you can't get the mutton nice and brown without flouring it at the finish!" First, I deny the fact if the fii-e is really a fierce one; secondly, if you use flour to brown the joint, I would suggest that it is quite possible to flour the joint without flouring the dripping-pan, by simply taking the latter away, and placing a tin under the meat for a little while. The joint can then be dredged, and pushed closer to the fire at the finishing of the roasting to brown, while the cook goes on with the gravy in the mamier we have pointed out.

I have here again given the ordinary common way in which most cooks in fairly well-to-do families cook a joint. The gravy to a haunch, loin, or saddle of mutton is obtained in exactly the same manner. It is, however, an improvement to substitute a little broth — I don't mean stock — for the boiling water ; for instance, if there are some trimmings from the joint, including a good-sized bone, place these on the fire in a saucepan with some water and a pinch of salt, and let them simmer as long as you like, taking care there is little or no grease on the top, and use this to pour into the dripping-pan instead of the plain boiling water. If the gravy is wished to be particularly good, stock, i.e., broth made from meat, flavoured with onion, parsley, celery, &c., may be used in the case of a joint of beef, but it is reaUy

CASSELL S DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

quite lumecessaiy. In the case of mutton or lamb it is absolutely objectionable. The great desideratum in roast mutton is simplicity. Hot and red from the gravy being in it, and not blue from being underdone, and served as simply as possible in its own gravy, is what the really simple English palate most prefers.

Recollect the highest cooking is often the perfection of simplicity. Good beef and mutton give off, as a rule, plenty of good gravy. Lamb, veal, and pork but little; these three latter kinds of meat, which in passing we would mention requu-e longer cooking in comparison to then- size than either mutton or beef, should have a little gravy made separately. Only in the case of lamb, remember, have a very simple broth made from lamb-bones or mutton-bones, or it will overpower the flavour of the lamb. But in reality lamb does not want much gravy if it is brown and crisp, and has good wholesome mint sauce served with it.

"We next come to the ordinary gi'avy for roast fowls, chickens, game, &c., the principal difficulty in the preparation of which will generally be found to be the thickening ; and as this question of thickening lies at the root of many failures, both in soups, gravies, and entrees, we shall have to dwell on it at some length. Gravy is made fi-om stock. It is, howevei', of course impossible to describe everything at once. We are of necessity compelled to use words such as " stock " without describing what stock means. We will treat the subject " stock " more fully another time, in addition to the ample and clear directions given under the letter S.

We will briefly state stock to be the juice of meat — beef, veal, &c. — extracted by placing it in water, and allowing it to simmer slowly for a long time, extra flavour being imparted to the " meat tea " by the addition of various vegetables and herbs, such as onions, parsley, carrots, turnips, celery, &c. Good stock made in the old-fashioned way requires a pound of meat to every pint, and is consequently, oAving to the present increase in the price of meat, very expensive. On another occasion we shall point out various methods by which stock can be made without this allowance of one pound to a pint. Now stock, however made, although if done properly is a jelly when cold, is of the consistency of water when hot. By thickening we mean the process by which the stock is brovight, when hot, from the consistency of water to that of cream.

A great many cooks, by means of having plenty of meat placed at their disposal, often succeed in the early stage of gravy, i.e., they get the stock good and strong, although of a poor colour. It is too early yet in our lessons on the Princijiles of Cookery to describe how good stock may be made to assume a bright golden coloru' by simply being left to make its own colour in the stock-pot, and consequently it will be more practical to show how to make a light-coloured stock into good brown gravy. We have already described the elementary process of thickening by simply adding flour; the next stage in advance is flour and butter combined. This Ls, perhaps, the most common of all methods. A cook will place a small amount of butter on a plate, and by its side a little heap of flour. She will place this plate in front of the fire for the butter to dissolve, and will then, with a steel knife, or if a trifle more advanced in knowledge with a spoon, knead the butter and flour together, add this to the stock, stirring it in till it boils, when the stock will become thick in proportion to the amount of butter and flour put in. By extravagantly using extract of meat, or colouring of some sort, such as sugar, or still worse, a colouring ball, a certain amount of brown colour is imparted to the gravy, which, if the stock is really good and well flavoured and the pepper not forgotten, will be by

PRINCIPLES GRAVY.

no means bad. What, however, is the drawback 1 The flour has been used raw, and a keen palate will detect the flavour we have mentioned and described as " oi-uelly." What, however, is the remedy for this 1 Let the flour be fried instead of raw ; or, in other words, instead of simply using butter and flour to thicken the stock, use brown thickening, or brown roux, as the French call it, and let me here tell cooks that in the end they will absolutely save both time and trouble by making some of this roux or brown thickening beforehand in a fairly good qiiantity, as when it is made it will keep for a very long time.

We all know the difference in the taste of a piece of pie-crust before it is baked and afterwards — one tastes of the flour, the other has a rich taste altogether different. Just such is the difference between ordinary butter and flour and brown thickening. In making thick mock-turtle soup, brown thickening is used to impart that rich flavour which is the characteristic of all thick soups. It would be a most instructive experiment to a young cook if she has a trustworthy taste to try the difference in the flavour of a little good stock or soup ; the one thickened mth ordinary butter and flour raw, and the other with brown thickening, which we will now describe how to make at somewhat fuller length than would be justifiable in a receipt which, as we have before said, necessarily presupposes a certain amount of knowledge. Suppose, then, a cook to possess some fine dry flour — say half a pound — the same quantity of butter, an enamelled stewpan, a clear brisk fire, and an onion. First place the butter in the stewpan, and melt it till it runs to what cooks call oil. It will be found that there is a white scum at the top, and a milky sediment at the bottom — recollect, melt the butter, but do not boil it — simply melt it. Skim the frothy top, and pour off what may be called the clarified butter, leaving the milky sediment in the pan. Now you have got rid of what is often called the milk in the butter. Next take the stewpan, and having wiped it clean, pour back the clarified butter into it, and gradually mix in the dried and sifted flour : tliis will make a sort of pudding, which will all cling together, and will not — or ought not if proper care has been taken to follow these directions — cling to the stewpan. Keep this pudding over the fire, and keep stirring with an iron or wooden spoon till it begins to change colour — i.e., it will gradually from being almost white turn to the colour of underdone pie-crust or the covers of those old-fashioned books which treat of mediaeval times. As soon as the colour begins to change, redouble the stii-ring, and occasionally remove the stewpan from the fire for a few minutes altogether, in order that the flour should not be fried brown too quickly, for this is really all that is being done. It will be found that the butter and flour will go on boiling in the stewjjan for a long time after it has been removed from the fire — ten minutes or more : such is the power enamelled stewpans possess of retaining the heat. Have ready, close at hand, two slices out of the centre of a good-sized onion about a quarter of an inch thick. Keep sth-ring the butter and flour till it is of a light brown colour, not quite so brown as ripe corn, then take the stewpan off the fire, throw in the two slices of onion, which have the double advantage of slackening the heat and of imparting a rich flavour to the thickening. This will cause a great spluttering, and care should be taken to avoid a few little splashes on the backs of the hands. Keep stuTing the mixture till all bubbling has ceased, and this will be longer than many would imagine. Pour off what will now be a rich brown fluid, which will assume the appearance of light chocolate when cold, into a deep dish — old marmalade pots are as good as anything — for use. It will keep for months, and is always at hand for thickening gravy. A good-sized table-spoonful of this mixture,

CASSELL S DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

which is called, as we said, brown thickening, or brown roux, will, when mixed with half a pint or a little more of good stock, transform it into good rich brown gi'avy which only requires a few additions, varying with what the gravy is intended for, to complete it. If the gravy is intended for roast fowls, for instance, a little mushroom ketchup may be added ; if for game, such as a pheasant, a dessertsjjoonful of sherry. The effect of brown thickening in gravy is that not only is the gravy thickened and the raw flavour inseparable from butter and flour avoided, but that the important element — colour — is introduced or assisted. You may use half a dozen pounds of meat in making gravy, but if it comes up pale and thin it will be thought poor. The better the cooks the better do they understand the importance of appearances. Good thick mock-turtle soup owes its rich colour to this thickening, and it is because bi-own thickening is so rarely made, or the use of it so little understood in private houses, tliat home-made thick mock-turtle is so invariably poor, although the amount of real calves' head — and not pig's head — used in its preparation is probably double that used in an ordinary pastrycook's. One great advantage of having brown thickening is, that it is possible to make enough at once to last a couple of months. Gravy is constantly being wanted; and in the end the cook will find time saved by having the thickeniiig at hand ready made, instead of the plate, the dab of butter, the mixing, the uncertainty as to quantity, &c., which is their usual wont in melting a little butter and flour fresh for each occasion, the reason they melt it together being very properly to avoid the constant stirring necessary to prevent the gravy or soup thickened turning lumpy.

As, however, we are on the subject of thickening, by means of brown roux, soups, such as mock-turtle, gravies, &c., it may occur to some to inquire — How would you thicken white soup, such as Palestine soup, oyster soup, &c. ; or. How would you thicken cheap Bechamel sauce where no cream is used 1 Our answer is— By usuig white roux instead of brown. But then white roux or white thickening is not necessai'ily butter and flour just melted together, which, as we have said, has a tendency to give whatever is thickened a raw and gruelly flavour. The cook will have observed in making the brown thickening what a long time it took before it began to turn colour — in fact, her patience the first time was probably nearly exhausted, and she would very likely confess afterwards, flushed with-- triumph, that she began to tlmik the "stufl"" would never turn colour at all. Wliite roux is. simply, to use an Ii-ish expression, brown thickening just before it gets brown ; or, in other words, the grains of raw flour ai-e cooked, but not coloured. The difierence in flavour is as distinct as that of white pastry and dough.

Now, it is evident that brown thickening is of no use when the substance thickened is required to be clear or bright. Brown gi'avy or thick mock-turtle soup are what may be called muddy, i.e., they don't pretend to be bright. There are, however, sauces, and even gravies, that should be thick, and at the same time bright and clear. Here, then, it is apparent that we must have some other thickening altogether. "We will take as a specimen that exceedingly nice-looking, and at the same time nice-tasting, sauce, called sauce Bordelaise, made from claret ; and as of course any ordinary sound claret will do for the pui'pose, in the present day of cheap French wine the sauce is by no means so dear as it would have been a few years ago.

To make Bordelaise sauce, you must first have some very good stock, perfectly bright and absolutely free from fat. Take say half a pint of such stock, and boil it down in a small saucepan, in which has been placed one bead of garlic,

PRIXCIPLES GRAVY.

and a very little piece of mace and cinnamon, with just a suspicion of cayenne pepper. When the stock, by means of being gently boiled, has evaporated away till there is only one-thii-d of it left, strain it very carefully off, and mix it with nearly a tumblerful of claret, and warm it up. It will of coui-se be quite tliin. Next take a little arro-svroot, and mix it with a table-spoonful of cold water in a cup; stir it, and mix it in gradually with the sauce, which must be just simmering on the fire. As soon as the sauce gets as thick as prepared gum or very thin treacle, it is done. The sauce should, however, be as bright as claret itself. This sauce does for a variety of purposes, such as sweetbreads, boiled fish, or even cold meat may be cut in slices and warmed up in it. The advantage of arrowroot as a thickening is very marked in this sauce, as the brightness of the coloTU' is not in the least destroyed, and the exact consistency liked can easily be obtained by simply addmg a little at a time, and keeping the sauce well stii-red and simmeriiag. Recollect, however, in using an'owroot as a means of thickening, always to mix it -with cold water in a cup, and stir it up before taking any out, as the arrowroot will settle and cake at the bottom of the cup. Arrov root is the best thickening when clearness is desirable ; there are many kinds of gravies, however, which are necessarily clear, and yet which are ill-adapted to bear brown thickening. The gi'avy for ordinary hashed mutton is one. Colour can be imparted by browning a little sliced onion with a little butter in a frying-pan, or by means of burnt brown sugar and water, or toasted bread. This gravy is best tliickened with corn-flour or arrowroot, as mutton previously cooked is not savoury enough to bear the I'ich flavouring of brown thickening like roast goose, or duck, or fowl. Colouring from sugar is made by simply melting some coarse brown sugar in an old frying-pan till it looks like blood, and then pouring some boilingwater on it, and stii-ring it till it is dissolved.

Colouruig-balls for soups, gravies, &c., are sold in bottles, and are made in France from vegetables, but they vary considerably, and sometimes impart by no means an agreeable flavour to the soup or gravy. Used with caution, however, they are at times very valuable, as a little piece will go a long way ; but I will defer going into the question of colouring soups until we enlarge on that most important branch of cooking, A'iz., letting stock colour itself, by being reduced to a glaze in the making, which is far preferable to any artificial means.

There is one most important point which the cook should always bear in mind when bro-\vn thickening is used for either soup or gravy, and that is, removing the fat or butter which -svill always rise to the surface of the soup or gravy after boiling. Should this important point be omitted, the gravy or soupladle might possibly have a film of fat hanging from it similar to what we have already described as happening to the gravy from a roast joint when the cook has been careless in pouring ofi^ the grease. After the gravy or soup has been thickened, allow it to boil up, and then stand it on one side of the fire. In a A^ery few minutes a film of grease from the butter in the thickening will make its appearance on the top, and requires removing; this must be repeated several times. The safest method is to allow the gi-avy or soup to simmer gently, when it vnll gi-adually what is called "throw up the gi-ease." If, then, when the liquid is simmering, it be occasionally skimmed, all fear of gi"easy gi'avy or soup is removed. The same process applies in using white thickening. Suppose you have thickened some Palestine soup, which is made from Jerusalem artichokes, allow the thickened soup to boil. The top "svill have a yellow, oily appearance,

CASSELL S DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

owing to the butter in the thickening. This must be skimmed off; but even after all has been skimmed, by allowing the soup to simmer gently some more probably will be thrown up. Some cooks have an idea that if when they have made some soup they allow it to get cold, and then remove all the fafthat cakes on the top, that it is impossible for there to be any more fat in the soup at all. This is a great fallacy easily made manifest by allowing the soup, after the fat has been removed, to boil up again. On its getting cold a fresh cake of fat will appear if the soup was at all greasy. Soup made from pig's head will somewhat astonish a young cook on this point.

We have already explained that the chief reasons for preferring brown thickening to flour and butter melted together are the appearance and the flavour — i.e., the latter causes the gravy not merely to look gruelly but to taste so. It will of course often happen, notwithstanding that good care is taken by the cook to what we may call look ahead, that at times gi'avy will be wanted in a hurry, and yet no brown thickening is at hand for the purpose of converting the thin stock into thick gravy. In tliis case, a small quantity can be easily made in a very short time, which, though not as a rule equal in quality to that made in the way we Jiave described, will at any rate be far preferable to the ordinary plain butter and SLomy. The method is simply to melt sufiicient butter and flour together in a .saucer, place the saucer in the oven, and occasionally stir it ; the flom- soon becomes baked, which avoids the gruelly taste ; next, the flour soon becomes of a light fawn colour at the top, and after the saucer has been stirred a few times the whole quantity will assume the colour required. Indeed, some persons make brown thickening in large qiiantities m a pie-dish, and place it in the oven, taking it out at times, and stirring it. The stewpan is, however, we think, a far preferable method.

We have in sj^eaking of gravies confined our attention almost entirely to the thickening, which, as we have pointed out, is the chief point on which cooks break down. Of coui'se, the exact consistency to which gravy must be brought is another important point which must be left entu-ely to the cook's judgment. The advantage of havmg brown thickening ready is that only small quantities need be added at a time. The cook, consequently, has only to exercise a little patience, i.e., to stir the thickening well in, see that it is all dissolved and that the gravy boils gently, to avoid the common but unpardonable faidt of having the gravy too thick. Good brown gi'avy should be of the consistency of cream at the outside, and never thicker, if indeed so thick. It would be almost impossible to describe all the various methods of flavouring gravies in order to suit them to the dishes with which they are served, but we may mention here that there is perhaps no method of bringing out and at the same time adding to the flavour of good gravy equal to that of adding at the last moment a good slice of raw lean ham ; and when we say lean we mean a slice absolutely destitute of fat. Another very good addition to gravy iz part of the pulp of a fresh ripe tomato, especially when the gravy is intended for some dish with which tomato sauce would not be inaj)plicable, such as roast fowl. When a fresh tomato cannot be obtained, a spoonful of tomato sauce will answer just as well. We would, however, particularly caution cooks against the indiscriminate use of Worcester' sauce, as this particular sauce is so powerful that when used for gi'avy, unless added with the greatest caution, it is apt to overpower the flavour of everything else. Again, the stewpan or small saucepan used for warming up the gVa'vy can be iiibbed with a bead of garlic when the flavour of this latter somewhat strong flavouring is not objected to.

PRINCIPLES STOCK.

STOCK.

In describing the general principles upon which aU good cooking depends, it -will be seen that we have dwelt at some length on thickening, and have described the proper method of making brown thickening, or brown roux, and white thickening, or white roux. We will next proceed to discuss the proper method of preparing stock, and the two chief stock sauces, viz., white sauce and brown sauce, which i-equii-e in their composition the white roux and brown roux, respectively. It may possibly be thought that a description of the proper method of making stock should have preceded the description of the thickening ; bear in mind, however, that in preparing any dinner, the thickening should be made before the stock, and also, that whereas there is but one method to be pursued in making thickening, there are necessarily many different ways of preparing stock. We have purposely, therefore, impressed upon our readers the great importance of making thickening in the way we have described, as upon it will, to a very great extent, depend the whole character of the soups, gi'avies, sauces, &c., the recipes for which are given in the present work. We will, therefore, presume the cook to have at any rate mastered this part of the subject before we proceed to discuss such an extremely important branch of cooking as stock. Stock is necessarily a branch of cookery approached by every one with the slightest pretension to any knowledge of the art with a certain amount of preconceived opinions. We would, by way of preface, however, remind our readers that the better the cooks, probably the more willing will they be to admit that they have much to learn. Cooking in its higher branches is a science, and the most scientific cook that ever served up a Parisian banquet could probably learn something new from the ignorant savage who chews strange herbs to help liim to digest the meat that his intellect has not sufficiently expanded to enable him to cook. Still the instinct of the animal, rather than the reason of the man, has advanced him at least one step towards a higher civilisation, and in his knowledge of the herbs he has something to impart that wise men would gladly learn. Thei-e is an old story that will, however, bear oft repeating, of one who, on his death-bed, in tliinking over the discoveries of science — discoveries that he himself had done more than any in ages past or present to advance — obsei'ved, that after ail he felt like a child who had been picking up pebbles on the shore of the vast ocean of knowledge. It is in such a spirit that all should approach a si;bject such as cooking — none so good as not to be able to learn.

But we must commence our stock, and as it is obvious that the method of preparing stock for say the Grand Hotel, and for a family consisting of only two, must be widely different, we will first describe how to make stock in large quantities. First, common stock, then the two principal stock sauces, broAvn and white, the first being used to make the other two.

As, however, we are going to mention somewhat large and startling quantities, we would remind you that it is no greater extravagance to use 100 pounds weight of meat in making stock for 500 persons, than it would be to use the very moderate amount of two pounds of meat for a dinner of ten persons. In some large foreign hotels, where 700 persons sit down daily to the table d'hote, the preparation of stock, in quantities which, forgetting this fact, would appear ridiculous, becomes an every-day necessity. Besides, it is easier to learn princijoles from the wholesale preparation of any article than from the preparation of such small quantities, that

CASSELLS DICTIONARY OP COOKERT,

often little apparently unimportant matters of detail are omitted. In preparing stock, therefore, for a very large number of persons, we will suppose the following quantity of perfectly fresh meat to have been sent into the lai-der : — Forty pounds of gravybeef, forty pounds of leg of beef, and knuckles of veal and two legs of white veal weighing probably about forty pounds. Cut away the meat from the bones, taking care to reserve those pieces of the veal next the udder that are suitable for fricandeau, &c., as well as the best pai"ts of the veal, to be used as afterwards directed. Then break up the bones small, and put them with all the trimmings of the veal into a lai'ge stock-pot, with the remainder of the meat, which should be cut up, and to which may be added a few turnips, carrots, celery, and leeks ; add also a little salt, but very little, and do not put any herbs or spices in by way of flavouring. The stock-pot should be tilled up with cold water, and put on the fire to boil, very gently, for about seven or eight hours. As soon as the stock-pot boils up, or^ rather, as soon as it begins to simmer, it should be carefully skimmed ; the stock-pot should be kept well closed the whole time, except when it is necessary to take oS the lid, for the purpose of skimming. Avoid having too fierce a fire, as should the stock boil up furiously, part of the scum which ought to rise gently, and then be removed, will be dissolved, and the consequence will be that there will be considerable difficulty in obtaining the stock clear. After the stock has simmered for the time we have mentioned it should be strained through a large cloth or sieve into basins, and put by for use, aU the fat being removed when cold.

It may here be advisable to look, in a general way, at what is done to make ordinary stock. It is simply bones of beef and veal broken xip, and placed with the few vegetables mentioned, and a considerable quantity of gravy-beef and veal, for only the best pieces of the latter should be reserved, and the whole gently simmered for some hours, care, as we have said, being taken to skim at intervals, and to avoid fast boiling. What pi-obably will at once excite the attention of the ordinary cook is the absence of flavoui-ing, but this is the very point we would have them bear in mind. They too often in making stock simply make a highly-seasoned soup. Good stock should not be seasoned, as it may be wanted for a variety of piu'poses where seasoning would be objectionable. Recollect, soup is made from stock by adding flavouring, &c., to the stock; when, therefore, it is possible, make the stock as simple as possible, and add to it afterwards what is considered necessary, which, of course, will depend upon the nature of the soup or gravy that has to be made.

We will now proceed to describe how brown sauce and white sauce is to be made in what we may call wholesale quantities.

Take two large copper stewpans, and see that they are perfectly well tinned. Butter the bottom of each, and cover them with slices of thin lean ham, then add the veal previously saved, placing half in each stew|ian, and put in one stewpan the carcases of some wild rabbits, the best part of the meat of the rabbit being resei'ved for some entrees, and in the other stewpan an old hen or the carcases of some fowls. The stewpan in which the rabbits have been placed is intended for the brown sauce, and the one in which the fowl has been placed for the white sauce. Pour m sufficient of the stock previously made to cover the meat, and place the two ste^vpans on the fire, of course covered, to boil quickly. We now have to subject the contents of these two stewpans to a process very similar to the brown and white roux, viz., we have to allow one to cook till it turns a bright golden colour, and we have to remove the other from the fire just before it begins to alter in appearance.

First, the brown sauce : what is necessary is to allow it to boil away till it becomes

PRINCI PLES STOCK.

a sort of gum, wliich \vdll gradually turn a beautiful reddish-brown; the great difficulty being for the cook to know when to slacken the heat of the fii-e. If the stewpan be allowed to remain on the fire too long, the glaze, for such is the stock when boiled down to a gummy consistency called, will become burnt, and the flavour of the stock very much destroyed. On the other hand, if the cook does not allow the stewpan to remain on the fire long enough, the proper colour will not be obtained, and the result will be that in order to attain that colour recourse will be had to colouring of some kind or another, which should always be avoided if possible.

The cook consequently must cai-efully watch, and as soon as the glaze begins to tux-n colour must slacken the heat, and allow the glaze to gradually deepen in colour till it has that reddish-brown appearance we have desciibed; then fill up the stewpan with some common stock, and add to it a couple of onions in which a few cloves have been stuck, a carrot, a small piece of mace, some parsley, green onions, a bay-leaf, and a little thyme. Let all this simmer gently, taking cai*e to skim it from time to time after gently boiling for about two hours, strain the whole through a sieve, and put it by for use, removing every particle of fat when the stock has got cold. The white sauce being treated and added to in exactly a similar mamier, with the one exception that the glaze is not allowed to turn colour. Thus, the sauces should be quite clear, though it will often happen that perfect clearness has not been attained ; the clearing process we will consequently describe by-and-by.

Sauces are, however, seldom required bright and liquid ; the bro^vn roux and white roux must consequently be added respectively to the brown sauce and white sauce to render them the requisite thickness. Having added the roux to each in suflicient quantity to obtain the desired consistency, recollect to allow them to boil a sufiicient time for the butter contained in the roux to be thrown up, and removed by skimming. Both sauces can then be sent through a tamis or cloth, and put by for use, this last process rendering theni smooth and more velvety in appearance.

We may add before going further that one very good method of ascertaining when the glaze is ready for filling up is to stick a knife in it, and give it a twirl ; should the glaze adhere to the knife, and be in that state that it can be rolled up into a ball in the hands without sticking to the fingers, and at the same time be of the desii'ed colour, it shows that it is sufiiciently advanced for the stock to be added.

Now, in the preparation of all large dinners where a great variety of dishes have to be prepared, it would be impossible even to commence until a considerable quantity of brown sauce and white sauce are ready made and put by for use.

In French woi'ks on cookery this brown sauce we have described is called sauce espagnole, and the white sauce veloute. Cooks will readily see that in cases where, perhaps, twelve or more difierent kinds of entries have to be made, what an enormous saving of time it is to have two such rich sauces ready at hand. Indeed, in all works on cookery it will often be found that directions are given as follows : — Add a ladleful of brown sauce. It is evident that it would be impossible for the cook to commence to make, and go through the process of making, brown sauce for the sake of one ladleful.

We have described how to make ordinary stock, and brown and white gravy, both thick and thin, ft-om raw meat, but it should be borne in mind that in all large establishments, as well as in small private houses, there is much left of cooked meat, bones, carcases of fowls and game, &i\, and which materially help to fill up the stockpot. The bones of large joints, such as sirloin of bsef, or haunch of mutton, ought

CASSELL S DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

never to be thrown away, but should be added to the raw bones in the stock-pot. Indeed, meat that has been roasted materially helps to increase the flavour of good stock.

When, therefore, we recommend carcases to be added, such as rabbits, fowls, &c., it is assumed that such carcases have been at any rate jiartially cooked, and the best part of the meat removed for other purposes. In cases, however, where an old hen or a very old bird, such as a partridge, evidently too tough to be eaten, is added, it is always best to partially roast it before placing it in the stock-pot An old hen that has been a most serviceable bird in its day, when it ceases to lay eggs, is, as a rule, far too tough for any pxu-pose save that of the stock-pot ; and old birds like this, that make the best soup, can sometimes be bought as low as Is. or Is. 6d. a-piece.

In small houses, cooks should endeavour to do on a small scale what we have shown is done in great hotels on a large scale. First, the common stock, made from any bones and pieces of cooked meat left, should be put on with some gravy-beef and knuckle of veal, the best part of the meat of the veal being cut off to use in transforming the common stock into good soup or gravy.

In choosing meat for making stock it will always be found best to pick ou^t the very freshest-killed possible, and bear in mind that meat should never be washed before it is used. In fact, that part of the meat which contains the greatest amount of real flavour is soluble in cold water ; consequently, meat that has been washed would never make such good stock as meat that had not.

"When stock has been made from fresh meat free from fat, and when there has been no great preponderance of bones, if care has been taken — first, that the stock did not boil too furiously; secondly, that the stock was strained ofi" carefully and through a fine cloth — it will generally be found that the stock will be clear enough for all ordinary purposes. Sometimes, however, it will be found that, notwithstanding every precaution, the stock will present a cloudy appearance ; or again, sometimes it may be wished that the stock should be not merely clear, but absolutely bright. When such is the case, the best method of clearing stock is as follows :— We will suppose the quantity of stock required to be cleared to be two quarts. Take the whites of two eggs separated from the yolks, and be veiy careful that no tinge even of yolk be with them. Place these two whites in a basin, breaking up and adding the egg-shells if clean, and add neai-ly a tumblerful of cold water, and mix it well up till the whole froths on the top, then pour this into the saucepan or vessel in which the stock is, which ought not, however, to be boiling at the time. Mix it all well up, and place the saucepan on the fire to boil. While it gently boils, skim it thoroughly, then stir it all up again, let it stand some little time, and then strain it through a fine cloth, or, better still, a thick flannel jelly-bag. By this means quite cloudy stock can be rendered as bright as sherry, only bear in mind that every particle of fat should first be removed from the stock.

We will now proceed to discuss the best method of making stock without the use of fresh meat at all. It should be borne in mind that in the present day the prices of provisions have so much increased, and also show such an upward tendency, that it is very desirable for every family throughout the country to do their utmost to save consumption of meat, thereby doing what little they can towards rendering meat cheaper to others who may not be possessed of so much wealth as themselves. Where the bones of joints that are left are thro%yn r.v ay and given to dogs, and fresh meat bought in quantities for making soup, it is evident that a large amount of nutritive

PRINCIPLES STOCK.

matter is absolutely wasted, which under other management would support the life of many starving persons.

We Avill now take the very common case of a leg of mutton bone being left, and will desci'ibe how to tuni it into stock, though at the same time we must, of course, admit that the result would not be equal to the stock made from the fresh gravy-beef and veal.

First, take the leg of mutton bone and chop it up into small pieces with a hatchet, and place these bones in a saucepan in cold water, with a good handful of fresh green parsley, a good large onion in which two or three cloves have been stuck, a carrot, or two small carrots, one turnip, if young — but do not put in any in very hot weather, or when they are old and sweet — one head of celery, or, if no celery is in season, a little celery-seed (about one-third of a salt-spoonful, or about enough to cover a threepenny piece), a small pinch of thyme, a little cayenne pepper, and a little salt; also, if they can be obtained, a couple of leeks.

Let all this simmer gently for three or four hours, and then strain it off into a large basin. We ai-e sujjposing sufficient water to have been added to make the quantity when strained ofi" about two quarts. Then add to this a good tea-spoonful of extract of meat ; this will not merely have the effect of making the stock richer and more nutritious, but will also very materially assist the colour, as the leg of mutton bone was not in itself sufficient to enable the cook to boil down the stock to a glaze, and to obtain a colour by that means.

By this method an exceedingly palatable and nice stock is obtained, that can be thickened for gravy with brown thickening, or can have various ingredients added to it, such as young vegetables cut up, macaroni, vermicelli, jfec, to transform it into excellent soup.

Good stock, when it is cold, should form a jelly, OAving to the presence of the gelatine in the meat or the bones used ; indeed, stock made from bones alone will often be found to be a harder jelly than stock made from meat alone, owing to the fact that bones contain a great quantity of gelatine. Now, in making stock, we have referred to extract of meat — one of the most useful of modern inventions — that has not only assisted the cook but the doctor. Good beef-tea is in reality a very plain stock made from gi'avy-beef, without the assistance of the few herbs we have named. Beef-tea when cold, if properly made, is, like good stock, a firm

jelly.

Of late years, extract of meat has been largely used as a siibstitute for gravybeef, as a quick method of making beef-tea where the absence of meat, or lack of time, have rendered its substitution desirable. It is not our province to discuss the respective merits of beef-tea made fi-om meat, and that made from its extract. Medical men, however, are unanimous in their opinion that where the former cannot be obtained, the latter is a most valuable substitute. We will, however, show how stock can be made quickly — say, at a quarter of an hour's notice — without using not only gravy-beef but bones.

We would first remind our readers that extract of meat when dissolved in Avater is a thin liquid, and however great the quantity of extract used, the mixture exhibits no symptoms of becoming a jelly. This is simply owing to the absence of gelatine. We will now take the extremely common case of a little stock being required at almost a moment's notice to make a little soup. Por instance, an unexpected stranger has arrived, when, unfortunately, the mistress of the house feels conscious that the dinner happens to be what is called a made-up one. Under

CASSELL S DICTIONARY OP COOKERY.

Die

these circumstances the cook who can improvise an extra dish or two is a vahiable one; but as we are speaking at present on the subject of stock, we will confine our directions to the instantaneous manufacture of that necessary basis of all culinary oj)erations. We will suppose the house, or at any rate an adjacent grocer's, to contain some extract of meat and some gelatine. Most houses likewise have at hand a few onions and some parsley. Let the cook proceed as follows : — Take an onion, and having peeled and split it in two, stick two or three"- cloves in it, and place it in a saucepan of water with a good bunch of parsley, a little salt and cayenne pepper, and a small quantity of gelatine — about a quarter of one of those little packets generally sold by grocers for making jelly — let all this boil till the gelatine is dissolved, and then strain it oif into a basin, taking care in straining it to press the onion and parsley so as to squeeze as much as possible the goodness out of them. If any celery-seed happens to have been in the house, a very little may have been added, only care should be taken not to put too much in, as the flavour is exceedingly strong. Having then strained ofi" this liquid, add to it about a tea-spoonful of extract of meat, and stir it all up till the extract is dissolved ; after which taste it as often as the addition of extract of meat entails the addition of more salt, and as extract of meat unfortunately varies both in flavour and goodness, it is difficult to give any exact quantities to be used. Wo now have a very fair stock, which indeed may be sent up as soup just as it is. It is, of course, perfectly pure from grease, and should be, if the gelatine be good, perfectly bright ; the stock is, however, by no means equal in flavour to that made from meat, and consequently a good cook would, if possible, take advantage of anything in her possession to impart a little additional flavour. Now, for this purpose, nothing is better then a few fresh tarragonleaves, or, if fresh tarragon-leaves camiot be obtained, a very small pinch of dried tarragon can be put in vnth the parsley, which will have the effect of imparting the flavour ; but it should be strained off with the onion, &c., whereas the fresh tarragon may be sei-vxd up in the soup. Stock thus made can, of course, have vermicelli or anything else added to it should a perfectly plain soup not be wished. There are, however, a number of persons who have the mistaken notion that a thin soup is of necessity poor. If by chance you are awai-e of theu* ignorance it is as well to remind the cook to thicken the soup, which can be done as previously directed in a very few moments by boiling in it a little arrowroot, mixed up and well stiiTed in a little cold water. When this is done, be careful not to over-thicken the soup, or the deception becomes too apparent ; enough arrowroot should be added to give the soup an appearance of thin prepared gum in consistency.

Very often in private houses stock is made from the water in which mutton has been boiled. Now, of course, mutton will not make by any means the same quality of stock that beef or veal will, and consequently stock made from mutton should, when possible, be reserved for certain kinds of soup, such as oyster soup ; but we will refer to this subject more fully when we come to speak on soups in general, and will now conclude our i*emarks on stock with general directions for the removal of fat and grease, which is very often a great difficulty with young and inexperienced cooks.

First, cooks should bear in mind that there are different kinds of grease — one hard, the removal of which gives comparatively little trouble ; another soft, and held in solution by the stock, which is far more difficult to remove. To illustrate what we mean, we aWII contrast the stock made, say from boiling a leg of mutton, and that made by boiling a pig's head. If both are allov,^ed to get cold, the mutton

PRINCIPLES— STOCK.

stock will be found to be covered with a coating of fat as hard almost as wax, and the broth underneath will, when this fat has been removed, be entirely free from grease. Not so, however, the other; the- pork stock will likewise be found to be covered with fat, not so hard ; but when that has been removed the stock itself will still be veiy greasy. Again, stock made from bones containing gi-istle and soft fat, is often greasy, even after it has got cold ; so, too, with the liquor in which bacon or ham has been boiled, though nothing can be better than lean ham to flavour stock. When lean and fat is mixed togethei', the stock becomes often so saturated with grease as to be almost useless. When, therefore, stock is in this state, viz., that it holds fat in solution, the only method by which the fat can be got rid of is by placing the stock on the fire, and allowing it to simmer gently; while it is simmering the cook should from time to time carefully skim it. The longer this process is continued the freer will the stock be from fat. When butter has been in any way mixed with stock or soup, as in the case of using the brown or white thickening, this is the only method by which it can be got rid of again. In fact, cooks would do well to disabuse theii- minds of the fallacy that if stock is allowed to get cold the fat hardens on the top, and if this be removed that consequently it is impossible for a particle of fat to remain. Such is not the case, and as one fact is worthy fifty arguments we should recommend them to try the simple experiment, when they get a somewhat greasy stock, of letting it get cold, removing all the fat, and then putting on the stock to boil again for, say, an hour. They mil find that when the stock gets cold for the second time, that there will be almost as much fat settle on the surface as before.

Another important little art in which good cooks ought to excel is the removal of grease from small quantities of stock or gravy "without letting it get cold, aiad without going through that somewhat laborious and wasteful process when only small quantities have to be dealt with — of skimming.

Some cooks have a great knack of blowing the grease off stock. Recollect, we do not recommend the custom, but simply refer to it ; the stock or gravy is poured out into a small basin, so that the surface of the stock is nearly on a level with the edge of the basin. In a very few minutes the grease will rise to the top, looking like oil floating on the surface. By blowing gently, this oil can be driven to one side of the basm, and by tilting the basin and holding it, say over the sink, by allowing a little to be blown over the edge, in a very short tune all the grease can be got rid of with, comparatively speaking, a very small sacrifice of stock. The method is ingenious, and very often resorted to by cooks. The objection is the natural one against blowing, many objecting to it on account of its not being an altogether cleanly custom.

A better and perfectly unobjectionable plan is xising blotting-paper, or, indeed, any rather rough kind of paper, for the purpose. Of course, if there is any very large quantity of grease floating on the surface the best part of it must be removed by skimming ; as long as there is plenty of grease, then skimming is easy enough, but it is when the stock gets down to that state in which it is not covered with large pools of fat, so to speak, as large as the bowl of a spoon, but is dotted over ^vith little round specks of fat ranging in size from a pea to a pin's head. When the stock has got into this state, by continuous skimming the stock is wasted, and very little impression is made on the grease. Now, what is wanted is to remove the surface only. Get, therefore, a piece of white blotting-paper, or even a cleair piece of common brown paper, and let this just touch the surface, the gi-ease will adhere to the paper, and

CASSELL S DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

using a few pieces of dry paper one after the other, the whole of the grease can be removed. This method of removing fat will be found to be particularly useful in preparing beef-tea for invalids. Beef-tea is often wanted in a hurry, and there is probably no time to allow it to get cold, yet it is of the greatest importance for every particle of fat to be removed, for nothing looks so bad as to see beef-tea by the bedside of a sick person covered with wafers of fat. The cook should consider such e circumstance as a positive disgrace.

One very important point in reference to stock, soups, gravies, &c., is their preservation. Of course in cold frosty weather stock will keep almost for any time, but in hot weather stock is veiy apt to turn sour or high. Suppose you leave some stock in the larder over night a firm jelly, and the weather say is very warm; if in the morning when you come down you find it has altered in appearance, and instead of being a jelly it looks watery in some parts and lumpy in others, you may rest assured that the stock has turned bad.

There is, however, one method by which stock can be preserved far longer than it otherwise would be, and that is by being boiled up afresh every day. In mnter this is not necessary, but in summer should any stock, soup, or gravy be left, and a day pass without its being wanted, the cook should always put it in a saucepan, boil it up, and then place it in a fresh clean basin, and when cold, or nearly so, put it back in the larder or safe where it is generally kept. I say when it is nearly cold advisedly, for cooks should always avoid putting hot stock or soup in the larder where other things are kept. In the first place, the heat tends to raise the temjjerature of the larder, and still worse, the steam that rises from the hot stock has a tendency to make the larder foul, besides probably affecting the flavour of some of the other dishes.

Before leaving the subject of stock there is one more kind to which we would refer, and that is fish stock. Few persons ai'e aware how exceedingly nutritious a stock can be made from fish. For instance, from a turbot. Very often the water in which a large turbot has been boiled when it gets cold is firm jelly.

In preparing fish stock as a basis for fish soups of various kinds, it will be found best, if possible, to have half the fish from which the stock is made fresh-water fish and half sea-fish. In preparing the stock the greatest attention should be paid to the skimming. Fish contains a large quantity of albumen, which, being disengaged, ooagulates and rises to the surface, carrying with it many of the little impurities of the fish ; this should be skimmed off" as it rises. In straining off the stock after the fish has been removed, for in almost every instance of making fish stock the fisji is taken out and eaten separately, care should be taken not to empty the fishkettle down to its dregs. After the stock has been strained ofi* it should be put on again to boil partly away, an onion with three or four cloves in it and a little parsley being added, some salt, of course, having been put in Avith the fish. The stock should also have added to it an anchovy, pounded thoroughly in some Tjutter; this should be added to the stock and dissolved in it; the anchovy having an extraordinaiy effect in bringing out the flavour. Should there be any oU, for fishes do not give off" grease, it should be carefully taken ofi". If codfish is part of the fish used for making the stock, the cod's liver should be boiled separately, as that gives ofi" a very large quantity of oil, cod-liver oil, in fixct, which would have the effect of rendering the stock exceedingly disagreeable.

Recollect, however, that fish stock, especially in hot weather, will not keep.

PRINCIPLES — SOUP.

SOUP.

We now come to consider soups in general, and we will divide them into three classes — clear, thick, and purees. Clear soups are, of course, as the word implies, bi'ight as well as thin ; thick soup is generally of the consistency of ordinary cream, or not quite so thick, and is, of course, not transparent. By a puree we do not necessarily mean a soup of a thicker consistency than ordinary thick soup, but we would distinguish between thick soups and pui-ees as follows : — A thick soup owes its consistency to the addition of some artificial thickening, such as brown roux, arrowroot, &c. ; a pur^e owes its consistency to the fact that the ingredients have been rubbed through a tamis or a wii-e sieve. This latter distinction is of the utmost importance. Unfortunately, we have no English word that conveys exactly the same idea as the French word puree, and consequently we are often obliged to use the Avord soup where the word pnr^e would convey a better meaning. For instance, pea-soup should really be called puree of peas ; Palestine soup, puree of artichokes.

As we have already described how to make good strong stock, and also how to clear it, our remarks with regard to clear soup must be almost entirely confined to the ingredients that are added to the stock, and give rise to the various names by which soups are distinguished. For instance, vermicelli soup is simply vermicelli boiled in stock, maccaroni soup is maccaroni boiled in stock. The best method of preparing these and all soups will be found under the proper headings in another part of the present work ; but I would remind cooks of the general principle to be observed in adding these ingredients to stock, and that is, cleanliness. Whenever maccaroni, vermicelli, pearl-barley, &c., have to be added to soup, they should invariably be at any rate partially boiled in plain water first, in order that the outside diity part may be washed off by being dissolved. To illustrate the importance of this point, I would mention that very common invalid beverage called barley-water. How many of my readers are there but can call to mind diinking barley-water from a tumbler by their bedside, and being disgusted with a dirty sediment at the bottom of the glass 1

Now, is the cook to blame for this 1 Undoubtedly. Had she been properly instructed, she would have partially boiled the barley, and thi'own away the first water, and then have placed the clean- washed barley, with its dirty film removed by being dissolved, into fresh boiling water. It is of no use to wash vermicelli, maccaroni, barley, &c., in cold water to clean it, it must be boiled; and in the case of maccaroni of all kinds and vermicelli it is best to boil it in plain water till it is tender, and then add it to the stock. Of course, in the case of an ingredient like barley where it is added to broth to increase its nourishment, it should only be boiled siifiiciently long to ensure all the ou.tside being dissolved, so that perfect cleanliness may be obtained. How many cooks are there who can call to mind the following misadventure with the soup ! They have got the stock as ' bright as sherry, they have added the vermicelli, and it has turned, not thick, but cloudy — the reason being that they did not boil the vermicelli in water separately. We next come to that very large variety of soups that contain vegetables, the best one to take as a type of the class perhaps being spring soup. Spring soup is simply a number of vegetables boiled in stock; such vegetables as turnips, celeiy, carrots, small spi'ing onions, cauliflowers, asparagus tops, green peas, &c. Now when we come to speak generally on the principles of boiling vegetables, we shall have to explain the importance of leaving plenty of room for the steam to escape, in order to ensure a good colour being

CASSELL S DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

attained. These vegetables, therefore, should not be thrown into the stock dii-ect, but into boiling water first. By this means, besides perfect cleanliness being guaranteed, the vegetables will look brighter than they othei'wise would do ; and we all know the difference between soup in which the carrot is a bright red and the peas a bright green, and soup in which the former is a dirty brown and the latter a dirty yellow. I would here, iu passing, observe that many English cooks imagine that spring soup and Julienne soup are the same thing. In properly-made Julienne soup the vegetables should be first stewed in a little butter in a stewpan till they begin to slightly turn colour, or, in other words, till they just begin to brown ;- then the stock is added, as well as a little sugar. Owing to this difference in the preparation, the flavour is matei-ially altered — of course the butter is thrown up by boiling and removed by skimming. We will next discuss that exceedingly delicious soup known as clear mock turtle. An excellent receipt is given in its proper place. I would, however, remind the cook of the importance in making clear mock turtle of having the flavouring herbs in proper proportions. Sweet basil should form quite one-third of the whole quantity, and marjoram, lemon-thyme, and winter savour}"should make up the other two-thu'ds. We will suppose, of course, that as a rule calf's head is used to make the soup, though a very excellent imitation can be made by using pig's head instead. Cayenne pepper should also be used, and not black. But we will not enter into the whole details of soup making which, as we have said, will be found elsewhere, but will say a few words on the general principles to be remembered when adding wine to soups. A very rich, glutinous soup like mock turtle, or of course still more like real turtle, will bear a large quantity of wine. - Madeira is by far the best, but good sherry will answer the same purpose. And here I would strongly appeal to the mistress of the house against the folly of using, not cheap sherry, but some extraordinary compound that is not sherry at all, for cooking purposes. Bad sherry will no more make good soups or jellies than bad eggs will make good puddings or custards.

We shall have to speak of this latter point in another place, but will keep to the sherry. Suppose you have been making some excellent soup from the half of a calf's head, or from some dried turtle flesh, which makes such splendid soup if you only have the patience to soak the flesh for two or three days, and boil it steadily for two more. Why should you spoil this soup — absolutely spoil it — for the sake of saving the difierence between the price of half a pint of good sherry and half a pint of some decoction sold imder the same name 1

There is a good old saying that is most appropriate — " It is no use spoiling the ship for the sake of a ha'porth of tar."

Do not let me be misunderstood on this point. I do not for one moment mean that it is necessary to have old-bottled wine or wine of any particularly good vintage, but what I mean is, it must be wine, and what I maintain is, that too often what is put in soups is not Avine at all. The best sherry foi' the purpose is golden sherry, and not a pale dry wine.

Since the vineyards at Madeira have recovered, it is quite possible to get a cheap rich full wine, not fit to drink in fact at present, but nevertheless the very thing for soup. I should be glad if some of my readers would try the following experiment: — Have some good clear mock turtle soup made ; taste it before the wine is put to it — suppose the qixantity to be three quarts. Add a tumblerful of madeira, and then tfiste, and let them ask themselves whether the difference in the flavour is not well woi'th the money.

PRINCIPLES — SOUP.

There are several soups that will bear, and be very mucli imijroved by, the addition of sherry, and we would mention soup made from calves' feet or ox-feet, giblet soup, and soup made from any kind of game. A very good rough test of the value of adding sherry to mock-turtle soup is a pastrycook's. Let any one order a basin of soup and a glass of sherry for lunch, and add a table-spoonful of the shexTy to the soup — the lesson learnt will be worth the probable eighteen-pence paid. While on the subject of adding \Ane to soups I would mention hare soup, which is not really, or should not be, a thick soup, though of course it could not be called clear. Hai-e soup requires port wine, and not sherry, and of course the same observations that applied to sheny apply to the port. If you cannot afford or obtain real port, don't put in any bad wine to spoil the hare. In France Burgundy is used for dressing hare; but in England the imitation port is, if anything, a more horrible compound than the imitation sherry. What the effect of adding this compound to hare soup would be I camiot say, beyond that it would be as certain to spoil it as an equal quantity of blacking would. Hare will bear a large quantity of port wine. One of the greatest living cooks recommends half a bottle of port wine to one single hare. This is extravagant; but there is no doubt that the soup would be all the better for it. I would here mention the fact that whenever port wine is used in cooking, a few cloves, a very little piece of cinnamon, and a little lemon-juice may always be added with advantage. The gi-eat secret of success in making good hare soup is rubbing the meat well through a tamis, or wire sieve. The best part of the meat should of course be kept to add to the soup after it is made, while all the bones, &c., should be well stewed, and after the bones, which have been boiled till they are dry and white, have been taken out, all the meat and celery with which they have been boiled should be rubbed through a wire sieve with a wooden spoon. Hare soup requires no thickening.

Mulligatawny soup is another not exactly thick soup, and yet not a puree, but a mixture of the two that we may here allude to, though perhaps a little out of its proper place. Here again the secret of success is patience in rubbing the fried onion, apples, &c., through the tamis; but we will speak of the tamis more fully when we come to " Purees." There is one little point in which mulligatawny soup differs from others, and that is, it requires sour apples in its composition. Of course apples, especially sour ones, cannot always be obtained in spring. There are few points in which a knowledge of the priixciples of cookery becomes more beneficial than when such knowledge enables the cook to substitute one ingredient for another. Ingenuity on the part of the cook on this point is a crucial test of excellence. Suppose the time of year is such that no apples can be obtained, the probability is that young green goosebex'ries are in season; by substituting a few of these for the apples, that peculiar twang in good curry or good mulligatawny given by the apples can be obtained.

With regard to thick soups in general, little need be said beyond that, as a rule, the only difference is the addition of brown or white roux. We must, however, again remind our readers, as we have done before, almost ad nauseam, of allowing the soup to boil and throw up the butter, which must be removed by skimming. Soups thickened by arrowroot, corn-flour, plain flour-and-water, do not require this skimming. The common mistake into which inexperienced cooks fall in making thick soup is making it too thick. By adding too much brown roux the flavour of the soup itself is overpowered. Again, in usino- arrow

CASSELL S DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

root for thickening, if care be not exercised the soup will be rendered the consistency of a pudding rather than a soup. Recollect, in thickening soups, gravies, &c., the full effect of the thickening added is not felt till the soup or gravy has boiled up for a minute or two; what, therefore, is most requisite is that the cook should possess that quality which of all others I regard as a siiie qud 7wn for success, viz., patience; and, to proceed to pm-ees, I will commence with a remark that sounds like a proverb, viz.. Patience makes the puree. I doubt if of all the trying ordeals a good cook has to undergo throughout the year, whether any is so trying as that of standing over a large wire sieve, wooden spoon in hand, endeavouring to coax the contents through. Let cooks, however, rest assured that this is not labour spent in vain. Take, for example, really good Palestine sovxp. ' We will suppose the artichokes, say a quarter of a peck, to have simmered and got soft ill a couple of ovmces of butter, and that proper care has been taken to prevent them getting brown. We will then suppose them to have been boiled gently in say a quart of good strong white stock, and a bay-leaf added to improve their flavour. Now the whole must, be rubbed through a tamis, or wire sieve, otherwise the soup will be poor. However, rub it through, and add half a pint of boiling cream, and you will have a soup that you need not be ashamed to set before the most particular person in the world. By-the-by, if the artichokes — Jerusalem ones, of course — are not very young, add a little poxmded white sugar to the soup at the finish.

Carrot soup, turnip soup, vegetable-marrow soup, chestnut soup, pea soup, greenpea SOU}?, potato soup, asparagus sovip, &c. &c., are all alike in one respect, and that is, the one secret of the soup being good is the amount of perseverance displayed in rubbing the ingredients through the tamis.

In inibbing these ingredients through, the cook will often find it advisable to scrape the tamis or wii'e sieve underneath, as the puree will cling to the bottom of the sieve after being worked through it with the spoon. It will also be necessary from time to time to moisten the contents of the sieve with some of the liquid part of the stock that has run through it.

However, much allowance should be made for women cooks, who perhaps, unassisted by a kitchen-maid, have to prepare soups of this description. A considerable amount of time must necessarily be spent, and a considerable amount of strength expended, in order to obtain a satisfactory result.

In large kitchens, where a man cook superintends, and perhaps two or three young men assist, there is, of course, no difficulty ; but where only a woman unassisted has to manage the whole dinner, it should be the duty of the mistress to avoid ordering, as is often done through mere thoughtlessness, many dishes, all of which require a certain amount of manual labour in their preparation. For instance, green-pea soup, whipped cream, and mayonnaise sauce in one dinner would overtask probably the powers of any woman cook unassisted.

Most of these vegetable soups and purees are very much improved by the addition of cream, and it will be generally found that boiling cream is ordered to be added. This distinction is important : not merely is the risk of curdling avoided, but the flavour is difi"erent. All know, for instance, how diflferent coflee tastes that has had boiling milk added to it instead of ordinary milk. Just so with cream — ฆ when cream is used to be added to soup of any description, boil it separately before adding it. Now of course in ordinary private houses cream is far too expensive tu be used often, and indeed in London to be used at all, except in small quantities.

PRINCIPLES BISQUE.

Milk is a very obvious substitute for cream, especially if a yolk of an egg be added to it, but care must be taken in adding this yolk, or the soup will get ciu-dled. We "svill suppose, therefore, you are recommended to add a pint of boOiag cream to some soup, and you are going to substitute milk and a yolk of an egg instead. If possible, allow the soup to reduce itself by boiling, and you can then add more than a pint of milk. However, boil this milk, taking the usual care that it does not boil over, which milk seems particularly fond of doing, and pour this boiling milk through a strainer into the soup ; next, have ready the hot soup tureen and the yolk of egg; just before serving up the soup, throw the yolk into the tureen, take a spoonful of the soup out of the saucepan and throw it in, and beat it up with the yolk, add a few more spoonfuls, one at a time, to the tureen, and mix in the yolk thoroughly ; then pour in the remainder of the soup, which should not be absolutely boiling, though thoroughly hot. The effect of this milk and egg will be very similar to a pint of cream, but of course much more economical. When cream or milk is used for these white vegetable soups or purees, a bay-leaf and a suspicion of nutmeg may be added. Only be careful with the nutmeg : a very, very little will go a long way, and too much would utterly ruin the soup.

Before leaving the subject of soups, there is one I should like to describe, because it is supposed to be a rare and recherche dish, but is in reality very simple, and can be made without much trouble — I refer to bisque made from crab. When the weather is not too hot, and crabs are cheap, take a nice heavy crab that is not watery, and pick out the meat from the claws iiito shreds with a couple of foi-ks. Then take the soft inside of the back, and pick out all the meat from the rest of the crab, and pound it thoroughly in a mortar with a little boiled rice {about half as much boiled rice as there is crab) ; add some good stock and cayenne pejjper, and rub the whole through a tamis ; add some boiling cream, and the shredded meat from the claws at the last moment, just before serving, only take cai*e not to let the bisque boil. Bisque of lobster, bisque of crayfish, is ninety-nine times out of a hundred made principally from crab, and if yovi can get some lobster butter to colour it no one can tell the difference. Lobster butter is simply the coral of lobster pounded with a little butter and cayenne pej)per : it is a beautiful colour, and looks like vermilion paint. This will easily dissolve in soup and turn it a bright red. Lobster sauce and shrimp sauce both i-equire lobster butter.

Before leaving the subject of soups, I would refer to that somewhat modern invention — -soups preserved in tins. To maintain that tinned soups are equal to those properly made from fresh meat would of course be ridiculous ; but the invention is most useful, and, in cases of long voyages, &c., most valuable. A tin or two of soup in the house has always this advantage — it furnishes an extra dish at almost a moment's notice for an unexpected guest. I will now proceed to explain how these tinned soups may be utilised and improved, if their contents are found to be not quite what was expected.

Unfortunately, preserved soups differ immensely from one another in quality. I have no doubt, however, in time some means will be taken — possibly by Government inspection — so that unifonnity of quality can be ensured. Very much, however, can be done by the cook to transform these soups from a flavourless coiicoction to a really nice soxip, only recollect I do not mean that all soups preserved in tins require what cooks call " touching-up," bxit only that some do. Take, for instance, that most commonly-liought soup — mock turtle. If the tin is a good one, and the weather

CASSELL S DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

not extremely hot, the sou]) when the tin is opened will be a hard jelly. It only requires warming up ; but if, on tasting, it appears poor and looks thin and of a bad colour, very much can be done in a few moments to improve it, both in flavour and appearance. A table-spoonful of brown thickening or roux will render it darker and thicker, a little extract of meat or a small piece of glaze will give a better flavour, and last but not least, half a wine-glassful or a little more of faii'ly good sherry will transform it, as if by magic, into excellent mock-turtle soup. Almost any soup is improved by the addition of extract of meat, whether it be thick or thin. Hare soup, again, when in a tin, of course requii-es port wine instead of sherry. Mulligatawny soup is wonderfully improved by the addition of a little curry paste, such as Ca,ptain White's.

A short time back I referred to the advantage of keeping a cei'tain kind of stock to make certain soups, and mentioned mutton stock for making oyster soup. Excellent oyster souj) can be made from tinned oysters, and, as we are speaking of tinned soups, I will take this opportunity of describing the principles to be observed in making oyster soup from tinned oysters instead of fresh, which, considering the extraordiirary price now charged for oysters, is really the only form of obtaining oyster soup when any regard whatever is had for economy. We will suppose, therefore, the stock, or rather the liquor left, in which a leg of mutton has been boiled. Now tliis liquor will make poor soup as a rule, but will make good oyster soup by means of a tin of oysters, which costs less than sixpence, and the addition, if possible, of about three-pennyworth of cream, which latter will be found a vast improvement.

Fii-st reduce the stock by boiling, i.e., let it boil gently on the fire till rather less than a quart is left. Of course, care must be taken previously that every particle of fat has been removed. Next, take the tin of oysters, and having opened it, pour the liquor off" the oystei's through a strainer into the stock, keeping back the oysters in a basin ; add a bay-leaf, a little cayenne pepper, some boiling milk or, of course still better, cream ; thicken the soup with a little white roux or plain raw butter and flour. Allow it to boil gently, so as to throw up the butter, which must be skimmed off", then add a good tea-sjioonful of anchovy sauce, without which the soup will be very flavourless; pour this soup on to the oysters, which must be placed just as they are in the tureen. They are, in fact, over-cooked already, and rather tough, but the soup will be of a strong oyster flavour, and quite equal to that made from fresh oysters, so far as the soup itself is concerned.

It is, perhaps, scarcely necessary for me to remind you that soup, like stock, will be preserved in hot weather better by being boiled up fresh every day, and also that soup that has had cream added to it is very apt to turn sour. Consequently, when it is possible, just sufficient should be made for the day. In conclusion, I would add that a little and good is far better than an enoi-mous quantity and poor. I fear in summer time it is a very common thing for cooks to make soup in such quantities that half of it is nearly always wasted.

FISH.

We will next proceed to discuss the general principles to be borne in mind in cooking fish ; and as before fish is cooked it is of the utmost importance to see that it is perfectly fresh, we will commence with choosing fish. Fortunately, fish when not perfectly fresh soon tells its own tale.

Now, some kinds of fish will keep far better than others, just like meat. For

PRINCIPLES — FISH.

instance, a piece of silver-side of beef will keep perfectly good whei-e a shoulder of mutton or, still worse, a shoulder of lamb would get bad. So, too, with fish : a solid fish like turbot or salmon will keep much better than fish like whiting, eels, or whitebait. There is one fish, viz., red mullet, that is absolutely better for bein"' kept. In choosing fish, care should be taken not to judge too much by first appearances. A boatful just fi-esh out of the water, smeared with blood, look much less inviting than those exposed for sale on a fishmonger's slab, yet in reality these latter are the same fish a day or two staler. Perhaps the best general directions for picking all fish is — choose the plump ones. Thick soles or thick turbots are ftir preferable to thin ones ; so, too, with cod-fish. A short fish, with thick shoulders, will always be found better than a long and rather thin fish. When the scales of a fish rub ofi" easily it is generally a sign that the fish is somewhat stale. The gills, too, of fresh fish are bi'ight and clear ; and when the fish gets stale these gills turn a darker colour, and look dull. Fish, too, that has been kept in ice for long is of very inferior flavour to fish fresh caught. We will begin with boiled fish, and run through the general principles to be observed in boiling. First, a very common fault with cooks is that they omit to put sufficient salt into the water in which the fish is boiled. In boiling large fish, such as cod, salmon, &c., where the backbone is exposed after the fish has been cleaned, it will be found to be a good plan to rub the bone with a piece of salt. The fish should then be placed gently in a large fish-kettle, with sufficient cold water to cover it. Salt should be added in the proportion for large fish of nearly half a pound of salt to a gallon of water ; the minimum of salt should be six ounces to a gallon. In the case of small fish, such as mackerel, small plaice, &c., a quarter of a pound of salt to the gallon will be sufficient. Most fish should be placed, as we have said, in cold waiter, unless it cooks very quickly or the fish is very small and intended for a fish souchet. The fish should then be allowed to boil up as quickly as possible. Directly the water begins to boil, it will be found that a good deal of scum will rise to the surface. This scum should be taken off at once, as otherwise when the fish is removed from the kettle it will settle on the surface of the fish, rendering it unpleasant, not merely to the eye, but to the palate.

At the bottom of the fish-kettle is generally placed a strainer, so that the fish can be gently lifted "without breaking. It should be always borne in mind that fish is very tender and apt to break. Indeed, many a good cod-fish has been broken owing to the cook carelessly pouring the cold water on to the fish from a little height.

It would be almost impossible to give any general directions as to the length of time fish takes to boil. The time is generally best calculated after the water has boiled. For instance, a good large turbot will be sufficiently cooked by allowing the water to boil for half an hour. Experience alone, however, will enable the cook to form a correct estimate. The fact of the flesh separating easily from the bone is quite enough to prove that the fish is amply done.

When a very large cod or salmon is boiled whole, recollect that it will not do to judge by the tail whether the whole fish is done or not, as of course the tail being thinner than the shoulder it will cook through much quicker. Boiled fish should always be served up on a strainer covered with a nice clean napkin, and care should be taken to allow the water to run off the fish-kettle strainer before the fish is moved or rather slipped off on to the napkin. Boiled fish should be ornamented witli slices of cut lemon and green pai'sley, and of course a garnish of prawns or little tiny crayfish forms a great improvement to the appearance. In the case of large flal

CASSELL S DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

fish, like a turbot or good-sized brill, a little lobster coral spiinkled sparingly over the surface of the fish is the best method of making it ornamental. When lobster sauce is served with the fish tliis can generally be done ; when there is no lobster, and the fish is served simply plain with melted butter, a little parsley not chopped ฆup too finely will, with the cut lemon, form an admirable garnish which will in appearance be little inferior to the lobster coi'al.

But we must again refer to a point previously mentioned, and that is the whiteness of the fish. A fat turbot looks infinitely more tempting when it is of a snowy whiteness than one that is sent to table presenting a dirty appearance. Now this white appearance is much increased by the simple means of rubbing the fish over with a little lemon-juice — the efiect of acid lemon-juice is to slightly dissolve the outside impurities of the fish, which are then thrown up in boiling, and removed by skimming. In choosing a large turbot, avoid one with the backbone that looks red, as these fish rarely present that white appearance when boiled as those whose backbones when raw are white and colourless.

We will now discuss or rather remind our readers of the general principles to be remembered in frying fish which we considered at some length in the early pages of this work. The principles are mainly these ; — Let the fat be boiling. Let the fat cover the fish. In preparing fish for frying when eggs and bread-crumbs are used, take care first to dry the fish, secondly to flour it, then dip it in the well-beaten egg and sprinkle it with the dry bread-crumbs. Bread-raspings are very useful, but if the fat be deep and boUing are not really necessary. A few are, however, very useful to sprinkle over an accidental patch that may have unfortunately been made in removing the fish from the frying-pan. The almost universal fault with fried fish in private houses is that it is dried up and over-cooked. Indeed, many a supposed cook might go and receive an admirable lesson iii that poor man's solace — a fried-fish shop. We are not certainly a nation of cooks like the French, but we are entitled to be justly proud of our fried-fish shops. Tlie smell is not agreeable, but we have no hesitation in saying that a pennyworth of fried fish bought at one of these shops is better cooked and more palatable than the majority of dishes of fried fish met with in ordinary private establishments : the reason being that these places absolutely boil the fish in hot fat, which is the one thing that renders the fish nice and soft.

We next come to grilled fish, and there can be no doubt that the grill somehow brings out a flavour that nothing else \n\\. For instance, a fine fresh herring just out of the water cooked on a gridiron, what can compare to it 1 Fish especially requii-es a clear fire. Take, for instance, filleted soles going to be done d, la MaUre d'hotel : unless the fire be quite clear, the fish will get smoky perhaps or look dirty. First, extra care must be taken to have the gridiron perfectly clean, as the white fish will show marks in a way that a chop or steak of course would not. As an extra precaution, thei'efore, I would recommend you to rub the gi'idiron with a piece of mutton fat, and warm it. Then wipe it with a cloth, and see if any black remains. After this, again rub it with the fat, as it helps to prevent the fish from sticking and consequently burning, which it is very apt to do. The filleted pieces of soles are first dipped in a little oil mixed with some chopped parsley and pepper and salt ; the pieces are then placed across the gridiron, and if the fire be bright will look transparent, and directly this transparent appearance changes to an opaque one the fish is done. Underdone fish is extremely nasty, but, as we said, the universal fault is the other way — fish as a rale being as much overcooked as a boiled leg of mutton is genei'ally undercooked. Another important point to be remembered in grilling fish

PRINCIPLES WHITEBAIT. xH

is generally to keep in the flavour. For instance, a slice of grilled salmon tastes far nicer if the slice has been wrapped in oiled paper. Of course cooking anything wrapped in oiled paper on a gridiron requires great care, as should there be the slightest flare the paper will catch fire — what is wanted is a fierce heat. When fish has been cooked in paper it should be sent to table just as it is, paper and all. The paper must be proper cooking paper, and not printed. So few fish are ever baked that general directions on the subject are scarcely necessary. There is one case, however, to which we will refer, viz., fish en pa pillot, or, in other words, fish baked in paper. Take, for instance, the case of rouget en pajnllot. The very best way of cooking red mullet is to wrap it up in oiled paper with plenty of butter and a little pepper and salt, the one thing to be borne in mind being that it is scarcely possible to have too much butter. Unfortunately, butter is now so expensive that this method of cooking fish is very extravagant : this is true, but if you do cook it this way, either do it properly or try another way altogether. If you place a red mullet or indeed any fish in paper with what is generally called a little dab of butter you simply diy up and spoil the fish altogether.

There is one delicious little fish that deserves special notice, and that is whitebait. How very few cooks are there who can send this delicacy to table ! Indeed, very often in country houses, when what are called grand dinners are given, very often a man is specially sent down from London to cook the whitebait.

Of course, we presume the whitebait to be fresh. Now, what is the difficulty 1 I think the principal one is drying the whitebait. I will therefore describe exactly how whitebait is cooked at some of those charming little river-side hotels. The whitebait is first thrown on to flour on a cloth, not merely a floured cloth, but flour an inch deep. The whitebait, when thus dosed in flour, is put into a large sifter or very coarse, open cane sieve — something like that used for sifting oats — and shaken : all the loose flour is thus shaken ofi". The floured and sifted whitebait is then put in a wire basket, and plunged into boiling fat. Unless the fat be really boiling, and sufficiently deep to cover the fish, it is of no use. Half a minute or a little more is quite sufficient to cook the whitebait, which must be sent to table instantly.

Recollect, however, the whitebait must be cooked directly it is floured. It is no use flouring the whitebait and putting it by ; if you wait any time you will have it flabby and spoilt. The one point to be remembered is expedition. Take care also that the whitebait is not in a broken state.

Plain whitebait is generally followed with a little devilled whitebait. There are two kinds, called black devil and red devil. The correct way to devil whitebait is to take out the whitebait basket in the middle of cooking, and pepper the fish, using mixed black pepper and salt for a black-devil, and mixed cayenne pepper and salt for a red-devil. The basket should then be re-plunged into the boiling fat for a few seconds, and the whitebait sent to table.

In nearly all hotels — and really the plan seems quite unobjectionable — ^the devilled whitebait is made from the ordinary whitebait left and sent downstaii's from the first couise. This is peppered and replaced in the whitebait basket, which is then re-phmged into the boiling fat — a very few seconds, of coui"se, being necessary to heat it.

An indispensable accompaniment to whitebait is thin brown bread and butter and cut lemon. Whitebait, however, is such an exceedingly delicate fish that it seems to possess an extraordinary property of bringing out the flavour of the butter. Consequently, unless the biitter is of the very best description it will taste bad.

xlii cassell's dictionary of cookery.

Unfortunately, too, this bad flavoui- will be attributed to the fish rather than to the butter. Remember also in serving whitebait, as in serving a soufflet, a very few minutes' delay means ruin.

There is one compound so intimately connected with fish that we think some reference should be made to it while we are discussing the subject of the principles to be observed in cooking fish of all kinds. We refer to melted butter. There are, perhaps, few dishes more essentially English than that large tureen of so-called melted butter, but which is in reality milk, or perhaps water, thickened with butter and flour, in which the latter really predominates. There is, too, probably nothing sent to table so extravagant as ordinary melted butter, as, for some reasons unknown, the cook seems possessed with an idea that persons eat melted butter as they do soup. It will almost invariably be found that melted butter, say for four persons, is sent up in sufiicient quantity for twenty ; and as there are few cooks who know, or care even if they do know, how to utilise the melted butter that is left, too often the greater part of this expensive and extravagant sauce is absolutely thrown away. I say expensive and extravagant advisedly, for properly-made melted butter is veiy nearly literally what the name implies.

As good melted butter, or, as it is sometimes called, butter-sauce, is an exceedingly nice and delicioxis accompaniment to most kinds of fish, and as in nine houses out of ten it is sent up in an uneatable form, I will, at the risk of being tedious, describe how to make it, and will at the same time remind cooks that melted butter is often looked upon as a crucial test of a good cook.

Good melted butter is a happy medium between that very small quantity of curdled oil sent up as an accompaniment to fish at second-rate French hotels or restaurants and that large tureen brimming full of thick milk generally served in private houses. Just as in life we ofttimes learn as much from our mistakes as we do from our successes, so it is often a good method of teaching first to describe "how not to do it." The usual but wrong method of making melted butter is as follows : — The cook cuts off a lump of butter at random, and places it on a plate with about an equal quantity of flour, standing the plate in front of the fire to allow the butter to sufiiciently dissolve to enable her to mix the flour and butter altogether, which is generally done, too, with a steel knife. This kneaded butter and flour is then added to a pint or more of milk or water, or a mixture of the two, and the whole stirred together over a fire in a saucepan till thick — the reason of the butter and flour being kneaded together first being that it is then much less liable to render the sauce lumpy and curdled. All this is generally done by guess-work, and too often, owing to the quantity of flour being miscalculated, the result resembles in consistency a pudding rather than a sauce.

The great mistake in this method is the absurdly lai^e quantity of milk or water and the equally absurd small quantity of butter. The first idea the cook must clearly grasp is quantity. Butter, especially in the present day, is very expensive, and as butter-sauce consists mainly of butter, the cook must make sufiicient, but not more than sufiicient.

Suppose, therefore, there are eight persons going to sit down to dinner, it may be calculated that each person will take one ladleful of melted butter with their fish, and no more; for if it be properly made it will look sufficiently rich to deter any one from what is vulgarly called " swimming " theii- plate v\'ith it.

PRINCIPLES MELTED BUTTER. xliu

Let therefore the cook who feels willing to learn act as follows : — ^Take a small basin, or the sauce-tureen, and pour into it with the sauce-ladle eight ladlefuls of water, and two over, or ten in all, and then look at the quantity, and bear in mind that that is the limit of the quantity she must make — viz., about half a pint.

I will now describe how to make a small quantity of melted butter, supposing only a quai'ter of a pound of butter used. First take the buttei-, and divide it into six equal portions — great accuracy not being essential — take one of these sixth parts and place it in a small enamelled stewpan to melt over the fii'e, and add to it not quite an equal quantity of flour, a small pinch of pepper, and a susjncion of nutmeg. When this little piece of butter is melted, and the flour, &c., well mixed with it, have ready half a tumbler of cold water, and pour the best part of it into the stewpan, and stir it up over the fire till the whole becomes about the same consistency as cream. When this is the case, gradually dissolve in it the remainder of the quarter of a pound of butter, taking care to stir it carefully, and not to apply too great a heat. It will sometimes be found that the melted butter thus made has a tendency to what cooks call " curdle," or to run oily. The moment any symptoms of this appear, add a spoonful of cold water, slacken the heat, and stir quickly. When all the butter thus made is dissolved, the whole may be poured into and sent thi-ough a tamis, which causes it to present a much smoother appearance than it otherwise would.

Unfortunately, really good melted butter ought j^roperly to be made from fresh butter ; when, therefore, the cii'cumstances of the house allow of fresh butter being used, a little salt must be added. However, very good melted butter can be made from salt or tub butter. We, however, are bound to admit that we live in an age of adulteration; and should it be your fate, therefore, to attempt to make melted butter from butter adidterated with fat, the blame of failure will not be yours, but the widespread dishonesty of the age in. which we live. I firmly believe that befoi-e long, unless some more stringent laws are passed, successful trado will be incompatible with honesty. Tens of thousands of children die annually in this country from the slow but deadly poison of adulteration.

THE JOINT.

We will now proceed to discuss that all-important point in cooking, viz., the preparation of joints — roast and boiled. Simple as such preparation would seem, •yet the fact remains that ther'e are still many families, like that of David Copperfield, which faU apparently ever to hit upon the proper medium between redness and ciaders. Or should the joint happen to be a leg of mutton boiled, the first incision of the knife causes that appearance which has been graphically described as ''gushing horrible among its capers."

Roasting and boiling joints must in the present day be necessarily divided into two classes, viz., those cooked before or over an open fire, and those cooked by an oven heated by steam over a close fire. We will first take the good oldfashioned and extravagant open grate, which can be made to extend almost to any width by turning a handle, but which, alas ! when stretched, recalls the unpleasant circumstance to mind that in the present day the price of coals is far different to what it was years ago. We will also suppose the house to use the ordinary roa^sting-jack and hooks, as the still more old-fashioned machinery turned

xliv cassell's dictionary of cookery.

by the heat of the fire has disappeared as completely as the turn-spit dogs themselves.

We will take as an example of joints to be roasted at an open fire that most common one of all, viz., a leg of mutton. First, with regard to the condition of the joint — for much depends upon this — a leg of mutton kept till it is ripe, or just fit for cooking, and one fresh killed, are two distinct things. The fact is, that the great principle of cookery — forethought — is as much overlooked in ordering a dinner as in cooking it. Housekeepers too often will simply order a leg of mutton from the butcher's when the man calls for orders in the morning, and when the leg is sent they don't know whether it was killed that moi'ning or a fortnight before.

In cold weather it is a very simple plan to pick out a nice joint at the butcher's, asking when it was killed, and then have it hung up in the larder, or any cool place where there is plenty of air, till it is tender. The length of time say a haunch or leg of mutton will keep in this country depends entirely upon the weather. Of coiu'se, in some sultry August days a leg of mutton will sometimes turn bad in one day ; but such days are rare, and in such weather large hot joints by no means desirable.

In winter, especially during a frost, there is scarcely any limit to the time a leg of mutton will keep. Only bear in mind that if the leg gets frozen it is spoilt. In ordinary cold but not necessarily freezing weather, a leg of mutton will keep from ten days to a fortnight. Recollect, too, the importance of keeping the meat dry. For this purpose, flour with a dredger the whole of the joint, and look to it every morning, and re-flour any part that looks in the least degree moist. Experience alone will tell you when the joint should be cooked. Damp close weather is veiy bad for keeping meat, even if it is not very hot. Cold dry weather is, of course, the best of all, when the temperature is just above freezing.

We wOl now suppose the joint to be hung sufliciently long ; next let us consider what is the best method of cooking it, and — why. One most important point is to have a good clear bright fire to start with, and for this purpose the cook must see to the fire quite an hour before the joint is what they call " put down." It is no use to " put down" a leg of mutton or large joint to a dull fire, and for the cook to say, " Oh, it will soon burn up !" This corresponds to putting the leg of mutton into lukewarm water, and saying, " Oh, it will soon boil ! " The 'principle of boiling and roasting is the same — to endeavour as quickly as possible to surround the joint with a hard film of meat, in order to keep the flavour in. Consequently, the fire must be clear, bright, and fierce to start with, and the leg of mutton must be put rather near the fire to commence with. After a short time, varying from ten minutes to a quarter of an hour, according to the heat of the fire, draw the joint a little back, and let it cook steadily. Another important point in roasting meat is the basting. A leg of mu.tton cannot be too much basted. Also basting should commence almost directly the meat is put down. Now it will be often found, in fact generally, that women cooks place the dripping-pan in front of the fire, then hang the joint; next take a basin with some dripping in it, and place a lump in the dripping-pan to melt — the piece placed in front of the dripping-pan generally slipping round to the back as soon as the melting begins. This melting process takes time, and too often the skin and surface of the meat gets hard and dry, and cracks before sufiicient dripping has melted to baste with.

PRINCIPLES ROASTING. xl\

What cooks should do is to place the dripping-pan in front of tlie fire, with the dripping or lard in it, a quarter of an hour or more hefwe, they hang up the joint, and also to make it a rule not to hang the joint at all before they see sufficient dripping has run into the well of the dripping-pan to take up a good spoonful of melted fat in the basting-ladle.

With regard to time, this not merely depends upon the size of the joint, but upon the fire and the time of year. Eoughly speaking, a leg of mutton weighing eight pounds will take a couple of hours, and one of ten poimds two hours and a half. For a large leg of mutton, a difference of neax^y half an hour should be made for summer and winter — in winter, of course, the meat requiring a longer time. If the fire has been properly attended to, and the basting kept up during the whole time the joint is roasting, it will generally be found that the leg of mutton will be sufficiently browned without having recoui'se to flouring it and drawing it near to the fire. Should, however, the meat look lightcoloured, ch-aw the leg a little nearer the fire, and allow those parts that look lighter than the rest to brown by stopping the roasting-jack from going round. Should, however, it be necessary or thought desmible to use flour, do not let the flour fall in the dripping-pan in any quantity, as this, as we before pointed out, will have the effect of thickening the gravy.

In roasting a haunch of mutton, exactly the same process should be followed as in roasting a leg, only as the haunch is of coui'se far larger, it requii-es a much longer time to cook ; consequently, the outside is very apt to get overcooked and dried up before the joint is cooked through. Now a large haunch of mutton weighing over sixteen pounds wUl take four hours to cook; when, therefore, this sized joint has to be cooked, it will be necessary to protect the outside parts not covered with fat with some artificial covering, such as thin slices of fat, or oiled foolscap paper.

The best way of treating a fine large haunch of mutton that has been well hung is to cook it exactly in the same way as a fine haunch of venison, the proper method of cooking which is as follows : — First, however, remember that a haunch of venison, of all joints in the world, depends upon the attention that has been bestowed upon it during its hanging. Like the haunch of mutton, it must be kept in a cool and airy place, and also kept dry. Great care also should be taken in the early transport of the meat, to prevent its getting in any way bruised. A haunch of venison will keep much longer than a haunch of mutton, and is generally preferred when just on the turn towards getting what is called "high." It is, however, a great mistake to keep a haunch too long, so as when it is cut it has a strong gamey smell. The following is the best method of roasting a haunch of venison, and perhaps few recipes better illustrate that important principle of cooking, viz., "keep the flavour in." First, all the dry skin on the underneath part and skirt should be removed, and the shank-bone neatly sawn off. Then a piece of buttered paper should be put over what we may call the breast of the haunch, or that part where there is least fat, and where it is generally first cut. Then the whole haunch should be covered over with a flour-and-water paste half an inch thick, and outside this paste large sheets of oiled paper should be tied.

The joint should then be hung up, or, better still, put in a cradle-spit, and roasted. The time a good-sized haunch of venison will take to roast varies from four to five hours, though of course it would be useless to attempt to roast one

xlvi cassell's dictionary of cookery.

at all, except before a very large fire. About balf an hour befoi'e the joint is wanted remove the paste and paper, and sprinkle a little salt all over the haunch out of a pepper-box. . Next bring the haunch near the fire, and baste it with some fresh butter heated till it is frothed, and at the same time dredge the haunch with flour. The point to be aimed at is to get a rich brown colour all over the joint. A good brisk fixe will generally be sufficient; but if any difficulty is experienced, a salamander will be found a great assistance. Indeed, for obtaining a colour, a salamander will often be found a desirable kitchen utensil. It is simply a large flat piece of iron with a handle to it. This iron is made red-hot and held near to what requii'es browning. A salamander will be found extremely useful in browning cheesecakes, or in raising an omelette.

A rich but not strongly-flavoured gravy should be served with a haunch of venison, and also red-currant jelly. French beans are by far the best vegetable to be eaten with it, and stale bread is better than new. If possible, have a plate with hot water underneath it ; and if you know a haunch of venison is coming, reserve your appetite as much as possible, and do not spoil it by eating entrees first. To my mind, a fine, well-cooked haunch of venison, such as is served during the season every Tuesday and Thiu-sday at the Albion Hotel, opposite Drury-lane Theatre, is the finest dinner that can be obtained anywhere, including even Paris. Of course, the reason of covering the haunch with the paste is to keep in the flavour. We shall sj^eak more fully on this point of keeping in the flavour when we come to consider cooking joints in closed vessels.

One great secret of successful roasting is the basting. Now it is evident that any joint covered with fat requii-es less basting than a dry or lean joint. For instance, a loin of mutton requires less basting than a leg, because it is generally much fatter. Again, in basting a siiioin of beef, the sides or lean part should be basted, while the fat upper part and undercut requii-e scarcely any. Basting with fat or dripping should not go on till the joint be taken down, but discontinued about ten minutes or a quarter of an hour before ; as, if a joint has been basted ixp to the last moment with fat, it has a tendency to make the meat, especially the outside cut, taste greasy.

This does not apply to basting with butter. Butter, however, is now so dear that it is scarcely ever used for basting purposes.

One great difficulty, perhaps the chief one with inexperienced cooks, is the time a joint will take to roast. Too much dependence must not be placed on mere weight. For instance, take a shoulder of mutton. A large but thin shoulder will not take so long to roast as a smaller but thicker one. So agaio., the old maxim of allowing a quarter of an hour to a pound of meat will not apply to ribs of beef rolled. This latter joint is all solid meat, and thick, and consequently takes a long time to get heated right through. So again, a loin of mutton boned and stuffed, which is the most economical way of cooking it, will take a longer time to roast than an ordinary loin of mutton with the bone in it. Of course the weight of a joiut is a great criterion as to how long it will take to cook ; but then it should always be borne in mind that the weight and thickness should be considered together.

One very common mistake made by cooks is to suppose that lamb does not require cooking so long as mutton, because it is young and tender. The contrary is however the case : underdone lamb is far worse than underdone mutton. A well-roasted haunch or saddle of mutton when cut should show signs of having

PRINCIPLES ROASTING. xlvii

good red gravy in it. Underdone lamb will be flabby and sodden; consequently, lamb really requires considerably more time than mutton. Lamb, too, should be always cooked before a particularly bi-isk fire, and should be constantly basted. Just as lamb requires more roasting than mutton, so does veal require longer roastinf than beef. I think, as a I'ule, the principle will be found to be, that the closer the meat the longer does it take to cook, whether the process be roasting, bakin" or boiling. For instance, a leg of mutton is closer meat than a shoulder, and consequently, supposing a leg and shoulder be the same weight, yet the former would require longer roasting than the latter. So, too — supposing the weight the same — would a silver-side of beef, which is very close meat indeed, take longer to boil than an aitch-bone of beef. Yeal is, as a rule in this country, a closer meat than beef, and requires a great deal of cooking. Underdone veal like underdone lamb, is extremely unwholesome. Pork, again, is a white a'nd close meat — it is almost impossible to over-roast pork. A large leg of pork weighing twelve to sixteen pounds will take four or five hours to roast properly. It will also be found advisable to rub the skin of the pork over with oil pi-evious to roasting it, as otherwise the skin has a tendency to get hard and split.

There are some things that are neai'ly always overcooked, and among these we would particularly mention geese and ducks. Cooks should recollect that geese and diicks are hollow, and that the meat on the breast is very often only an inch and a half deep at the outside. Too often ducks are sent to table so dried up that the flavour is completely gone, and when carved the breast-bone is dry and white. A large duck does not require more than three-quarters of an hour to an hour to cook, and a good-sized goose one hour and three-quarters. In roasting poultry the same thing holds true as in roasting meat, viz., that the closer the meat the longer the time. This is very marked in contrasting the time it takes to roast a goose and the time it takes to roast a turkey — the latter, in proportion, taking nearly double the time of the former. A large turkey weighing say fourteen poimds would require three hours and a half, whereas a large goose that size would only require one hour and three-quarters.

In roasting all kinds of poultry and game, basting is of the vitmost importance, as otherwise the meat is certain to be dry and flavourless.

In roasting some kinds of game it is a very common custom, especially abroad, to fasten a piece of fat bacon over the breast, and, indeed, sometimes the bird is sent to table with the bacon on it. Of course this is purely a matter of taste; but to my thinking the bacon spoils the flavour of the bird. What should be done in roasting partridges is to calculate exactly the time when they will be wanted, and not to roast them too soon. Some cooks get nervous, and in fe^.r of being late, absolutely get some dishes that are not wanted till quite the fijiish of dinner ready when diimer begins. In large pai-ties, partridges should not be put down to roast till after the soup and fish have come downstairs. The entries invariably take a long time handing round, and then the joint has to follow. I have no doubt that many will remember how invai'iably at large dinner-parties the game is overcooked and dried up.

Hare is a very dry meat, and requires a gi-eat deal of roasting. Over-roasted hare is one of the most insipid things sent to table. Yet too often hare will be found to be quite dried up. The proper form of I'oast hare is, that when the knife cuts into the back the meat, though not red, should be juicy; too often it will be found to be quite dry. So, too, with a roast pheasant. After the breast

xlviii cassell's dictioxaky of cookery.

has been cut, when the knife separates the wing-bone from the merry-thought, the bone where it is divided should look a little pink ; this will show that the bird has not been dried up. When Ave come to small bii'ds, like woodcock and snipe, we must be still more careful of over -roasting, as it is a cruel thing to spoil such expensive delicacies owing to a little carelessness. It is difficult to lay down any exact time — so much depending on the fii-e — only be sure of one thing, and that is, baste the whole time. Snipe especially should be rather underdone.

There is an old saying which cooks would do well to remember, viz., "A well-cooked snipe is one that has only flown once through the kitchen." Of course this is an extravagant way of saying how very little cooking snipe require. Of course, in serving small game, no delay should take place. Game half cold is not wortli eating — and it is apt to lose its heat veiy quickly. Some dishes ha^-e special power of retaining heat, such as Irish stew and hasty puddings. Others, seem to lose their heat quickly, and among the latter class we would especially mention roast loin of mutton, which seems to possess the power of getting cold quicker than any other joint I know.

We will now go on to consider what is really another form of roasting, viz., grilling. There is perhaps no better test of a cook than a rump-steak and a boiled potato. If you can get the former black outside and red in, and the latter a floury mass as white as snow that crumbles to pieces on your plate, you may rest assured that the cook thoroughly understood his or her business. The same principles, of course, apply to grilling a chop or steak as in roasting or boiling, tlie point being as much as possible to surround the meat very quickly with a hard film to keep in the juices and flavour. For grilling it is essential, therefore, to have a perfectly clear fire, and also to place the iiop or steak near the fii'e at starting. It is obvious, too, that the very first principles of cookery are overlooked if the cook is foolish enough to stick a fork into the steak or chop to turn it. By this means you commit the unpardonable crime of letting out tlie gravy.

We have, however, already fully described in page xii. the principles to be observed in the use of the gridiron. It will always be found best to have one gridiron for meat and another for fish. In grilling kidneys, also, it is best to remove them every now and then, and dip them into a little hot fat if there is any handy.

Very often it will be found that those who prefer meat " grilled " also have a partiality for meat "devilled." What, then, is the difference between an ordinary mutton chop grilled and a mutton chop devilled? Generally, the only difierence is that some black or cayenne pepper has been sprinkled over the chop during the grilling ; but there are several kinds of sauces that may be called devil sauce. I will mention two — for the first of which I am indebted to the late Mr. Francatelli, and for the second to Mons. Bossard, the famous cook at St. Peter's College, Cambridge.

Francatelli's recipe is as follows : — Chop three shallots fine, and place them in a small stewpan with two table-spoonfuls of French vinegar and a pinch of cayenne pepper ; boil these together for three minutes ; then add half a pint of thin, strong, brown gravy and a table-spoonful of tomato sauce ; boil again, and finish by stirring in a small jiat of anchovy Initter.

This sauce is suitable for all kinds of broiled meat, and of course its strength,

PRINCIPLES BOILING. xlix

SO far as hotness goes, entirely depends upon the size of the pinch of cayenne pepper. The other kind of devil sauce is of quite a different character, and has the advantage of being made in a few moments, and also of consisting only of materials that are nearly certain to be at hand. Take say an ounce or a little more of butter, and dissolve it in a stewpan, but do not oil the butter or allow the stewpan to get too hot. Mix in a spoonful of made mustard, and a little mixed black and cayenne pepper, and stir the whole well together. The sauce should resemble thick custard, both in appearance and consistency. This sauce should not be poured over the grilled meat until the very last moment. Care also should be taken not to have the plate so burning hot so that it will dissolve the butter into oil. Recollect, the only secret of making this sauce successfully is not overheating it.

This sauce, poured over a nicely-grilled chop at breakfast-time, often has the effect of enabling a person with a delicate appetite to take meat, when, without the stimulant of the sauce, they would be unable to touch any.

We have already discussed the general prmciples of cooking to be observed both in frying and boiling. I would, however, remind you, in choosing a joint, such as a leg of mutton, when it is for boiling and not for roasting, it is advisable to have it rather fresher. A leg of mutton for roasting may be left till it is on the verge of turning. Not so a leg for boiling. First, if the mutton be kept too long it will be of a very bad colour when sent to table ; secondly, the liquor in which it was boiled will not be fit for anything.

In boiling a leg of mutton, it should always be. borne in mind that even with the greatest care some considerable amount of nourishment will get out into the water. Indeed, it would be a very practical lesson, not only to cooks but to heads of households, to make a few experiments in weighing materials before roasting or boiling and after. They shoidd remember, too, that there is no such thing in nature as annihilation. Very often when turnips are a little old, the cook, in order to save herself a very little trouble, will boil all the turnips with the leg of mutton, thereby rendering the liquor too sweet to make soup. To my mind, one great drawback to salt beef is that even with plenty of soaking previously in cold water, the liqiior in which the beef is boiled is unfit for making soup. I have no hesitation in saymg that in all faii-ly-sized establishments the refuse of the joints should be sufiicient to enable the family to have soup every day. By "refuse" I mean the water in which meat is boiled, the trimmings, &c., but especially the bones left from joints. A silver-side of beef when fresh if boiled makes capital soup, and yet cases ai-e found where such liquor is absolutely thrown away. I recollect once on boai'd ship seeing the cook empty overboard the liquor in which had been boiled — over-boiled, of course — a huge fresh aitchbone of beef Waste is absolutely sinful ; and when we consider for one moment that we injure our fellow-creatures more by wasting a leg of mutton than by burning a ,ฃ20 note, we shall the better realise the importance of economy in cooking in its strictest sense. The truest economy is to get the greatest amount of nourishment possible out of the materials we use. Nor should we waste because the materials are cheap and plentiful. Even were it in our power to multiply food to a miraculous extent, it would still no less be our duty to gather up the fragments that remain, that nothing be lost.

In boiling poultry of all kinds, it should be our endeavour to obtain — ^just as in boiling fish — a good colour, and of course the principle is the same. In

CASSELL S DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

boiling' say a fowl or a turkey, by rubbing the breast over with lemon-juice, or by placing a few thin slices of lemon on the breast, and covering them over with a piece of buttered paper, and wrapping the whole in a cloth, you will be able to send the fowl to table with that snow-white appearance which renders it so •much niore tempting to the appetite. The reason of the flesh being whiter is that the acid of the lemon helps to dissolve the outside impurities of the skin on the breast of the fowls.

Speaking of economy in cooking naturally brings us to that most economical way of cooking, viz., stewing. Really, the princijiles of stewing — the French method of cooking nearly everything — are so simple that they hardly require explanation. Let us for one moment contrast a mutton chop giilled and one stewed in rice. In the former case, some of the chop goes up the chimney in the shape of vapour, and some into the fire in the shape of fat and perhaps a little gravy, and is absolutely lost, so far as the eater is concerned. Take the chop, however, and put it in a small stewpan with just sufiicient water to cover it and a spoonful of rice ; cover over the stewpan, put a heavy weight on the lid, and let it gently simmer by the fire for two or three hours. What is the result ? Nothing is lost. Again, take that economical dish — an Irish stew — and see how much farther three pounds of neck of mutton will go as Irish stew than as mutton cutlets.

In speaking of stewing as the universal custom in France, recollect I do not refer so much to Paiisian restaurants as to the nation generally, and especially the poor. I believe the contrast in the cooking between the French and English soldiers dtiring the Crimean war was veiy marked. A very large employer of labour in the North of England told me that he had noticed, among the few French workmen he employed, that on the same wages as other men they lived, so far as eating was concerned, more than twice as well.

Foii.unately for this country there seems gradually a change going on for the better. The enormous increase in the price of coals will probably do much to abolish, in very small houses, open grates, and ste-sving over a close stove is far easier than over open ones. The reason of this is, that the principle of stewing is to keep the ingredients at a certain but not too great a heat. Stewing is very difierent to boiling. Irish stew allowed to hoil is hard ; Irish stew that is really stewed will almost melt in the mouth. Cooks must, however, be very careful in using enamelled stewpans, as should the contents of one of these vessels begin to boil, such is their power of retaining the heat that it \n\\ be found the boiling process will continue some time after the vessel has been removed from the fire. Perhaps one of the best instances of the power enamelled stewpans have of retaining heat is when one is used for the purpose of making brown thickening. It will be remembered that we recommended, when the butter and flour mixed together had assumed a proper colour, that a few slices of onion should be thrown in, and the stewpan removed from the fire, but kept stirring. Now it will be often found that the stewing process will continue for over ten minutes after the vessel has been taken off the fire, and placed, say, on a cold slab.

Of course anything can be fried in butter or oil at a lower temperature than that of boiling water, still the extraordinary length of time the " bubbling " of the butter goes on is a capital means of impressing on the cook's mind how very much these vessels retain the heat. Consequently in. stewing, when boiling is particularly to be avoided, an enamelled stewjDan should be eai-efully watched, and it will be found to

PRINCIPLES — BAKING. li

be a good method to have a little cold water ready — a dessert-spoonful -will be sufficient to throw in to stop the boiling, should it accidentally take place. A copper steAvpan retains the heat comparatively for a very short period. The principal objection to enamelled omelet pans is that they are far more likely to burn the omelet than an ordinary one.

We now come in due course tb consider the general principles to be observed in baking. Most persons know the difference in the flavour of meat roasted in the ordinary way before the fire or baked in the oven — recollect I am still alluding to the old-fashioned open gi-ates. What the difierence is in the flavour between meat roasted and meat baked it is perhaps difiicult to describe accurately, but that the former is far superior to the latter there can be no doubt. The reason of the difference in the flavour is however very simple. When meat is roasted certain, vapours are of course given ofl" which go up the chimney immediately ; when meat is baked in the oven these vapours are shut in, and consequently affect the flavour of the meat ; and it will be remembered that the difference between roast and baked meat, though obvious to the palate, is still more obvious to the sense of smell. Now cei-tain joints bake better than others ; for instance, a shoulder of mutton is really quite as nice baked in a close oven as roasted, while a baked leg, and especially a baked loin, is very inferior. One gi-eat objection to shut-up fire-places has undoubtedly been the difliculty of roasting a joint. This difficulty is, however, quite overcome for all ordinary purposes by a new cookiag range, in the oven of which a joint may be baked, and yet the result will be that the most sensitive palate cannot distinguish the difference between the joint so cooked and one roasted in the ordinary way before the fire.

The principle is as simple as it is ingenious. The oven is so constructed that a curi'ent of air can always be passing quickly through it. The stove is constructed on the same principle as a blast fui'nace, and the heat is regulated by turning a small handle. An opening at one end of the oven is connected with the chimney of the stove, up which the smoke and heated air ascends.

Of course the hot air of the oven rushes out at this opening, its place beingsupplied by cold air admitted thi'ough a small sliding opening in front of the oven. Consequently, when any joint is baked in an oven of this description, the process it imdergoes is exactly the same as in roasting before an open fire.

The joint is, of course, placed on a raised tin with holes in it to prevent the bottom getting sodden, and the oven door has from time to time to be oj^ened in order to baste the joint. Of course all the vapours that are given off by the joint in cooking are instantly carried up the chimney with the current of hot aii-. In roasting a joint — for such in reality it is — in an oven of this description it will be found best to turn the joint over when it is half cooked. I have always found that when the fii-e has been properly attended to, a good colour can be obtained ; should, however, the joint look pale, a hot salamander will soon overcome the difficulty.

The question as to whether open stoves or shiit stoves are the best is of course a most important one. Economy of fuel, now that the price of coals has reached what it has, is quite as important as economy of food. There cannot be any doubt that to English minds the open fire-places in sitting-rooms and bed-rooms convey an idea of real comfort that the close stoves met with abroad utterly fail to give ; and it vnll probably be many years before these stoves ai-e introduced in English households. Not so, however, kitchen ranges. The advantages of a close range over an open one

lii cassell's dictionary of cookery.

are so enormous, that there can be but little doubt that before long they will universally be used throughout the kingdom. One very obvious advantage they possess is that of cleanliness. The outsides of saucepans used with close stoves do not get encrusted with soot like those that are placed over open fires. Again, in using shut-up ranges all fear of any dishes being sent up smoky is done away with. But of course the chief point in their favour is economy of fuel ; and it should be remembered that economy in the necessaries of life is a duty. Just as that man who could cause two grains of corn to grow where only one grew before is a real benefactor to the human race, so is he equally a benefactor who can so economise either food or fuel that half the quantity will do the work of the whole ; but we will refer to the subject of close stoves more fully when speaking of kitchen utensils in

There is one method of cookirg to which we must refer before passing on to the general principles to be observed in cooking vegetables, and that is exposing meat to the heat of an oven which is heated on the outside by steam instead of fire. This is, in fact, the principle of Captain Warren's cooking pot. The joint is placed in an inner chamber, the outside of which is surrounded with steam. Consequently the joint is cooked in its own juice and vapours. The invention is valuable, owing to the very important fact that it is the most economical way of cooking possible. At the same time it gives, comparatively speaking, but little trouble to the cook.

Should it be wished that the joint should be a roast one, it has to be taken out of the cooking pot and browned. However, when this is done the joint cannot compare to one roasted before an open fij-e, or baked in one of the new ovens. I would therefore recommend, when Captain "Warren's cooking pot is used, to keep as much as possible to the plan of eating the joint simply as it is, as browning the outside merely makes it a sort of compromise between a roast leg of mutton and a boiled one. One other advantage possessed by Captain Warren's cooking pot is that the lid is so constructed that while the meat is cooking in the inner chamber vegetables can be cooked by steam in a chamber above.

VEGETABLES.

These may roughly be divided for cookmg purposes into two classes, viz., roots and greens ; the chief point of distinction between the two being that in cooking the latter class due attention must be given to the fact, that a good colour is an important point for consideration.

One almost universal principle in cooking vegetables is the addition of salt to the water in which they are boiled ; and another almost as universal is that they should be put into boiling and not cold water. The quantity of salt that should be added will generally be found to be in the proportion of a good brimming table-spoonful of salt to half a gallon of water. Now, the whole of the following vegetables should be cooked by placing them in boiling water, salted in the proportion named. Turnips, cauliflowers, carrots, cabbages, artichokes (French), asparagus, French beans, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, parsnips, new potatoes, green peas, and vegetable marrow. The whole of these will of course vary as to time, according to their size and age. Old potatoes should be placed in cold water, and medium-aged potatoes in lukewarm water ; the reason, of course, why old potatoes are placed in cold water being that otherwise, the root being hard, the outside part of a large potato would be apt to get pulpy before* the inside got soft. In cooking Jerusalem artichokes it seems to be an open question whether they should be placed in hot water or cold ; they should^

PRINCIPLES VEGETABLES. liii

however, be treated like potatoes — when young and small, boiling water ; when old, cold water. Spinach is, again, a vegetable about which there is much dispute ; some cooks maintaining that the less water used the better the spinach ; some going even so far as to steam the spinach, and use no water at all ; others boiling the spinach till it is tender in an ordinary quantity of water, and then draining it, and rinsing it in cold water before pounding it in a mortar. My own opinion is, that the latter method is the preferable one ; it has also the advantage of being recommended by the late Mr. Francatelli.

We next come to consider the principle of obtaining a good colour. Of course, if the vegetables, such as peas, are old and stale, and of a bad colour to start with, there is no way of making them gi-een by cooking. However, it will often be found that quite young and fresh green peas — and we take peas merely as the type of a class — will turn yellow in boiling. The chief points to be considered for the purpose of avoiding a bad colour are — fii'st, see that the water is boiling before the vegetables ai'e put in ; secondly, do not shut in the steam.

Consequently, whenever it is possible, let green vegetables boil in an open saucepan. Of course, when you have a shut stove and a hot-plate this is very easy; when, however, it is an open fire, care must be taken that in placing the lid half open, so that the steam naay escape, at the same time the smoke is not sucked into the saucepan. Smoky vegetables are exti-emely disagreeable. To obtain a good colour for carrots, they must be lightly scraped, and not peeled.

Another important point in cooking the majority of vegetables is to have plenty of water.

First, if the quantity of water is not large, the moment the vegetables are put in, the water instantly goes off the boil, whereas it is important the water should boil the whole time. Again, it is well known how extremely disagreeable green- water is to smell ; consequently, should say a cabbage be placed in a small quantity of water, this disagreeable green- water becomes more concentrated. Let me here, however, give you one most important word of warning with regard to " green- water," and that is, never on any account allow it to be poured down the sink, as the smell that will consequently arise will probably have the very uncomfortable result of rendering the whole house disagreeable for some time after.

There are few houses now, even in London, that do not possess a small patch of ground at the back. The best way of getting rid of green-water is to pour it on the gi'ound outside.

Of course in all culinary operations the fii'st principle of cookery, viz., cleanliness, should be strictly attended to. But in cooking vegetables, if possible, even extra care should be taken on this point. For instance, in cooking potatoes the unsightly black spots should be scooped out with the greatest care. In boiling spinach, the enemy to be encountered is grit, consequently the spinach should be washed in several waters, the water being sufficiently deep to allow the dirt to settle. In boiling greens, and especially cauliflowers and broccoli, those most disgusting enemies, caterpillars and little slugs, must be met and defeated.

Now, in a close cauliflower or broccoli this is not always so easy a task as some would imagine ; but by letting the vegetables soak in cold salt and water for an hour or more, and occasionally shaking them, every one of these nasty creatures can be got rid of — for to find a boiled caterpillar on one's plate at dinner is quite sufficient to destroy one's enjoyment of the meal. The fact really implies

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that the cook is dirty ; and when this is the case, it is difficult to really fancy any of the dishes that have necessarily passed through her hands.

Befor-e leaving the subject of vegetables, one word in regard to the somewhat modern invention of preserved vegetables in tins. Take, for instance, peas. Of course, like everything else, peas are best when fresh gathered and in season ; but it is really wonderful to what perfection the ai't of preserving vegetables has been brought. However, just as in the case of tinned soups we gave a few simple directions how the contents of the tin may be improved when opened, so, too, with vegetables much may be done to what we may call " increase the illusion." For instance, take the case of a tin of peas. Of course they are already cooked, and only want wai-ming up. Now these tinned peas will be found, as a rule, to be not quite so sweet as fresh-gathered young ones; consequently, whenever you use a tin of peas as a vegetable, or to be piled up in the centre of an enti-ee, such as chicken cutlets, act as follows : — First obtain, if possible, a few leaves of fresh mmt, and boil these leaves in a little water till tender ; then turn out the tin into a small stewpan, liquor and all, and put it on the fire to warm gently. Suppose the tin is a pil^t of peas, add about half a salt-spoonful of salt, and one third of a salt-spoonful of powdered sugar. The sugar will of course cause the peas to taste sweeter, and consequently more like the real fresh ones. Add the mintleaves, which, in addition to really improving the flavour of peas, undoubtedly help the imagination to regard the peas as fresh-gathered ones. Really, if the tin is a good one, it requires a very good judge to distinguish between fresh peas and preserved ones. The same method must be pm-sued with French beans — the latter, however, are improved by having a little chopped boiled parsley added instead of mint, and a piece of butter mixed with them when they are strained off. In heating all preserved vegetables do not allow them to remain on the fire longer than is necessary to simply make them hot through.

ENTREES.

Though entrees are as a rule served before joints, we have gone briefly through the general prmciples to be observed in cooking joints before those to be considered in reference to entrees. It should be remembered, however, that, cooks must learn simple things before they attempt difficult. Too often it will be found that cooks have what may be termed a few specialities, i.e., they have a few savoury dishes for which they are famed, but at the same time fail to invariably send up the joint and vegetables correctly. That cook is the most valuable who is the most regular. Amateur cooks almost invariably fall into the fault of wishing to begin at the higher branches of the science — for such it deserves to be called — of cooking. Young ladies in households often like to what they call " assist " on certain occasions ; but if the truth were known, probably hinder rather than help. the cook, who frequently has to leave off her own duties to wait upon the amateurs, who generally choose jellies or a trifle as the dish with which they commence their experimental cooking. Cooking, as we have said, is a science ; and persons who think they can begin at the wrong end will fijid, practically, that they will fail signally.

To give any genei'al principles with regard to such an enormous variety of dishes as is comprehended in the word entree is somewhat difficult. Some few general explanations, however, can be given of certain classes of entrees. As one very common specimen we would mention kromeskies, taking them as a specimen

PRIXCIPLES ENTREES. Iv

of that large and usually very nice class of entrees wMch may generally be described as a hot entree, in which the inside is soft and moist, enclosed in a hard, thia cover. The cover is composed either of egg and bread-crumbs or batter, the inside of which may be termed generally as croquettes, which we have elsewhere described as a savoury mince moistened with sauce, if necessary boxmd together with yolk of egg, dipped in beaten egg, rolled in bi'ead-crumbs, and fried crisp.

Now it will be, I think, universally admitted that these croquettes and ki'omeskies are far nicer when the inside is pappy instead of hard. I. may here add that the difference between kromeskies and croquettes is that the former is the latter surrounded with a very thin slice of parboiled fat bacon or calf's udder before it is egged and bread-crumbed.

"We will now imagine an inexperienced cook with the following difficulty : — She is aware that the croquettes are far nicer when moist, but then how is she to egg and bread-crumb that which is so moist as to be almost a liquid? We will suppose the case of some ci'oquettas made from the remains of a cold fowl. The meat has been cut off the bone, and minced with the lean ham, miashrooms, &c. Now the bones should have been put on the fire, to assist in making the sauce that will moisten the mince. Tliis sauce, with the bones in it, should be boiled away, i.e., reduced by allowing the steam to escape, till only sufficient to moisten the mince is left. If this is done properly, when cold the sauce will be a hard jelly; consequently, the mince when hot will be quite moist, and almost liquid, but when cold will be quite hard. Now this moist mince should be allowed to get cold, and be then shaped into little pieces, either square for kromeskies, or into pieces like oval picnic biscuits, to look like cutlets. None of tlie trimmings in so shaping them need be lost, as they can easily be dissolved by heat and allowed to get cold again, which they will soon do on a small plate or dish. Now it is evident that these hard pieces when cold can be readily egged over and bread-crumbed. Great care should, however, be taken in so doing, as should there be a flaw in the covering of egg, when fried the inside will run out.

I would thei'efore recommend as follows : — Suppose the inside mince is very savoury, perhaps flavoiired with truffle, or composed of those expensive but delicious delicacies — oysters. Having egged and bread-crumbed the cold, hard — because a jelly — piece of mince, let it get dry, which it soon will do if left in a cool place for an hour. Re-dip it just as it is into fresh beaten-up egg, and shake some more fine dry bread-crumbs over it. By this means you have a double coat, so to speak, round your mince. Next, to cook them. We will suppose a small, deep stewpan half full of boiling fat or lard. The croquettes are carefully but suddenly plunged in. What is the effect? The heat of course attacks the outside first, consequently, the egg covering coagulates directly, before the inside melts ; when the inside melts it is surrounded with a thin film which keeps it together. Great care, of course, must be exercised in draining such moist croquettes and in serving them; but when the little cutlet or ball reaches the plate without accident, and that delicious gush of inside pours on to the plate, owing to the fork of the eater being insex'ted into it, how far preferable are such croquettes to those that have almost to be cut ! Indeed, any one can make the latter; but when a good judge gets one of the former, or moist ones, he knows that in pi'oportion almost to the moisture is the skill of the cook. Should, indeed, the inside be veiy moist and almost liquid, he may smack his lips, and mentally ejaculate, " Ah, an artiste ! ' Recollect, however, in making

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croquettes in wliicli the insides are moist there must be a limit to size. If very moist, tliey must be small ; indeed, a middling-sized walnut should be the limit, for it is evident that the strength of material of a thin film composed of coagulated egg would not be sufficient to overcome the force of gravity alone of a moist mass, the tendency of which is of course to become level. The best form indeed to make these ci'oquettes is cutlet-shape, or, as we have before described, the shape of an oval jiicnic biscuit. My own experience is that this shape is less liable to break than any other, besides which, when arranged round on a dish with plenty of fried parsley, by placing a tiny claw of a crab or lobster — one of the small ends of the lesser legs, not the pincers — a very ornamental red handle can be made to the cutlet to represent the bone.

While we are speaking generally on the subject of entrees, we would wish to compi'ise under that heading savoury dishes in general ; and just as in soups and gravies we called attention to the importance of having brown roux or brown thickening constantly at hand, so, too, in any establishment where savoury dishes are liked would we call attention to the importance of the cook's always having ready to hand a small bottle of what is usually called aromatic spices for seasoning. The advantage of having these spices ready is that an enormous amount of trouble is saved by having them at hand, and as they will keep for years, and a small bottle lasts almost for ever, a little exertion on the part of the cook on some day when she has little to do will have the very beneficial result of improving the cooking of the house for years afterwards.

Before explaining how these herbs are made, I would mention a few of their, if not every-day, at any rate weekly, uses. Take the very common case of a rump-steak pie, or that exceedingly nice, and when larks are cheap by no means expensive, dish — lark pudding. Now the addition of a very small pinch of these flavouring herbs makes a difference in the flavour of the pie or pudding in ques- tion that is almost incredible ; and yet when the herbs are made this improvement of flavour is made at a cost so small as to be scarcely appreciable. The flavour it gives to the lark pudding is particularly marked, bringing out, as it does, a gamey flavour, which, considering the exceedingly small quantity put in, will give the cook a very good notion of the power these spices possess. Again, they are of the greatest value in making varioiis kinds of forcemeats for preserving game, such as hare or grouse. These herbs are best made as follows : — Take half an oimce of mace, half an ounce of nutmeg, one ounce of white peppercorns, and one ounce of cloves; half an ounce each of marjoram, thyme, and basil, and a quarter of an ounce of bay-leaves. Have all these herbs and spices thorovighly dried, wrapping them up in several sheets of paper, one over the other, in order to avoid the goodness evaporating, and then have them thoroughly pounded as quickly as possible, and sifted through a fine sieve, and put in a glass-stoppered bottle for use. These herbs can be used for a variety of purposes, and are particularly \iseful in flavouring all kinds of forcemeats — especially when such forcemeat is made from calf's liver or calf's udder.

I would here remind you that in all cases when calf's liver is used for forcemeat for dishes in which any kind of game is introdiiced, that the addition of the liver of the game itself makes a vast improvement to the flavour. When game is plentiful there is never any difficulty in obtaining livers from the povilterers, who are obliged to throw away a considerable quantity every day, as the liver is apt to get high long before the rest of the bird.

PRINCIPLES ENTREES. Ivii

It is in the preparation of entrees more than any other class of dishes that the really experienced cook will best exercise that primary principle of cookery — economy.

Most educated persons in the present day have at one period or other of their lives visited Paris — and I am speaking of the period before the war. One of the wonders of that beautiful city was the exti-aordinary little dinner to be obtained in the Palais Eoyale and elsewhere for a sum of money that in England would have barely kept off starvation in a coffee-house.

It may seem a somewhat strong statement, but I really believe it to be true, that the materials out of which some of the most delicious Parisienne entrees are made are in English hotels and private houses either given to, and often refused by, an overfed dog, or are allowed to get putrid and breed fevers by being thrown into the dust-bin. There is an old picture — of which, probably. Englishmen are pi'oud — contrasting the English hog and the French hog, the difference being as striking as that between the fat and lean kine seen in the vision of the Eastern king of old. Alas that we should feel proud of this striking contrast ! — it is but too often the case that our glory is in our shame. I fear that the contents of our English pig-tubs are a national disgrace. I have seen large pieces of bread, whole legs of fowls, &c., floating in what might be called greasy stock. The pig-tub is too often the one resource of idle and extravagant cooks, whose one idea of household management is to get rid of the odds and ends.

Now a variety of nice entries can be made out of the cold remains of an almost infinite variety of joints. For instance, take the remains of a calf's head that has been sent to table with tongue, brains, &c., and a white sauce flavoured with marjoram. Suppose you cut up the remaias into small pieces, and see that the sauce when cold is a jelly. Take a little of the tongiie and the brains, and let them adhere to a piece of what is called the horn part of the calf's head ; let these all get cold ; see that they are nicely trimmed, slightly flour each piece and dip it into batter, and fry in some boiling fat till it is of a beautiful golden colour. Of course the batter, when it is properly made, will harden before part of the inside dissolves ; this entree, therefore, has the advantage of coming to table a light-looking fritter, which when opened presents a moist inside. It is, however, essential that the fat be boiling, as otherwise the inside will melt, and break through the fritter skin. Care also should be taken in making batter for entrees of this description that the batter be sufficiently thick. The best method of preparing batter is as follows : — Take half a pint of mOk, and mix it up thoroughly with the yolk of an egg, adding a pinch of salt, then gradually add suflicient flour till the whole has become of a consistency rather thicker than double cream. This batter should be mixed in a large basin, and worked perfectly smooth with a wooden spoon.

We have before remarked on the importance of making entrees the means of using up the materials that have been left from the previous day. One very useful form is that of salmi of game. Too often the remains of game are sent up, almost as they are, cold for breakfast, the result being that a large portion is wasted, the bones being almost invariably left half picked on the plates, while the gravy that was on the dish with the hot game the day before, and into which what may be termed almost the essence of the bird has run, is very probably wasted altogether. Suppose, therefore, some remains of pheasants, partridges, or indeed any other kind of game, is sent down from dinner, a most delicious entree can be made as follows : — Cut off all the best parts of the meat, such as the wings, legs, breast, &c., and trim

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them neatly. Should it be found that there is not quite sufficient, very often the addition of a single bird more, which can be roasted on purpose, will complete the dish. Next take all the remains — the carcasses, trimmings, &c. — and put them on to boil gently in the remains of the gravy that was served with the game the day before. After these bones have boiled so that they come out perfectly dry, send the gravy and the small pieces of game that have fallen from the bones in it through a wire sieve — this will have the effect of thickening the gravy, and also of imparting to it a decidedly " gamey " flavour. Add to this sauce — suppose say half a pint in quantity, or a little more — about a wine-glassful of sherry. It is astonishing how this, glass of sherry helps to bring about a complete alteration of flavour. This salmi sauce is now complete, and the joints of game have simply to be warmed iip in it, taking care, if the game was sufliciently cooked on the first day, that it remains on the fire only sufficiently long to warm it through and no longer, as otherwise the game would get over-cooked, and become hard and flavourless. We have recommended sherry to be added to the sauce, but at the same time would acknowledge the superior qualities of madeira for the purpose. Unfortunately, madeira has of late years been rarely seen, though I believe there is every prospect of its becoming more plentiful in a few years' time. Madeira can now be bought from respectable wine merchants at from 36s. to 48s. a dozen, and is a far cheaper wine in quality than any sherry that can be bought at the same price. Whenever sherry is used for cooking pui'poses, golden sherry is better than a pale dry wine.

One most important point in the serving of entrees is their appearance. The cook should endeavour to please the eye as an accessory to the palate.

I will now run through a few of the most common faults that inexperienced cooks exhibit iia serving various entrees. One very common one is putting too much in one dish. The quantity should always be in i^roportion to the dish. Indeed, I have seen dishes so piled uf) that, when fii'st handed, persons have had considerable difficulty in avoiding a sort of shower of pieces on their plate. This is, of course, rare; but it will be very often found that dishes are so filled that any attempt at ornament or garnish is simply impossible. Another equally common fault is, that when any entrees are served that require gravy, the gravy is not only too thin but too abundant. With regard to gravy poured round entrees, few maxims can be better for the cook to bear in mind than — " Little and good." Perhaps few dishes would better test a cook than hashed venison, made, say, from the remains of a haunch, and as the same remarks would equally apply to hashed mutton, a short description will not be unpractical.

We all know that generally inartistic dish called hashed mutton, once the scorn of Mrs. Gamp. Certainly a large dish — large enough to hold a haunch — in which thin slices of mutton float in an ocean of thin pale gravy, surrounded by sodden sippets of toast, cut in the old-fashioned wedge pattei-n, does not look tempting. Suppose, however, we serve hashed venison or mutton, nicely ornamented in a silver dish, as follows — premising that, should you not possess a silver dish, we would recommend an ordinary vegetable dish instead : — First, make some good strong gravy with a good colour, using up the bone of the joint for the purpose ; get the gravy to a good consistency, like that of double cream, dark in colour, and thickened with arrowroot in preference to brown thickeniiig. Next, in cutting up the meat, take care to avoid pieces of skin and gi'istle, and also avoid having thick lumps of meat. Warm up the meat in this gi'avy, taking care, as before, not to let the meat remain in for a longer period than absolutely necessary.

ฆLES — ENTRIES— GARNISHIXG. lix

Should the hash be venison, a little port wine and red currant jelly can be added to the gravy ; and should it be mutton, one or two onions fried soft and of a nice browia colour, and a dessert-spoonful of mushroom ketchup, wUl be found an improvement. Kext, take the dish, and, having thoroughly warmed it, pile the meat up into a pyramid shape in the centre of the dish, leaving the border of it as bare as possible. Pour the remainder of the gravy gently over the piled-up meat, and 'place round the edge, instead of toast sippets, the following garnish : — Stamp out with some cutters a few pieces of stale bread into the shape of hearts, and fry these pieces a nice bright golden-brown colour in some lard. Place these pieces near each other round the base of the pyramid, and place one — choosing the best looking — on the top of the pyramid, with a small silver arrow stuck in it. Of course this method of preparing the hash will give rather more trouble than the ordinary inartistic method, but then the difference in the appearance of the two dishes more than repays the trouble ; the one, in fact, is an entree, and the other a dish only suitable for an early dinner for children, and which, if served in the kitchen, would too often — alas for human nature ! — be more than half wasted. Really, hashed mutton, especially the remains of a haunch or saddle, nicely served the way we have described, makes an entree that no one need be ashamed of sending to table.

Small crayfish make one of the very nicest-looking garnishes. If the entree, therefore, was hashed venison, a small crayfish could be placed at the four corners of the dish, and a small one on the top of the pyramid. To ornament hashed mutton with crayfish would, I think, be going a little too far.

We will now take another form of ornamenting entrees, viz., fried parsley. Probably cooks are more indebted to parsley than to anything else for ornamenting their dishes. The great secret of fried pai'sley is, first, it must be freshcut double parsley, and rather dark in colour; secondly, it must be perfectly dry before it is fried. Again, the fat must be boiling, and the greatest care exercised in draining the parsley so as not to break it more than possible. The best method of frying parsley is in a little wire basket in a small deep stewpan. This basket can be easily made at home out of two-pennyworth of wii-e, by a very little exercise of ingenuity. The advantage of the basket is that it can be fitted to the stewpan, and the parsley can be lifted out bodily, thereby rendering the risk of breaking very small.

Fried parsley can be used to ornament or garnish various kinds of patties, the dark green contrasting well with the light-brown pastry. Fried parsley should also be served with kromeskies, croquettes, fried sweetbreads, fried oysters, lobster cutlets, and a variety of other light entrees.

To continue the idea of entries made from remains of joints, we will next consider the number of nice dishes made from boiled turkey, boiled fowl, etc. Suppose, for instance, the dinner, has consisted of one of these, with that very usual accompaniment — a boiled tongue. An exceedingly pretty-looking entree can be made as follows : — Cut off the best pieces of the white meat that has been left, and make a strong white stock with the bones, which may be thickened with a little white roux, and, if possible, two or three-pennyworth of cream. Warm up the meat in some of this sauce, and pile it up as before in a pyramid shape on the dish, and pour the remainder of the thick white sauce over it, the sauce being made sufiiciently thick to what is called " mask " the surface. Sprinkle over this white pyramid, sparingly and lightly, a little rather coarsely chopped dark-green parsley, and ornament the base of the pyramid as follows : — In cuttmg up the

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turkey, stamp out some thin pieces of white meat into the shape of cocks'-combs, or some such pattern, with a crimped edge. Also cut some thin slices of the red tongue, and stamp these out in the same pattern. Warm up these slices of white meat and red tongue in a little hot clear stock, and place these slices round the dish at the base of the pyramid of meat, alternately red and white, having, of course, the crimped edge outwards. A single small crayfisli on the top of the pyramid, or a little sprig of parsley, wUl complete the dish. This entree, it should be borne in mind, is, in addition to being a really handsome dish, a most economical one, for, with the exception of the cream — which is not absolutely necessary — everything is used up, the bones forming sauce instead of being left on the plates and given to the dog in the ordinary manner. Of course this dish will be vastly improved by the addition of button-mushrooms and slices of truffle. When truffles are used, the alternate slices of black, red, and white look extremely nice ; or should the truffle be in small quantities, little pieces can be reserved to dot the stamped frill of the white meat — a small piece in the centre of each round.

In all dishes that have vegetables served with them, much may be done to improve their appearance by having some at least of the vegetables stamped of a. nice pattern ; even in large dishes that do not come under the heading of entrees, boUed turnips and boiled caiTOts always look better if roughly shaped like pears, and so cut that they will stand upright. When placed alternately round a boiled leg or neck of mutton, over which some caper sauce has been poured, the general appearance of the dish is far superior to what it would be if simply cut carrots and turnips are placed on hap-hazard.

To teach even the elementary principles of making dishes look elegant is, we fear, a task beyond the power of mere words. Some persons have naturally taste, and others have not. The cook who will go out on Sunday afternoon in a pink bonnet with a blue parasol will never learn so to ai-range colours in garnishing a dish as to really attract the eye. We will, however, give a few hints to those — and we are glad to say they are many — who seem to possess the power of using garnishes when they have them.

Fii'st, much may be done with artificial flowers cut from turnips or beetroots. For instance, a tongue glazed, \vith a paper frill round the root, and a nicely-cut flower made from a turnip, and just tinged with, cochineal in imitation of a camelia, placed on the top, always looks an exceedingly handsome dish. The turnip flower shoidd be stuck on to a small stick of wood, and a couple of bay-leaves tied on to the stick with it. Tliis method of ornamenting dishes, though old-fashioned, is very effective.

For hot entrees and hot dishes of every description the following garnishes will be found especially useful : — Fried croutons of bread cut into the shape of hearts or stars, and fried a golden-brown colour- button-mushrooms glazed, i.e., small buttonmushrooms that have had some bright glaze brushed over them ; pieces of white chicken or turkey placed alternately with pieces of red tongue, each piece being cut into somo pattern with a cutter ; stamped pieces of vegetables, such as carrot, turnip, parsnip, artichoke, or even the root of a French artichoke ; fried parsley or fresh parsley ; whole trviffles or truffles cut in slices or patterns; cocks'-combs, plovers' eggs, small crayfish, prawns, stoned olives ; occasionally, even, small slices of gherkins or the skin of g, chilli. For instance, take the case of a filleted sole a la maitre d'hotel. Place the slices of rolled grilled sole on end in a silver dish, pour a thick white sauce over them, made by boiling the bones of the sole in a little mUk, thickening it with a little white

PRINCIPLES GARNISHING. Ixi

roux, and seasoning with a little salt and pepper. Pass this sauce through a tamis to render it smooth, and take care that it is nice and thick. Now place alternately on the top of each little I'oll of fish a small piece — say the size of the thumb-nail — of the brght-red skin of a chilli, and a slice of the bright outside of a green gherkin or the skin of a green chilli. What a wonderful alteration in the appearance of the dish ! Yet recollect the extra cost is next to nothing, and the whole cost of the dish less than a plain fried sole in egg and bread-crumbs with melted butter.

It is in garnishing cold dishes, however, that the greatest effect in appearance is generally produced. For instance, a ham plain boiled, and one glazed and ornamented with a border of what looks like butter, what a contrast ! Yet this border can be easily made with a little practice. We will describe how to make a ham look nice, and will first suppose the ham boHed sufficiently, and allowed to get cold in the water in which it was boiled, in order that the jelly, that gives a ham such a delicious flavovir, may get cold in the ham itself, instead of running out into the dish, as it would do had the ham been taken out of the liquor. Next we will suppose some nice bright glaze has been placed over the surface of the ham with a brush till it resembles in appearance a new mahogany dining-table. Next, how ai'e we to make the bright trellis-work to go round the ham. First, take some plain white lard and melt it, and, if it be winter time, add to it a little plain salad oil, in order to make the mixture thinner when cold. Now take an ordinai-y sheet of common notepaper, and roll it into the shape of a cone ; take the point of the cone between the thumb and finger of the right hand, and pour some of the melted lard, or mixed lard and oO, into the cone, and so hold the point that the lard will run out in a thin stream at the end at will ; i.e., so hold it that you can regulate the thickness of the stream or stop it altogether. It is now evident that you can wi-ite or even draw with this cone, as with a soft pen, making at will thick strokes or fine strokes. Of course to do it well a person must first be a good writer or drawer, and then have a considerable amovint of practice. A very little practice, however, will be sufficient to put a plain oi-namental border round a ham. My own experience is as follows. I practised on a clean, black, shiny tea-tray, as then the lard, which of course hardens as it falls, could be scraped up with a knife (an ivory paper knife is best), re-melted, and really used for the ham.

On the occasion of a birthday or Christmas-time, a suitable device, such as " Many happy returns of the day," or " A Merry Christmas," can be written in the centre of the ham, and a border placed round the edge. A paper frill tied on to the bone, and plenty of fresh parsley roimd the dish, will always ensure an inviting appearance.

One of the prettiest and most usefid garnishes for cold dishes is beetroot, especially for any white kind of dishes. Take, for instance, that exceedingly handsome dish when properly prepared — a salad mayonnaise. First prepare the sauce, taking care to make it sufficiently thick, so that it can be used to mask or cover an uneven surface. It will be found best, in making mayonnaise sauce, to commence by adding the oil cbop by drop on the yolk or yolks of eggs alone; do not put in the pepper and salt or vinegar till after it has got quite thick. Indeed, it will be generally found best in making an ornamental salad of any description to reserve the pepper and salt till the whole salad is mixed up together. Having, by beating the oil and egg well together, got the sauce as thick almost as butter in summer time, arrange the salad as follows : — First pile the lettuce-leaves into a pyramid shape, with the cut lobster inside, supposing the salad to be a lobster one : if you have a lettuce with a

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good round heart to it, reserve the heart, cutting the stalk flat, so as to make it stand upright. This heart, if you like, can be placed on the top as an ornament, as it is green, or can itself be masked over with mayonnaise sauce. Next cover the pyi-amid completely over with the mayonnaise sauce, and place the heart of the lettuce, also covered, we will suppose, on the top of the pyramid. Next arrange the small red legs of the lobster round the base of the pyramid as garnish. Next take some coarsely-chopped parsley, and place little specks of green alternately with little specks of lobster coral over the white pyramid, the distance between these bright-green and red spots being about half an inch. Place also a few bi-ight-green capere on the top and round the base of the pyramid. Inside the bend of the legs should be placed hard-boiled eggs cut in quai'ters, stoned olives, filleted and washed anchovies, and a few capers. Should you have a good-sized silver dish, place, if possible, a small red crayfish in each corner, with its small claws stretched out. There are few dishes that repay the trouble of ornamenting more than lobster salads, especially for occasions such as wedding breakfasts or suppers. When you have a lobster salad, the red beetroot garnish is unnecessary. But suppose the salad mayomiaise is a salmon mayomiaise, or a chicken or turbot mayonnaise, beetroot will here take the place of the red lobster legs and the red coral. Red strips of beetroot can be placed in a sort of ti'ellis-woi'k round the base of the salad, and small specks of red beetroot can be placed on the white sauce alternately with the specks of gi-een parsley.

One very pretty garnish for cold dishes is aspic jelly. Make some good aspic jelly according to the recipe given on page 36, and pour it when liquid into a large dish. Reserve a little of the jelly, and add to it a few drops of cochineal, wMch mil make the jelly a bright red ; pour tliis also into a similar-shaped dish, and allow the jelly to get cold. You can now cut tliis jelly into any shape you may wish — a diamond pattern is as good as any — as the jelly will settle on the dish, which should have been filled aboiit a quarter of an inch deep. You will consequently have alternate pieces of a bright pale yellow and bright red to place round any dish you may wish, such as cold chicken cutlets. Again, the trimmings of the jelly can be beaten up with two forks, and be piled up as a sort of glittering heap in the middle of any, dish.

Of course the simplest and most useful of all garnishes is plain green parsley, and you can generally tell by simply watching how a cook will send to table a common dish, like a cold roast fowl, whether she is possessed of any taste or not. A cold roast turkey glazed and sent to table tastefully decorated with parsley is always a handsome dish.

One very common form of handsome dishes is cold turkey or chicken, boned, (fee, dressed with forcemeat, but modelled the shape, say, of a boar's head or a swan. These dishes are made by means of copper moulds, tinned iiiside, and which ai'e rather expensive to buy. The meat is placed in the mould warm, and m ix ed with a strong stock, which being a jelly when cold causes all the meat to adhere together; some liquid strong stock can also be poured in after the mould has been shut together. On turning out, of course, the shape is perfect, so far as the mould itself is ; it may occasionally, however, require a little trimming. This moulded dish now requu-es glazing. Suppose, for instance, it is a boar's head. Get some very strong dark but bright glaze ; keep the glaze in a little basin, dissolved, placed in a larger basin into which some boiling water has been poured. In fact, heat the glaze just like what it so much resembles — ^glue. By means of two artificial eyes, and

PRINCIPLES SWEETS OMELETS. Ixiii

the kernels of two brazil nuts stuck in for tusks, the resemblance becomes veryperfect. Should the model be a swan, a real swan's head is generally placed on the top, and joined to the mould by means of a wire. If the mould be a pheasant, the head of the pheasant can be affixed, and wings with the feathers on placed each side, while the long tail-fea,thers are stuck in to represent the tail.

SWEETS.

We now come to consider the general principles of cooking to be observed in the preparation of that large class of dishes that come generally under the name of sweets, and will commence with that division of which eggs may be considered as the basis, such as rich light puddings, omelets, and souffles. Now, as the latter of these best illustrate the principles of cookery, we will commence with a short account of souffles in general. The chief point in regard to souffles is of course the lightness, and the lighter the souffle the better the cook. The whole secret of the lightness of a souffle is the amount of pains taken in beating the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth. By this means, when the beaten whites are added to the batter, the whole mass contains an almost infinite number of air bubbles, that expand with the heat, and cause the whole to rise. Consequently, the greatest expedition should be used in sending the souffle to table, for of coui'se as it cools these bubbles contract, and the souffle, which probably on leaving the oven was an inch or more above the souffle-pan, sinks to an inch below it on reaching the dining-room door. Souffles can be flavoured with cheese or even game. Small souffles made from the remains of woodcock or grouse are exceedingly nice, but great care should be taken in rubbing the flesh throiigh the wire sieve so as to ensure the meat being, so to speak, pulverised. Another great secret of having successful omelets is to have perfectly fresh eggs.

A great deal of what may be called second-class cakes are made from stale eggs, the bakers often buying stale eggs — or, as they more delicately call them, " spot eggs " — for the purpose. These eggs, when held up to the light, will be seen to have a black spot in them, showing that they are bad. However, bj breaking the e^g very carefully, and pouring off the best part and reserving the black spot, the egg can be used for making cakes. This black spot and a little of the egg adhering to it is of course thrown away, the smell of the black spot being exceedingly offensive, as it emits sulphuretted hydrogen gas.

In breaking eggs for any purpose, it should always be borne in mind that even with the greatest care bad eggs "will occasionally make their appearance ; even when eggs are taken fresh from the nest, sometimes an old egg, that may have been overlooked for months, will by accident get mixed with the new. Consequently, always break each egg separately, or you wUl run the risk of having one bad egg spoil the whole lot.

In making an ordinary omelet, of course the eggs are all beaten up together, yolks and whites, still, if you want a light omelet, the eggs shoiald be beaten up till they froth. _ In breaking the eggs, avoid what cooks call " watery eggs ; " what I mean is, the white of an egg, to make a good omelet, should be of the consistency of a jelly-fish, and not look thin and run away from the yolk.

Tlie butter in the omelet-pan on the fire should also be frothed before the eggs ai-e added, and the cook should stir quickly and scrape as fast as she can the whole of the bottom of the omelet-pan till the eggs and butter begin to set. The omelet-pan should then be withdrawn a little from the fire, the omelet shaped

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with the spoon ; and in the case of a savoury omelet, the omelet-pan should be tUted in front of an open fire, or have a good hot salamander held over it — this will have the effect of making the omelet rise, and consequently of being lighter, as well as slightly browning the surface. If gravy is served with a savoury omelet, pour it romid the omelet, and not over it. For a sweet omelet, always have some white powdered sugar to shake over the top.

It is a somewhat open question as to whether it is advisable to mix milk with the eggs in making omelets. As a rule, the French do not add milk, and it will generally be noticed that omelets abroad are more yellow and streaky than in England, where it is a very common custom to add about a couple of tablespoonfuls of milk to every three or four eggs used. When milk is used, the omelet takes a rather longer time to set than when the eggs are used by themselves.

The greatest difficulty cooks experience in making omelets is to avoid burning them. The fire should be tierce, but the omelet-pan should be withdrawn directly the omelet sets. The stirring process should also be kept up very briskly.

While on the subject of the management of eggs, we may next take that very common English dish — custard. Now, just as the principle of making good omelets was to get the eggs set without having them bui-nt, so may the secret of successful custard-making be said to consist in getting the eggs to thicken without getting set. The chief point in making custard, or any form of liquid whose consistency depends upon heated eggs, is to know when to stop short of the boiliag point.

In making custard, it will always be found most economical to use the yolks only. The whites of the eggs add nothing to the flavour or excellence of the custard, and yet are invaluable to the cook for a variety of purposes, from clearing soups to garnishing sweets — the latter being a point on which we shall touch on some future occasion.

The best method of making custard is to first flavour the milk, if bay-leaves are used, by boiling the bay-leaves in the milk previous to adding the yolks of eggs. When, however, the yolks of eggs are added, let the mixture, i.e., the milk, sugar, and yolks, be placed in a jug, and the jug placed in a saucepan of boiling water. The cold jug will, of course, take the water immediately off the boil. Keep stirring the jug till the custard begins to thicken ; when nearly sufficiently thick, take the jug out of the boiHng water and plunge it into some cold water, but still continue the stirring for some time. By this means all fear of curdling will be done away with. Should the custard be flavoured with that most delicious of essences — essence of vanilla — the vanilla should be added when the custard is getting nearly cold, by which means more of the flavour is retained. Should the custard be flavoured by vanilla in stick, it will be found best to tie up the vanilla in a small muslin bag, and boil this bag in the milk till the milk is sufficiently flavoured. This small bag of vanilla will do over and over again, though of course the bag must be left in for a longer period each time it is used, as it natui-ally will lose some of its virtue every time, and will consequently require to be left in the milk for a longer period to impart whatever of flavour is left in it. The flavour of the stick vanilla will be found to be far superior to the essence of vanilla sold in bottles ; indeed, the latter varies so much in quality that it is impossible to say how much should be added to any given quantity of custard.

A little niitmeg should always be grated over the surface of the custard before it is sent to table.

PRINCIPLES — COLOURING SWEETS. Ixv

In all departments of cooking probably that one comprised under the general name of " sweets " gives the greatest range wherein the real artist can exercise his skill. We will not now enter into the unpractical subject of describing how to build those magnificent but useless temples of barley sugar, &c., that figure at wedding breakfasts and gi-eat suppers, but will enter into the far more practical details of the general principles of making sweets look nice. As a rule, sweets are so ornamental . in themselves that they do not require what may be genei^ally called garnish. For instance, a jelly or a mould of blancmange is so pretty in itself that, provided it be bright, and put into either an equally bright mit glass dish or a silver one, it requires nothing beyond. Occasionally, indeed, little pieces of cut lemon may be placed round the edge of the dish ; but this is not necessary, unless the disli be rather too large for the mould, in which case the cut lemon will cause it to look less bare.

The great secret of making jellies bright is taking pains in the clearing. Patience and cleanliness are indispensable ; also bear in mind that jelly-bags should never be washed in soap and water. They should, after being used, be simply rinsed and re-rinsed in boiling water and wrung out.

One important point in making sweets look nice is to exercise some little taste in colouring. "We will suppose, for instance, that there are two moulds in the house : the top of one is in the very common shape of a bunch of grapes, and the other the almost equally common shape of a cucumber. Now it is at once obvious that the cucumber should be coloui-ed gi'een and the grapes red. Suppose, therefore, two moulds are being made of, say, blancmange. The green cucumber and the red grapes on the white base will form two very pretty dishes. Unless, however, the tops are done carefully, the dish will present a very poor apjjearance — indeed, in all ornamenting, unless the decollation be done neatly, it had far better not be done at all. Slovenly ornament in dishes corresjDonds to dirty finery in ordinaiy dress.

We w^ill suppose, therefore, the blancmange ready made and in a liquid state ready to be poured into the moulds. First pour just sufiicient water into each mould to fill up the shape of the bunch of grapes and the cucumber. Pour this back again into two glasses — claret glasses are best — and notice the exact quantity required for eacli. Then fill the glass with the warm blancmange to exactly the same spot. Pour in the colouring matter, which will of course be cochineal for the grapes and spinach-juice for the cucumber. As only a few drops of cochineal are required, it will not matter adding such a small quantity, but whenever colouring matter is used in which more than a few drops are required allowance should be made, or too much will be poured into the shape. When the exact quantity is coloured, pour it into the shape, and let it set quite firm before any more is poured into the mould. If possible, set the mould in some chopped ice, which will cause such a small quantity to set almost immediately. When the shape is quite set, add the remainder of the blancmange — only be cai-eful how you fill the mould. If, for instance, you simply pour the blancmange in, especially if it is lukewarm, the fresh quantity Avill partially re-dissolve what has been set in the shape, and the white and red or white and green, as the case may be, will run into one another, and the effect will be quite spoilt. The best method of filling up the moulds is first to wait till the blancmange is nearly cold — of coui-se avoiding waiting too long, as it would then set in the basin. Then take a spoon, and pour the first part into the mould a spoonful at a time ; this will settle gently down over the coloured part, but will not mix. After the mould has been filled by this means, say an inch deep, the whole may be gently poured in, taking care to pour very slowly, and to keeji the vessel from which the blancmange is poui-ed as

Ixvi cassell's dictionary of cookery.

close as possible to the mould, for if it be poured in a manner corresponding to frothing beer up in a glass it will probably break the coloui-ed shape.

There is a great art in turning out jellies from moulds. Of course, a very stiff jelly is easily turned out, but then stiff jelly is never good. The best moulds for jellies are copper ones tinned inside. The mould, after being taken out of the ice, should be placed for a few seconds in lukewarm water ; the dish into which the jelly is going to be turned should be placed upside down, so that the bottom of the mould comes exactly in the centre of the dish ; the two should be quickly turned over together, and very often the jelly will at once slip of its own accord. When the mould is first raised it should be only lifted an eighth of an inch ; should the jelly have slipped all round, the mould can be slowly raised ; should, however, the jelly have slipped only on one side, instantly put the mould close on to the dish again. One very good way of causing the jelly to slip is to take the dish and mould in both hands, keeping the mould firmly touching the dish, and raise the hands high in the air, the mould being' upright. Then suddenly bring the dish downwards with a jerk, and stojD dead short when the hands are lowered. The jelly itself, having of course acquired a momentum downwards, will have a tendency to go lower, and Aviil often by this means slip from the mould into the plate. Indeed, turning out jellies requires a certain amount of pluck : a nervous cook is far more apt to fail than a strong-minded one. Some persons think that shaking and patting the mould assists ; very often, howevei-, this jiatting resu.lts in breaking. "When earthenware moulds are used it is no use jjlunging them into warm water. Earthenware conveys heat so slowly that the result would be either to convey so little heat that no effect at all is produced, or so much that all the outside of the mould Avill run. In turning anything out of an earthenware mould the only way is to jerk it out as we have described. If the substance inside the mould is firmly set, it will be advisable to see how far it can be eased round the edge by pulling gently with the tips of the fingers. The substance is elastic, and will adhere together, and can be pulled fi'om the edge of the mould all round, after which it will of course turn out easily.

When copper moulds are used for jellies the greatest care should be taken in dipping them into lukewarm water, first, that the water be not too warm, secondly, that the mould does not remain in too long. Of course the effect is to very slightly dissolve the outside rim — only the rim — so that the jeily will have a less tendency to adhere to the mould.

One very useful form of ornamenting sweets is whipped cream or whipped white of egg. Of course whipped cream is in itself a very nice sweet ; whipped white of egg can, however, be used as a cheap substitute. Take, for instance, that most delicious supper dish — a trifle. Good trifle is made by soaking ratafias and macaroons in various kinds of liqueurs, though for ordinary purposes sherry and brandy are used instead. The whip for the trifle is generally best made some time before it is wanted, as by keeping a few hours it gets firmer instead of softer. The firmest whip is made by mixing the whites of eggs beaten up into a stiff froth with say a pint of fresh cream to two whites, three ounces of powdered and sifted white sugar, and about a wine-glassful of some rich sheriy — the sweeter the better. The whole should be beaten up into a stiff froth, the froth of course being skimmed off the top when sufficient rises, and should be placed gently into a sieve placed on a dish. A little cream, &c., will be found to drop from the froth, and this can be poured back into the basin, the beating or whisking process being continued till all is frothed up. This froth can be made the day before it is wanted, and will be foimd an exceedingly

PRIXCIPLES ICING SWEETS. Ixvii

useful garnish for all sorts of dishes besides the trifle, as it is always eaSy to make more than is quite necessary for this elegant centre dish.

For instance, take that nice but somewhat inelegant dish — stewed Normandy pippins. Let the pippins be placed in a glass dish surrounded by their juice, which can be coloured red by a little cochineal. Then take about a tea-spoonful of the whip we have mentioned, and pile it up on the top of each pippin, and take a very few of those tiny little sweetmeats called hundreds and thousands, and sprinkle them over the whip lightly so that they stick to it, and observe what a wonderful change will take place in the appearance of the dish. The hundreds and thousands should not be added till the last moment, as they get dissolved in the whip.

One very useful method of ornamenting dishes and particular cakes is what is known as icing. "We all know how very handsome, and at the same time how exceedingly rich, indigestible, and expensive, a wedding cake is. "We will, however, take the simple case of a child's birthday, and, naturally, a cake at tea is one of the features of the day's festivities. What parents should endeavour to do is as much as possible to please their children, but never at the expense of their health. Now a simple, plain cake can be bought, or made at home ; but what a difference if this simple, wholesome cake is "iced over! and, after all, what is icing] Nothing but sugar and white of eggs ; and sugar being rather good for children in moderation than otherwise, when the icing for the cake is home-made, and consequently unadulterated, there can be no harm in the children eating it.

Icing for cakes can also be made into ornamental buttons, white and pink, by baking the icing on a sheet of paper, the pink buttons of course being coloured with cochineal. Icing is easily made as follows : — Take, say for a good large quantity, six whites of eggs, and j)lace them in a large basin, and have ready about a pound and a half of very finely powdered and sifted white sugar. Mix these well together -with a large wooden spoon, adding the sugar gradually, occasionally squeezing in a little of the juice of a fresh and rather green or acid lemon. This must be worked together with the spoon, and sufficient sugar added till the whole mass becomes a thick, but at the same time liquid,. and somewhat shiny substance. Of course the purity of the white is of great importance, and, consequently, cai-^ should be taken in the selection of the sugar, which should be the whitest that can be obtained. This icing can be now spread over any cake, and one of the best spreaders will be found to be an ordinary broad ivoiy paper knife. Place a large sheet of white paper over the cake to keep ofi" the dust, and place it in a warm place to dry; then ornament the top with any wholesome sweets you may think fit, such as candied fruits of various kinds, or dried cherries. Really, icing a cake is so simple and so cheap, and gives children so much delight, that it is to be regretted it is not more generally resorted to on festive occasions.

One great advantage of the icing is that you can pass off a plain and consequently a w^holesome cake for a very grand one ; by this means the children can have a good thick slice, and come two or three times, without being made bilious the following day. Oranges filled with jelly {see page 482) can be cut up to ornament the top of a plain cake for children.

Fruit pies and puddings require but little comment. One word of warning, however, against that too common fault of mixing fruits indiscriminately. Of course some fruits are improved by mixing ; for instance, I consider currant and raspberry tart to be the very king of tarts, but some persons are disposed to mix apples and plums, apples and black curi'ants, &c. As a rule, fruit pies are best when they only contain one fruit.

Ixviii cassell's dictionary of cookery.

The best sauce for puddings is German custard, which is made by putting sayfour yolks of eggs into a small stewpan, and adding to them a couple of ounces of pounded sugar, some of which before being pounded has been rubbed on a little lemon-peel. Add a glass of golden sherry, and beat this up over a very slow fire till it gets warm and frothy, but do not let it get too hot, as should it boil it would be utterly spoilt.

In making sweet sauce for puddings some sherry and sugar should be added to melted butter made with milk, but instead of adding brandy, as is usually recommended, try an equal quantity of mm instead. Indeed, a couple of table-spoonfuls of rum with a little sugar and melted butter makes an admirable sauce of itself.

CHEESE.

With regard to cheese, little need be said : to enter into the general principles of TnaTcing cheeses would be far from our province. With regard to choosing cheeses, some of the best to be obtained now at reasonable prices are those that come from Canada. Some are, indeed, so similar to our own Cheddar and Cheshire that few can tell the difference. In choosing a Stilton, always select one that combines moisture with blue mould. This is by far the best cheese of the country. What is the secret of its composition that makes it so far superior to other cheeses I cannot say. However, be on your guard against a worthless imitation which resembles it in shape only. Persons attempt to sell this cheese as a sort of Stilton. Its outside is smoother than genuine Stilton, and its inside inferior in flavour to Dutch and common American,

The best of foreign cheeses are Brie and Camenbert ; they are, however, not very easily bought, except in that most luxurious of neighbourhoods in London — Soho. Pai-mesan cheese is thought by many an improvement to soups, and in Italy is almost invariably handed round with every soup served.

BREAKFAST AND LUNCHEON.

We will now run lightly through the ordinary daily duties of a cook, finishing up with that greatest of events in the every-day life of -each Englishman — his dinner. Of course the cook must consider herself responsible for the larder and its contents, and should consequently be careful not to allow bloaters, haddocks, lobsters, crabs, &c., or any strong-smelling thing of a similar description, to remain among the cold meat, butter, &c. Again, care should be taken to keep the larder scrupulously clean, and the shelves, especially if of wood, should from time to time be scrubbed. Let me here also warn servants generally against that too common practice of putting meat on the wooden shelf instead of on a dish or slab. For instance, the butcher sends perhaps a couple of pounds of gravy beef, and a careless cook, in hot weather, places this piece of raw meat on a wooden shelf, the result being that the blood adheres to the shelf, and becomes a fruitful cause of contaminating the whole larder.

The first meal of the day is of course breakfest. I believe a substantial breakfast to be most conducive to good health, yet too often we find this meal the most neglected of the day. A good breakfast and a light lunch are far better than a light breakfast and a heavy lunch. The cook should always send up to breakfast any cold joint of meat that is in the house ; the cold joint being placed on a good-sized clean dish, all wafers of fat that have settled from the gi'avy being first removed, and the whole joint nicely ornamented with fresh parsley. The parsley that has decorated a cold joint will always do to use for cooking purposes, so there is no need to ornament the joint with a stingy hand. One of the most common of breakfast dishes is fried

PRINCIPLES BREAKFAST DISHES. Ixix

bacon. Here, again, let the cook be careful to have the dish thoroughly hot, or else the fat from the bacon will settle and get cold in the dish, and make it look far from tempting. Fried bacon is a very good test of a cook for one reason, viz., it tests that elementary principle of cooking — cleanliness. Next time you have a dish of hot fried bacon, observe the fat, and see if it is streaked with black, if so, it shows the cook does not properly clean her frying-pans, and no good cooking can ever proceed from dii-ty cooking utensils.

Bloaters should always be split open like a haddock, and cooked on a gridiron kept for the purpose. The gridiron should be rubbed with a piece of mutton fat to prevent the bloater from sticking. After the bloater is cooked, rub a little piece of butter over the inside, which makes it look rich and moist, and improves the flavoui". One great advantage of cooking bloaters this way is, you avoid that di-eadful gush of offensive steam that issues forth on opening them when they are cooked whole without first being opened. Indeed, the great drawback to bloaters is the unpleasant odour.

In poacliing eggs, it will be found that they assume a white appearance when a little drop of vinegar is mixed with the boiling water in which they are poached. Great care should be taken, however, to drain off the water from the flat strainer used for taking out the eggs, as they will otherwise taste acid.

In frying eggs, be sure to trim them so as to have the yolk in the centre, surrounded by a neat rim of white. Too much fat in the frying-pan is conducive to increasing the lai-ge bubbles, and to sometimes even breaking the yolks of the eggs. Take care also that the fire is not too fierce, as then the under surface of the egg will get burnt and taste disagreeable.

Sausages are always best home-made, for the best of reasons, viz., that you then, and only then, know what is in them. Every house should have a small sausage machine, which, in addition to making simply sausages, will make rissoles, forcemeats of all kinds, as well as croquettes. Indeed, a small hand saiisage machine repays itself quicker than almost any other kind of kitchen utensil. Sausages are best served up on toast, then the fat that runs from them can be poured over them and soaked up and eaten, and not emptied to help to swell that household disgrace — the cook's grease-box.

Kidneys should be cooked so as that they retain the red gravy : they are nicest done on the gi-idiron. After they are taken off, a little piece of butter should be placed in the inside of each, and a tiny pinch of chepped parsley dropped on the butter.

In many houses it will be found that the staple breakfast dish is cold bacon and boiled eggs. Now, although new-laid eggs are very nice boiled, yet they are often difficult to get, and when bought are, especially in the neighbourhoods of large towns, very expensive. Shop eggs are only eaten boiled by persons whose palates are, to say the least, not veiy keen. Why not, however, make the eggs you boil and the butter you spread on your bread into a savoury omelet 1 Take say three eggs, two ounces of butter, a little pepper and salt, a tea-spoonful of chopped parsley, and a piece of onion or shallot the size of the top of the first finger, and chop that finely with the parsley, and you have a far more palatable method of serving the eggs. The omelet, being eaten with plain bread, becomes quite as economical, and far nicer.

Luncheon is generally a make-up meal, at which it is lawful to serve up half fowls and cut tarts, and is so comprised in the details of that greater meal, dinner, that in simply observing that what is left from dinner can generally be utilised at lunch, we

Ixx cassell's dictionary of cookery.

will at once proceed to discuss that gi-eat event of tlie day, and will run briefly through the general principles to be observed in serving a dinner for say ten or more persons.

DINNEE.

We will first have a few words to say on that somewhat neglected English accompaniment, '"• appetisers." First appearances go a great way, and the cook shoiild exercise all her art and taste in presenting that delicate organ, the stomach, with a hon bouche to induce it to throw out its gastric juice with no sparing hand, in order to dissolve and digest all the glories that are to follow. Perhaps the very best commencement to a good dinner is half a dozen native oysters — small, round, white, plump, and fat, and resting on a little shell black almost on the outside, but like mother-of-pearl when the delicious little fish has been swallowed. Brown bread and butter is often served with oysters ; but when eaten as an appetiser at the commencement of dinner they should be eaten cpiite alone — no pepper, no vinegar, &c. Little natives are excellent appetisers : the large coarse oysters, though admirably adapted for stewing and for a variety of cooking purposes, have rather a contrary effect.

In France it is customary to have little dishes of what we term appetisers placed in front of each person. I will mention a few of the best : — Olives, sardines, pieces of Dutch herrings, filleted anchovies, capers, and small radishes.

There is one little appetiser, so pretty and yet so efiective, and so admirably adapted to commence a dinner, that I will describe it. First cut out some small round pieces of stale bread the size of small draughtsmen, and fry them of a nice golden-brown colour in some lard, and allow them to get cold. Next stone some olives neatly, and fillet and carefully wash some anchovies. Roll uj) the filleted anchovies into a little ball, and fill the stoned olives with them. Next place a little drojj of mayomiaise sauce about the size of the top of the little finger in the centre of each round of fried bread, and place the stoned olive filled with the filleted anchovy on it on end ; the mayonnaise sauce, if made properly, viz., as thick as butter, assisting to keep the olive upright. Then place on the top of the olive another little piece (very small) of mayonnaise saiice. The whole should be eaten at one mouthful. The mingled flavour of the anchovy and olive, moistened as it is with the mayonnaise sauce, is exceedingly delicious, the crisp fried bread assisting to bring out the fl.ivour.

These pretty little appetisers may be handed round, and a little highly-flavoui'ed aspic jelly may be jilaced by way of garnish on the dish with them.

"We next come to the soup, which we presume the cook to have prepared the day before it is wanted. As a rule, it will always be found best to have clear soup, i.e., if only one soup is supplied. A thick soup at the commencement of dinner is too heavy, and is apt to spoil the appetite for what is to follow. For instance, thick mock-turtle or thick ox-tail soup are admirable for lunch, but at dinner are far better clear than thick. Should there be two soups, of course one should be clear and the other thick, but, as a rule, even then the thick soup should be in the form of a white soup or a bisque, rather than a thick soup that owes its thickness to brown roux. Clear turtle is far superior to thick, both in flavour and in the fact that it does not take away the appetite so readily.

Next follows the fish. If only one is served at dinner, i-egard should be had to what goes before and what follows after. For instance, a rich soup had better be followed by a plain fish. Indeed, the great principle to be constantly borne in

PRINCIPLES SERVING DINNER.

mind in ordering a dinner is to avoid a succession of ricli things, and also to avoid a repetition of the same flavour. For instance, it is obvious to any one how exceedingly disagreeable three dishes limning would be as follows : — Bisque of lobster for soup, turbot and lobster sauce for fish, and lobster patties for an entree. Still, it will often be found that cod-fish and oyster sauce are immediately followed by oyster l atties. Some repetition of flavour during a dinnei-, is, however, unavoidable. Suppose, then, in a dmner where there are four entrees, you have lobster sauce with the fish, the same lobster that made the sauce, will in addition make a very nice dish of lobster cutlets. Warn, however, the servants in handing the entrees to hand round the lobster cutlets last of all, so that there is a choice of three difierent dishes between the lobster sauce and the lobster cutlets.

Too often in small houses, where the extent of kitchen range and kitchen utensils are necessarily limited, when delay or confusion arises in a dinner, it is owing to a want of forethought in those who order the dinner. The dinner should so be ordered that at any rate a certain number of the dishes can be prepared and finished beforehand. Again — and such cases are very numerous — where, perhaps, there is only one servant to wait, regard should be had to the dishes ordered. For instance, contrast the trouble to both cook and waiter given by the two fishes — boiled salmon and stewed eels. The stewed eels can be prepared and finished early in the day, and simply requii-e putting into a hot dish. In serving the stewed eels, the waiter lias merely to go once to each person. With regard to salmon, it must be of course boiled at the last moment; it also requu'es some fish sauce, as well as cucumber. In addition, therefore, to taking the fish to each person, there is the sauce to be handed, as well as the cucumber, and, probably, in addition to the last sauce, many will ask for some anchovy sauce, or cayenne pepper, &c. : the one waiter will get muddled, and forget to take round the wine.

I do not mean that this is necessarily the case; but when persons give little dinners, and know that their servants are not altogether first-class, a little forethought in ordering will often save an infinity of trouble. It is, indeed, quite possible to order a dinner, and a small one too, that implies so many saucepans in use at once that the establishment is not equal to the task, nor the fireplace large enough to hold the saucepans, even were they in sufficient quantity. Avoid, also, in ordering dinner, to have too many entrees or other dishes that can only be done the last moment. For instance, fried oysters, kromeskies, mutton-cutlets, and a savoury omelet, would be a sore trial to a cook were they ordered as four entrees together. The probable result would be that the kromeskies and fried oysters would be cooked before and warmed up in the oven, the result being that the outsides of the kromeskies would be heavy and the oysters tough. The cutlets would also be cooked and kept warm for a time. Now of all dishes there is probably none so dependent on immediate serving as cutlets. Warmed-up cutlets are never fit to eat. Indeed, the cook should never begin to cook cutlets till three or four minutes before they are wanted. They should be red and juicy inside, or they are not worth eating. A nice mutton cutlet, i.e., as I have said, red inside, and not blue and black out, is a certain sign that the cook is good.

No dinner can be properly served unless there is a perfectly good understanding between the cook and those waiting at table. It will be found very desirable for the cook to arrange beforehand some signal with those up-stairs, in. order that she may know when to commence getting ready any particular dish.

Ixxii cassell's dictionary of cookery.

It is so easy for those waiting to touch the dining-room bell in order to warn the cook. Too often the cook, from over-anxiety, will become fidgety, and get everything ready too soon, the i-esvilt being a series of over-cooked dishes, either half cold or having that warmed-up taste which so often spoils them. It is far better at dinner to have occasional pauses, than to have a series of spoilt dishes. Indeed, a little management on the part of the host or hostess will very oftell smooth over these awful pauses in the middle of dinner. A little intentional delay over eating what was last handed and a brisk conversation are great helps. The wine can also always be taken round while waiting for the cook to send up the next dish. In fact, after persons have had some soup or fish and an entree, a pause is rather agreeable than otherwise, unless it is accompanied by a dead silence, which makes everybody uncomfortable.

Probably the most constant failui'e at dinner-pai'ties — I use the expression in distinction to every-day dinners — is the ^j?ece de resistance. Cooks will hurry with the joint. How often will it be seen that the joint is placed on the table immediately the fish is removed, and there kept till all the entrees are handed round and eaten and the plates removed. In addition to this, probably the cook took the joint off the spit or out of the oven long before it was even sent to table. Indeed, I have known cooks take down the joint because they say they want to get at the fii-e. The consequence is that when the cover is removed no steam rises, the meat is warm, but not hot, and alas ! alas ! the gravy in the well of the dish is caked over with an icy sheet of fat. In fact, the joint is not worth eating. What should happen is, that after the last entree has been eaten, and a hot plate put round to each person, the joint should arrive. Never mind waiting even two or three minutes, but when the cover is lifted, the rush of steam— for we presume a hot and a really hot cover — will more than make amends for the slight delay. A nice hot haunch or leg of mutton with the gravy in it red and that outside steaming is one of the nicest dishes sent to table. On the other hand, lukewarm, flabby mutton and cold gravy are absolutely disagreeable. Nothing spoils a dinner more than feeling the roof of the mouth has got, so to speak, encrusted in mutton fat.

Now, sending a joint up to table as we have said, hot arid at the right moment, requires management and forethought, and very often the cook does not possess either of these requirements, and the mistress of the house, when she finds the cook wanting in these respects, should take the responsibility on herself.

Indeed, sometimes it is necessary to give positive orders with regard to the joint being taken down. The cook may be fussing down-stairs in the firm belief that she will be all behindhand, and that the people above will be kept waiting. But let her fuss, but obey her orders, and not take the joint off the spit till she hears the bell ring. After one or two successful results, the cook will herself see how feasible it is to wait, and she may be rewarded afterwards, pei-haps, by hearing from the neighbours' servants that their master or mistress has said they like dining at Mr. 's — the dinner always comes up so nice and hot.

We have befoi-e called attention to the fact that in nearly all private houses at dinner-parties the game is invariably over-cooked. What cooks should do, is to endeavour to learn by experience. For instance, let every cook, when she sends up the soup, look at the kitchen clock — suppose the dinner is for ten persons, and that it consists of soup, fish, four entries, two joints, and game. Let her then again look at the kitchen clock when the game is asked for, and act accordingly another

PRINCIPLES SERVING DINNER. b

time. It is quite impossible to lay down any exact rule for the length, of a dinner, ฆwliicli indeed varies, some houses being always — I don't know why — quicker than others. Perhaps the difference is dependent on the host's conversational powers.

The success of dinner very much depends upon the forethought of those who wait. First, let the cloth be laid a good hour before dinner, and let the waiter remember this one great principle of success — Let everything be in the room that is possible beforehand. No dinner can be successful when the waiter or waitress has fii'st to run down-staii'S to get some more bread, then to disappear again for the red-currant jelly to hand with the mutton, or the mustard with the beef, and so on through dinner. It is so easy to look ahead. Again, it is shocking bad management to have to open fresh sherry in the middle of dinner. If champagne be served, either have enough or don't give any. I consider one bottle of champagne sent round for eight or ten persons far worse than giving none at all. Have also the wires of the champagne bottles taken off beforehand : it saves time.

It also saves time to put a good-sized piece of bread to each person at starting. It is quite ridiculous to see what small pieces of bread, or what tiny little rolls, are put round at some houses. Some persons' dinners are quite spoilt for want of bread, and bread is one of those things that even good waiters are very apt to forget to hand of their own accord. It is not pleasant at dinner, unless you are very intimate with the people, to have to ask for things. Let each person remember in how many instances their dinner has been spoilt by the want of bread, and at any rate i-esolve that in theii- own houses they will take precautions not to spoil the dinners of their guests. It is a good plan to tell the waiter to hand round some bread eai'ly in the dinner, and have it cut up, some large pieces, and some small. Some persons are what may be termed greedy bread-eaters, and by this means you give them a chance to help themselves. It is exceedingly annoying to have a nice piece of partridge or woodcock getting cold on one's plate, and to see it and smell it while waiting for bread, '

It will always, too, be advisable to have the bread so kept that it is what may be called a happy medium between being too new and too dry. New bread should never be eaten with meat, as it is exceedingly indigestible. The meat in. sandwiches which is cut from new bread is apt to tui-n bad very quickly, and it will be found that new bread eaten at dimier has the unamiable tendency of causing the dinner to disagree.

One very important point essential to the good order of a dinner is that the cook or head-waiter should calculate beforehand the probable number of plates, knives, and forks that will be required, and to be jjrepared, so that the supply of either does not fail. We will take the ordinary and simple case of a dinner-party of twelve persons, the dinner consisting of soup and fish, four entrees, two joints — say roast beef and boiled fowl — game, and sweets — the latter being pie and pudding — and four side dishes.

Now there are probably very few establishments that would be capable of going through a dinner of this description without washing up some things during the time dinner is proceeding. First, there will be required twelve soup plates and twelve dessert-spoons. Now, unless the plate chest is of an unusual magnitude, these same dessert-spoons will probably be again requii'ed for the sweets, as should these latter be at all of good quality a relay of spoons may very possibly be required for them. But it is the large forks that will be found to require the greatest care. For instance, supposing in the dinner we have mentioned that each person

Ixxiv cassell's dictionary of cookery.

takes fish, two entrees, a slice off one of the joints, and some game — a fail- average, we believe, of what ordinary healthy people would eat. This means sixty large silver forks, and probably the establishment only boasts twenty-four. What is universally done, even at large public dinners, is for the forks to be quickly washed immediately they are taken out of the room. For this purpose ther-e should be two good-sized jugs just outside the dining-room door, one containing hot soda and water, and the other plain cold water ; also there should be handy a couple of cloths. As the forks are cleared away, let them be fii'st wiped on a dishcloth, then plunged into the hot soda and water, and shaken backwards and forwards for a few seconds, and then i^hinged into the cold water and again rinsed, and then dried on a clean cloth. A dozen forks can by this means be washed under a minute.

Now exactly the same principle applies to the plates as to the forks, only these latter of course must be washed up down-stairs. In the dinner in question, sixty large plates woidd be as requisite as the sixty large forks. Should there be therefore two persons waiting at table, another person acting as a messenger between the dining-room and kitchen and the cook down-stau-s ; if each and every one of these persons understands his and her duty, there should be no delay, no confusion, and above all no talking or whispering on the part of those waiting. The cook downstairs should have ready at the commencement of dinner two lai*ge tubs, one full ot hot water with plenty of soda in it, the other full of plain hot water. The plates should be treated just like the forks, fii-st scraped or wiped — the former is the best, and there are indiarubber combs sold for the purpose — next plunged into the hot soda and water, and again wiped with a dishcloth ; then rinsed for a few seconds in the hot water without soda, and then allowed to drain on the rack, or they may be quickly wiped. In washing up in the ordinary method, it is customary to wash the plates in hot soda and water first, and then rinse them in cold water. In washing up, however, during dinner, recollect it is necessary that the plates should be hot. Consequently, by rinsing the plates in hot water to get rid of the soda and water the temperature of the plate is maintained, though, of course, if there was sufficient time it would be advisable to place the plates on the plate- warmer.

WASHING UP. I would, however, here give a few words of advice to cooks about this very subject of washing up, which is highly important. Now you all know how very quickly a dozen plates are washed up, supposing they are wanted immediately for the dinner that is going on. Probably the dozen dirty fish plates and the two dozen plates iised for the entrees are qiiickly washed. Yet how is it that you will not persevere and wash up all the tilings as they come down-stairs, down to the cheese plates, instead of as a rule only going on washing as long as you know the things are wanted immediately % Half an hour's more perseverance at the time would probably save you two hours' work later on. Yet it is your custom to give up washing as soon as you know they have -got enough to finish with up-stairs ; and consequently, after dinner is over, the wash-house or back kitchen, as the case may be, jjresents the appearance of stacks of dii'ty plates getting cold, the grease hardening and settling on them, while heaps of dirty forks and spoons are lying by the side. The amount of trouble that would be saved by washing all these up at once is something wonderful. Recollect that the time- taken to wash up two dozen plates is not double the time taken to wash one dozen. What occupies the time pi'incipally is getting the things ready — the hot water, the. tubs, &c.

PRINCIPLES WASHING UP. Ixxv

Another point for the cook to bear in mind is that joints on being removed from the table sboukl never be allowed to get cold or to be put away in the dish in v hich they were sent to table containing the gravy. Let the joint be placed on a cold clean dish, and let the gi'avy be poured off through a small strainer, in order to get rid of the fat on it, into a small basin, and be put by : this gravy being useful for a variety of purposes, either to act as gravy again, or it can be added to the stock ; or should there be very young children in the family it can be made into a dish of bread and gi'avy for the early dinner.

Another point of warning to cooks in reference to their usual method of pouring away the dirty water in which things have been washed. They empty the large tubs into the sink, causing the sink to be some inches deep in water, and which requires time to run down. However, impatience is natural to all of us, and too often, to save time, as they imagine, cooks will pull up the strainer in the sink bodily, upon which the water goes down fast enough, finishing with a grunt of satisfaction. But, alas ! in addition to running a considerable risk of blocking up the pipes, this is the fruitful cause of losses of all descrij^tions in the shape of forks, spoons, &c., that get overlooked in the sink, and that get sucked down with the water. A case once came under my immediate notice, in which the pipe leading from the sink to the dram was blocked up, the cause being that no less than five steel knives were found wedged in the pipe near the bend, all of which had necessarily got down, owing to the foolish habit of lifting the strainer. Again, these strainers are used as traps, in order to prevent unpleasant odours rising in the house. A strainer once lifted is very apt to be forgotten, and the sink is thus often put into open communication with the drain ; the sewer gas rises in the house, spreading the deadly seeds of fever.

The same remarks that applied to the washing of plates and spoons and forks apply equally to the washing of glass. Glass should always be washed in plain cold water. Now it is evident that a tumbler, say that has contained stout, or a wineglass that has contained port Avine, will be easily washed when moist, but that if the stout or port be allowed to get diy in the glass that some time will have to be expended in cleaning it. Directly glasses are brought down-stairs they should be rinsed in cold water and turned upside down to get dry by themselves. Wet glasses take a long time to dry, and when dried generally present a fluffy appearance, that necessitates theii* being re-wiped. Let, therefore, the glasses dry themselves, and when dry let them be polished with a good large soft leather ; and, whatever you do, do not use the glass leather for any other purpose save that of polishing the glass.

Again, glasses when dried with a cloth are very apt to break, especially those that have very thin stems, as the cloth sticks to the glass, and in twisting it is apt to crack. When, therefore, a leather is used care should be taken that it is perfectly dry, as a damp leather is as liable to break glass as a damp cloth is.

When dinner is brought to a close, those waiting should bear in mind that their first thought shovild be the table. It will sometimes be found that in clearing away this is ovei-looked, and that the waiters begin what may be termed clearmg the poom before they finish clearing the table. The one thought should be, not to keep people waiting one instant longer than is absolutely necessary. Consequently, it is more important to put the wine glasses, wine, &c., on the table than it is to get rid of some of the things that may have been left from the dinner in the room. Where there are two persons waiting it will be found a gi-eat saving of time if one carries a large tray in both hands whilst the other removes the things quickly and quietly from the table and places them on it.

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CASSELLS DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

There is one point in connection with dinner that should never be forgotten, and tliat is the importance of having a menu. When the dishes are not placed on the table a menu is absolutely essential ; and even when the dishes are placed on the table it is always desirable to know — first, what the dishes are ; secondly, what is going to follow. In many private houses a menu is omitted because the host and hostess think that having one has the apjiearance of ostentation. This is, however, a very mistaken notion. How often do persons pass by perhaps their favourite dish simply because they have taken something before, not knowing it was coming. Again, how often would some small eaters decide on say a second piece of mutton or not according to whether game would follow !

There is a story told of some great gourmand, who was taken in by a friend in the following manner : — A leg of mutton was placed on the table, and the gourmand was informed that he saw his dinner before him, and, as was his wont, he accordingly ate freely, while his so-called friend scarcely touched a mouthful. What the gourmand's feelings were when a tine splendid haunch of venison followed the mutton can better be imagined than described. He is reported, however, to have said, " It was a ci-uel thing not to have told me." Whether such a piece of exquisitely bad taste was ever perpetrated or not we don't know, but the story serves to illustrate our point about the menu, as without one recollect, to a lesser extent, the guests are treated like the unfortunate gourmand. Little decorated sheets of paper are now sold for the purpose, and form an additional ornament to the dinner-table.

When all the plates and glasses are cleared oflf the table, it is customary for all the crumbs likewise to be removed; for this, however, avoid using those useless things called crumb-brushes, which are the means too often of sending nearly as many crumbs on to the floor as on to the tray— as when the brush is used quickly the bristles bend and cause the ci-umbs to fly over the edge. There is a small silver shovel now used for the purpose, which is far better, and when one of these is not at hand, an ordinary table-napkin will answer very well.

COFFEE.

Before coming to that most important subject, wine, let us have a few words to say about cofiee. Cofiee, we all know, grows in tropical climates, and not in France, yet how is it that in that country we almost invariably get a good cheap cup of cofiee, and yet in this country we rarely do 1 On the other hand, it seems equally strange that the French have not the power to make an ordinary cup of tea. Sxich at least is my experience of the greater part of France. I believe the two chief causes of the usual superiority of French cofiee over English is that the former always have their cofiee fresh roasted as well as fresh gi'ound ; secondly, that they use a good deal more cofiee than we do. The too common custom in England is to buy the cofiee ready ground from a grocer's. This when kept in a tin will make very fair good cofiee, but after a time it loses its aroma.

' To get cofiee absolutely fresh roasted is not so easy a matter in this country, but it will always be found an improvement to put the berries for a short time into the oven before grinding them.

There is such an infinite variety of machines for making cofiee that we cannot possibly enumerate them all. The best method I know of is the ordinary percolator. The cofiee-pot must of course be first made thoroughly hot, and the strainer carefully cleansed from what has been in before. The cofiee is then placed in the top receptacle.

PRINCIPLES COFFEE WINE. Ixxvii

and pressed down, and the boiling water poured on the top. It should then be allowed to trickle slowly through — of course the longer the water is in contact with the coffee the better it wUl be.

When coffee is not quite bright it will often settle bright when allowed to stand for some time. Indeed, the old-fashioned plan of putting the coffee into a coffee-pot and boiling it over the fii'e is b}^ no means a bad method, only the coffee must be allowed a long time to settle. At any rate, this method has the advantage of getting all the goodness out of the coffee. The Mocha coffee is the best, the aroma being superior to any other kind. Coffee, too, should be coarsely ground. Indeed, some persons maintain that it is best pounded in a mortar very coarsely, and not grovind at all. Much less wine is drunk after dinner now than formerly, and good strong black coffee should be served up very soon after dinner is finished. Boiling milk should always accompany coffee.

WINE.

We now come to another subject in reference to dinner, and that is the wine. It is not, however, on the manufacture of wines that I shall treat, but on the selection of wine. It is, of course, of the utmost importance that diu-ing dinner the fluid food should be adapted to and kept in harmony with the solid food.

There can be no doubt that all persons, not merely wine merchants but the public generally, approach the subject of wine with an immense amount of prejudice, which it is absolutely impossible to get rid of entii-ely.

The late Mr. Francatelli, who was formerly chef to Her Majesty the Queen, and recently the manager of the " Freemasons' Tavern," and with whom I have had many conversations on the subject of the principles of cookery, has justly observed in his famous work, " The Modern Cook," that " the palate is as capable, and nearly as woi-thy, of education as the eye and the ear." Now we should recollect that our palate, especially on the subject of wine, has undergone an unconscious education, and we have certain fixed standards of excellence that are after all really only arbitrary standai'ds.

It will be found in this country that the universal feeling among the people is in favour of a good heavy poi't or sherry. In all the large London hospitals it is found that the poor absolutely despise any other kind of wine. On the other hand, the best-educated palates invariably prefer, at any rate with food, a light wine, such as hock or claret.

We unconsciously in judging of all kinds of new wines compare them with certain good Avines to which we are accustomed— such as Clos-Yougeot — the king of Burgundies — or Chateau Margaux, Chateau Lafitte, or Chateau Latour— the best of the clarets — or to some fine hock, sherry, port, or Madeira. Again, all sparkling wines are unconsciously compared with champagne, such as Pommery and Greno, or to sparkling hock or Moselle. Now, although these wines are admirable in themselves, it does not follow that they and they only are standards of perfection. To say which is the finest-flavoured wine would be as impossible as to say which is the most beautiful colour, or which is the most beautiful piece of music.

The world is changing very rapidly, and probably in no previous part of our history have we as a nation undergone so rapid and complete a change as during the past few years. Let any one contrast the general mode of living now with what it was only twenty-five years ago. The change has undoubtedly been in favour of increase of luxmy. Our fathers used to be content with a glass or so of sheny at dinner, and a

Ixxviii cassell's dictionary of cookery.

few glasses of port after, and generally took beer with dinner as well. Claret was considered a somewhat expensive luxury, and when introduced was generally brought on only at dessert for the purpose of finishing up with, being often drunk after port. Now, however, it is a most common custom to drink claret with dinner instead of beer. Of course the reason is that claret, and good claret too, can be now obtained in this country at a very cheaji rate. Indeed, a most excellent sound claret can be bought for 16s. a dozen — only go to a respectable -wine merchant, and always taste the wine before you buy it.

We will now endeavour to examine into the general principles to be observed in the service of wine. For instance, we know that it is customary to take a glass of Chablis with oysters, a glass of Madeira after turtle soup, a glass of dry sherry with fish, (fee, but why we do so is by no means so evident. Nature seems to tell us that port wine would be unsuitable with fish, nor do we think any one would care to sip hock, however good, with walnuts.

However, we learn by experience that there are certain flavours that combuie together, and apparently suit, and others that do not. For instance, Chablis after oysters. Oysters have a strong flavour, and a light thin wine like Chablis cleanses the palate after eating them, and somehow the oyster seems to make tlie wine taste better. On the other hand, try a glassful of champagne after eating oysters, and you will find that you cannot detect the flavour of the champagne at all. Again, turtle i.s a rich, glutinous soup, and after a very rich dish some wine is required to cleanse the palate of a more generous nature than Chablis or hock: consequently, Madeira, or good East India sherry, or rum punch, is taken.

After a light entree, such as a Vol-au-vent k la Financiere, or boiled fish of any kind, or whitebait, hock or pale sherry would be most appropriate. After a rich and glutinous fish like stewed eels, or after any entree with strong rich brown gravy, the palate requires something rather more stimulating, and, in my opinion, no wine in the world is equal to Burgundy to drink with dinner, either with water or without. Still, claret, though not so stimulating, is an admirable wine to drink after rich dishes.

I think it will be foimd that the general principle, that the richer the dish the more stimulatmg must be the wine, holds true for nearly all kinds of food. For instance, roast pork is a rich dish, and it is one of the few kinds of food that persons drink port wine after. Roast goose is another rich dish, and it is customary after eating roast goose to have a small liquor glass of brandy.

I have a little further on quoted Francatelli's opinion with regard to the service of wine, and it will be seen that he particularly calls attention to the absurd custom of serving sweet champagne early in dinner. As a rule, however, champagne is generally dry in this country. The Duke de Montebello's sec, Pommery and Greno's extra sec, and Heidseck's Monopole, are all admirable dry wines, and we think the former, though not equal in repute to the two latter, is quite their equal, both in quality and flavour.

I would, however, caution persons against introducing champagne early in the dinner at all, whether it be dry or not. Indeed, it will be found best if the champagne be dry not to serve it till the pi^ce de resistance has made its appearance. If the champagne be at all sweet, it had better not be served till the sweets.

The French taste is far sweeter than the English: for instance, you will often see a body of grown-up Frenchmen enjoying sweets and dessert, including even sugar plums, m a way that in England is only seen with young children. Cham

PRINCIPLES WINE. Ix^iix

pagne in France is almost universally drank after dinner in the same way in which we should finish np -vvith a bottle of claret. But then it should be remembered that the majority of the champagne in France is very sweet ; the champagne-growers adapting nearly the whole of the wine that is sent to England to suit the English taste, and it will generally be found that champagne in England has the word " England " branded on the side of the cork.

How far the French are right and we wrong, or vice versd, in thus preferring sweet champagne to dry is a matter of taste. However, there can be no doubt that the taste for dry wines can be carried too far, and that there should be some limit beyond which the dryness of a wine should not be carried. For instance, take the case of the Duke of Montebello's first brand : there is the sec and the maximum sec. Now, in our opinion, the latter is inferior to the former. Again, there is some champagne in which the dryness of the wine has been carried to such a pitch as to cause it to resemble soda-water rather than wine. In fact, there has been of late years a rage for dry wines of every description, especially port. This rage for diy wine, like most other fashions, was carried to an extreme, and was conseqxiently followed by a reaction. The rage for dry port has already ceased, and probably before long there will be a slight reaction in the present rage for diy champagne.

We have, of course, omitted all mention of home-made wines, though recipes for making them will be found under their various headings in the present work. Wine, properly speaking, is the fermented juice of the grape, and as this country possesses a climate too cold to allow of the cultivation of the grape in any quantity, it is evident that we must look elsewhere for our supply of pure and genuine -wine.

At present our supply is almost entirely confined to France, Germany, Spain, and Portugal, and we must necessarily at present make the various vintages fi-om these countries our models, as, indeed, is but just, as much of the excellence of these wines is due to the care taken in the cultivation of the vines. Nothing but the experience of a number of years of trial could have brought this cultivation to its present pitch of perfection.

There are, however, other countries in the world that produce the grape in great abundance, and it is to some of these countries that make wine — not so well known as our familiar port, sherry, madeira, claret, burgimdy, and hock — that we shall have to CiiU attention by-and-by.

We shall, in particular, after running through the various well-known wines and vintages, call attention to the much-neglected wines of Australia, made from vines that are grown on our own dominions, and which, there can be no doubt, are destined to enter before long into this country in tenfold greater quantities than they do at present when their excellence is better known and better appreciated. Let those who doubt this ask their Avine merchant to procure them a single sample bottle of Australian dry muscat of Alexandria. Let any comioisseur of wine ask himself the simple question, Can any country that is capable of producing such magnificent wine as this fail to make a show in the wine-producing countries of the world ?

But before entering into the details of the various wines, I will quote what Mr. Francatelli's opinions on the subject were, and, as I have always entei-tained such a profound respect for his opinions on the subject of cookery, I trust that I may be pardoned for giving the quotation at some length : —

" The judicious service of wines at the dimier-table is essential to the complete success of a well-ordered and recherche dinner; for on the manner and order in which

Ixxx cassell's dictionary of cookery.

this service is conducted will chiefly depend the more or less favourable judgment awarded (independently of theii* real claims to superiority) to the "wines put before the guests.

First, let it be remembered that all possible care should be taken in removing the bottles from their bins, and afterwards, also, in handling them for the purpose of drawing the corks and decanting the wines not to disturb any deposit that may exist in the bottles, for that deposit, if shaken, destroys not only the brilliancy of the wine? but impairs its flavour and bouquet.

" The difierent kinds of sherries, ports, madeira, and all Spanish and Portuguese wines in general, ax'e the better for having been decanted several hours before being drank. During winter their aroma is improved by the temperature of the diningroom acting upon their volatile properties for an hour or so before dinner-time. By paying due attention to this part of the process, all the mellowness which good wines acquire by age predominates to the delight of the epicure's grateful palate. The lighter wines, such as Bordeaux, Burgundy, and most of the wines of Italy, should be most carefully handled, and decanted an hour only before dinner-time. In winter the decanters should be either dipped in warm water or else placed near the fire to warm them for about ten minutes previously to their being used. In summer, use the decanters without warming them, as the genial warmth of the atmosphere will be all-suflicient, not only to prevent chilling the wines, but to develop their fragrant bouquet. Moreover, let these, and all delicate wines, be brought into the diningroom as late as may be consistent with convenience.

" And now as regards the order in which wines should be served during dinner. I woiild recommend all bon vivants desirous of testing and thoroughly enjoying a variety of wines to bear in mind that they should be drank in the following order, viz. : — When it happens that oysters preface the dinner, a glass of Chablis or Sauterne is their most proper accompaniment ; genuine old Madeira, or East India sherry, or Amontillado, proves a welcome stomachic after soup of any kind, not excepting turtle, after eating which, as you value your health, avoid all kinds of punch, especially Roman punch. During the service of fish, cause any of the following to be handed round to your guests : Amontillado, Hock, Tisane, Champagiae, Pouilly, Meursault, Sauterne, Arbois, Vin de Grave, Montrachet, Chateau-Grill6, Barsac, and generally all kinds of dry white wines." Having enumerated a variety of difierent kinds of Bordeaux, Bui-gundy, Champagne, and other wines, Mr. Francatelli proceeds to say, " A question of the highest importance, but into which I may but briefly enter, is to determine to which of all these wines a decided preference should be given, both with regard to taste and also in respect to their influence on the health of difierent temperaments. It is easier to settle the latter part of the question than the former, inasmuch as it is difficult, not to say impossible, to lay down rules for the guidance of the palate. Thus there are some who delight in the perfumed yet austere bouquet of Bordeaux, while others prefer the delicate fragrance of Champagne ; some give the palm to the generous and mirth-inspiring powers of Burgundy ; while the million deem that Madeii-a (when genuine), port, and sherry, from what are termed their generous natures, ignoring the plentiful admixture of alcohol, are the only wines worthy of notice. All these tastes are no doubt well enough founded on good and sufficient reasons, and may prove safe indicators for the preservation of health ; for instance, a person of sanguine temperament feels a necessity for a light sapid wine, such as genuine Champagne and Rhenish wines, while the phlegmatic seek those of a more spiiituous, generous nature — Burgundy, port,

PRINCIPLES WINE. Ixxxi

Madeira, or sherry. Those who are a prey to spleen, lowness of spirits, and melancholy, are prone to select, as a sure and pleasant remedy for their frightful ailments, the wines of Italy, Spain, Portugal, Roussillon, and Burgundy. The bilious, who generally are blessed with a good appetite, provided always that they do not smoke, require a generous wine which, while capable of acting both as an asti'ingent and a dissolvent of the bile, is of facile digestion ; such are the properties of all first-class Boi'deaux wines. Bordeaux is said to be a cold wine ; this false notion arises out of mere prejudice — nothing can be more contrary to truth. This health-restoring wine, as I have already stated, is easy of digestion, and possesses moreover the advantage of being very considerably less inebriating than any other first-class wine. In short, Burgundy is exciting, Champagne is captious, Roussillon restorative, and Bordeaux stomachic.

It now remains to show the order in which the several soii;s of wines enumerated above should be served at table. Custom and fashion have ever had more to do with this practice than any real consideration for health or taste. It is generally admitted by real yoiirmets that red wines should precede the introduction of white wines — those recommended as proper accompaniments to oysters and fish excepted. The custom most in vogue at the best tables in London and Paris is to commence by introducing, simultaneously with the entrees, any of the following Burgundy wines : — Avallon, Coulanges, Tonnerre, Vermanton, Irancy, Mercui*ey, Chassagne, and, generally, all those wines known under the specific names of Magon and Auxerre. These may be varied or replaced by other wines, denominated Saint Denis, Saint Ay, and Beaugency. These again lead to the further libations of Beaune, Pommard, Yolnay, Richebourg, Chambertin, Saint Georges, Romanee. "With the second course — roasts, dressed vegetables, and savoury entremets — honour your guests by gi'aciously ushering to their notice sparkling Champagne and Moselle, the deliciously perfumed Cumieres, the brilliant Sillery, the glorious Hermitage, Cote-rotie, and Chateau-Grille. "With the service of the entremets de douceur — or, as we have it, the sweets — let iced-creaming, sparkling Champagne, or Moselle, be handed round ; but, far superior to them, I would recommend a trial of A'i petiUant Arbois, Condrieux, Rivesaltes, Malaga, Frontignan, Grenache, Malmsey, Madeira, and East India Sherry."

Mr. Francatelli then proceeds to state, " So little wine is drunk at dessert in this country that it woxild be superfluous to enter into particulars about the service further than to refer the reader to the list of wines appropriated to this part of a dinner, the list being as follows : —


Dessert Wines.

Muscat-Frontignan


Madeira

Muscat-Lunel


Malmsey, Madeira

Muscat-Rivesalte


Sj-racuse

Grenache


Tokay

VindePaiUe


Constance

Malaga


Carcavallos

Rota


PicoH

Alicante


Schiras

I have before observed that we all of us of necessity approach the subject of wine with a certain amount of pi-ejudice, and I have consequently given at some length Mr. Francatelli's opinion on this subject, written in the year 1862. It should be remembered, too, that Mr. Francatelli occupied during his life the high positions

Ixxxii cassell's dictionary of cookery.

of chef at the Reform Club, chef to Her Majesty the Queen, and manager of the Fi-eemason's Tavern. It would be affectation in any one, consequently, to despise the opinion of one who had had so much opportunity for studying the tastes of the most wealthy members of what is probably the most luxurious country in the world. Still we must confess that in reading so goodly a list of dessert wines that, notwithstanding the great authority that penned it, Ave feel that it cannot be considered complete without the addition of what may be called our grand national wine — good genuine port.

In fact Francatelli wrote for, comparatively speaking, a small class who lead to a gTeat extent artificial lives. In treating generally the subject of the service of wine, exactly the same general principles have to be considered as in treating the subject of food. The two chief points are : first, the habits of life of those served; secondly, the time of year, or, rather, we should say the climate.

To lay down general recommendations with regard to dinner, we must first consider the mode of life of the eater. For instance, take two cases. The one of a City man, say a jobber on the Stock Exchange, who passes his day in a hot scene of intense excitement, the wear and tear upon the nervous system being teriific. He returns home exhausted, but not hungry : the reaction of comparative rest in too many cases being spoilt by another reaction felt after taking occasional stimulants during the day, such stimulants being felt necessary at the time. Contrast such a one — and the case is tyjiical of a very large class whose brains are over-taxed, such as hard-worked barristers, lawyers, hospital physicians, &c. — contrast such a one. with the stout jolly farmer, who rises at five, and after a heavy and substantial breakfast, j^asses his day on horseback, i-eturns home with a wolfish a,ppetite, his sole care and anxiety being that Farmer Styles' wheat is abovit half an inch higher than his own. We can well understand his feelings expressed in the gi-aphic words — "None of your kickshaws !" Half a dozen oysters and a glass of chablis would be as unsuitable a commencement of dinner for the latter as thick pea soup and underdone roast beef cut thick, with a draught of strong homebrewed ale, would be for the former.

Probably were we to take the whole, of those who in this country are in the habit of drinking wine habitually, we should find that by far the greater number are in the habit of taking a little sheny with dinner in addition to beer, and a glass or two of poi-t wine afterwards. A sip of sherry after soup, and a glass after both fish and svv^eets, seems almost necessary. Indeed, I think that where there is absolutely no wine, I would prefer to dine off the joint, or, at any rate, butchers' meat alone ; but prefacing that a little good beer is far preferable to bad sherry, we will first take this most popular of English dinner-wines, and have a few words to say with regard to its selection and keeping. Sherry may be di\T.ded into two classes — dinner sherry and after-dinner sherry. I am here speaking of comparatively cheap sherry, as of course good old East India sherry worth 7s. or 8s. a bottle is exceedingly good with dinner as well as after, but then in the generality of houses we expect to get sherry that has cost from 24s. to 36s. a dozen. I know sherry can be bought as low as 15s. a dozen, even in single bottles, at least a compound called sherry — I have, indeed, tasted it. I should imagine that it is bought by that class of persons, who not knowing what really good sherry is, yet occasionally like to have some on their tables for show. Indeed, the greater part of the really bad and unwholesome wine that is drunk is consumed by this class — vulgar persons who attempt to live in the same style as their better-educated and wealthier

PRINCIPLES SHERRY. Ixxxiii

neighbours. These persons would consume almost anything, as indeed a stoiy that went the round of the papers a short time back shows. Some colliers in the North, during the time when men were earning far more money than they knew how to spend, walked into a hotel, and asked for some port, on the ground, as they said among themselves, of that being the wine " the quality drank." The hotel-keeper, on his return after a short absence, found his daughter in the bar in the act of sending up a third bottle oif the top shelf, where port was generally kept, two previous bottles having been drank and paid for. The bottles, however, were port bottles, but contained mushroom ketchup; and we can only say with regard to the 15s. sherry, that it would have made an admirable " whitewash," as Sheridan's glass is still sometimes called, on the occasion in question.

When sherry is consumed in any quantity, it will generally be found best to keep it in the wood. A quarter cask contains close upon fourteen dozen of wine, or twenty-eight gallons. Any respectable wine merchant will supply a good pale dry dimier-wine at jฃ15 for a quarter cask. I do not think you can depend upon a really good wine cheaper, and though a quarter cask of sherry can be bought for ฃ10, I am confident that the wine at ฃ15 is x-eally the cheapest in the ti-uest acceptation of the word. Ordinary wine of this description will be found best in the wood, nor indeed does it materially improve by being kept in bottles for years.

I would here disabuse some of your minds from a too-common fallacy. Many persons imagine that because some fine old wine is good, that therefore all old wine is good. Old bottled wine, to be worth anything, must possess a certain quality before it is bottled, or it will not merely not improve, but absokitely deteriorate, and ultimately become bad. I would illustrate this point by beer. We all know that fine strong Burton ale — trade mark A 1 , as it is called — will keep for years, aiid improve in bottle. If, however, we bottle thin table-beer, the result is that even in one year's time it turns sour. So it is with wine — thin cheap port and sherry will not keep beyond a certain time.

Good rich sherry, well selected, will keep for almost any length of time, and is always best kept in the wood. There is sherry to be got now in the wood over fifty years of age — of course the price is very high. Wlien this sort of wine is bottled, about six or eight years is necessary to give it a peculiar twang only obtained by bottling, much admired by connoisseurs. Good sherry of this description should be decanted some little time before it is wanted.

One great advantage of drawing off ordinary sherry from the wood is that it is always bright. Sometimes in bottled sherry, especially of a rather superior class, it will be found that the last glass or half-glass is a little thick ; in decanting sherry, therefore, bear in mind to reserve this little drop and not make the whole decanter cloudy for its sake. When sherry is known to be like this it will be found best to put a bottle upright two or three days before it is Avanted ; then, if decanted carefully, and so that the light can be seen through the bottle, very little indeed need be wasted.

Never throw away the dregs of any kind of wine, but have what is called a cooking bottle : the dregs of sherry when mixed together will settle down, and do for flavouring gravies, such as salmi sauce or mock-turtle soup. The dregs, too, of port wine do for jugged hare, venison, kc.

Some sherry, especially of a very light, delicate colour, will occasionally have a slight taste of sulphur. I believe this is owing to the wine originally being carried on mules' backs in. Spain in skins, which skins have been rubbed with sidphur.

Ixxxiv cassell's Dictionary of cookery.

This peculiar flavour, though slightly impairing the delicacy of the wine, is not, however, unwholesome. In selecting sherry, of course everything depends upon the. palate of the taster. It is, however, often best to leave this selection to the wine merchant, always bearing in mind that it is impossible to get a fine wine for 18s. a dozen.

The chief point to be avoided in sherries is spirit. Some of the very cheap sherry contains a great deal of an exceedingly unwholesome spirit — wood spirit, in fact, wliich is very injurious. These fiery sherries are almost the worst form of stimulant in which persons can indulge.

Remember, therefore, in buying sherry that there is no such thing as a bargain, save at sales by auction. When any person ofiers you three sixpences for a shilling, you may depend upon it that at least two out of the three must be bad ones. It is tjuite impossible to get a pure, wholesome wine at Is. 3d. a bottle ; and it is to be regi-etted that such large quantities of injurious wine are allowed to be sold in this country, as well as had spirits. Indeed, many of the unfortunate poor who are charged with drunkenness are in reality more poisoned than drunk, and many of those shocking outbvirsts of wild ferocity that too often appear in the police reports are the results of the brain being maddened temporarily by j^oisonous liquors.

We will next proceed to discuss port — probably still the most really popular Avine in this country. Much that has been said of cheap sherry applies equally to cheap port, the only difierence being that port is a somewhat dearer wine than shei-ry. When the consumption of wine in a house is large, it will be found advisable to draw the port for every -day drinking from the wood, i.e., if you feel sure you will finish the cask within twelve months. When port is kept in the wood too long it is apt to lose colour and deteriorate in flavovir.

The minimum price at which I should say a fairly sovmd palatable port can be bought would be about ฃ18 for a quarter cask, i.e., twenty-eight gallons, or between thirteen and fourteen dozen of wine. Port varies very much witli the year and also with the time of bottling. The most famous vintages are 1820, 18.34, 1840, 1847, 1863, and 1870. The 1840 port is a splendid dry wine that still retains its colour in perfect integrity, and when authenticated will fetch a guinea a bottle. The 1847 port varies immensely, some being rather sweet. It is still a very rich wine, and wlien bottled early is nearly equal to the 1840, though not so dry. Very few vintages promise better than the 1870, the wine already fetching 48s. a dozen. Port wine throws a crust on the bottle, which crust should be transparent. Great care should be taken in decanting the wine not to break this crust. Consequently the bottle, which of course is laying on its side in the cellar, should be moved very gently, the cork drawn without shaking the bottle if possible, the wine then poured into the decanter through a wine strainer in which a piece of fine muslin has been placed, and the wine must be watched as it is gently poured out, taking care to keep the same side of the bottle uppermost as in the bin. The moment the wine has the least appearance of being cloudy, cease pouring the wine. As long as only little pieces of the crust come out which look transparent, and which are retained in the strainer, and the rest of the wine pours clear, there is no fear of continuing to pour. When, however, the wine itself is cloudy, stop instantly, or the whole bottle \n\\ fee spoiled. Recollect that port wine when not bright loses not only in appearance but in flavour.

Port wine requires great care in keeping, as it is utterly ruined if exposed to gi'eat cold. Port that has been exposed to severe frost gets cloudy, and never

PRINCIPLES PORT. IxXXV

properly recovers its character. The best cellars for keeping wines are those that remain at about the same temperature all the year round. A temperature of between 508 and 608 is very good for wuie. In fact, a good cellar strikes cold in Slimmer and hot in winter.

One very common cause of wine being spoiled is bad corks, and I have often wondered at it. The difference between good and indifferent coi'ks is so slight, that spoiling wiiie from corkage reminds one of the old saying, of " spoiling a ship for the sake of a ha-porth of tar."

In choosing corks for bottling wine, the best plan is to take a quantity up in both hands, and smell them : should there be a peculiar musty smell, the corks are bad, and will utterly spoil a delicate wine.

Port for ordinary every-day consumption is, as we have said, best from the wood. Sometimes, however, a cask of port is ordered in, and after some has been drawn off the rest is bottled. Now very much depends upon the way in which wine is bottled. In the first place, the wine must be -perfectly bright in the cask ; secondly, the bottles must be not only clean, but quite dry inside ; thirdly, the wine must be well corked, the corks must fit perfectly tight, and should properly be moistened in a little of the wine that is being bottled, and then the cork hammered down with a wooden mallet.

It is by some supposed that the crust on port-wine bottles is the sediment of the wine, which has been put into the bottle rather cloudy. The wine is always bottled bright, but after bottling the wine will turn cloudy, especially in spring and autumn, of its own accord ; a crust then settles and adheres to the bottle, and the wine gradually matures and improves, if it is kept at an equal temperature all the year round. Port wine, however, that has to undergo the variations of temperature that occur in this climate will never mature at all. It is quite possible that the fact of the barbarous custom of building most modern small houses vnthout any wine cellars worthy of the name will do much to decrease the consumption of port wine throughout the country.

In selecting port wine of course as tastes differ the purchaser must judge to a certain extent for himself. In selecting from samples, I would, however, warn you against being prejudiced by price, and would therefore recommend you invariably to act as follows .-—Should your wine merchant send you samples, let these same samples be marked by letters or numbers, and let the price of them be sealed up in a separate letter. Then taste and discuss the samples aloud with a friend, and open the letter and see how far your palate agrees with those of others afterwards. This is the only way to approach wine really unprejudiced, and in speaking by-and-by of Australian wine I shall again revert to this point — for bear iii mind that it is equally foolish to imagme wine must be good because it costs 10s. a bottle — alas ! what stuff some hotel keepers have the conscience to ask this price for ! — as it would be to condemn a wine as rubbish simply because it is only 30s. a dozen.

Good port is one of the most wholesome and nourishing wines that can be taken — of course being a strong wine it must be taken in moderation.

We next come to claret — that light, nourishing, and wholesome wine that is now so largely consumed in this country, and which can now be obtained really good at so small a price. Really good sound claret can be obtained at 16s. a dozen, and if the wine is impoi"ted in wood and bottled on the premises, at a far smaller cost. One gi-eat advantage claret possesses over most other wines is that it is easy of digestion, not fattening ; containing as it does but little sugar, and consequently

Ixxxvi cassell's dictionary op cookery.

admirably adapted to persons who lead sedentary lives. In France, claret corresponds to oin- beer, poor men being able to obtain a tumblerful for a penny.

Notwithstanding, however, its cheapness, the French generally mix water with it. Indeed, the French are the most thrifty nation in the whole world, and this economy on their part, coupled with industry, is the secret of their enormous wealth, jjrobably far greater than our own. Claret, like all other light wines, is best kept in bottles. Of course claret is originally kept in wood, but not for long. Claret, like poi"t, varies very much with the vintage or year, some years being remarkably good, while others are comparative failures. One of the finest vintages ever known in France was that of 1848. Well-bottled and well-authenticated clarets, either Chateau Margaux, or Chateau Lafitte of 1818, will now fetch fancy prices — indeed, not very long ago tliere was a sale of the Lafitte at the chateau in which some of the 1848 wine fetclied 100 francs a bottle, or ฃ4 English money.

There is perhaps no wine in the woi'ld that varies so much as claret ; and the comparison between a bottle of good Lafitte and a bottle of vin ordinaire only shows what care and cultivation of the gi'ape will eftect.

The three first-class clarets are undoubtedly Chateau Margaux, Chateau Lafitte, and Chateau Latour. These wines are generally very expensive — any good years fetching about 84s. a dozen when almost new wines. Indeed, the Chateau Margaux and Lafitte of 1870 is nearly ฃ5 a dozen. Now and then, when the year has been bad, these wines, even genuine, can be obtained very cheap. For instance. Chateau Lafitte for 1872 can be got for about 54s. to 60s..^a dozen, but then it is quite a difierent class of wine to say 1874 or 1870, both of which are famous years. Chateau La Ptose and Chateau Leoville are also good wines, though not equal to those we have mentioned. Good Chateau La Eose, however, will vie with an}wine in respect to bouquet, possessing as it does that delicate scent corresponding to fresh-blown roses, which indeed gives it its name.

In selecting claret great attention should be paid to the bouquet of the wine — indeed many judges of wine would be able to select by the smell alone, without tasting. In choosing claret, however, especially the cheaper kinds, purchasers should be on their guard against being deceived by the bouquet. Very often claret is, we Avill not say adulterated, but mixed with a small quantity of Burgundy, the latteibeing added to give it a bouquet. Thus a very inferior and poor claret is passed off as something superior. Experience alone will enable the taster to decide what is Burgundied claret and what is pure. The Burgundy generally used to mix with claret is Beaune, which is a splendid wine possessing a very marked bouquet. Those familiar with the flavour of Beaune will be better able to distinguish claret that has had Beaune added to it.

In choosing claret very much depends, not merely on the particular name or brand, but on the year, and also on the time, and by whom it was bottled. Of course, out of the thousands of hogsheads of claret that ai'e imported it would be folly to expect that all would be perfectly pure vintage wines. Some persons prefer a full-bodied claret, and some a thin light wine — this is, of course, a matter of taste, but in selecting thin clarets it is essential that they should be perfectly free from acidity. An acid claret is never good. It has been stated lately that an injurious colouring matter has been used to improve the appearance of clarets : I am, however, disposed to think that these statements are exaggerations. At any rate, there is never any difficulty in obtaining a pure wholesome claret from any wine merchant.

Some few years ago, at the time when the new commercial treaty with France

PRINCIPLES CLARET.

enabled claret to be sold at its present price in this country, it was fondly imagined by some that claret would gradually supersede the use of beer in this country. Indeed, a great statesman publicly remarked that he looked forward to the time when " the British workman would call for his glass of claret instead of his pint of beer." That time, however, has not yet arrived, and never will so long as the claret sold at ordinary public-houses remains what it is at present. Why this is the case, I cannot say, but the fact remains, and may be tested any day. Let any one go to an ordinary public-house — not a good hotel — and ask for a glass of claret, and the probability is that they will be served with some quite undrinkable compound. That claret will ever supersede beer with English workmen is of course a visionary idea, but many men would undoubtedly drink claret in preference to beer, especially in hot summer weather, were it to be got on draught cheap, and it is to be regretted that it cannot be more easily obtained.

In hot weather, too often the common beer sold quenches the thirst only momentarily, but soon gives rise to a craving for more. Claret, especially when mixed with water, is practically uniaitoxicating, and is the best drink of any to allay thirst. Biirgundy is a stronger and richer wine than claret, and has the I'eputation of being the most blood-making wine there is. As a rule, ordinary Burgundy is a trifle dearer than claret. However, an excellent and pure wine may be obtained for 18s. a dozen. It is not, however, so easy of digestion as claret. Those who can take Burgundy, and require nour'ishment, will find Burgundy a far cheaper wine than claret : Bvirgundy, like claret, varies immensely in quality and price. The best Burgundies are Clos Vougeot and Chambertin, and these wines generally fetch from 72s. to 84s. a dozen. Burgundy, like claret, is best in bottle, and should never be kept long in the wood.

Good Beaune can be obtained considerably cheaper than Clos Vougeot or Chambei-tin, and is one of the best kinds of Burgundy that can be chosen for every-day drinking. Bui-gundy will occasionally throw a crust like port. Indeed, in bottling and keeping Burgundy almost as much care is requisite as if it were port, as Bvirgundy suffers from change of temperature far more than claret, and some kinds, like port, are apt to cloud even after being bottled in the spring and autumn of the year in symjiathy with the vine — the best, and in fact only, means of prevention for what may be termed this second fermentation being equal temperature.

On the suljject of hock and Moselle little need be said. Good hock is always bottled in the district in which the wine is made. A fairly sound hock can bo obtained now at 24s. a dozen. Hocks, like Burgundy and claret, vary immensely in price, good Cabinet Johanisburg fetching at times as fabulous a price as famous vintages of Lafitte claret. Moselle resembles hock somewhat, only it has a slight Muscatel flavour : as a rule. Moselle is slightly dearer than hock — that is, in the cheaper sorts. In selecting both hock and Moselle the three chief points to be l)orne in mind are — freedom from acidity, brightness, and bouquet. Cheap hock and cheap Moselle are both apt to be somewhat cloudy, and as an almost universal rule with regard to wine it may be laid down that cloudy wine is always of inferior flavour.

We next come to what many regard as the highest of all wines, i.e., Champagne. Cei*tainly in this coiintry at any rate Champagne is regarded by many as the very height of luxury. There are many who look upon Champagne as a wine only to be used on great occasions, such as wedding breakfasts or the birthday of the heir, &:c. Of late years, however. Champagne has been drank far more generally than it was

Ixxxviii cassell's dictionary of cookery.

a few years ago ; indeed, iii everything we see advances nowadays in tke direction of luxury and extravagance.

At what exact price good Champagne can be bought it is veiy difficult to say. The cheaper kinds vary unmensely, some years being far better than others. Of the cheaper kinds, however, we shall have more to say when we come to consider the substitutes for first-class wines. I would, however, roughly state the minimum j)rice at which any Champagne that is the pure juice of the grape can be bought to be from 42s. to 48s. a dozen. A large quantity of wine is sold in this country under the ]iame of Champagne, much of which indeed comes from the Champagne district that really is Chainj^agne only in name.

Whether this is made by using up the refuse of the grapes from which good Champagne is made, or using imripe grapes, rhubarb, gooseberries, or apples, I cannot say positively, but that the majority of cheap Champagne is unfit to drink at all there can be no shadow of a doubt. Considering the price any one has to pay for a bottle of Champagne at Epernay itself, it seems on the face of it absurd for persons to advertise Champagne in this country at 26s. a dozen. Were you, say in Paris or Berlin, to be offered a quart bottle of Bass's bitter ale for 4d., you would natui-ally feel that there was something wrong somewhere.

As a rule, of course, the general principle holds good, that it is far better to give either good wine or none at all. This general principle, however, holds especially true with regard to Champagne, and I would specially appeal to those who are going to give Champagne with a little dinner-party about to come off". Ask your conscience as to what is your real motive. Do you wish to please your guests 1 or do you wish to show off"'? — i.e., is your motive in giving Champagne simjjly that of vying with or perhaps surpassing your neighbours ? If the former is your motive, and you ca.a afford it, lay in some Champagne of a really good brand, 66s. to 72s. a dozen; have it cool, i.e., nearly freezing, a degree or two above freezing-point ; and whatever you do, don't ]Hit ice in the wine if the Chamjjagne is really good — and it ought to be at the price I have named — it is a barbarous custom. Next, let your guests have enough. I should say a fair allowance is a bottle between two persons. Do not, however, open one bottle, and then ask if anybody will have any more. If you do, every one will say, " No, thank you." On the other hand, if you open a bottle first and take it round, e\ery single one will have a second glass, and a good many a third. Indeed, we fear, some would continue till they pronounced truly rural as "tural lural."

If you cannot afford to give good Champagne and still wish to give your guests a treat, lay in a stock of Bass's strong Burton ale, A 1. I think it fetches nearly Is. 6d. a bottle. Let this be in good condition, and let the bottle stand upright in a moderate temperature for a week before it is opened. The ale is rather high coloured, but when perfectly bright and sparkling, with a I'ich creamy froth on the top, a glass of it is worth all the cheap Champagne in the world put together. Indeed, there is as much difference between this ale and ordinary draught beer as there is between Chateau Lafitte and vin ordinaire.

There are so many diflferent brands of Champagne that it would be almost impossible to enumerate and criticise them all. I have before mentioned the Duke of Montebello's Champagne, which is a somewhat neglected wine, seeing that the carte hlanche both of the maximum sec and ordinary sec is quite equal to any of the highest-class brands, and can be obtained at a cheaper price at present. If called upon to say which Champagne is entitled to take first prize, I should say Heidsieck's Monopole. Pommery and Gi-eno, or, rather, Pommery et tils, as I think the firm is

PRINCIPLES — SPARKLING WINES. Ixxxix

now calletl, also ranks very higli. I would also mention Jules Munims, Ruinart pere et fils, Roederer, Giesler, Perrier Jouet, Wachter, Moet and Cliandon, Piper, Veuve Clicquot, &c.

The last of these is a very fine wine of excellent bouquet, but not altogether adapted to the English palate, as it is a somewhat sweet wine. However, during the last few years a new kind has been imported called Veuve Clicquot (sec). This is a magnificent wine well worth a trial. Of all Champagnes, perhaps Moet's is best known, and this wine seems to be universally chosen by ordinary publicans as the one wine they keep. It is a good sound wine, but as a rule inferior in quality to most of the brands we have mentioned. ,

It had once a very great name, and the probable reason why publicans keep it and it only, is, that the class of people they as a rule serve, have heard of Moet's Champagne and of no other. This fact is a practical answer to the question, "What's in a name 1 "

We have now run through the general wines drunk in this country, viz.. Sherry, Port, Claret, Burgundy, Hock, Moselle, and Champagne. There is one wine, however, once most popular, but that of late years seems to have gone out of fashion, and that is Madeira. There seems, however, a strong probability of this wine coming in again. The vines in Madeii-a, which so completely failed some few years ago, have very much recovered. Good old East India Madeira, such as is now rarely to be obtained, save at a public dinner of some City company, will bear comparison with almost any wine in the world.

The new Madeira now imported is, for its pxice, really a far cheaper wine than sherry, the principal drawback to it being it is somewhat sweet. However, in a few years' time there seems every probability of Madeira recovering its lost position, and those who possess good cellars might certainly make worse speculations than that of laying down some of the new Madeira, which they can get at about 48s. a dozen. There is good sound Madeira to be got at a far cheaper rate.

The objection of sweetness is fatal to a large class of wines, and as the public taste just now runs upon dry wines, it is a bad time to attempt to introduce any wine save those that possess this quality. The consumption, for instance, of Sparkling Hock, Sparkling Moselle, and Sparkling Burgundy is less in proportion than that of former years, owing to the difficulty of obtaining these wines dry.

Sparkling Hock has too often a tendency to acidity. Sparkling Moselle is a deliciously-scented wine, but is often sweet. It is what used to be called a ladies' wine, and I should imagine children would prefer Sparkling Moselle to ordinary Champagne. At least I am judging of my own feelings and tastes as a child — for in the present day it seems to me that so-called children acquire tastes for dry wines and lobster salads before they leave off knickerbockers.

Sparkling Burgundy, when not too sweet, is a magnificent wine, and as its price is below that of the first brands of Champagne, it is somewhat strange that it is not more generally drunk.

With i-egard to the order in which wine should be drunk at dinner we have already alluded. If dinner is preceded by those expensive luxuries, oysters, nothing can compare with a glass of Chablis. After soup, a glass of sherry ; if the soup be turtle, a glass of Madeira. After fish, either a dry sheiTy, or should the fish be rich, such as stewed eels, a glass of old East India sherry. Hock, after light entrees; and claret or Burgundy after richer entrees. Champagne not too early in the dinner if diy, and not till late if at all sweet. This seems the fashion in the present day,

CASSELL S DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

and in long and elaborate dinners is perhaps best. Of course when wine is drunk freely during dinner, it cannot be drunk freely after dinner. Again, port wine after dinner when Champagne is drunk with dinner is a mixture which but few persons can stand. Port is a heavy wine, and after Champagne is very apt to disagree.

On the other hand, the old-fashioned plan, especially at bachelors' dinner-parties, will be found best. A good substantial dinner, say a little thin soup, a cut off the joint, and a grouse. With dinner a glass or two of dry sherry, a glass of bitter ale, and a good bottle of port wine, and a chat afterwards. Finish up, if you like, with a bottle of Chateau Margaux and a single glass of sherry. To my mind, the latter dinner is preferable to the former, where a series of elaborate entrees are served with a variety of wines not always of the best quality.

• One very agreeable form of drinking cheap hock, claret, &c., in summer time is in the shape of " cup." There are various ways of making claret cup, but I will give one of the simplest : — -Take a few lumps of sugar, about six or eight, according to the size, and let a few drops of boiling water be poured on them to assist in dissolving them. Take a bottle of claret, and add in addition to the sugar two slices of a hard lemon, a glass of sherry, a table-spoonful of bi^andy, a small piece of cucumber-peel, and a table-spoonful of noyeau or maraschino.

A little balm and borage is an improvement to claret cup, but then there is generally considerable difficulty in obtaining them.

Another capital claret cup is made by substituting an orange cut in slices for the two slices of lemon. Again, if no noyeau is at hand — and noyeau is an expensive liqueui" — -add a couple of drops of essence of almonds to the brandy. To every cup, of coui'se, must be added one or two bottles of soda-water, and a large lump of pure ice.

If good pure ice cannot be obtained, but only what is called rough ice, do not put any ice in the cup, but surround the cup with chopped ice mixed with salt, and you will very soon reduce its temperature quite as low, and, indeed, lower, than if a large piece of ice had been put in the cup itself I woiild advise persons who use rough ice indiscriminately to melt a tumblerful, and then hold the glass up to the light. The lesson is very practical.

Champagne cup is very simply made by adding either a slice or two of lemon or an orange cut in slices to a bottle of champagne as well as a bottle of sodawater, a small liqueur glass of brandy, and a large lump of ice. Of course, just as it would be a terrible waste to use a bottle of Chateau Lafitte or Chateau Margaux claret to make a claret cup, so would it be equally wrong to use a bottle of fii-stclass champagne, such as Pommeiy et fils, or Montebello Carte Blanche for champagne cup. Again, a rather sweet champagne makes a very good " cup," as the ice and soda-water take off from the sweetness very considerably. It will be found, however, for general purposes that some wines that are not strictly speaking champagne nevertheless make excellent "champagne cup." We would call particular attention to a wine named Sparkling Saumur, which is now being sold at a retail price of 24s. a dozen. A bottle of this, and an orange sliced, avoiding the outside slices with too much peel on, as well as the pips, with a bottle or even two bottles of sodawater, and a large lump of ice, make a most refreshing summer drink. Indeed, I know of no kind of cheap champagne, at even 36 s. a dozen, that will make so excellent a cup.

Another very excellent champagne that does not come from the Champagne district is CortaUlod. This is made in Switzerland; and a bottle has refreshed many

PRINCIPLES — ^AUSTRALIAN WINES.

a weary traveller after a long walk in the exquisite scenery of the district where it is made. There are, in my opinion, few wines that approach nearer to the pure juice of the grape than Swiss champagne. I think the retail price in this country is about 36s. a dozen.

We now come to consider a class of wines that is- I fear bvit little generally known in this country, and that is Australian wine. Prejudice is a very difficult thing to overcome, and I fear it will be many years before the wines of that rapidlyrising country meet with the reception here that they so thoroughly deserve.

The subject, too, of Australian wines should be regarded from a broader view than merely a question of palate. We as a nation each year spend millions and millions of surplus capital — for wine is not really one of the necessaries of life — on encouraging the manufactures and agriculture of France, Spain, Germany, and Portugal, while, comparatively speaking, but a few thousands only go to increase the wealth of a country inhabited by our own flesh and blood, living under the same laws, and obeying and honouring the same Queen. Strange, too, to say, the Government of the mother country at present fails to recognise the claims Australian wines have — they being absolutely shut out even from a chance of holding then- own in open competition, owing to their containing slightly more alcohol than the fixed standard allows — consequently the extra duty that must necessarily be paid takes away all chance of competition with the lighter Fi-ench claret.

Tliere are an astonishing number of persons of real wealth who in the present day buy nothing but the poor thin claret that can be bought at 12s. a dozen. I have no hesitation in saying that the majority of Australian wines are infinitely superior to the cheaj) claret that we are unfortunately sometimes out of politeness compelled to drink. Again, it must be remembered that the cidtivation of the Aone in Australia is not matured like it is in France. If we contrast light claret with Chateau Margaux we at once see how much depends upon care in cultivation and also in selection of the grape. The time will probably come when the wine trade of Australia will be one of the greatest means of increasing the wealth of that countiy.

We will now run hastily through a few of the principal kinds of wines that that country produces. There ai^e samples that correspond to Hock, Sherry, Burgundy, Claret, and Madeii'a. We will first take the kind that resembles hock. This iง called Piesling ; it is a thin light wine, sold in hock bottles, and is an exceedingly pleasant drink in summer, and is particularly suitable with boiled fish, or after light entrees, such as vol-au-vents. Highercombe is another wine resembling hock, or rather Haut Barsac or Sauterne. Highercombe is a strong-scented wine, and would probably not be liked by those who ai-e partial to an exceedingly dry sherry. On the other hand, when the taste for this wine has been acquired, it is generally very strongly fancied. Some of this wine mixed with a bottle of soda-water will be found a most refreshing drink. Another Australian wine very much resembling hock is Gouais ; this wine is something between hock and Sauterne, and, as it can be bought for 24s. a dozen, is well worth a trial. The next class of wines to which we would refer is the white Australian wines that resemble sherry. First we will take Fairfield (amber). This wine very much resembles Cape Sherry, and is certainly inferior to ordinary good sherry ; it also has a slight resemblance to the home-made wine one occasionally tastes at farmhouses that is made from rhubarb. Tliis wine is, however, very wholesome, and probably after a time would be very palatable when the taste for it is once acquired. A very superior wine, however, is met with in VerdeUho : this is made from vines resembling those in Madeu-a, and

CASSELLS DICTIONARY OK COOKERY.

the wine, which can be bought for about 26s. a dozen, has a decidedly Madeira flavour, and is the best specimen of Australian white wine of the class corresponding to sherry and Madeira that we have met with. Shiraz is another wine resembling sherry, and costs about 24s. a dozen.

Perhaps the most marked of the Australian wines, and the one that proves best how likely these wines are eventually to become better appreciated, is dry Muscat of Alexandria. This wine has the most beautiful bouquet that can be imagined, and its flavour resembles the fii-st crush in. the mouth of three or fovu- fine ripe muscatel grapes — those large white oval ones covered with a light bloom, and attached to a clean thick stalk — yet, notwithstanding this exquisite bouquet and flavour, the wine is dry. Unfortunately, samples differ ; the lighter the colom% however, the better the wine. This dry Muscat of Alexandria can be bought for about 30s. a dozen, or even cheaper, and, when the specimens are good, is well worth double the money. We would strongly advise connoisseurs and epicures to make a trial. A very delicious cup, superior to Moselle cup, can be made from this wine, by mixing it with soda-water, sugar, a few slices of lemon, and a lump of ice. This makes a cheap and very refreshing drink in summer.

We next come to the Australian red wines, which, as a rule, will be found very superior to the white. The finest Australian red wine that I have ever tasted is called Carbenet. This fine wine has a most beautiful bouquet, resembling good Chateau Margaux claret. It resembles Burgundy in flavour, with jDerhaps a very slight port flavour added. Or it may be compared to a very dry Rousillon, This wine is very soft, and this, coupled with its rich-scented bouquet, entitles it to rank high among the Australian wines. Indeed, it is far superior to the general run of Burgundies and clarets that can be bought at the same price, which is about 36s. a dozen. Fairfield (ruby) is another red wine, somewhat resembling dry poi*t. The bouquet of this wine is very inferior to Carbenet, and it has a rather dead taste, in which can be detected a slight flavour of raisins. Perhaps the next best wine to Carbenet is Mataro ; this is also similar to a dry port or Burgundy; it has a good bouquet, and is well worth the price at which it is generally sold. Chaselas is a red wine, but is somewhat poor and acid. A better wine is Hermitage, which somewljat resembles the Hei*mitage made on the banks of the Rhone, and is probably named after it. A very peculiar Australian wine is made called Conatto; this is a rich liqueur, mth a slightly medicinal flavovir in it ; its taste reminds one of rum shrub and curagoa. Again, it is sometimes like Constantia, and is probably made from the same kind of grapes that are used for Constantia. Red Albury is a scented wine resembling somewhat English home-made raisin wine, only it is better. It is a capital wine for children, and would suit those who like a sweet port. These are the chief wines of Australia, which, in our opinion, are destined in a few years' time to become far better known than they are at present ; and Englishmen on patriotic grounds should at any rate give Australian wines a trial, if their order does not extend beyond a single bottle.

We have now run through the principal wines drunk in this coimtry, and have taken exceptional notice of Australian wine, which is but little known, owing to the fact of its being the only wine worthy of the name that is produced in the British dominions. Hungarian wine, Italian wine, Swiss wine, are all worth a trial, especially the former. We ought not, however, to forget to mention our national beverage — Beer !

Pirst, I do not wish to touch upon the point of making home-brewed beer — in

I

PRINCIPLES — BEER.

fact, good beer can now be obtained so cheap in almost all parts of the country, that ale is now very rarely brewed at home. First, I woidd call attention to the importance of always having beer in cask ; by so doing purity is generally ensured, and the bad custom of sending servants, especially women servants, to the publichouse is avoided. Good, sound, excellent ale can always be got at threepence a quart ; an eighteen-gallon cask costing 18s., and, indeed, very good beer can be bought in cask still cheaper. Now, the beer sold in, I fear, too many public-houses, at the rate of threepence a quart, is adulterated, and often has the efiect of increasing rather than allaying thirst. Were the general public to know the secret of the cheap public-house beer that has been doctored with not always such harmless ingredients as treacle and sugar, they would probably make gi-eater efforts to obtain their beer direct from the brewery itself. The working ])Oor are necessarily obliged to drink beer, and it is very much to be regretted that they so rarely have their beer in cask. The fact is, they have not sufficiently acquired habits of self-control, and too often a cask in the house proves a temptation too strong to be resisted.

On this subject, I recollect an occurrence some time ago that illustrates the difficulty to which I have alluded. A poor woman was exclaiming what a monstrous shame it would be to close all the public-houses on Sunday for the whole day, saying that the poor would have to go without any beer with their Sunday's dinner, which, as a rule, was the only really comfortable meal they got. I asked what difficulty thei-e would be in getting in a gallon jar of ale on Saturday night, which, if well-corked down, would keep well till the following day 1 her reply being — *' Keep, sir ! Lor' bless you, my old man would never go to bed on Saturday night till he had finished it!" The argument was perfectly sound; and some men must necessarily be treated like children. Indeed, it is as cruel to leave an opened bottle of gin in some persons' way, who are as a rule perfectly honest, as it would be to leave a child three years old alone in a room with a pot of jam.

One of the most important points to be remembered in the management of beer is to ensure its being bright. Beer should always be kept in a cool place, though in winter care should be taken that it is not exposed to too severe a frost. A cask of beer should always be ordered in at least a week befoi-e it is wanted, in order to give the beer time to settle. Beer is often allowed to get flat and dead through the carelessness of servants, who forget to put in the vent-peg ; conseqiiently a tap requiring no vent-peg is to be preferred. When a cask requires tilting, a very little common sense will often prevent the whole of the beer left in the cask from becoming cloudy. First, it will be found advisable to have a beer-stand that will tilt by simply turning a handle. However, when bricks or lumps of wood are used for the purpose, bear in mind to first choose your time : say you have drawn enough beer for supper, tilt the cask then, so that you have the benefit of the night's settling. Too often, from carelessness and procrastination, servants will draw ofi" the beer till the last drop runs level, and will then tilt the cask while they draw a jug full, letting the cask drop again, thereby clouding the whole of the remainder. Whenever you have room for two casks in your cellar, side by side, always act as follows. Have two casks in together, and directly one runs out tap the other, and on the same day order in a fresh cask. By making a fixed rule of this description you will always ensure your ale being bright. With regard to bottled ale this same quality of brightness is even more important than ale on draught. The difierence not merely in appearance but in taste between a bottle of Bass's ale that sparkles like cham

CASSELL S DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

pagne when held up against the light, and one that is thick and cloudy, is patent to every one. When kept for any length of time, beer should be laid on its side, but to ensure the beer being bright it only requires being kept upright for a short time before it is opened, in a moderate temperature. If bottled ale is kept too warm it is too frothy, and by no means invariably bright. On the other hand, beer exposed to frost is sure to be thick. Bottled beer consequently in summer-time should not be placed in an ice-chest, except for ten minutes or a quarter of an hour before it is opened to cool it, but not freeze it. When, therefore, you have bottled beer in quantities, always stand six or eight bottles upright, and as these are used i-eplace them by others. Good beer will generally get bright in bottle if stood upright for a week, though a longer period should be allowed if the beer is only just brought in. In pouring out beer always have three glasses ready together, so that you can continue to pour without tilting back the bottle, as when this latter is done too often it will be found that the first glass is the only one that is bright. With regard to spirits, but little care is required in keeping them, as they are quite unaffected by variations of temperature, the greatest amount of cold failing to influence them. The only advice I would give you is — regard them as medicines rather than for eveiyday consumption, and i-ecollect the remark of Adam, in "As You Like It," who accotinted for his vigour as follows : —

" Though I look old, yet I am strong and lust)-,

For in my youth I never did apply

Hot and rebellious liquors in my blood."

COOKERY AS A BRANCH OF EDUCATION". Before bringing these pages to a close, there is one subject remaining that demands our greatest attention, and that is this : — How far is it possible to impart even an elementary knowledge of the principles of cookery to the poor and imeducated classes 1 There is probably no country in the world that has any pretensions to civilisation in which there is so profound an ignorance of even the rudiments of cookery as in our own. Indeed, the difference in the mode of life between a French family and an English one, in which say the goodwife in the former is allowed thirty francs and the latter thirty shillings a- week for housekeeping purposes is something astounding. In the former there is comfort and even luxury, and, in addition, money is regularly saved ; whereas, in the latter, the week which commences with a hot dinner on Sunday usually terminates in the plainest kind of food, such as bread and dripping, and that too often obtained ori credit.

Again, amongst the English poor it will be observed that there is scarcely any variety of food whatever. The hot dinner on Sunday is almost invariably the same. A bladebone of beef and a heap of baked potatoes cooked at that real poor man's friend — the baker's oven : the usual charge for baking being twoj^ence on Sundays and three-halfpence on week days. Week after week the fare is the same — baked meat and baked potatoes : the one change coming with Christmas, and, like it, but once a year, when " the goose " takes the place of the meat, the huge heap of sage and onions being placed in a saucer underneath the goose to catch the fat.

Again, in sending a rice pudding to the baker's, the baker's man is frequently obliged to take out some of the rice, as otherwise the pudding would be so close as to be barely eatable, the rice having no room to swell. Sometimes a batter pudding is sent with the dish so full of batter that it would be certain to overflow when baked unless some were removed.

PRINCIPLES — COOKERY AS A BRANCH OP EDUCATION. XGV

Perhaps the gi-eatest difficulty to be contended with is the rooted and unreasonable prejudice to be met with in some of the poor. They despise soup and fish, unless the latter be a bloater with their tea. Great changes have, however, taken place lately in regard to education, which is now compulsory, and the young girl who a few years back was the mother's chief help in hovisehold duties, is now, at any rate for a certain number of days, compelled to attend a school. In all these schools needlework forms part of the regular routine of school duty, but not cooking. It should, however, be borne in mind that it is quite as important for the future wives of the poorer classes to be able to cook their husbands' and children's food as to make or mend their clothes. Now, hithei'to in almost every poor family in the kingdom, the eldest girl has been kept at home to assist her mother, and what little knowledge she possesses of cooking is thus handed down by tradition. Now, however, these home lessons are necessarily limited to Saturday and Sxmday. What a wonderful efiect, howevei-, it would have on the future generation were each child — i.e., each girl — properly instructed by some competent teacher in the elements of domestic economy ! Unfortunately, at present it will be found that girls who have shown ability at school, and who are often made pupU teachers — gii'ls who can write a hand nearly like a lady, and play a little on the piano, and who are fond of reading serial tales in their leisure, too often rather despise household work ; and often it will be found in a family where there is more than one gii-1 that one sister will cook and scrub, whde the other — who prides herself somewhat on her " gentility," as those sort of people call it — looks out for a business that is light and fanciful, such as millinery. Suppose, however, the girls get married in their own station of life, which would make the best wife of these two sisters % We trust the School Board will in time realise the fact that it is at any rate as impoi-tant for a girl to know how to make an Ii'ish stew as to be capable of playing an Irish jig. It is only first-class cooks who realise the first principles of cookery, viz., cleanliness and economy, and it is on these points that the poor chiefly break down ; indeed, we have already called attention to the want of cleanliness on the part of cooks, that takes place not so much from indolence as ignorance. How often do we have an omelet perfectly white, or rather yellowish- white, like we have them abroad % Do you know the reason of failure ? if not, go downstairs and learn. Take the frying-pan in your left hand, and a clean cloth in your right ; hold the frying-pan over the fire for a few seconds till it is hot, and then wipe it with your cloth, and look at the cloth. Among the poor, however, the fat is allowed to get cold in the frying-pan, and the frying-pan is hung up, or rather put by, with the fat in it ready for next time ; and, indeed, the same thing is often done in houses where the mistress does not exercise proper and necessary supervision over her servants.

Unfortunately our English kitchen utensils are, as a rule, so shaped that perfect cleanliness, such as is met with in France, is barely possible. The English enamelled stewjian is, however, quite equal to the tinned copper utensils of France for ordinary purposes, and in these vessels perfect cleanliness is, comparatively speaking, easy. But we shall refer to the shape of vessels at more length when we come to consider kitchen utensils, but would here say one word to housekeepers on jugs. Is it reasonable on your part to continue buying milk-jugs shaped bulb-like, with narrow necks, into which the hand cannot be inserted, and yet to express surprise that your milk is sometimes sour ] I am perfectly aware that jug-bmshes exist, but it is almost impossible to get servants to use them.

With regard to economy, we have already explained we do not mean living

CASSKLL S DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.

jilainly, or even clieaply, but using up all the material we have. There is no want of economy in tlie strictest sense of the word in giving broken victuals to the poor, provided we know they eat them. Want of economy is exemplified in giviiig a half, picked sirloin of beef-bone to the dog, in throwing the end in the pig-tub, or in leaving the ends of mutton chops and the bones half picked on the plate.

Again, a fruitful source of waste, which is in reality a synonymous term for want of economy, is allowing, thi-ough carelessness, ignorance, or want of forethought, food of any description to get bad. For instance, forgetting in hot weather to warm up soup when it has been left, but is not required for the next day's consumption; or in leaving in sultry weather a joint of meat all night in a hot place, instead of preserving it by placing it in a cool larder or ice-chest. Again, milk can often be preserved from turning sour for one night by the simple plan of boiling it, and j^ouring it into a clean jug. These and a hundred other •simple methods by which food can be preserved, and thereby added to the wealth of the country, are principles of education that ought to form part of all elementaiy lessons now taught in schools.

There is perhaps nothing that would so effect the future prosperity and greatness of our country than universally inculcating in the minds of the young throughout the length and breadth of the land the importance of economy of the necessaries of life. Our present teachers of the young have high responsibilities. It is not so much that a great multitude follow them as that a great multitude are driven unto them. Whatever differences may arise as to creed or no creed, surely all will unite in agreeing with the great Teacher that it is our duty to gather up the fragments that remain, that nothing be lost.

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CASSELL'S

Dictionary of Cookery.

Aberdeen Sandwiches. — Take two

ounces of cold chicken and one ounce of cold ham or tongue. Cut them into small pieces and put them into a stewpan with two table-spoonfuls of good sauce and a table-spoonful of curry paste. Simmer gently for a few minutes, stirring all the time, then turn the mixture into a •basin to cool. Cut some slices of stale bread about the eighth of an inch in thickness, stamp them in rounds about the size of a penny," and iry them in boiling oil till they are lightly browned. Place them on some blotting-paper to drain off the oil, and spread the mixture thickly on one of the rounds, placing another on the top, until all are used. Put them into a quick oven for a few minutes ; arrange them prettily on a dish, and serve hot. The remains of fish and game may be used in a sinoilar manner. Time to bake, five minutes. Probable cost, exclusive of the cold meat, 4d. Five or six should be allowed for each person.

Aberfran Cakes. — Beat half a pound of fresh butter to a cream, -vvith half a pound of pounded loaf sugar, adding slowly half a pound of fine flour. Poll out thin, and cut in circles about the size of a teacup ; impress with a shell or other ornament, and bake quickly for fifteen minutes. Probable cost, Is. 2d.

Abernethy Biscuits,— Rub one ounce of butter into one pound of the best flour, adding a dessert-spoonful of sugar and half an ounce of carawaj- seeds. Mix all together ฆซdth two eggs, and, if necessary, a little milk. Poll the batter out, knead it into small round cakes, making holes with a fork to allow the steam to escape, and bake in a m.oderate oven. Time to bake, fifteen minutes. Probable cost, 6d. Sufficient for eight biscuits.

Acha. — Take four capsicums and half a large Spanish onion, -^vith as much salt and lemon- juice as may be required to suit the palate, and pound all together thoroughly in a mortar.

Acha for Fish. — Thoroughly boil a small piece of salt fish, cut an onion and a few capsicums into very small pieces, and add a little vinegar : pound all well togetiber, and make into a puree.

Acid Ice for Puddings and Cakes.

— Strain the juice of a large lemon, add to it three ounces of sifted sugar, and the whites of 1

j four eggs beaten to a firm froth. Pile this over the pudding after it is cooked, and retuiai it to the oven for a few minutes to stiffen. Time to bake, ten minutes. Probable cost, 6d. Sufficient for a pudding for four or five jjersons.

Acidulated Alkali.— Blend thoroughly two ounces of carbonate of soda, two ounces of j tartaric acid, and a quarter of a pound of powdered loaf sugar. Flavour with essence of • lemon. Keep the mixture in a bottle, well ; corked, and, when required, stir ft tea-spoonful I briskly into a tumbler three parts full of water, i and drink during effervescence. Probable cost, I a halfpenny per glass.

Acidulated Alkali (another way). — Grate the rind of two lemons upon four ounces of loaf sugar, pound it, and mix it thoroughly with two ounces of bicarbonate of soda and two ounces of tartaric acid. Bottle it, cork it closely, and heap in a dry place. A small tea-spoonful stirred briskly into half a tumblerful of water will make a pleasant draught, and it should be diunk during effervescence. Time to preimre, half an hoiir. Probable cost for this quantity, 6d.

Acidulated Drops.— Clarify some sugar as follows : to every two pounds of sugar allow one pint of water and the white of one egg ; put the sugar and water into a saucepan, and stir them over the fire until the former is thoroughly dissolved ; add the white of the egg, and boil, skimming constantly until the syrup looks quite clear. Remove it from the fire, strain it, and retm-n it to the saucepan. Mix with it tartaric acid or lemon-juice, according to taste, and let all boil together until the syrup crackles when put into cold water. Have ready a welloiled dish, and drop the sugar as regiilarly and quickly as possible into it. If there is any appearance of the syrup boiling over, two or three drops of oil, or a little cold water, may be put in. Time to prepare, about half an hour. Probable cost, Is.

Aeidxilated Drops (another way). — Boil a pound and a haK of sugar with a pint of water and three tea-spoonfuls of tartaric acid until it is brittle ; then drop it from the point of a knife upon an oiled slab or dish. In order to ascertain when the sugar is sufficiently boQed, dip a stirring stick into the syrup, and drop some of it into cold water ; when it stiffens and snaps

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immediately it is sufficiently done; but great care must loe taken that the fire is not too strong, and that the sugar does not boil over or bum. If there is any danger of this, a small piece of butter may be thrown in. Time, about twenty minutes. Probable cost for this quantity, lOd.

Acidulated. Lemonade. — To three pints of boilinp; wrter add four ounces of fresh lemon-juice, haix an ounce of thin lemon-peel freshly cut, and i'our ounces of finely-powdered loaf sugar. ^^Tien cold, strain through a jellybag. If not wanted immediately, it must be bottled and carefully corked.

Acidulated Pudding.— Take the thin rind of thi-ee lemons and two Seville oranges, with a quarter of a pound of sugar : place them in a bowl with a pint of boiling water, and let them remain about an hour and a half; then remove the rinds, and add the juice of the lemons. Put thi-ee or four slices of spongecake into a glass dish, and strain the liquid over them ; let them soak till they have absorbed the s^Tup, then pour over them a good custard, and strew a little pink sugar over the top. Sufficient for four or five persons. Probable cost. Is. 2d.

Acorn Coffee. — In Germany "acorn coffee" is used; and greatly Uked, as a substitute for ordinary colfce, and is considered to be very strengthening for consumi^tive people and delicate children. The acorns are gathered in autumn when they are ripe, shelled, and, after being cut into pieces of the size of coffeeberries, they are thoroughly dried in front of the fire, or in a cool oven. They are then roasted like ordinar^' coftee, until they become a cinnamon-brown colour. Immediately after roasting, the acorns are ground or pounded in a mortar, to prevent their becoming tough. "Whilst the coffee is being ground or pounded, a very little butter is added, and the coffee is then placed in au^-tight bottles. For children : prepare in the same way as ordinary coffee, using a quarter of an ounce to a pint of water, adding milk and sugar to taste. Young children should take it with two or three parts of milk. For adults: half an ounce of the coffee may be used to a pint of water. Acorn coffee and ordinary coffee are frequently mixed, and the decoction is found very palatable. In their raw state, acorns are known to be powerful!}astringent, but they lose this quahty in the process of roasting. In some respects acom coffee is preferable' to coffee proper, having none of the drying properti-^-s ctt-:buted to the latter.

Adelaide Pudding. — Put a pint of ฆwater and the thinly-peeled rind and juice of a lemon into a saucepan. Brir.g it slowly to a boil ; then take it off the fire and stir into it, while hot, half a pound of b-.itter and a cupful of sugar; mix -^vith it, very gradually and smoothly, half a poxmd of flour; let it cool; add six well-beaten eggs and a tea-spoonful of baldng-powder. Half fill some buttered cups, and bake in a quick oven. Time to bake, about twenty minutes. Sufficient for one dozen cups. Probable cost. Is. 4d.

Adelaide Sandwiches.— Cut up cold

cliickcn and ham in small squares, in the proportion of two-thirds of chicken to one-third of ham. Next place two large table-spoonfuls of sauce and one of curry paste in a stewpan, and when they boil add the claicken and ham, mixing all well together. Prepare thin dices of stale bread, cut in small ciiclcs, by frying them in clarified butter. Spread the prepared chicken and ham slightly between two slices of the bread. Upon the top of each sandwich place a baU, about the size of a walnut, and composed of grated Parmesan cheese and butter in equal parts, kneaded into a paste. Place the sand-ndches on a baking-cloth, bake for five minutes in a brisk oven, dish up on a napkin, and serve as a second- course savoury dish.

Admiral's Sauce. — Make a pint of good melted butter, and put into it one tea-spoonful of chopped capers, three or four eschalots, chopped, four pounded anchovies, and a little thin lemon-rind. Let all simmer gently; add pepper, salt, and the juice of half a lemon, and serve in a tiu-een. Time to simmer, half an hour. Probable cost, 8d. Sufficient for a pint of sauce.

Agnew Pudding. — Pare and core eight russets, and boil them to a pulp with the rind of half a lemon. Beat up the yolks of thi-ee eggs, and add to them tliree ounces of melted butter ; sweeten to taste, and beat all together. Line a pudding-dish with puff paste, pour in the mixture, and bake until it becomes a light bro\sTi colour. Time to bake, thirty minutes. Probable cost, 8d. Sufficient for ;four persons.

Albany Cakes. — Lightly beat six eggs, and stir them into a quart of milk ; add a teaspoonful each of bicarbonate of soda and salt, dissolved in a little hot water. Stir in sufficient fine flour to mako a thick batter. Butter small tins the size o1 " tea-saucei', and half fill them with the mixture. Bake them in a quick oven. This makes very nice cakes, which are much used for breakfast in America. Time to bake, twenty minutes. Probable cost, lOd.

Albemarle Pudding.— Take a quarter of a pound of sweet and three or four bitter almonds ; blanch and pound them, being carefiil not to let them oil. Beat four eggs and add to them their weight in sifted sugar ; put them on the fire to heat, but on no account allow them to boil ; let them get cold, and then stir in the almond paste. Beat altogether to a froth, and while in this state put the mixture into a welloiled tin, and bake immediately. Time to bake, half an hour. Sufficient for f oxir or five persons. Probable cost. Is.

Albert Cake or Biscuits. — T^.v; the

yc^.ks of twelve eggs and the whites Ci. i;wo, and beat them up with ten ounces of pounded sugar and eight ounces of finely - chopped almonds, for twenty minutes. Whisk the remaining whites of the eggs, and mix with them six ounces of flour, two ounces of finelyshred candied orange-peel, a tea-spoonful of cinnamon powder, half a tea-spoonful of ground cloves, and a little grated lemon-rind. Slix aU thoroughly together, and pour the

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batter into a convenient sized mould, and bake in an oven with a moderate beat for about an liour. When aono, and sufficiently cold, cut

CAKE MOULD.

into thin slices ready for serving. Albert biscuits may be also baked in small tins or moulds, which should be buttered and floured. Probable cost, 2s. 6d. Sufficient for a quart mould.

Albert Pudding. — Beat half a pound of butter quite thin, then gradually mix with it five well-beaten eggs, half a pound of flour, and si.x ounces of loaf sugar on which the rind of a lemon has been grated ; add half a pound of stoned raisins, and place the entir-e mixture in a mould wliich has been well buttered and lined

ALBERT PUDDING.

with slices and stars made of citron, peel, and figs. Tie it up closely, and steam or boil it for at least three hours. Serve it with good melted butter, flavoured with lemon and brandy. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost, 2s., exclusive of brandy.

Albert Pudding (another way). — Beat a quarter of a pound of butter to a cream, and stir into it the yolks of three eggs. Add gradually a quarter of a pound of sugar, quarter of a pound of flour, quarter of a pound of sultana raisins, and last of all, the whites of the eggs, well whisked. Pour into a buttered mould, cover -with an oiled paper and a cloth, and steam it. Serve with wine sauce. Time to steam, three hours. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for foTO- persons.

Albert's (Prince) Pudding.— Lay the thin rind of a lemon over half a pound of crumbled Savoy cake, and pour over them haK a pint of boiling milk ; add a good pinch of salt, tjhe yolks of four eggs and the whites of two, together with a table-spoonful of powdered sugar. Poiu" the whole, when well mixed, into a buttered mould, and steam it for nearly an

hour. A little jam served with this pudding is an improvement. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost. Is. 3d.

Alderman's Pudding. — lour three pints of boiling milk over six taolc-spoonf uls of finely-grated bread-crimibs, and soak for half an hour. Shred finely half a pound of finn beef suet ; mix with it a heaped table-spoonful of stoned ra-isins and another oi cui-rants ; add a little sugar and grated nutmeg and the rind of haK a lemon, choppea finely. Mix these ingredients together with five eggs well beaten. Line the edges of a shallow pie-dish with good crust, place the pudding in it, and bake. It is also very nice boiled. Tune to bake or boil, forty minutes. Sufficient for six or eight persons. Probable cost, 2s.

Ale-Berry (Scotch Brown Caudle). — Mix two large spoonfuls of oatmeal groats in a little water, and gradually add to it half a pint of boihng beer or porter ; pour the mixtm-e into a saucepan, and boil it ; grate a little whole ginger into it, and any seasoning which may be preferred ; sweeten it to taste. Time, ten minutes to boil. Sufficient for one person. Probable cost, 6d.

Ale Cup. — Squeeze the juice of a lemon into a round of hot toast; lay on it a thin piece of the rind, a table-spoonful of powdered sugar, a little grated nutmeg or powdered allspice, and a sprig of balm. Pour over these one glass of brandy, two of sherry, and three pints of mild ale. Do not allow the balm to remain many minutes. Sufficient for five or six persons. Probable cost, 2s.

Ale, Draught (to keep in good condition). — Keep the ale in a cool, dry, well- ventilated cellar, with a temperature of from fifty to sixty degrees. If allowed to fall below fifty degrees the appearance of the beer may be spoilt; if it rises above sixty or sixty-five degrees it may tiim sour. Place the cask firmly and securely on its stand, and leave it undisturbed for the first twenty-four hours, as if drawn too soon the beer may never brighten at all. Leave the vent-peg loose for twelve hours after the ale is placed on its stand, and then if it has ceased to efl^ervesce, but not unless, drive it in tightly. If the ale is not to be used immediately loosen the vent for three or four minutes each day. With this exception the vent may be left untouched, as if too much air is let into the barrel the ale will become flat. When it is necessary to tilt the barrel, raise it steadily at the back end and fasten it securely, so that it need not afterwards be disturbed. It may then be drawn off, and remain good until the very last. As soon as a cask is empty cork it up at once, or it will "ecome foul.

Ale Flip. — Put into ii saucepan three pints of ale, a table-spoonful of sugar, a b.ade of mace, a clove, and a small piece of butter, and bring the liquid to a boil. Beat the white cf one egg and the yolks of two thoroughly, mixing with them a table-spoonful of cold ale. Mix all together, and then pour the whole rapidly from one large jug to another from a good height, for some minutes, to froth it thoroughly, but do

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not allow it to get cool. Probable cost, Is. 4(1. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Ale or Porter Jelly.— Prepare calf'sfeet jelly in the ordinary way, but instead of using wine take the same proportion of porter or ale. Though this is sometimes recommended in illness, for ordinaiy purposes wine is much to be preferred in the making of calf's-feet jelly.

Ale Posset. — Boil a pint of new milk and pour it over a slice of toasted bread. Stir in the beaten yolk of an egg, and a piece of butter the size of a nutmeg, and sugar to taste. Mix these with a pint of hot ale, and boil for a few minutes. When the scum rises it is sufficiently ready. Time, five minutes to boil. Probable cost, 8d. Sufficient for four- persons.

Ale, To Mull. — Put half a pint of ale, a clove, a little whole ginger, a piece of butter the size of a small marble, and a tea-spoonful of sugar, into a saucepan, and bring it to boiUng point. Beat two eggs ^\-ith a table-spoonful of cold ale, and pour the boiling ale into them, and then into a large jug. Pass the whole from one jug into another for some minutes, and at a good height. Eeturn it to the saucepan and heat it again, but do not allow it to boil. Time, a quarter of an hour. Probable cost, 6d. Sufficient for one person.

Ale, with Cheese. — Crumble about a quarter of a pound of Cheshire or Gloucester cheese, and put it into a saucepan with a small tea-spoonful of sugar, another of mustard, and enough ale to cover it. Let it remain on the fire imtil thoroughh^ melted, stirring all the time, and then add the yolk of an egg. Serve it oft a very hot di.sh, and stick all over it little sippets of toasted bread, or pieces of pulled bread. Time to prepare, fifteen minutes. Probable cost, 6d. Sufficient for three or four persons.

Allemand Sauce. — Put into a saucepan one pint of white stock, with, a little salt, six mushi-ooms, a thin strip of lemon-peel, a little parsley, three onions, and a bunch of savoury herbs. Let it boil, then di-aw it to the side of the fire, and allow it to simmer slowly for half an hour or more. Thicken it -vx-ith a little flour, let it boil for a few minutes, and strain. Add the beaten yolks of three eggs, and replace it on the fire. Stir it constantly, and make it thoroughly hot; but it must not boil up again, or the sauce will be spoiled. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for a pint of sauce.

Allemand Sauce (another way).— Put into a saucepan two ounces of butter; when melted, stir in briskly a dessert- spoonful of flour and half a pint of white stock, or failing that, water. Add a little lemon-peel, salt and pepper to taste, half a tea-spoonful of sugar, an onion, a little nutmeg, and a bunch of savoury herbs. Let all simmer by the side of the fire for a little while, then strain. Mix with the sauce half a cupful of milk, and the yolk of one egg ; put it on the fire once more, stirring briskly all the time, and when nearly boiling, it is ready to serve. Time, fortj- minutes. Probable cost,

8d. Sufficient for three-quarters of a pint of sauce.

Allspice, Essence of.— Pour two

di-achms of oil of pimento very gradually into thi-ee ounces of spirits of wine, and let it stand

I for a few minutes. Put it into a bottle and

I cork it closely. Probable cost, Is. 8d. Five I or six drops will flavour a pint.

Allspice, Tincture of. — Put two ounces^ of powdered allspice into a bottle with one pint of brandy. Let it soak for a fortnight, shaking;

ฆ it up every three days. Pour it into anothei 1 bottle, leaving the sediment, and cork it closely.

I Half a tea-spoonful will flavour a pint. Probable cost, exclusive of the brandy, 4d.

I

! Almack's Preserve. — Take two dozen

plums, one dozen apples, and one dozen pears : split the plums and take the stones out, pare

j and core the apples and pears, and place all the

I fruit in alternate layers in a deep jar. Place the jar in the oven, in a shallow dish containing boiling water. A\Tien the fruit is well mixed, put a pound of sugar to every pound of fruit,,

I and pour the whole into a preserving-pan. Stiiconstantly, and boil for forty minutes or moi-e, or until the mixture thickens. Pour it out, and cut into slices ready for use. Time, four

I to six hours. Probable cost, 3s. Seasonable j from August to October.

j Almond Cake, Plain. — Blanch and

pound in a mortar three ounces of sweet j almonds and seven or eight Tjitter almonds. Rub the rind of a lemon upon four ounces of loaf sugar, and pound this with the almonds. Add the yolks of four eggs well beaten, and a piece of butter the size of a walnut. Work in a quarter of a pound of fine flour, and, lastly, I the whites of the eggs beaten to a solid frothPut into a well-buttered moul(;l, and bake in a good oven. Time, three-quarters of an hour.^ Probable cost, 9d.

Almond Cake, Rich. — Blanch and

pound in a mortar very thoroughly eight ounces of sweet and one oimce of bitter almonds. Add six table-spoonfuls of sifted sugar and eight eggs well beaten. Dry before the fire six tablespoonfuls of fine flour, and work this in with the rest. The rind of a lemon finely-grated will be an improvement. A quaiier of a pound of perfectly sweet butter beaten to a cream must now be put in, a little at a time ; and great care should be taken to keep on beatinglightly during the whole process of making the cake, or it will be heavy. Put the mi-xture intO' a well-buttered mould, allowing room for the cake to rise, and bake it in a quick oven, but do not allow it to biu-n. Time to bake, about an hour. Probable cost, 2s.

Almond Cakes (or Macaroons).—

Blanch and pound six ounces of sweet abiionds with one pound oi sifted sugar. Add the whites of six eggs thoroughly whisked, two ounces of ground rice, and a table- spoonful of brandy. Beat all well together, and drop the mixture in small quantities on wafer-paper, leaving a little distance between each. Bake in a moderate oven. It is best to bake one little cake first, and if it is at all heavy to add a little more

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ฆwhite of egg. Place a strip of blanched almond in the middle of each cake, and do not let them bake too brown. Time, about twenty minutes. Probable cost, Is. 6d.

Almond Candy (or Hardbake).—

BoU one pound of sugar and half a pint of water until it becomes brittle when dropped in cold water ; then add a quarter of a pound of almonds blanched and split, the juice of half a lemon, and one ounce of butter. Boil until the candy hardens at once in the water. Pour it out on a well-oiled dish. AVTien cold, it may be taken off the plate and kept for use in a tin box. Time, half au hour. Probable cost, 7d.

Almond Cheesecakes. — Blanch and pound foui' ounces of sweet and five or six bitter almonds with a few drops of water ; add a quarter of a pound of sugar rubbed with lemon-rind, a spoonful of cream, a small piece of butter, and the whites of two eggs thoroug-hly

TARTLET-TINS.

whisked. Mix, and fill small tartlet-tins, lined with puff paste, and bake in a moderate oven for twenty minutes. Probable cost, 8d.

Almond Chocolate Drops. — Put a

metal mortar in a hot oven till it is well heated, throw into it a quarter of a pound of cake chocolate, broken into small pieces ; pound it to a paste, then mix with it a quarter of a pound of finely-sifted sugar. Blanch, slice, and dry in a cool oven; two ounces of sweet almonds ; roll each slice smoothly in a little of the chocolate paste, and put them upon sheets of writingpaper till they are cold. Time to prepare, about one hour. Probable cost, 8d. Sufficient for half a pound of flrops.

Almond Creams.- — Blanch and poimd five ounces of sweet and one ounce of bitter almonds to a paste; put to this loaf sugar to taste, rubbed with lemon-rind, and pounded. Rub smoothly two table-spoonfuls of flour with a quart of milk, or, if it can be obtained, use a pint and a half of cream; add the yolks of three eggs well beaten. Put the whole, when weU mixed, into a saucepan, set it on the fire, and stir constantly until it thickens ; but on no account allow it to boil. The whites of the eggs may be whisked, and a little placed on the top of each glass. Time, about ten minutes \ to boil the cream. Probable cost, with milk. Is. 3d. Sufficient for a dozen custard-glasses.

Almond Cream Ice. — Blanch and

pound two ounces of sweet almonds with a tea-spoonful of rose-water and a little loaf sugar; add gradually a quart of cream, and boil gently for a few minutes. Let it cool slowly, and place it in the ice-pail. Serve with spongecakes. Time to freeze, about half an hour. Probable cost, 3s. 6d., with cream at Is. 6d. per pint.

Almond Croquantes. — Blanch and pound half a pound of sweet abnonds, with half a pound of sugar rubbed on the rind of half a lemon, and a glass of white wine. Add a quarter of a pound of butter and the yolks of fom- eggs. Mix all into a stiff paste, roll out, cut it into diamonds, stars, &c., and bake these in a quick oven. Dip them for a minute into boiling sugar, and let them drain until cool. Keep them in a di-y place, and they will be useful to garnish any kind of sweet dish. Time, about half an horn-. Probable cost, Is. 6d.

Almond Custard.— Place in a saucepan over the fire a pint of new milk or cream, with a few lumps of sugar rubbed on the rind of a lemon, a stick of cinnamon, and four bitter almonds. Let it simmer gently for ten minutes. Blanch and pound two ounces of sweet almonds, with a little rose-water to prevent oiling. Mix the ingredients well together, and add the yolks of four eggs, well beaten. Stir the custard gently over a moderate fire until it thickens, but on no account allow it to boil ; and pour into glasses. Probable cost, made with milk, 9d. Sufiicient for six or seven glasses.

Almond Custard (another way). — Blanch and pound half a pound of sweet and five or six bitter almonds, and add a table-spoonful of rose or orange-water to prevent oiUng. Mix graduall}' with this a pint of cream, half a pint of milk, the yolks of six eggs, well beaten, and a little sugar. Stir the custard over the fire gently till it thickens, or it may be baked in cups, if preferred. Time, ten minutes to boil. Probable cost, 2s. 8d. Sufiicient for nine or ten glasses.

Almond Darioles. — Beat two ounces of fresh butter to a cream. Mix with it the same weight of flour, a heaped table-spoonful of sugar, half a pint of milk and half a pint of cream, four well-whisked eggs, and a httle chopped lemon-peel. Mix all well together, and then add, a drop at a time, a little essence of almond, to suit the taste ; too much of the essence wiU make the dish disagxeeable. Stir over the fire for ten minutes. Line dariole moulds with tartlet paste, fill them three parts with the batter, and bake in a quick oven until the pastry is sufficiently ready. Turn the daiioles out of the moulds, strew sifted sugar over them, and seiwe. Time to bake, about twenty minutes. Sufficient to fill about haK a dozen dariole moulds. Probable cost. Is. 8d.

Almond Diamonds. — Blanch and pound six ounces of sweet almonds ; add six ounces of finely-sifted sugar, and mix them to a stiff paste with some white of egg. Strew a little sugar on the board, and roll out the paste to the thickness of a penny-piece, then stamp it into diamonds with a pastry-cutter. Bake in a cool oven, and when cold, brush them over with a little syrup, strew sugar over them, and dry them in the oven. Time to bake, twenty minutes. Probable cost. Is. Sufficient for about two dozen diamonds.

Almond-Dust, Burnt — This is made by pounding any quantity of blanched sweet almonds, which have been thoroughly browned

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in a moderate oven. This dust is chiefly used for garnishing cakes and sweet dishes.

Almond Fluramery. — CoTcr one ounce of isinglass with water : let it stand half an hour, then stir it into a pint and a half of new milk or cream. Place aU in a saucepan with one ounce of sweet and one ounce of bitter almonds which have been previously blanched and pounded, and eight or nine lumps of sugar — in the lump for fear of dust — on wliich a httle lemon has been rubbed. Stir gently over a fire until the isinglass is thoroughly dissolved. Strain it carefully. Pour it into a mould ฆwhich has been wetted with cold water, and let it stand until quite firm. The isinglass will take about fifteen minutes to dissolve. Probable cost, a made with milk, Is. 8d. Sufficient for a quart mould, which will be enough for six or eight persons.

Almond. Fritters. — Blanch and pound two ounces of sweet ahnonds with a little water : mix them gradually in one pint of new milk or cream with two table-spoonfuls of ground rice and the well-beaten yolks of four eggs, and the whites of two. Sweeten according to taste. Melt two ounces of butter in the frj-ing-pan, and, when hot, pour in the mixture. Stir it until it stiffens ; it is sufficiently cooked when it is goldcn-bro-wTi. Cover it with sifted sugar. Time to fry, five minutes. Probable cost, if made with milk, Is. Sufficient for three or four persons.

Almond Gauffres. — ^lix a table-spoonful of fine flour with a little sugar, the rind of a lemon chopped small, and two eggs. When thoroughly mixed, add to them foiu- ounces of blanched and finely - sliced sweet almonds. Make a baking-tin quite hot, and oil it well. Spread the mixture on it verj' thin, and bake it in a moderate oven until slightly coloured. Take it out and stamp it in rounds, and fold each over a reed in the shape of a small horn. [ This must be done while they are hot, and great care must be taken not to break them. FUl them with a little bright-coloured jam, and put them in a hot place to dry. Probable cost. Is.

Almond Gingerbread.— Melt half a pound of treacle with two table-spoonfuls of butter, and add to them two table-spoonfuls of flour and two of ground rice, a small cupful of sugar, a little chopped lemon and candied j peel. WTien these ingredients are thoroughly mixed, put to them a quarter of a pound of [ almonds blanched and pounded. Beat well together for a few minutes, then bake in email cakes on a weU-oUed tin. The oven must not be hot. Time to bake, forty minutes. Probable cost, is. 6d. per pound

Almond Icing for Cakes.— Blanch one i pound of sweet almonds and eight or nine j bitter almonds. Pound them iu a mortar, four i or five at a time, pouring in, eveiy two or three j minutes, a few dropij of water to prevent them oiUng. Add to them one pound of sifted sugar, ! and the whites of four eggs, and whisk to a I froth. WTien all are well mixed together, lay , the icing on the cake, ah-eady baked, a little more than half an iach thick, as smoothly and j

evenly as possible. Put it in a cool oven to dry. The sugar icing goes over this. Time to dry, nearly an hour. Probable cost, Is. 6d. per pound.

Almond Jelly. — Put one ounce and a half of best isinglass, a quart of water, a little sugar, and a quarter of a pound of blanched and poimded almonds into a saucepan. Let them boil half an hour. Strain the Liquid carefully tkrough a jelly-bag, flavour it with a little brandy, and pour it into a wet mould. If calf'sfoot stock is used, the ahnonds should be boiled with a little sugar and water separately for some time, to extract the flavour, then the Uquid mixed with the stock, and all boiled up together again, with a tea-spoonful of isinglass to a quart of stock. Time, an hour and a half. Probable cost, 2s., without the brandy. Sufficient for a moderate-sized mould.

Almond Jumbles.— Work two ounces

of butter into half a pound of flour, then add two table-spoonfuls of sifted sugar, a little lemon-juice, and two oixnces of sweet and four or five bitter ahnonds, blanched and beaten to a paste with the white of an egg. IMix thoroughly, roll it out rather thin, cut into small round cakes, place them on well-oiled tins, and bake in a quick oven. Time to bake, ten minutes. Probable cost, Is. 4d. per pound.

Almond M6ringues. — Whisk the whites of two eggs to the firmest possible froth, mix with them a quarter of a pound of sifted sugar and a quarter of a pound of almonds blanched and powdered. Have ready some pieces of writing-paper fastened upon a board, to prevent the meringues being too much coloured at the bottom, and di'op them upon it in the form of a half egg. This must be done as quickly as possible, or the shape will be spoilt. Place them in a moderate oven, and, when they are firm, take them out, scoop out a little of the inside, place them on clean paper, upside down, and return them to the oven, and when they are crisp through, they are done. When ready to serve, place jam or cream inside, and join them together with the white of an egg. Time to bake, half an hour. Probable cost, 8d. Sufficient for a dozen meringues.

Almond Milk. — Blanch and pound four ounces of sweet and six bitter almonds to a paste, adding a few drops of orangeflower-water every now and then, to prevent oiUng. Add a quart of cold water, and let it stand two or three hours, then strain and bottle for use. A table-spoonful of brandy may be added if Uked. "^.Vhen wanted, a Uttle water must be mixed with the milk, and sweetened, and it wiU be found to be a veiy refreshing beverage for feverish patients. Time, four hours. Probable cost, 4d. Sufficient for a quart of milk.

Almond NoUfat. — Blanch and chop roughly six ounces of sweet and five bitter almonds, and put them in a cool oven tiU they are shghtly browned. Put three ounces of sifted sugar into a saucepan, and when it is dissolved throw in the almonds, and mix all together for a few minutes. The ahnonds must be hot when they are put into the saucepan. Spread

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the paste about a quarter of an inch thick, quickly and evenly on a well-oiled slab, cut it into fingers, strew some small white comfits over these, and arrange them in a pile. Or, the nougat may be spread on a well-oiled piedish, and when it has taken the form, turned upon a dish. Tho nougat should be made and moulded as quickly as possible, or it will harden. Probable cost, 9d., for this quantity. Sufficient for a small dish.

Almond Omelet. — Beat four eggs with a little milk for a minute or more. Have ready as many sweet almonds as may be wished, blanched and pounded. Put into an omeletpan a piece of butter the size of a large egg; let it be quite hot, but not bro-mied ; pour in the mixture, stirring it gently until it begins to set. Then aiTange it nicely, lay the pounded almonds on the top, and double the omelet over, to cover the almonds completely. Keep shaking the pan, and add a little butter if it seems likely to stick. When it is a nice golden-brown, place it on a hot dish, and cover -svith a little sifted sugar. Time, five minutes to fry. Probable cost, 7d. Sufficient for two persons.

Almond Paste (To Make Quickly).

— Pound as many almonds as are required, moijteningwith white of egg to prevent oiling, and then roll them -s^-ith a rolling-pin until they are smooth. They will be nicer if they have been kept in a warm place. This quickly-made ahnond paste is very useful for garnishing pastry.

Almond^ Pastry.— Blanch and pound to a paste three ounces of almonds and a little rose-water. Add to them gradually four ounces of loaf sugar and an equal weight of fine flour. Stii' in the well- whisked whites of two eggs, and roll out on a pastry-board. Stamp out any pretty shapes that may be fancied ; bake in a moderate oven, and keep in a diy place in a tin box to ornament sweet dishes of any description. Time to bake, eight or nine minutes. Probable cost, 8d.

Almond Pudding, Boiled.— Blanch

and pound with a little water three ounces of sweet and four or five bitter almonds; add a pint of new milk, sugar to taste, a little nutmeg, a table-spoonful of flour mixed smoothly, a table-spoonful of grated bread-crumbs, two eggs well beaten, and lastly, the whites of two eggs whisked to a froth. Pour the mixture into a well-buttered mould, and boil quickly for three-quarters of an hour. AVhen done, let it stand for a few minutes before turning out. Probable cost. Is. Sufficient for four persons.

Almond Pudding, Jewish.— Put four ounces of sweet almonds, and three bitter ones, into a saucepan of cold water. Heat it gradually, and when too hot to bear the fingers put the almonds into a basin, slip off the skins, and throw them at once into cold water. Dry them well, and pound them in a mortar until they form a smooth paste ; drop a tea-spoonful of cold water over them two or three times to prevent them oiling. ilix with them four ounces of powdered loaf sugar, and add two table-spoonfuls of rose water, together with the

-,^olks of four, and the whites of three, eggs well beaten. Stir briskly for ten minutes, pour into a well-oiled mould, and bake in a quick oven. Turn the pudding out of the dish before serving, and pour round it a thick syrup, flavoured with the rind and juice of a lemon, and coloured with cochineal. Time, half an hour to bake. Probable cost, lOd. Sufficient for three or four persons.

Almond Pudding, Plain.— Soak three table-spoonfuls of finely-grated bread-crumbs in milk. Add four ounces of blanched and pounded almonds, a piece of butter the size of an egg melted in a pint of new milk, sugar to taste, a tea-spoonful of grated Icmon-rind, a scrape of nutmeg, and three eggs well beaten. A glass of sheriy or raisin wine may be added. Place in a pie-dish lined with paste, and bake in a moderate oven. Time, half an hour. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for three or four persons.

Almond Pudding, Rich.— Blanch and beat to a paste a quarter of a pound of sweet almonds and five or six bitter ones, with a little water to prevent oiling ; add a little sugar rubbed on lemon-rind, a piece of butter the size of an egg, melted with a glass of wann cream, five eggs well beaten, a little nutmeg, and a glass of shei'ry. Put the mixture into a pie-dish and bake in a moderate oven, or put it into buttered cups, and tui-n out. Serve with sweet sauce. Time to bake, half an honr. Probable cost, 2s. 4d. Sufficient for four persons.

Almond Pudding (another way). — Line a pie-dish with puff paste. Blanch and pound half a pound of sweet almonds with a little oi-ange-water. Add a quarter of a pound of melted butter, three table-spoonfuls of cream, the rind and juice of a lemon, four eggs well beaten, and a little brandy. Mix all together, put it in the dish, and bake in a moderate oven. Serve with brandy sauce. Time to bake, half an hour-. Probable cost, 2s. 4d. Sufficient for four persons.

Almond Puflfs. — Blanch and pound two ounces of sweet almonds with a little water. Add two table-spoonfuls of finely-sifted sugar, two ounces of clarified butter, two table-spoonfuls of flour. When these are thoroughly mixed, add the beaten yolks of two eggs, and a cupful of cream. Well oil about a dozen

PATTY-PANS.

patty-pans, and half fill them wicn the mixture. Bake in a moderate oven for half an hour. Probable cost, Is. Serve one for each person.

Almond Sauce for Paddings.— Boil gently a quarter of a pint of water and half that quantity of new milk. Pour this slowly, when boiUng — stirring aU the time — upon a

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dessert-spoonful of arrowroot, mixed with a little water. Add sugar to taste, the beaten yolk of an egg, and twenty drops of the essence of sweet almonds. Serve in a tureen. Do not pour the sauce over the pudding, as every one may not like the flavour. A Uttle brandy may be added. Time, about ten minutes to bod. Probable cost, 4d. Sufficient for a medium-sized jjudding.

Almond Sauce (another way). — Blanch and pound two ounces of sweet almonds with a few drops of water. Pour over them, boiling, half a pint of new milk. Mix a tea-spoonful of flour smoothly with a little water and the yolk of one egg. Stir all together briskly, over a moderate fire, until it froths. Serve with any sweet pudding. Time, ten minutes to boil. Probable cost, 6d. Sufficient for a mediumsized pudding.

Almond Soup.— Boil gently four pounds of lean veal, or an old fowl, with the scrag end of a neck of mutton, iu sufficient water to cover it, until the meat is thoroughly cooked, and the gravy good. Strain it and put it again upon the fire, with five or six cloves and a little mace. Blanch and pound one pound of sweet almonds and the hard-boiled yolks of four eggs ; beat these weU together, and add them slowly and smoothly to the stock when it is cool. Boil again, stirring constantly ; thicken with a little flour and butter, and just before serving, add a tea-cupful of cream. Time, three to four hours. Probable cost, 3s. per quart. Sufficient for six or eight persons.

Almond Spice Biscuits. — Put two

pounds of loaf sugar into a saucepan with sufficient water to dissolve it. Have ready two pounds of flour, mixed with two pounds of sweet almonds blanched and pounded, a whole nutmeg grated, the rind of a lemon finely chopped, a tea-spoonful of ground ginger, and a little sugar. Pour the hot syrup into this mixture, and make it into a stift' paste. Roll it into a long, thick piece, and bake in a quick oven. When sufficiently cooked, cut it into convenient pieces, which should be placed before the fire for a little while to dry. These biscuits should not be exposed to the air. Time to bake, about an hour. Probable cost, 3s. 6d.

Almond Sponge- Cake.— Take half a

pound of loaf sugar, rub the rind of a lemon on two or three of the lumps, and crush the whole to powder. Then take five eggs, separate the whites from the yolks, and beat the latter for some minutes ; then shake in the sugar gradually, and beat together. Let the whites be beaten to a solid froth, and add them to the rest, gently stu-ring in the flour, with about twenty di-ops of the essence of almonds. Fill a well-oiled tin three parts full, and bake in a moderate oven. Time to bake, about an hour. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for a moderatesized mould. Almond Syrup (or Orgeat) .— Blanch

and pound three ounces of sweet and four or five bitter almonds thoroughly, adding a little rose-water to prevent oiling. Add gradually one quart of milk and water, and sugar to taste. Boil and strain it, when it will be ready for

use. It is a nice flavouring for sauces, puddings, creams, &c., and also makes a beneficial drink for persons affected with chest - complaints. Time, quarter of an hour. Sufficient for one quart. Probable cost, 6d.

Almond Toffy.— Boil a pound of sugar, with half a pint of water, until it is brittle. Throw in one ounce and a half of sweet almonds, blanched and cut into halves, -with two ounces of butter. It is done when it hardens on a little being put into cold water. Pour out on a well-oiled dish. Time, quarter of an hour. Sufficient for a small dish full. Probable cost, 8d.

Almonds, Candied.— Blanch some al! monds, and fry them in butter or oil until they are nicely browned. Drain and dry them. Boil half a pint of water with half a pound of sugar, and bring it to the candying point — that is, boil until the sugar adheres to the finger and thumb, when a little is taken between them and opened. The finger and thumb must first be dipped in cold water. Pour this upon the almonds boiling hot, and keep on stirring till they are cold. Time, half an hour. Probable cost. Is. 6d. per pound.

Almonds, Coloured. — Blanch and chop, not too finely, as many sweet almonds as may be required, dry them thoroughly, pour a little prepared cochineal into the hands and rub them, and keep them in a warm place. Saffron soaked in water will make them yellow, spinach-juice gi-een. Pound the leaves of the spinach, squeeze the juice, and put it into a little jar, which must be placed in boiling water, and then simmered gently for a few minutes.

Almonds, Croquettes of. —Blanch and pound a quarter of a pound of sweet and seven or eight bitter almonds with three table-spoonfuls of sifted sugar, the white of an egg, and a glass of sherry or raisin wine. Crumble a quarter of a pound of sponge-cake and add it to the mixture, with the frothed whites of three more eggs. Beat it into a solid paste, and mould it into small balls, about the size of a small orange. Dip them first into egg, then bread-crumbs, then sugar ; frj- them a few minutes in boiling butter or oil; drain and serve. Time to fry, six minutes. Probable cost, Is.

Almonds, Sugared. — Boil together a syrup made of one pound of sugar and one pint of water. Blanch one pound of sweet almonds, and put them in ; let them boil for some minutes. Take them out and drain them ; let the s^Tup boil until thick, then return the almonds, and take them out when coated with sugar, which will be in a minute or two. They should be thoroughly dried, and kept in a warm place. Time to boil, ten minutes.

Almonds, To Blanch.— Put some almonds with a little cold water upon the fire, and let them remain until the water is hot, but not boiling. Drain them and di-aw the skins off, placing ihem immediately into cold water, to preserve the colour.

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Almonds, To Pound.— Almonds pound

more easily when they ai'c blanched for two or three days before using, and kept in a warm place. They should be tirst slightly chopped, tlien thi-own into a mortar, and beaten until they are qiute smooth, a few drops of any suitable liquid, such as rose-water, orange- water, white of egg, lemon- juice, or cold water, being added constanth' to prevent them oiling.

Almond and Bread Pudding.—

Blanch and pound thi'ee ounces of sweet and si.Y or seven bitter tilmoiids, and allow them to simmer gently in half a pint of milk by the side of the tire for a quarter of an hour, to draw out the flavour. Then i^our them into four ounces of moderately stale ciusts of bread. 8tir in a quailer of a pound of beef suet finely shred, two table-spoonfuls of moist sugar, the same of lioui-, the finely-minced rind and the juice of a lemon, and two well-beaten eggs. Beat the mi.vture thoroughly, and pour it into a well-oiled mould ; let it boil without stopping for three hours, and serve with sweet sauce. Sufficient for four- or five persons. Probable cost, lOd.

Almond and Orange Ice. — Blanch and pound one ounce of sweet almonds with a little orange-tiower-water to prevent them oiling. Put them into a saucepan with one pint of ฆcream and the yolks of three eggs well beaten. Stir constantly till the egg thickens, then pomit out, let it cool, put it into the freezing-pot, and work the handle until it is sufficiently frozen. Put half a pound of loaf sugar and a cupful of water into an enamelled saucepan, wdth the white of an egg beaten to a stiff froth, and the thin rind of an orange. Put it on the fire and bring it to a syrup, then add to it three-quarters of a pint of orange-juice. Slr.dn this and freeze it like the almond cream. Put a piece of cardboard into the mould, dividing it in two. Place the almond ice on one side and the orange ice on the other. Remove the cai-dboard, close the moidd, and let it remain in the ice until wanted. Time, half an hour to freeze. .Sufficient for a quart of ice. Probable cost, 4s.

Almond and Potato Pudding.—

Blanch and pound three ounces of sweet almonds and four or five bitter ones. Put them into half a pint of milk, and allow them to simmer slowly for a quarter of an hour. Mix in smoothly half a pound of cold mealy potatoes, a quarter of a pound of butter, the grated rind and juice of a lemon, a little nutmeg, and three well-beaten eggs. Beat the mixture for some minutes with a wooden spoon. Put it into a well-buttered mould, and bake in a quick oven. Turn out carefully, and serve with sifted sugar or almond sauce. Time to bake, about an hour. Probable cost. Is. 2d. Sufficient for six person?.

Almond and Raisin Pudding.— Soak

a quarter of a pound of the stale crumb of Thread in half a pint of new milk ; add two table- spoonfuls of finely-shred suet, the same of currants washed and picked, a little sugar, the juice and finely-chopped rind of a lemon, three well-beaten eggs, and a table- spoonful of ale. Well butter a mould or basin. Place

raisins in rows round it with four ounces of sweet abnonds blanched and split in altemato rows (the butter will make them stick), and pour the mixture in. Put it into boiling water, and allow it to boil for three houi\s. Turn out and serve with wine sauce. Sufficient for five or six poisons. Probable cost. Is.

Alpha Rocks.— Beat half a pound of butter to a cream, then stir in three-quarters of a pound of flour, six ounces of loaf sugar, two ounces of sweet almonds blanched and sliced, and one egg ; mix thoroughly, then drop it in spoonfuls on a well-oiled tin, and bake in a moderate oven. Lemon or citron -peel and currants can be added if approved. Time to bake, about twenty minutes. Probable cost. Is. 2d.

Alum Whey.— Boil in a saucepan half a pint of new milk, and pour into it four- tablespoonfuls of raisin wine. If this does not turn it, add a little more. Let it boil, then put it away from the fire until the cui'd has settled to the bottom. Pom- the whey from the cm-d, and boil it up once more with half a pint of water in which a tea-spoonful of powdered alimi (or more if preferred) and a little sugar have been. dis.solved. Time, thi-ee- quarters of an hour. Probable cost, 8d.

Amber Pudding.— Beat half a pound of butter to a cream. Mix with it a quarter of a pound of flour, six table-spoonfids of breadcrmnbs, sugar to taste, the finely-chopped lind of three lemons, a pinch of salt, and throe well-beaten eggs. Beat all well together, fill a buttered mould, and boil three hours. Fiuelyshred suet may be substituted for the butter. Probable cost, Is. 6d. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Amber Pudding (another way).— Shred finely half a pound of beef suet without skin, and dredge a little flour over it to prevent it adhering. Mix it with a quarter of a pound of flour, four ounces of bread-crumbs, two tablespoonfids of sugar, the grated rind of a lemon, three eggs well beaten, and three table-spoonfuls of orange marmalade. Beat all weU together, put the mixture into a buttered mould, and boil for three hours. Serve with wine sauce. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost. Is. Gd.

Ambrose Pudding.— Beat a quarter of a pound of butter to a cream, add to it two table-spoonfuls of pounded sugar, the juice of two lemons, a coifee-cupful of new milk, three well-beaten eggs, and twenty drops of essence of almonds. In another bowl, mix two tablespoonfuls of chopped raisins, the same of cm-rants, one ounce each of candied lemon, orange, and citron, thi-ee large apples chopped small, two table-spoonfuls of marmalade, and a pinch of salt. Well butter a mould, plaee in it a layer out of each bowl alternately, until both are emptied, and bake in a quick OA-en. This pudding may be eaten either hot or cold. Time, two hours and a half to bake. Probable cost, 2s. Sufficient for five or six persons.

American Breakfast Buns.— Take the

chill off a quarter of a pint of milk, and mix it

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with the same quantity of fresh yoast ; add a quarter of a pound of butter melted, but not hot, sugar to taste, and a couple of eggs well beaten, and then, very gradually, sufficient flour to make a tolerably finn dough. Put it into small tins, well oUing them first ; set them before the fire for about twenty minutes to rise, and bake in a quick oven. Do not make the buns too large. Time to bake, twenty miniites. Sufficient for a dozen buns. Probable cost, 8.1.

American Breakfast (or Griddle Cakes). — ^Miisk two eggs, stir them into a quart of lukewarm milk, and add a tea-spoonful of salcratus, and a salt-spoonful of salt. Mix with them sufficient Indian meal to make a stiff batter, and bake them in small round tins which have been oiled or buttered. Bake in a good oven. Time to bake, twenty minutes. Probable cost, Id. each. This vaR make about two dozen cakes.

American Biscuits (or Waflaes). —

Pom" two pints of good milk into separate vessels. In one put a quarter of a poimd of butter, cut up and melted with a gentle warmth, and aUow it to cool. In the other vessel put eight eggs, beaten up lightly; mix these with the milk gradually. To this add, also gradually, a quarter of a pound of flour, then the milk containing the butter. Stir in a large table- spoonful of strong now yeast, cover the pan, and set it near the fire to rise. WTien the batter is quite light, take what in America is called a waffle-iron, in which the batter can be shut in, baked, and turned over. This is greased, some of the batter is

pom-ed in, and it is put among the coals of a clear bright fire. The biscuits should be sent to table quite hot, half a dozen on ' a plate, witii a little powdered cinnamon and white sugar. They are called Waffles ; and we have heard American ladies complain sadly of being unable to get these delicious biscuits made in England. Waffle-irons may be obtained at JeFvrish ironmongers. They only require a few minutes to bake, and the above ingredients "wtII make sufficient for five or six persons. Probable cost, Is. 6d.

American Oven. — This oven is neither so generally known nor so highly appreciated as it deserves to be. In hot weaither, when a large fire which would heat an oven or roast a joint is most objectionable, this little articic. when once its management is understood, may

AMERICAN OTE^'.

bo used to cook meat and puddings, or even pastry, and will be fotmd to do its work perfectly. It is particularly adapted for those preparations which require to be cooked slowly. A little experience is all that is necessarj' in using it. The only directions whicli can be given are that the oven must not be placed close to the fire, but about a foot and a half distant from it ; that the meat should be turned and basted frequently; and that it should be put down in good time, so that it can be cooked slowly. A very small, though clear fire, is all that is necessary. If these hints are attended to, no difficulty need be experienced in using this convenient and economical ajiparatus. Probable cost, 9s. to 12s.

American Pancakes.— Mix the yolks of four and the whites of two eggs, with two tablespoonfuls of water. Put in a pinch of salt, and add gradually six heaped table-spoonfuls of flour; beat the mixture till it is quite smooth, and then add new milk sufficient to make a thin batter. Put a piece of butter the size of an egg Lato an omelet-pan. Let it melt, but not brown. Then pom- in a little of the mixture — enough to thinly cover the pan. Let it stiffen, loosening it round the edges, and shaking it to prevent it sticking. Throw it up to turn the pancake, and when it is nicely browned on both sides it is ready. Send to table on one dish, piled one over the other, with pounded cinnamon and sifted sugar over each : cut into quarters, and serve hot. Time, five minutes to fry. Probable cost, lOd. Enough to make six pancakes.

American Sandwiches. — Get half a pound of cold boiled ham or tongue, chop it fine, and put it into a basin, with a table-spoonful of chopped pickles, a tea-spoonful of mustard, and a little pepper. Put about six ounces of butter in a basin, and stir it quickly with a spoon till it fomis a kind of cream ; add the chopped meat and seasoning, and mix all thoroughly. Cut some bread into thin slices, and some very tiiui slices of veal, fowl, or game ; spread a slice oฃ

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liie tread with the above mixture, then a slice of the meat ; lay oh another slice of bread, and so on, till the quantity reqixired -is prepared. If out into small shapes, these sandwdches prove very acceptable for breakfast or for evening parties. The above quantities will make about two dozen oixiinary-sked sandvv'iches. Probable cost, 2s.

American Velvet Breakfast Cakes.

— Put a pint of new milk on the fire ; let it simmer a few minutes, but do not allow it to boil. Stir into it a jHeco of butter the size of a walnut. Add a little salt, and three spoonfuls of good yciist, with three well-beaten eggs. IVIix with those sufficient fiour to make a soft 4ปagh, which ^vill bo about three pounds. Knead all well together, aad put the mixture in a \\ปarm place in a basin with a cloth over it, for two hours or more. Then make it up into small cakes, lay them quite near each other on a well-oiled tin, and bake in a quick oven. Time, quarter of an hour to bake. Probable cost. Is. This -vN-ill make about twentyfour cakes, and two are sufficient for each person.

American White Cake.— Beat half a e-ซpf ul of butter to a cream : work in gradually two and a half cupfuls of flour, a cupful of milk, the whites of six eggs, and, last of all, a tea-s]Joonful of cream of tartar, and half a tea-spoG-nful of carbonate of soda. Pour the mixtui-o into a buttered tin, and bake in a quick oven. Directly it is taken out of the oven, brush whisked white of egg over the top, and sift loaf sugar on it. Time to bake, about an hour. Probable cost. Is. Sufficient for a quart mould.

Anchovies. — The best anchovies arc those whicli arc small and plump. The pickle should be red, and the scales white. They are preserved in salt brine, and the bottle which contains them should be kei)t closely covered, as the air soon spoils them. They should be soaked in cold water before being used.

Anchovies, Essence of.— Clean and

remove the bones from one pound of anchovies, beat them into a pulp, and pas.s the soft portion through a sieve, so as to sej^arato the flesh from any small bones, &c. Put those parts of the pulp that vill not pass through the sieve into a jxin with the bones, and simmer them, with the liquor in which they have been ]3ickled, a blade of mace, a little caj-ennc pepper, a heaped teaspoonful of salt, and a pint of water, for twenty minutes, strain, and add the soft portion of the anchovies that passed through the sieve. Boil all together at a moderate heat for a few minutes. Then take the vessel from the fire, and add a quarter of a pint of sti-ong vinegar. Essence of ancho\'ies should l)e kept in small bottles, with the corks covered with bladder, and sealed tฎ render them air-tight. Sufficient to make a quart. Probable cost, 4s.

Anchovies, Essence of (another way). — Eemove the bones from three ancho^^es, and beat them into a paste with four green chilies, or a small quantity of cayenne pepper, and two shalots. Then mix them -with a

quarter of a pint of walnut ketchup, and hali a pint of muskroom ketchup, and preserve the essence in well-closed bottles. Time, half an hour to prepare. Sufficient for one pint bottle. Probable cost, 2s.

Anchovies, Essence of (another way). Beat half a pound of anchovies with the bones into a paste, and put it into a pint of springwater; boil it quickly, till the ancho"vi8S are dissolved, then season it with black or cayenne pepper. If raisin wine be substituted for the water, the essence will be much richer. It should be straiMed through a coarse sieve, and kept closely corked, as the air injm-es it. Essence of anchovies thus made will not be of the bright colour or consistence of that gene- rally sold by oilmen, which is thickened with starch, and coloured with bole Armenia?, or poisonous Venetian red ; but the uncoloured essence is of greatly improved quality and flavour. Time to boil, half an hour. Suffieient for rather more than a pint. Probable cost, Is. 8d., if made with water.

Anchovies, Essence of, Mock.— Boil

a quart of old ale for a quarter of an houj-, let it stand till it is cold; take five Dutch pickled herrings, with their- liquor (removing the heads and roes), poimd or mince the^n finely, and put them into the ale, with a stick of horse-radish scraped ; boil the liquid for twenty minutes, then strain it. Hold a clean frying-pan oxev the fire, that it may be quite dry ; put in a quarter of a poimd of flour; keep stirring it with a wooden spoon, till it is the colour of essence of anchovies ; put the liquor to it, and stir it till it boils ; when cold, bottle it. If not of sufficient colour, put a little bole Armenice to it. Probable cost, Is. id. Sufficient to make two pints and a half.

Anchovies, Pried. — Wash, soak, scale, and dry a dozen anchovies, cut off the heads, open them, and I'cmove the backbone without breaking the fish. This may be easily done, after sufficient soaking. Dip them in a Hght batter, and fry them in boiling oil, or lard, until they are slightly browned. If preferred, they may be soaked for three-quarters of an hour in a little milk, and floured before frjing. Time to fry, five minutes. Probable cost,. Is. 4d. Sufiicient for two or three persons.

Anchovies, Potted. — Potted anchovies arc made in the same way as anchovy paste, spices and cayenne being added to the former. The au- should be carefully excluded, or they AvUl soon lose theii- colom-.

Anchovies, Simple Method of Serving. — Wash the anchovies, and let them soak in water for three or fom- hours before they are -^vanted; scale them and ^^•ipe them dry. Open them, and remove the backbone without dividing the fish. Ai-sange them neatly on a dish, garnish with the white of egg chopped finely, and a little parsley ; cover th'em with oil, and serve. Probable cost. Is., for a haK-piat bottle. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Anchovies, To Fillet.— Soak the anchoA-ies; cut off the heads and fins, scrape

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the skin, and split them open with the fingers and thumbs; remove the backbone, and cut each fillet, or side, in two. They may be seasoned with cayenne, and used for sandwiches. Time to 'soak, four hours. Probable cost. Is., for a half-pint bottle. Sufficient for three or four pei'sons.

Anchovy and Caper Sauce.— Take a

piece of butter the size of an egg ; melt it in a saucepan ; stir into it, with a wooden spoon, half its weight in flour; then add a quarter of a pint of water. "Wlien boiling, add two anchovies boned and chopped small, vnih a dessert-spoonfid of bruised capers. _A little lemon -juice is an improvement. Time, ten minutes. Sufficient for a small dish of fish. Probable cost, 6d.

Anchovy Butter. — Take six pickled anchovies, cut otf their heads, wash and bone them; then pound them with sufficient butter to make a paste, and add a little scalded and chopped parsley. If a pestle and mortar should not be at hand, the anchovies may be made into a paste and mixed with the butter with a broad knife on a piece of board. This butter is very useful to flavour many sauces, especially those that are used for beef steaks. Average cost for a half-pint jar. Is. 8d. Time, half an hour.

Anchovy Butter (another way). — Take three anchovies, wash, bone, and pound them in- a mortar ; pull the stalks from a bunch of parsley, scald and chop it, and then pass it thi'ough a sieve. Mix these ingi-edicnts with half a pound of butter, and when quite blended make quickly into pats. Garnish with parsley. If prettily moulded it looks well on a suppertable. Average cost. Is.

Anchovy Butter Sauce.— Add to half a pint of good brown sauce, or since Espagnole, a piece of anchovy butter half the size of an egg, and also some lemon -juice to conceal the salt taste produced by the butter. Mix thoroughly and serve.

Anchovy Ketchup.— Put half a gallon of mild ale into a saucepan with two dozen pickled anchovies, three blades of mace, one tea-spoonful of sifted sugar, a little whole ginger, six small onions, a couple of cloves, and twenty black peppercorns. Let aU boil up once, then di-aw them from the fire, and allow thean to simmer slowly for three-quarters of an hour. Strain thiough a fine hair sieve, and stir into the strained liquid two table-spoonfuls of mushroom ketchup. AMien it is quite cold, bottle it, and cork it seciu-ely. Probable cost, Is. 6d. per quart. Sufficient for twe quart bottles.

Anchovy Omelette.— Take half a dozen salted anchovies ; soak them in warm water a quarter of an hour to freshen them a little. Cut off the flesh in strips. The fillets of anchovy, bottled in oil, sold at Italian warehouses, answer perfectly. Fry thin slices of bread, cut them into small squares, and on each square lay a little piece of ancho-\y. Beat up, rather more than for an ordinary onelottc, a dozen eggs; season with pepper and s;ilt. With half the quantity make a large, flat, thin omelette, like

a pancake. Do not turn it, but lay it on a liot dish. Over its surface distribute the pieces of fried bread and anchovy. With the icmaindtr of the eggs make another omelette like the first. Lay it ovct the other with the underside uppermost. Set it a few minutes before the fire, or in a gentle oven, to make the two surfaces adhere, and serve with any savoury sauce that suits the taste. Time to fry, five minutes for each omelette. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost, 2s.

Anchovy Paste. — Take a dozen anchovies, scrape them clean, raise the flesh from the bones, and jjound them most thoroughly in a mortar ; then press thc-m through a tine sieve. Add the same weight of butter melted, but not hot. The less butter used the stronger will be the flavour of the anchovies. Time, about half an hour. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for a small jar.

Anchovy Powder. — Pound seme anchovies in a mortar. Kub them through a hair sieve, and make them into a paste with diied and sifted flour. RoU them into cakes, then toast them before the fire, and rub them to powder. If the flavour is liked, grated lemonrind and cayenne may be added after the cakes are baked. Put the powder in a bottle, cork it closely, and it will keep for years. It is useful for flavouring purposes, and makes a nice relish i when sprinkled over sandwiches or toast. Time to prepare, about an hour. Probable cost. Is. for a half-pint bottle. A dessert-spoonful of powder wiU flavour half a pint of sauce.

Anchovy Salad. — Wash six anchovies in water, remove the bones and the iusides, and also the heads, fins, and tails. Put them on a dish with two large lettuces cut small, half a dozen young onions, a salt-spoonful of chopped parsley, and a sliced lemon. Pour over them the juice of a lemon mixed with salad-oil, and send to table. Time to prepare, ten minutes. Probable cost, 6d. Sufficient for a small dish.

Anchovy Sauce. — Take six anchovies, cut off their heads, and wash them well, then let them boil gently in a quarter of a i int of water until they are dissolved. Strain the liquid, and add to it a pnt of melted butter, cayenne and nutmeg to taste, and two tablespoonfuls of port wine. Serve with the fish. The sauce should be poured over boiled fish and round fried fish. Time to boil, half an hour. Sufficient for a medium-sized dish of fish. Probable cost, 8d., exclusive of the wine.

Anchovy Sauce (another way). — Cut the heads off foiu- ancho\-ies, bone them, and pound them in a mortar vnih. sufficient butter to make a paste. Have ready a pint of melted butter, I and mix it gradually and smoothly with the paste. Add cayenne pepper to taste, and the juice of half a lemon, and let all boil up for a minute, stirring all the time. Time to boil, five minutes. Sufficient for a medium-sized dish of fish. Probable cost, 8d.

Anchovy Sauce (another way). — A quick

and easy way of making anchovy sauce is to

I stir- two or thi'ee spoonfuls of prepared

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of iinchovy, which may be bought at any grocer's, into a pint of melted butter. Let the sauce boil, and flavour -with lemon-juice. Time, ten minutes to boil. Probable cost, 4d. Sufficient, two tea-spoonfuls to a pint.

Anchovy Sauce for Beef.— Soak four anchovieb in water for half an hour, then remove the bones, and cut the Hesh into small pieces. Dredge some flour thickly over these, and fry them in a little butter over a gentle fire for five or six minutes. Pour half a pint of stock broth over them, add salt and pejDper if required, and an inch or two of cucmnber cut into dice. Simmer the sauce gently, and before sending to table stir into it a tea-spoonful of bruised capers. Time to simmer, twenty minutes. Pi'obable cost, 6d. Sufficient for five or six i^ersons.

Anchovy Sauce for Salmon.— Incor jDorate with a pint of boiling melted butter a couple of tea-spoonfuls of essence of anchovies, and add cayenne and lemon- juice to suit the taste. A similar sauce may be made with essence of shrimps ; but true shrimp sauce (containing the meat of the shrimps) is nst usually served with salmon. Time, ten minutes. Probable cost, 6d. Sufficient, two tea-spoonfuls of the essence to a pint of sauce.

Anchovy Toast. — Wash five or six anchovies, and cirt ofi: their heads and fins. Fillet thein — that is, take the backbone out and divide the fish into two, from the shoulder to the tail. Make some well-buttered toast, lay the fish upon it, and add miistard and cayenne to suit the palate ; or make the anchovy into a paste {see Anchovy Paste), and spread it over slices of toast, about half an inch thick. Six anchovies are sufficient for two rounds of toast. Probable cost, 4d.

Angelica, Candied. — Take the plant in April : boil it in salt and water until it is tender. Eemove and di-ain it well, scrape the outside, and di-y it in a clean cloth. Place it in a sjTup, and allow it to remain there for three or four days, closely covered. The syrup must be made from the same weight of sugar that there is of fruit, allowing half a pint of water to a pound of sugar, and must be boiled twice a daj-, and poured over the fruit until it is nearly all absorbed ; after which it should be put into a pie-dish, and placed near the fire. Time to make, about ten days. Angelica can seldom be bought in the market.

Angelica Ratafia is a very rich, fine cordial, made by i:)utting half a pound of the shoots of the above plant into two quarts of brandy, with a pint of water, two pounds of sugar, a few cloves, and a little cinnamon. The angelica must infuse for two months in a close vessel before it is strained and bottled. Probable cost, per pint, 3d., exclusive of the brandy.

Annie's (Rich) Cake. — Rub one pound of butter and one pound of lard into four j^ounds of flour ; add a salt-spoonful of salt, twelve teaspoonfuls of baking powder, two poimds of sugar, one pound of i-aisins, three pounds of cm-rants, half a pound of chopped candied

lemon, citron, and orange-peel mixed, a teaspoonful of mixed spices, and eight eggs well beaten. Mix lightly with new milk. Bake in a quick oven. Sufficient for five cakes weighing about two pounds each. Probable cost, Is. each. Time to bake, one hour and a half.

Apple, The.— The apple is a British fruit, and may be eaten raw, or cooked in various ways. The best for eating are : the Margarets, Blenheim Oranges, Eibstone, Golden and other Pippins, Nonpariel Russets, Pearmains, Kentish Codlins, and Dowtons. As a rule the rough-rinded apples are the li^st for eating, while those of smooth exterior are most suitable for preparation. For cooking the most preferable are : the Wellingtons, Colvilles, Rennets, Pearmains, and Russets; while for baking jjurposes the American Pippins occupy a high place. ^

Apple Batter Pudding.— Put into a

bowl half a pound of flour and a little salt, and stir very gradually into it half a pint of milk. Beat it imtil quite smooth, then add three eggs.

I Well butter a pie-dish, and pour about half the batter into it. Place it in a quick oven, and bake it until quite fii-m. Nearly fill the dish with apples, pared, cored, and sliced, and slightly stewed with a little sugar, and lemon-rind, or any other flavouring. Ponr the rest of the batter in, and replace in the oven. Time to bake, one hour and a half. Sufficient for six

I persons. Probable cost. Is.

Apple Black Caps. — Take a few firm, juicy apples, pare them, and take out the cores without breaking the apples. Fill the hollow of each with some pounded sugar and one or two cloves. Place them in a shallow dish with a little sweet wine, sugar to taste, and a little lemon -rind, a few cloves, or any flavouring that may be preferred. Let them stew slowly in the oven until the apples are soft throughout, but do not let them break, and when they are sufficiently done, heat the tops with a salamander, to make them look black. They may be served hot or cold, and wiU keep some days. Time, about half an hour to bake. One will suffice for each person.

A-Pple Butter, American.— Fill a preserving-pan with ai)plcs jjceled, quartered, and cored. Add a slight fiavouring of cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. Cover with good cider, and boil slowly, stirring from time to time with a wooden spoon, until the whole becomes a dark brown jam, with only juice sufficient to keep it soft and buttery. Remove it from the fire, and place in well-covered jars, and in a few weeks it will be ready for use. It makes an excellent substitute for butter, and is very wholesome for childi-en. Time to prepare, five or six hours. Probable cost j)er pint, lOd.

Apple Cakes. — Take two pounds of apples, pare, core, and quarter them. Sl^w them gently with one pound of sugar, the juice and finely-chopped rind of a lemon, a tablespoonful of butter, and half a nutmeg grated. Beat these ingredients thoroughly together, and drop them in small rounds upon a sheet of welloiled paper. Place them in a cool oven, and

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bake them until they are firRi, which will take about a quarter of an hour. They should be kept in a tin box. Probable cost, Is.

Apple Cake Pudding.— Take three pounds of fincly-flavoui-ed baking apples, and boil them to a pulp with the rind of two lemons, a cupful of water, and eight ounces of sugar. Beat them well, and mix with them gradually, six good-sized potatoes, boiled and crushed quite small. Then add three or four wellwhisked eggs, poui- into a buttered mould, and boil qujrkly. Serve with sweet sauce. Time to boil,ซie hour and a half. Sufficient for six persons, i Probable cost. Is. 2d.

Apple Calf's-foot Jelly.— Take four poimds -of good cooking apples, core them, and stew them gently, with the thin rind of two l^naEs, fl^L a quart of water, until they are redS|d d a pulp. Then strain the liquid tM-dHk aFjeUy-bag once or twice, until it is quiwclear. AATien cool, place it in a saucepan with three pints of strong calf's-foot stock, the juice of the lemons, sugar to taste, and the

111 If If III

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JJkiU

JELLY MOULD.

shells and beaten whites of four eggs. Bring it quickly to a boil, and allow it to sinnner for a quarter of an hoiu-, being careful not to stii' it. Draw it from the fire, and let it stand for another quarter of an hour. Strain it two or three times through a jeUy-bag, until perfectly clear. Pour into moulds, and let it stand until next day. Time to stew the apples, about an hour. Sufficient for two quart moulds. Prohable cost, 2s.

Apple Charlotte. — Pare, core, and slice three pounds of good cooking apples, and stew them gently to a pulp, with a httle sugar and the thinly-chopped rind of two lemons. Well butter a mould, and place at the bottom and round it thin slices of stale bread dipped in melted butter. Let the pieces of bread overlap each other, or the apple will escape. Lay a thin shce of bread the shape of the mould over the top, cover it with a plate, and place a weight on it, and bake in a quick oven. Turn it out, and sci've hot, with sifted sugar. Time to bake, one hoiir. Probable cost, Is. Sixfficient for a pint mould.

Apple Charlotte (another way).— Well butter a pie-chsh, then place in it in alternate layers : first bread and butter, without the crust, then apples cored, pared, and sUced, a little sugar, and the juice and thinly-chopped rind of lemon, and repeat until the dish is full. Cover with the peel of the apples, and bake in

a brisk oven. Turn out, and serve with sifted sugar. Time to bake, one horn-. A mediumsized dishful will servo four persons. Probable cost, 8d.

Apple Charlotte (another way). — A very good Apple Charlotte is made of fingerbiscuits instead of ^lieces of bread. The mixture should be poured in hot, and well pressed do%vn, then put into a cool place. It should be eaten cold ; a little whipped cream is an improvement. Time, half an hour to make. Sufficient for five or six persons. Probable cost, Is. 6d.

Apple Chartreuse.— Boil gently a cupful of the best rice and a little finely-gTated lemon-rind in a quart of milk, until the rice is tender and the milk absorbed in it ; add sugar to taste. Then take eight or ten apples, and core -n-ithout breaking them : put them in a dish with a little raspberry or red currant jam in each hollow, and place the rice between the apples until the dish is full. Brush the whole over with the white of an egg, and sift a little sugar over it. Bake in a quick oven. Time to bake, one hovu-. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost. Is.

Apple Cheesecakes.— Pare and core half a pound of apples, and stew them with half a pound of sugar, the finely-chopped rind of a lemon, and a tea-cupful of Avater. Melt three ounces of butter ; take five eggs, leave out the whites of two, beat them well, and mix all thoroughly together. Bake in patty-pans lined with puff paste for a quarter of an hour. Allow one cake for each person. Probable cost, Is., without the puif paste.

Apple Cheese and Cream. — Stew to a thick pulp two pounds of apples, two pounds of sugar, a httle chopped lemon-rind, and one pint of water. Put it into a mould, and when cold, tm-n it out, and poiu- round it a Httle custard made of two cupfuls of new milk, the rind of a lemon, the yolk of an egg, and a teaspoonful of ground rice, mixed together, and boiled for a few minutes. Time to boil, five minutes. Sufficient for fom- or five persons. Probable cost. Is. 6d.

Apple Cream. — Peel three pounds of apples, remove the cores, and cut them in thin sUces. Put them into a saucepan with half a pound of crushed sugar, the rind of a lemon finely shred, half an ounce of ground ginger, and four table-spoonfuls of red wine. Let them sinnner until they are soft enough to press through a sieve, then put them in a dish, and allow them to cool. Boil a quart of cream or new milk, with some nutmeg, and add the apples to it, beating all thoroughly together. Time to simmer, about half an hour. Probable cost. Is. 2d., if made with milk. SufEeient for eight persons.

Apple Cream (another way). — Boil six or seven large apples, with a little cinnamon, to a pulp, with sufficient sugar to sweeten them; the quantity of sugar must be regulated by the acidity of the apples. ^VTien cold, add to them the wcU-whisked whites *of three eggs. Beat aU together until they are nicely frothed ;

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then serve, heaped on a clish. Time to heat, a quarter of an hour. Prohahle cost, 8d.

Sufficient for a small side-dish.

Apple Creamed Tart.— Make an ordinary apple tart, Havoiu-ed and sweetened. When baked, cut out the middle of the top, leaving merely a border all I'ound. Let the apples become quite cold, and then pour a nicely-flavoured custard over it, and strew on the top a little pink sugar. Time, three-quarters of an hour. Probable cost. Is. 6d. Sufficient for half a dozen persons.

Apple Custard.— Take fom- pounds of finely-liavoiu-ed apjoles, and stew them gently, until tender, a pint and a half of water, one pound of sugar, and a Kttlo cinnamon. Strain the liquid, and stir into it, very gradually, eight well-beaten eggs. Put the niixtiu'e into a saucepan, and stir it until it thickens, ฆs\hich will be in about ten minutes. Pour into custard-glasses, and cover with sifted sugar. Probable cost, Is. 6d. Sufficient for nine or ten glasses.

Apple Custard Pudding.— Take a

dozen finely-flUvoui-ed apjiles, peel, core, and boil them with the rind of tv.'o lemons, half a pound of sugar, and a cupful of water, until they will pass through a sieve. Let them get cold ; then add to them a little butter, and the whites of fom- eggs well whisked. Beat all together until the mixture is smooth and iirm. Tm-n into a well-buttered dish, and bake in a quick oven. Sift a little sugar over them. They are nice either hot or cold. Time to bake, about half an hour. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost. Is.

Apple Custard Pudding (anotler way). — Put into a stewpan one dozen apples peeled and cored, the chopped rind of two lemons, half a pound of sugar, and a ciipful of water. Simmer gently until reduced to a pulp ; and place at the bottom of a deep dish, well oiled. Take a pint of new milk, mix with it, gradually, a Httle sugar, the yolks of two ฆeggs, and a dessert-spoonful of arrowroot or ground rice. Put them in a saucepan, and let them remain on the fire, stir-ring constantly until the custard begins to thicken. Pour it over the cold apple, and bake in a good oven. Time to bake, three-quarters of an hour. Sufficient for six pereons. Probable cost. Is.

Apple Dumplings.— Shred as finely as possible half a pound of suet ; mix with it a pinch of salt, one pound of flom-, a small spoonful of baking-powder, and enough Qold water to make it into a stiff paste. Use a fork .in mixing. Roll it out, and line a well-buttGred basin with it. Fill the basin with apples, pared, cored, ancl sliced ; add a little sugar, one or two cloves, and a little water. Cover it with the paste, and pinch it all round. Tie it in a wellfloured cloth, and boil for two hours and a half. As soon as it is tm-ncd out of the basin, cut a little hole in the top, or the steam will make the pastry heavy. Serve with sweet sauce. Sufficient for six persons. ฆ Probable cost. Is.

Apple Dumplings (another way). — Take

;as many apples as you wish to make dumplings,

allowing one dumpling for each person. Pare them, and scoop the core out without breaking them. FiQ each cavity ^s-ith a clove, a littlo piece of butter, and as much sug\ar as will till it. Cover each apple separately 'ป\'ith a little piece of suet paste, tie in a floured cloth, and boil. Before serving, put a little piece of butter and sugar into each dumpling. Looselyknitted cloths are very nice for puddings ; they are most easily washed, and produce a pretty effect. Boil half an hour-. Probable cost, 2d. each dumpling.

Apple Dumplings, Baked.— For a

change, apple dumphugs may be baked instead of boiled. They are made exactly in the same way as the preceding, but instead of being tied in a cloth and boiled, they are placed upon a buttered tin, a^d put into a moderate oven. Time to bake, three-quarters of an hour. Probable cost, 2d. each. Jt

Apple Flummery.— Pare, core, aiia slice two pounds of apples, and put them into a stewpan with one pound of sugar, the finelychopped rind of a lemon, and sufficient water to cover them. Let them stew gently vmtil quite tender, then di-ain them from "the juice, and beat them to a pulp. Soak an ounce of_ gelatine in a little cold water for twenty minutes. Put it into a saucepan with the apple-juice, and stir until the gelatine is dissolved : add the apples and a cupfid of cream. Stir for a few minutes over the fire, but do not let the mixtiu-e boil. Turn it into a mould that has been soaked in cold water, let it stand until stiff, then tm-n out, and pom- a good custard •ovej it. Time to stifien, eight or ten hours. Probable cost Is. lOd., exclusive of the custard. Sufficient for six persons.

Apple Fool.— Take two pounds of apples pared and cored. Put them into a saucepan with a cupful of water, one or two cloves, and sugar to taste. Let them simmer till qiute soft, and beat them well with a wooden spoon. Mix with them, gradually, a pint of new milk, or milk and cream, boiled and allowed to become cold, SAveetened and flavom-ed. Time to simmer the apples, about half an hour. Probable cost, made with nulk, 8d. Sufficient for fom

Apple Pool (another way). — Prepare the

apple in the same way as in the preceding case ; but instead of adding milk to the fruit, mix ฆndth it a good cold custard.

Apple Fritters.— ilake a smooth, stiff batter of half a pound of flour, a httle salt, one table-spoonful of clarified butter, three wcll-beaten eggs, about a quarter of a pint of mUk, and a table- spoonful of beer: the latter may be omitted. Pare and scoop out the cores of a few large apples ; sHce them in rounds about haH an inch thick ; strew sugar thickly over them, and let them remain for two hom-s. Then tlu'ow them into the batter ; take each piece out separately, and fry it in plenty of hot lard or oil. When they are nicely bro-wned on both sides, lay them on r. piece of blottingpaper to absorb the grease : then heap them up on a hot dish, and serve with sugar. Time,

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eight minutes to fry. Probable cost, lOd. Sufficient for four persons. Apple Fritters, Hich. — Take a pint of

hot cream, two glasses of port wine, and a cupful of ale; mix well, and when cold, add tile yolks of four eggs and the whites of two, all whisked: a little salt, ginger, and nutmeg are an imjirovement. Let the apples, prepared as in the preceding recipe, soak in wine and sugar for two or three hours before using. Throw them into the batter, drain, and fry them in boiling oil or lard. WTien they are tender, place them on blotting-paper for two or three minutes, and pile them in a pyramid on a hot dish. They should be dry enough to fee eaten with the fingers. Time to fry, eight minutes. Sufficient for ten or twelve persons. Probable cost, 2s., exclusive of the wine and ale.

Apple Gateau. — Boil one pound of loaf sugar in half a pint of water till it makes a rich syrup. Peel, core, and slice very thinly two pounds of Nonpareil, or any other nicely-flavoured apples which will fail easily. Boil them with the rind and juice of a large lemon until stiff. Pour the mixture into a mould, and the following day tm-n it out and serve with custard. Time, about two hours. Probable cost, lOd. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Apple Gateau (another way).— Prepare the apples as in the last recipe. When reduced to pulp, add half an ounce of gelatine which has been previously soaked for three-quarters of an hour in four table-spoonfuls of water. Stir all over the fire imtil the gelatine is dissolved, pour into a damji mould, and, before serving, stick into the gateau two ounces of sweet almonds blanched and sliced. Serve with a good custard round the dish. Probable cost. Is. 3d. Time, an hour and a half. As the gelatine will help to stifl^en the gateau, the apples need not boil so long as in the previous recipe.

Apple Ginger, — Boil gently together a quarter of a pound of whole ginger bruised, three poimds of sugar, a pint avA a half of water, and the juice of three lemons."' Bring it to the boiling point, then put in three pounds of apples weighed after they have been pared and cored. Simmer them gently, and let them remain until the apples have become clear, but be careful that they are not broken. They must be kept in a covered jar in a dry place, and -^dll keep good for some time. Time, three-quarters of an hour, to boil the apples. Probable cost. Is. 8d. Sufficient for nine or ten persons.

Apple Ginger (another way). — Imitation OF Preserved Ginger. — Take four pounds of apples, weighed after they have been pared and cored, and cut them into quarters : make a syrup of two pounds of sugar boiled in one pint of water, and pour it over the fruit. Let the apples stand in this two days ; then add four pounds of loaf sugar, and the chopped rind and juice of three lemons. Put into a muslin bag two ounces of bruised ginger, and half a teaspoonful of cayenne. Let all simmer until the fi-uit is soft, but not broken, and the juice clear:

add a glass of gin. Time to sinuner, about an hour. Probable cost, 2s. 6d. Sufficient for four one-pound jars.

Apple Ginger (another way). — Pare, core, and slice three pounds of hard apples. Put them into a httle cold water, to preserve the colour, until they arc required. Boil to a syrup three pounds of loaf sugar and a pint and a half of water, with the juice of two lemons and a little of the rind. Throw in the apples ; let them boil until clear, and add, a few minutes before they are removed from the fire, an ounce and a half of concentrated ginger. Keep them in covered jars, in a dry place. Time to boil, three-quarters of an hour. Probable cost, 2s. Sufficient for eight or ten persons.

Apple Hedgehog. — Take two dozen large apples, pared and cored : boil them to a smooth jam, sweetened and flavoured with essence of ahnonds. Pare one dozen and a half more, scoop out the cores, and boil them in sugar and water until tender. Take them gently out of the saucepan, and fill the hollow in the middle of each with any bright-coloured jam, and arrange them on a dish, in two or three layers, as nearly as possible in the form of a hedgehog. Fill the empty space -with the jam, and make all smooth. Cover the whole with sugar icing, and stick almonds blanched and split thickly over it. Place the dish into a good oven, to make the apples hot and brown the almonds. Time to simmer, about half an hour. Sufficient for eight persons. Probable cost, 2s. 6d.

Apple Hedgehog, Iced.— Dissolve in

a well-lined saucepan eight ounces of good sugar with half a pint of water, and stew in the sjTup until tender a dozen or more goodsized apples, pared and cored. Drain them from the sugar, and pile them on a dish to resemble the form of a hedgehog. Slice eighteen or twenty good boiling apples, keep them over a very slow fire until they are a smooth, dry pulp, then fill in, so as to make an even surface, all the spaces between the apples, as well as the hollows from which the cores were taken, -with it. Spread it evenly all over with the back of a spoon. Make an icing ^\ath three eggs and three oimces of sifted sugar; whisk it to a solid froth, and lay on a thick coating, which must again be covered -s^-ith sifted sugar. Cut half a pound of blanched almonds in the usual spiked form, and fix them thickly over the hedgehog. Bake to give the almonds a little colour, and warm the apples through in a moderately hot oven. Time, twenty to thirty minutes to stew apples. Probable cost, 2s. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Apple Jam. — Pare, core, and slice four pounds of good baking apples : put them in a saucepan with three pounds qฃ gjf ted sugar, and the grated rind and juice of four Temons. Stew gently, stirring constantly until the jam is firm and smooth. Put it into covered jars, and keep it in a dry jjlace. It is a good plan to lay the apples and other ingredients in layers in a stone jar, and place the jar in the oven in the middle of a tin full of water, which is to be replenished as

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it boils away, until the fruit is tender. Then pour it into a preserving-pan, and Loil for twenty minutes. Time to stew, three or four hours. Probable cost. Is. 6d. One pound of apples will make about one pound of jam.

Apple Jam (another way). — l*arc, core, and slice three pounds of apples. Place them in a preserving-pan with a little cinnamon, two or three cloves, the juice of two lemons, two and a half pounds of sugar, and just enough water to keep them from burning. Stir them continually with a wooden spoon, until they are reduced to pulp. Pour this into jars, and cover closely. It will not keep so well as jam made bj- the preceding recipe, but it is more quickly made. Time to boil, three-quarters of an hour. Probable cost, 2s. Allow one pound of fruit for a one-pound jar.

Apple Jelly. — Simmer se^'cn pounds of apples and se^ฆen pints of water until the apples are soft. Strain them, but do not squeeze them, t-no or three times until quite clear, and then mix in the juice of two lemons and a pound of loaf sugar to every pint of liquid. Boil until it becomes stiff. If rosy-cheeked apples are used, the jelly will be bright red. The a^jples should not be pared, but well rubbed with a cloth. Time, from twenty minutes to half an hour to boil after straining. Probable cost, 2s. 6d.

Apple Jelly (another way). — Pare, core, and slice three pounds of apples." Put them into a stewpan with a tea-cupful of water. WTien reduced to a pulp, put them into a jelly-bag and let them drain all night ; they must not be squeezed. Next morning put the juice into a saucepan, being careful not to put any sediment with it, adding a poimd of sugar to a pint of juice, and a few di-ฉps of the essence of Yanilla. BoU it until it will stiffen when cold ; cover the jars as soon as possible. The pulp may be made into jam. Time to boil with the sugar, alปout twenty minutes. Probable cost. Is.

Apple Juice for Jelly.— Peel, core, and weigh four pounds of finely-flavouied cooking a^iples : put them into a stewpan with three pints of water, and let them simmer gently Tmtil they are broken. Strain the juice from them, and boil it again, with half a pound of I sugar to each pint of juice. This juice is very | nice to use in preserving other fruits. Time to I boil with the sugar, five minutes. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for a quart.

Apple MaT3ge.— Reduce to a pulp a dozen fine apples, and sweeten and flavour according tn taste. AMien quite cold, pour it into a glass dish, and cover it with -5\'hipped cream, which will bo much firmer if made the day before it is wanted. Time to- simmer the apples, forty minutes. Sufficient for foui- or five persons. Probable cost, 2s. 3d., with a pint of cream.

Apple Marmalade.— Pare, core, and slice four pounds of apples, and place them in a saucepan with sufficient water to cover them barely. Boil them until quite pulpy, then pass I them through a sieve. Put a pound of sugar j

and a little cinnamon to a pint of pulp, and bcซl once more, stu-ring constantly, for half an hour or more. Place the marmalade in jars, and cover them as soon as possible. Probable cost. Is. 6d. Sufficient for five or six onepound jars.

Apple Mincemeat.— Stew a pound of beef imtil very tender, mince it as small as possible : add two pounds of apples, one pound of finely-shred suet, two pounds of cm-rants, half a pound of stoned raisins, and three-quarters of a pound of sugar. The apples, raisins, and suet should all be minced separately. Mix these ingredients well together, Muth one nutmeg grated, a little mace, the gravy in which the meat was stewed, a whole lemon chopped, one glass of brandy, and two glasses of port wine. Keep it in covered jars. Time to prepare, about an hour. Probable cost, 3s. 6d., without the brandy and wine. Sufficient to make six poimds of mincemeat.

Apple Mould. — Pare, core, and slice two pounds of golden pij^iuns. Put them into a saucepan with a pint of water, one pound of sugar, and one ounce of isinglass. Let all boil gently together until the apples are quite soft. Then beat them well, until quite smooth, with a few drops of Vanilla flavouring. Oil a mould, lay the apple smoothly into it, and let it stand in a cold place. Serve with whijjped cream. Time to simmer, half an hour. Sufficient for five or six persons. Probable cost, Is. lOd., exclusive of the cream.

Apple Pancakes. — Make a good stiff batter with four table-spoonfuls of flour, a little sugar, three eggs, half a junt of milk, a little powdered cinnamon, and a pinch of salt. Chop six moderate-sized apples very small, mix them with the batter, and fry- the pancakes in the usual way. They will require great care in turning. Time to fry, ten minutes. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for four or five pancakes. Serve one for each person.

Apple Pancakes (another way).— Make the batter the same as in the preceding recipe. Fry the pancakes, and, when they are browned on both sides, spread a little apple marmalade thinly over the top ; fold them in three, and co^-er ฆs\ith sifted sugar. Serve on a hot dish. Time to frj-, ten minutes. Probable cost, Is.

Apple Pasty (or Turn over). —Make a

short crust with half a pound of flour, two ounces of butter, two ounces of lard, and a little salt. Eub the butter thoroughly into the flour, mix it with very little water, and roll it out thin on the pastry-board. Stamp out -^-ith a small cupplate as many rounds as you wish to make pasties. Moisten the inside of the round ; lay stewed api^lcs, sweetened and flavom-cd, on one half, and lift the other haH right over it. Press the edges, and bake in a quick oven. A plain and very nice cmst may be made with good beef dripping and a little baking-i^owder. Time to bake, a quarter of an hour. This will make a dozen pa.sties. Serve one or two for each person. Probable cost. Id. each.

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Apple Pie. — Make a good light crust; wet the edge of the pie-dish, and lay a thiu strip aU revmd. Pare, core, and slice the apples, and lay them in the dish A\-ith a little sugar and any flavouring that may be preferred — such as powdered ginger, two or three cloves, grated lemon-iind, with the juice of the lemon, a little cinnamon, &c. Lay a crust over the top, and ornament with pastry cut into leaves. If the apples are dry', the parings and cores may be boiled Avith a little sugar and flavoui-ing, and the strained juice added to the fi-uit. Bake the pie in a quick oven. It may be served hot or cold. A little custard or cream is an improvement. Time, thi-ee-quarters of an houi' to bake. Probable ฉost, lOd. for a pie, sufficient for five persons.

Apple Plum Pudding.— Slued finely half a pound of beef suet ; add to it a pinch of salt, half a pound of finely-grated bread-crumbs, half a pound of sugar, half a pound of raisins, half a pound of currants, half a pound of apples weighed after being pared, cored, and chopped, two ounces of chopped candied peel, and half a tea-spoonful of mixed spice. Mix the di-y ingredients thoroughly, then beat four eggs in a wine-glassful of brandy, stir well together, poui- into a well-oiled mould, or tie up in a well-floured pudding-cloth, and boil four hours. Serve viith. brandy sauce. Time to boil, four hours. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost, -Is. 8d., without the brandy.

Apple Pudding, Baked. — Pare, quarter, and core three pounds of good bakingapples : put them in a saucepan -svith six ounces of sugar and half a cupful of water, and the rind and juice of a lemon. Boil them gently until they are quite soft. Tui-n them out of the saucepan, and put them aside to cool. Butter the inside of a shallow pie-dish, and line it throughout with good ordinary piecrust. Add to the apple pulp two or three weU-beaten eggs, and put the mixtirre into the ฆdish. Make the top smooth, and grate a little nutmeg over it. Bake in a quick oven. This pudding may be served either hot or cold. Time to bake, three-quarters of an hour. Probable cost, Is. 6d. Sufficient for six persons.

Apple Pudding, Baked. — Line a baking-dish with puif paste, and cover the bottom with sliced pippins, which should be peeled and cored. Mix together the crumbs of a French roll and a pint of thick cream ; add eight eggs well beaten, three or four- ounces of sugar, nutmeg, and the same weight of candied peel (orange) cut into small pieces. Spread this mixture over the pippins and bake. Serve ฆwith sifted sugar over the top. Bake in a moderate oven. Time, thi-ee-quarters of an hour- to bake. Probable cost, 3s. 6d. Sufficient for seven or eight persons.

Apple Pudding, Baked (another way). — Pare, core, and chop small a dozen good cooking aj)ples. Oil a pudding-dish, and cover the bottom and sides half an inch thick with grated bread, small pieces of butter, a squeeze of lemon-juice and a little lemon-rind; then put a layer of apples, sweetened, and repeat in

alternate layers until the dish is full. The top layer must be of bread. Pour over the whole a cupful of cold water. Bake in a good oven. It may be used the day after it is made, when it must be heated thoroughly. Time to bake, half an hour. Probable cost, Sd. Sufficient for six persons.

Apple Pudding, Baked (another way). — Fill the dish as in the jjrcceding recipe, but instead of poimng a cupful of cold water over aU, pour three or fom- eggs beaten •\\'ith a little new milk. Bake iu a quick oven. Sift sugar over the top, and serve with sweet sauce. Time to bake, thi-ee-quarters of an hour. Probable cost, Is. 2d. Sufficient for six persons.

Apple Pudding, Baked (another way). — Put a dozen apples into a saucepan with enough water to keep theni from burning, a piece of butter, a little powdered cinnamon, and sugar according to taste. Let them simmer gently until they fall, then beat them we.U. Place them in the middle of a ]Die-dish, and pour round and over them a good thick arrowroot custard. Put into a quick oven, and bake until brown. Time to brown, twenty minutes. Probable cost, Is. 6d. Sufficient for five or sLx

Apple Pudding, Baked, Rich.— Line

a pie-dish with good short crust. Stew four poimds of apples, and when hot, add a quarter of a pound of butter. Let them stand aside to cool, then add a cupful of cream, four wellbeaten eggs, sugar to taste, grated lemon-rind, and grated nutmeg. Stir all well together, then place the mixture in the pie-dish, and bake in a good oven. Serve with Devonshire cream, or custard. Time, half an hour to bake. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost, 3s.

Apple Pudding, Boiled.— Make a light

batter with two eggs, foui" heaped table-spoonfuls of floui-, a little salt, and a large breakfastcupful of milk. Beat it well, then stir into it a few apples pared, cored, and sliced. Put all together into a weU-oiled moiild, tie it in a floured cloth, and boil for an hour and a half. Serve with sweet sauce. Probable cost, 8d. Sufficient for six persons.

Apple Pudding, Nottingham.— Pare

half a dozen good baking apples, remove the cores without dividing the fruit, and in thenplaces put two or three cloves and a little sugar. Place these in a buttered pie-dish, pour over them a light batter, and bake in a moderately hot oven. Time to bake, two hom-s. Probable cost, 9d. Sufficient for four or five

Apple Puddings (Alexandra's).—

Pare, core, and quarter half a dozen finelj'flavoured apples. Place them in a saucepan with a table-spoonfiil of water, the thin rind of half a lemon chopped small, and two tablespoonfuls of sugar. Simmer gently until reduced to a pulp; then stir in, while hot, a piece of butter the size of an egg, and when cold add two eggs weU beaten, a breakfastcupful of finely-grated bread-crumbs, half a

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cupful of niilk or cream, and a little grated nutmeg. Slix thoroughly, then pour into little cups jjreviously oiled, and bake for twenty minutes in a moderate oven. Turn them out, and serve with sifted sugar. Probable cost, lOd.

Apple Puddings (Mother's).— EoU

out two pounds of crust of good suet or di'ipping {see 8uet Crust for Puddings), and let it be thicker in the middle than at the edges. Fill it with layers consisting of four tablespoonfuls of sliced apples, one tea-spoonful of tinely-shred suet, and one table-spoonful of currants. When full, fold it over, tie it in a well-floured cloth, boil, and serve with sweet sauce. Time to boil, two houi-s. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost. Is.

Apple Puflfs. — Stew some apples with lemon- juice and sugar until they become a dry jam. Make a light sweet crust; stamp it out in small roimds, with an inner round marked, but not cut quite through. Bake them in a quick oven, take a little of the pastry out of the middle, and put the apples hi its place. Time to bake, a quarter of an hour. Sufficient, one for each person. Probable cost. Id. each.

Apple Pupton. — Prepare one pint of apple marmalade {see Apple Marmalade), and mix with it the yolks of five eggs, a handful of bread-crumbs, and a piece of butter the size of an egg. Thi-ee ounces of stewed pears or cherries make an agreeable addition. Pour the mixtui-e into a well-oiled mould, and bake it in a slow oven. Time to bake, an hour and a half. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost. Is. 6d.

Apple Rolls.— Chop a few apples very fine, and sweeten tlicm with sugar. Lay tlu-ee or four table-spoonfuls of this in the middle of a circular or oval piece of paste, rolled out a quarter of an inch thick. Fold it ia two, lengthwise ; unite the edges, and press or scallop them with the bowl of a tea-spoon. Lay the rolls on a baking-tin that has been previously greased, and put it into a moderate oven. It is a good plan to use apple marmalade instead of chopped apples, as then there is no fear of the fruit not being sufficiently cooked. Time to bake, half an horn-. Sufficient, one roll for two persons. Probable cost, 2d. each.

Apple Roly-Poly. — Shred very finely six ounces of beef suet, and mix with one pound of flour. Make into a paste with half a pint of water. Roll it out about the third of an inch thick, and eight or ten inches wide. Spread over, rather thickly, tlii-ee pounds of apples boiled to a pxilp and sweetened and flavoured. Leave half an inch of the edges untouched with fruit. Roll round, fasten the ends securely, tie the pudding in a floured cloth, and boil. Serve with sweet sauce. Time to boil, two and a half hom-s. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Apple Sauce, Baked. — Apple sauce may be made by placing the apples and the water in the oven in a closely-covered jar until ฆthey are reduced to a pulp, and tjien beating them as in the preceding recipe.

Apple Sauce for Roast Goose.—

Paio, core, and shce fom- or five large apples ; place them in a saucepan with only just- enoiigh water to keep thom from burning. Let them smimer gently, stinging frequently, over a slow yre, until they are reduced to pulp. Turn them into a bowl, and beat them well with one teaspoonful of sugar, the squeeze of a lemon, and a small piece of butter. Time, half an horn' to simmer. Sufficient for a small goose. Probable cost, 4d.

Apple Snow. — Reduce half a dozen apples to a pulp, press them through a sieve, sweeten and flavour them. Take the whites of six eggs, whisk them for some minutes, and strew iato them frn-o table-spoonfuls of sifted sugar. Boat the pulp to a froth, then mix the two together,

APPLE SNOW.

and whisk them until they look Hke stiff snow.

Pile high in rough pieces on a glass dish, stick

a sprig of mjTtle in the middle, and garnish I with small pieces of bright-coloured jelly. I Tune to beat the snow, tkree-quarters of an

hour. Probable cost. Is. 4d. Sufficient for a

medium-sized glass dish.

I Apple Snow with Sponge-Cake. —

j Put four or five sHces of sponge-cake into a ] glass dish, and pour over them first two table1 spoonfuls of sherry, and then a cupful of cream. Place in a saucepan five or six finely-flavoured apples peeled and cored, with a little water, sugar, grated lemon - rind, and lemon - juice. Reduce them to a pulp, press the pulp thi-ough a sieve, and beat it with the whites of six eggs until it is white and frothy. Heap it over tlie cakes as high as possible, and serve immediately. Time to beat, about an horn-. Probable cost, 2s. 6d. Sufficient for five or six i^ersons.

Apple Snowballs.— Pare and core without breaking six large apples, and place in the hollow of each a little sugar and powdered cinnamon. Boil a cupful of rice in a little milk until it is half cooked. Then put each apple into a separate cloth ^ith a sixth part of the rice spread on the cloth, tie it firmly, boil, and serve with sifted sugar. Time to boil, threequarters of an hour. Sufficient, one each for six persons. Probable cost, 9d.

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Apple Snowballs (another way).— Pare and core without Ijreaking half a dozen large, s&und apples. Put in each a clove, a teaspoonful of sugar, and a piece of butter the

size of a nut. Tie each apple separately in a cloth, with sufBcient rice, which has been partly boiled, to cover the apples all round. Boil it an hour and a half, and serve with sweet sauce. Probable cost, 6d. Sufficient, one ball for each person.

Apple Solid.— Melt a heaped table-spoonful of isinglass in a little water. Take half a pint •6f nicely-iiavoured appl-e-pulp, mix it well with half a jiint of cream, and place it in a saucepan with the isinglass ; let it simmer for a few minutes, stirring all the time ; add a glass of wine or a table-spoonful of brandy, pour into a buttered mould, and keep it in "a cool place until the next day. Sufficient for five or six persons. -Probable cost, 2s. 6d., exclusive of the brandy.

Apple Soufle.— Reduce half a dozen apples to a pulp, sweeten and flavour them nicely, and place them in the middle of a glass dish. "V\Tien cool, pour over them a good custard, made with half a pint of cream, the yolks of four eggs, sugar, and flavouring. "\^^isk the M-hites to a sohd froth, place it in rock-like pieces over the custard, and bake it in a quick oven. Serve it immediately after it is taken out. Time to bake, twenty minutes. Probable cost. Is. lOd. Sufficient for four or five jiersons.

Apple Soup, German. — Pool half a dozen large fresh apples, cut out the cores, and boil them thoroughly with three jjints of water, a thick slice of " the crumb of bread finely grated, the rind and juice of half a lemon, and a quarter of an ounce of powdered cinnamon. When cooked to a pulp, rub them through a sieve. Add two glasses of white wine, and sweeten to taste. Serve with toasted bread. Sufficient for four or five persons. Time, one liour. Probable cost, 7d., exclusive of the wine.

Apple Sugar.— r.oil a pint of apple-juice

APPLE SCG.

(.9V Apple- Juice) with two pounds of loaf sugar, until it becomes brittle as soon as it is ch-opped in cold water. Then pour on a well-oiled dish,

draw it out into twisted sticks : dry them, and keep them m a tin box. Time to boU, about twenty minutes. I'robable cost. Is. per pound.

Apple (Swiss) Pudding. — Butter a deep pie-dish. Place in alternate layers two pounds of apples sliced, sweetened, and flavoured, and two pounds of rusks soaked in. milk and beaten with a fork. Let the msks be at the top and the bottom. Pour melted butter over the whole, and bake until nicely browned. Serve with sifted sugar. Time to bake, forty minutes. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Apple Tansy. — Pare and core six or eight large apjjles, cut them into thin, round slices, and fry them in butter. Then beat up three eggs in a pint of cream, and pour them upon the apples. Time to try the apples, five minutes. Probable cost. Is. 8d. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Apple Tart or Cake.— Line a shallow pie-dish with good puff paste. Make a mixture consisting of two pounds of apj^les pared, cored, and chopped, the peel of two lemons grated, a piece of butter the size of a large egg, four eggs well beaten, and a cupful of cream or new milk, and sugar according to taste. Mix these ingredients thoroughly. Put them on the paste, leaving a narrow rim all round. Blanch a few almonds, cut them into long strij^s, place them over the top of the apples, and bake in a quick oven. Care should be taken that the almonds are not too much baked. Time, three-quartei-s of an hour. Sufficient for three medium-sized dishes. Probable cost, '2s. 6d.

Apple Tart, Economiea-l.- Take threequarters of a pound of flour: mix with it a teaspoonful of baking powder, and a little salt ; rub well in half a pound of clarified beef diipping, and make it into a paste with cold water. Roll it out two or three times. Line the edge of a pie-dish with a little paste about a quarter of an inch thick. Wet it all round to make the cover adhere. Pare, core, and quarter a dozen, apples. Put them into the dish with a little moist sugar, a couple of cloves, and a tablespoonful of water. Cover it over with paste. Trim it nicely round the edges. Make a hole in the middle for the steam to escajje, and bake in a good oven. Time to bake, one hour. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost, lOd.

Apple Tart, Open. —Line a shallow tartdish with puif paste. Spread over it smoothly apple-pulp flavoured and sweetened, about half

OPEN TART.

an inch in thickness. Cut strips of pastry, twist them, and lay them in cross-bars over the tart. Bake in a good oven. Time to bake, about half an hour. Sufficient for four- or five persons. Probable cost, 8d.

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Apple Tart, Plain. — Line the edge of ^-i tart-tli.sh with good short ci-ust, till it with npplcs pared, cored, and quartered, and a little lemon -juice and sugar strewn over. A little water may be added if the apples are n-ot juicy. Cover it with paste and Lake in a good o\'en. Time to bake, nearly an hour. Sufficient for five or six persons. Pi'obablc cost, Is.

Apple Tart, Rich.— Line a tart-dish M-ith puif paste. Eub the apples well before paring them, then put the skins and cores into a saucepan, with the rind and juice of a lemon, one clove, some fine sugar, and enough water to cover them. "V\Tiile they are simmei-ing, fill the dish with ajaples sUced. Pour the strained liquid over the apples, cover with the i)uft' paste, and bake. Serve with cream or good custard. Time to bake, nearly an hour. Probable cost. Is. 4d. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Apple Tart, Young. — Very young apples, baked without paring make a nice tart, if they are very slowly cooked. Place the apples in the pie-cHsh, line the edges with pufi paste, add plenty of sugar and a little lemon- juice, and bake in a moderate oven. Time to bake, one hour and a quarter. Sufficient for foui- or five persons. Probable cost, Is.

Apple Trifle. — Take eight or nine fine apples. Stew them gently to a pulp, adding sugar according to taste, and flavouiing with grated lemon-rind or cinnamon. AVhen cold, place in a glass dish, and jiom' over them a good cold custard, made of the yolks of three eggs, -one pint of milk, a little sugar, and a little sherrj', simmered gently together and allowed to cool. Then take a pint of thick cream, warm it a little while over the fire with a little sugar, and another small glass of sherry. 'Wlien cold, whisk it into froth, and as the froth rises, place it on a sieve to drain, and after it has stood some time (for no whip is solid that has not .stood some hours), place it on the apple and custard in a rough, rocky form, and ornament -w-ith pink sugar, &c. Time for the whipped cream to stand, twelve houi's. Probable cost, 2s. 6d., exclusive of the sherry. Sufficient for a moderate-sized dish.

Apple-Water. — Rub well three large apples to make them perfectly clean. Slice them, pour a quart of boiling water on them : let it stitnd some time, then strain it, and boil it up vnth the juice of half a lemon and a little sugar. Time to boil, five or six minutes. Sufficient for a quart of the liquid. Probable cost, 4d.

Apple-Water (another way) .—Pare, core, and quarter five or six tart apples. Place them in a saucejmn with'thc peel of half a lemon, a quarter of a pound of washed currants, and a little sugar. Let all simmer slowly together. Strain, cool, add a little white wine, and the apple- water is ready for use. This is a pleasant drink for hot weather. Time to simmer, one hour and a haH. Sufficient for a pint and a half of the liquid. Probable cost, 6d.

Apple-Water, Iced.— This is an agxeeable beverage, which may be made as follows : Slice fuui- large juicy ap^jles, and pour over them a quart of bcriliag water. Cover closely

the vessel which contains them, and when the liquid is cold, strain and sweeten it, and flavour with a little lemon- juice and the rind of a lemon rubbed upon sugar. Ice it, if desired. It is ready for use as soon as it is cold. Probabe cost, 6d. Sufficient for a quart of liquid.

Apple- Water, Iced (another way) .—Boil six large juicy apples cored and quartered until they can be pulped through a sieve, when add to the strained juice a quart of lemon- water, and freeze in the usual way. The preservingpan containing the apples should be placed far enough from the fire to prevent them from being burnt or losing their nice colour. Freeze in the usual way for about twenty-five minutes. Probable cost, 8d. Sufficient for three pints.

Apples (a la Cherbourg). — Choose firm but good boiling apples. Pare them, and cut them into bricks. Put a pound of sugar, the thickly -peeled rind of two lemons, and a little ginger, to every pound of apples, and cover them closely for some houi's. Then place them in a preserving-pan, being careful not to break the apples, and put to them half a cupful of cider. Let them boil until the apples look quite clear, , then remove them one by one to a dish. When cold, place them in cross jjiles, and crown the whole with the Icmon-jjeel. Pour the syiup round, and eat with Devonshiie o^^va. Time to boil, about twenty minutes. Probable. cost of apples cooked this way, lOd. per pound.

APPLES (A Li MAItlEj.

Apples (a la Marie). — Pare some large, firm apples, and scoop out the core without dividing them. Fill the cavity with cream or custard. Cover each apple M-ith a Ettle short crust, with a sort of knot or bow at the top, and bake in a moderate oven. Serve with sifted sugar. Time to bake, half an hour. Sufficient, one for each person. Probable cost, 2d. each.

Apples (a la Portugaise) .—Peel and coi-e, without dividing, half a dozen large baking apples. Put into a stewpan a cupful ef sugar and a cupfid of water, place it on the fire, and when the scum rises, put the apples in, and let them simmer very gently tmtil they are tender throughout. Lay them in a glass dish, coloiuthe syrup with a few drops of j^repared cochinesil, and pour it round them, and lay on the top of each apple a spoonful of bright-colomed jam. Time to boil the apples, about twenty minutes. Probable cost, 9d. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Apples, Baked. — Pare some good apples, and scoop out the cores. Put a little sugar ancl two cloves into each hollow, place them in a dish, not allowing them to touch each other, strew powdered sugar over them, and a little

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swcot wine w-ith some thin lemon-rind in it. Cover the dish, and bake in a slow oven. Time to hake, three-quarters of an horn-. Sufficient, one apple for each person. Probable cost. Id. each.

Apples, Baked (another way). — Take eight or nine good baking apples : ฆ\\ipe them carefully, and place them in a shallow earthenware dish, haK an inch apart. Put them in a genfle oven, cook them as slowly as possible, and do not allow them to burst. When quite tender, set them aside to cool, and serve ^vith sifted sugar. Time to bake, three-quarters of an hour. Probable cost, 6d. Allow one for each person.

Apples (Baked) for Children.— Take

a large caa-then jar, and fiE it to •s\ithia three inches of the top with well-Avipod apples of any sort in the house. Neither peel them nor remove the stalks. Pour over them, so as to cover them eompletely, a mixture of treacle or brown sugar and water. If the apx^les are windfalls, you may allow a little extra sweetening. Put with them some pieces of orange or lemon-peel, and a few cloves. Cover the jar ; leave it for three or four hoirrs in a cool oven. If the oven is too hot, the hquid vrill boil over or evaporate, and the apples be dried up or burnt. Probable cost. Id. each. Allow one for each person.

Apples, Buttered. — Pare and core without breaking a dozen golden pippins. Cut pieces of bread in roimds large enough for an apple to stand upon, and place them in a wellbuttered dish with an apple upon eaoh. Fill the holes with butter and sugar. Bake them in a gentle oven until tender, then put them upon a hot dish with a little apricot jam on the top of each, and cover with sifted sugar. Time to bake, thirty minutes. Probable cost, lOd. Allow one for each person.

Apples, Buttered (another method). — Place half a dozen good boiling apples, pared and cored -^dthout dividing, in a saucepan •^\'ith a piece of butter the size of an egg. First put in the holes where the cores were a little sugar and a clove: stew them very gently, turning them now and then, until they are quite tender. Cover the bottom of a glass dish with a layer of marmalade {See Apple Marmalade), lay the apples gently on it, put a little red currant jelly on the' top of each one, and strew over them sifted sugar and powdered cinnamon. Time to bake, twenty-five minutes. Probable cost, 8d. Sufficient for six persons.

Apples, Clear. — Put half a pound of sugar into a saucepan with a pint of water and the rind and j nice of two lemons. Let it remain on the fire imtil the scimi rises, then put in half a dozen large apples, pared, cored, and quartered. Let them simmer gently, leaving the lid oif tke.^, saucepan, imtil the apples are clear. Time to boil, about twenty minutes. Probable cost, lOd. Sufficient for six persons.

Apples, Compote of.— Pare a dozen goLlcn pippins, or any other finely-flavoured apples, and scoop out the core withorit breaking them. Place them in a deep dish with a

cupful of water, a poimd of sugar, and a few di'ops of the essence of vanilla or lemon. Cover

the dish, and place it in a moderate oven until the apples are cooked thi'ough. Take them out, place them in a glass dish, and seiwe with custard or cream. Time to bake, three-quarters of an hour. Probable cost, Ig. Sufficient for six persons.

Apples, Frosted.— Take enough apples — pippins will be best for the purpose — to fiU a dessert-dish. Simmer them gently in a pan of cold water, and a small piece of alum, with a few vine-leaves between and over. When the skins can be easily pulled oif with the fingers remove them, and have ready some clarified butter in which to dip each one as it is peeled. Strew with crushed white sugar, and bake in a slow oven. The sugar, if carefully done, will sparkle as if frosted. When quite cold place them on a glass dish, piling them high. They should simmer about ten minutes. Probable cost, Is. per dozen.

Apples in Pastry. — Peel and core two pounds of apples. Put them into a pint of cold water ^Yith. two pounds of loaf sugar, a Httle cinnamon, the juice of a small lemon, and a httle butter. Boil to a pulp. Well oil a pie-dish; line it with good pastry about half an inch thick, and bake it in a quick oven. Place the apple pulp inside, pour custard over it, and ornament with alternate dots of red jelly and white of egg. Lift the pastry out of the chsh before ser\'ing. Time to bake the pastry, twenty minutes. Sufficient for five persons. Probable cost, 2s. 6d.

Apples, Miroton of. — Pare, core, and slice half a dozen finely-flavoured apples. Place them in a stewj^an with veiy little water, two table-spoonfuls of sugar, and some powdered cinnamon, and let them simmer very gently until iseduced to a pulp ; lay this smoothly in a dish. Then boil seven or eight lumps of sugar with a tea-cupful of water and the thinly-grated rind of two lemons : add a lump el l)iitter the size of an egg, a sj^oonf ul of flour, another of brandy, the yolks of three eggs, and the white of one. Mix these well over the fire until quite smooth ; pour over the apples ; then whisk to a stiff froth the 3S of

the eggs. Put this over th is it

is going into the oven ; ba .erve

with sifted sugar. Time sr of

an hour. Sufficient for fi sons.

Probable cost. Is. 3d.

Apples, Miroton c

Pare and core without di^ finely-flavoured apples; ratelv thin shces. Place h

mne odepiece

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APP

of butter the size of an egg, lot it melt, then add to it a quarter of a pound of sugar, a teaspoonful of grated lemon-rind, and Hkc juiee of a lemon. Fry the apples gently in this, then arrange them cither round the inside of a dish, each slice resting on the edge of another, or piled high in the middle. Time to fry, ten minutes. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Apples, Preserved. — Pare, cere, and chop small three pounds of good cooMng apples. Have ready some thick boiling sjTup, made of three pounds of siigar and a piat of water. Throw in the apples, with the chopped rind of three lemons and one ounce ฉf whole ginger. Let it simmer gently until fee fmples look clear. Time to simmer, abฉซt han an hour. Probable eost, 2s. 3d. 8iปfficient for half a dozen jars of moderate azป.

Apples, Preserved, for winter use.

— When it is desired to preserve api^los for use in winter, the fruit should not be allowed to remain too long on the trees, as Ukarc is a danger of its being blown down when it becomes quite ripe, and then it is Bot good for keeping. Apples, and indeed all fruit intended for keeping, should be hand-picked. The best way to remove them from tSie tree is to cut them off with a pair of strong pruning scissors, and to handle the fruit as lightly as possible. If practicable, the apples shoulcl be gathered in fine, dry weather. They should then be wiped thoroughly diy, and eveiy one which appears in the slightest degree unsound rejected. In storing apples, they should be placed in a dark, diy place in single rows upon clean straw, with straw placed between each row, so that they are not allowed to touch each other ; each layer must be treated in a similar way. They should be looked over frequently, and any that may have become unsound removed. Apples may bo also stored in boxes or jars, care being taken in packing the fruit, that it is not bruised or injui-ed, and that every apple is quite sound. The aii- must be excluded from the cases as much as possible.

Apples, Red Hot.— Take a quantity of Keswick codlings, jmred, cored, and cut in quarters. Stew them in a little water, but not so long as to allow them to become pulp. Sweeten amply with pounded loaf sugar, and flavour to taste, with ca3'enne pepper ; colour with cochineal.

Apples (Red) with Jelly.— Take half

a dozen very fine api)les. Pare and core without di\-iding them, and put them in a saucepan with a pint of water, the rind of a lemon, and half a pound of loaf sugar. Place them on the fire and stew them very gently until the apples are quite tender, then lift them out and lay them in a glass dish. Boil the sugar and water with a little melted isinglass until it jeUies, then strain it, adding a few drops of prepared cochineal, and put it aside. ^Vhen it is quite cold, lay it in rock-hke pieces among the apples, and garnish the dish with sprigs of myrtle, the white of egg beaten to a froth, &c. kc. Time to simmer the apples, about three-quarters of an horn. This fonns a very

pretty supper cUsh. Sufficient for live or sisc persons. Probable cost, l^.

Apples (Souflie of) in Rice. — Put

into a saucepan a quart of new milk, a cupful of rice, the rind of half a Ipmon, a piece of butter the size of a nut, and sugar to taste. Let it simmer very gently until the milk is absorbed and the rice quite tender. Beat it well for foiu' or fire minutes ; brush the border of a good- sized dish with white oฃ egg to make the rice adhere, then laj' it roimd in a border about four inches wide. Take a breakfast-cnpfid of applo jam, and mix wiiii it a piece of butter, melted, the size of an egg, and the well-beaten j-olks of three eggs. Stir this over the fire gently for a few minutes, then add the whites of four eggs whisked to a froth. Fill the dish, and bake in a good oven imtil the souffle rises. Serve immediately. Time to bake, aboixt half an howr. Sufiicient for six persons. Probable cost, Is. 8d.

Apples, Stewed.— Apples are very nicepared, cored, sliced, and gently stewed with a httle white wine, sugar, and flaroiu-ing. They arc quickly prepared, served with custard are a pleasant substitute for apple pie, and are an agreeable adclition to the tea-table. They may be mixed with plums or other fruit. Time to stew, a quarter of an hour.

Apples, Stewed for Dessert.— Wipe

carefully six or eight large apples. Place them in a saucepan with half a pound of sugar, a few cloves, the rind and jmce of a lemon, and a pint and a half of watei-. Let them simmer at the side of the fire until the apples are tender but not broken. Lift them out with a spoon, and lay them in a glass dish. Strain the juice, then let it boil a few minutes longer to reduce it. When almost cold, jjour it over the apples. Invalids find apples stewed in thisway much more tender than if simjjly baked. Time to stew, about thi-ee houi's.

Apples, Stewed in Halves.— Pare,

core, and halve half a dozen good-sized bakingapples. Place them in a saucepan with three table-spoonfuls of sugar, the rind and juice of a lemon, and the rind of an orange. Let them simmer gently until they are soft. Seiwe with the syrup strained and j^oured over them. Time to simmer, haK an hour.

Apples Stewed in Whiskey. — Pare

and core without dividing two pounds of sweet apples. Place them in a saucepan with two' glasses of whiakey, a pound and a half of sugar, a little whole ginger, the rind and juice of two lemons, and an inch of cinnamon. Simmer very gently for two hours. Take the scimi oii' as it rises, and turn the apples every now and then. ^'NTicn the apples are clear, take them off carefully, place them in the jars in whi^h they are to be kept, and boil the liqi-^id a fewminutes, and pour it over them. This is a very nice dessert dish. If tied do-mi clasely, the" friut will keep twelve months. Probable cost. Is. 6d., exclusive of the whiskey.

Apples and Almonds, Pudding of .—

Stew to a pulp six or eight good baking apples^

APP

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APR

sweeten and flavour tlicni ; then lay them at the bottom of a well-buttered dish. Blanch and pound a quarter of a pound of sweet almonds ; add to them four table-spoonfuls of sifted sugar, two table-spooirfids of floui-, the grated rind and juice of a lemon, and four well-beaten eggs. Spread the mLxture over the apples, and bake in a good oven. Time to bake, about forty minutes. Sufficient for five or six persons. Probable cost, Is. 2d.

Apples and Apricots, Charlotte of.

— Take slices of the crumb of bread about a quarter of an inch thick, or, if preferred, a few Savoy biscuits. Have ready a plain round moidd. Cut a round large enough for the bottom of the dish, and a number of fingers for the sides. Fry them in butter to a light brown, and spread them thinly on one side with apricot jam. Arrange them in the mould, the round at the bottom and the fingers at the sides, each piece overlapping another to prevent the fruit escaping. Fill the middle with apple mai-malade, over which spread a thin layer of apricot jam. Cover the top closely with pieces of fried bread, place a dish over it, and bake in a quick oven. Serve hot. Time to bake, half an hour. Probable cost of a moderate-sized mould, Is. 6d. Sufficient for six persons.

Apples and Apricots, Chartreuse

of. — Put a quart of new milk into a stewpan i with -a cupful of rice, the rind of a lemon or a little cinnamon, two table-spoonfids of sugar, and a piece of butter the size of a nut. Let it sinrmer gently until the milk is nearly all absorbed ; then beat it well, and place a thick layer of it at the bottom of a well-buttered piedish. Pare and core half a dozen good-sized apples, but neither di^^de them nor open them i quite through. FiU the cavity in each with a little butter and sugar. Arrange them in the dish, and pour the rest of the rice round them, making the whole smooth. Put the dish into a moderate oven, and when sufficiently cooked, put a large spoonful of apricot jam at the top of each apple. Serve with sifted sugar. Time to bake, forty minutes. Sufficient for six pei-sons. Probable cost, Is. 8d.

Apples and Apricots, Compote of.

— Place in a saucepan half a jjound of sugar and half a pint of water. Let it boil for ten minutes to thicken, then put into it eight or nine golden pippins pared and cored without being divided. Let them simmer very gently until they are clear and soft, but not broken. Lift them out carefully, and lay them in a deep glass dish ; pour round them some good cold custard, and put on the top of each apple a spoonful of apricot jam. Probable cost. Is. 4d. Sufficient for five oi' six persons.

Apples and Apricots, Croquettes

of. — Take four taljlo-siiuonfuls of apple and two of apricot mai'uiala(l(„'. ]Mix with them the yolks of six eggs well beaten. Put these into a saucepan and simmer gently, stirring all the time. When the mixture is stiff, mould it into balls ; dip them into the white of egg well beaten, and a few broad crmnbs. Fiy in boiling, oil or butter,

and serve hot. Time to simmer the fruit and yolks, ten minutes. Probable cost, Is. 2d. Sufficient for four persons.

Apples and Pears, the Pips of. —When

bruised in a mortar, these impart a delicious flavoui- to tarts.

Apples and Rice.— Put eight or nine good-sized apples, pared, cored, and sliced, into a saucepan with a little cinnamon, three ounces of sugar, a small piece of butter, and sufficient water to prevent bm-ning. Allow them to simmer gently imtil reduced to a pulp, which must be spread at the bottom of a well-oiled pie-dish. Boil half a cupful of well-washed rice in a pint of milk, M-ith a little cinnamon and sugar, until the milk is absorbed and the rice quite soft ; then mix in the yolks of two eggs well beaten, and boil two or three minutes longer, stirring quickly. Pom- over the apples, smooth it evenly, and place the dish in a qiuck oven to brown. Serve \\-ith sifted sugar. Time to bake, a quarter of an hour. Sufficient for four or five persons. Probable cost, Is.

Apples and Rice (another way).— Simmer a cupfid of rice in a quart of milk until the rice is tender and the milk absorbed. Add a heaped table-spoonful of sugar, and haK a dozen drops of essence of almonds. Beat well for a few minutes, then place in the centre of a large dish a roxmd jar, and pour the rice round it. Paie, core, and cut six or eight large apples into slices half an inch thick. Fry them in boiling oil or butter until they are cooked through, but do not allow them to break ; stick them into the rice, and ornament it prettily with coloured jam, pink sugar, red jeUy, or in any way that the fancy may suggest. Before serving, lift the jar from the centre of the dish, and fill the hole with a good custard {see Custard) . This may be eaten either hot or cold. Time to boil the rice, forty minutes. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost, 2s.

Apples and Rice (another way). — Simmer a cupful of rice -w-ith a quart of milk, two table- spoonfuls of sugar, and the grated rind of half a lemon, until the rice is tender, and the milk absorbed. Beat thoroughlj' for four or five minutes, and place it in the centre of a large dish, piled high in the form of a pyramid. Have ready one dozen apples stewed whole {see Apjiles, Stewed.) Arrange them round the rice, with the syrup in which they were stewed coloui-ed with a few drops of cochineal, and serve quite hot. Time to boil the rice, forty minutes. Probable cost, Is. 2d. Sufficient for six persons.

Apples with Custard, Pancake of.—

Pare, core, and slice four good-sized aj^ples. Fry them in butter, and when they are brown on one side, turn them over, and pom- over them a custa*i'd made of fom- eggs beatan, a cupful of cream or new milk, and a little cinnamon. Fry to a light bro-wn. Turn carefidly, and serve with sifted sugar. Time to fry, ten minutes. Sufficient for three persons. Probable cost, Is. , if made with milk.

Apricot, The. — The apricot is a fruit of foreign origin, but many varieties are now

APR

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APR

cultivated in this country, chiefly by grafting on plum-trees, ^^'hc'n perfectly ripe it is a delicious table fruit, although it possesses qualities of a laxative tendency, and should not be partaken of too freely by persons of dehcate constitution on that account. A large variety of excellent made-dishes can be fonned of apricots, and for preser\'ing purposes they are very valuable. The fruit should not be kept long after gathering, as it soon becomes insipid. The skin has a fine flavour, and if the apricots are prepared quickly after being plucked the perfume gives an agreeable piquancy to the dish. The finest apricot is the iloorpark, and the Breda is considered the best species cultivated in the South of England. The fruit is in season in Jime and July. O Apricot Brandy. — To every pound of fruit, take one pound of loaf sugar and a Avineglassful of water. Put the apiicots, -which must be sound, but not quite ripe, into a preservingpan, with sufficient water to cover them ; allow them to boU; then simmer gently tUl tender. Eemovo the skins. Clarify and boil the sugar, and pour it over the fruit. Let it remain twenty-four hom-s. Then put the apricots into glasses, and fill them up with syrup and brandy, half and half, and keep them well corked, and the tops of the corks securely sealed. They must be kept twelve months before using. They should be prepared in July. Time to simmer the apricots, about one hour-.

Apricot Charlotte. — Well butter a plain round mould. Cut pieces of stale bread — a roimd for the bottom and fingers for the sides. Fry them in butter, and arrange them in the dish, each piece overlapping another, so that the fruit may not escape. Pour in while hot a little apricot jam. In making the jam, allow half a. pound of sugar to every pound of fruit, blanching two or thi-ee of the kernels and boiling them with it. Put pieces of buttered bread over the top, and bake in a moderate oven. Turn out carefully, and serve hot, \sath a little sifted sugar, or with a sauce made of the juice of a lemon stirred into a cupful of milk, and heated over the fire gently, whisking all the time to bring it to a froth. If a richer pudding is desired, slices of spongecake may be substituted for the bread, and a custard ser\-ed with it. Time to bake, half an hour. Sufiicient for six persons.

Apricot Charlotte (another way).— Butter an ordinary pie-dish. Put at the bottom a layer of bread-crumbs about a quarter of an inch thick, and then a layer of hot apricot mai-malade, and repeat until the dish is full. Lay two or three pieces of butter on the top, and pour a cupful of cold water over the whole. Bake in a moderate oven. Time ฆ to bake, half an hour. SuSicient for six i persons. I

Apricot Charlotte (another way).— Put | a piece of the crumb of bread about the size j of a penny piece at the bottom of a pint basin ; j then put five or six fingers of bread round i it, leaving a little distance between each finger. Put in some apricot or any other jam, hot, a ' spoonful at a time, to prevent the bread lea^-ing I its position. Cover the top entirely with pieces | 3

of bread in the shape of dice, press it down with a plate and a weight, and leave it until cold. Tiu-n it out on a glass dish, and pour a little custard round it. Time to stand, five or hours. Sufiicient for five or six persons.

Apricot Chips, — Put one poimd of impeded apricots, cut into slices, into a thick syrup made of two pounds of sugar boiled with a pint of water until it is nearly candied. Let them stand in this a couple of hours ; then put them into a presei'%-ing-pan, and make them as hot as possible without boiling. Take them from the fire and let them stand all night. Next day remove the chips from the syruj), spread them on plates, and di-y them. Time to remain in the candy, twenty-four hours.

Apricot Cream. — Take a dozen and a half lipe apricots: pare, stone, and hah-e them, and place them in a saucepan with a cupful of sugar dissolved in a cupful of water. Let them simmer gently until they are reduced to pulp, when they must be pressed through a fine sieve, and put aside to cool. Boil a pint and a half of new milk or cream with tliree tablespoonfuls of sugar. If these cannot be easily obtained, Swiss milk may be substituted, and will answer very much the same purpose, but it must be remembered that whenever this is used, less sugar will be required. Let it cool after boUing, then put to it the yolks of eight eggs well beaten. Pour this into a jug, which must be placed in a saucepan of boiling water and stii-red one way until it thickens. Add one OTmce and a half of isinglass which has been boiled in a little water, and when the cream is cold, mix the apricot with it; pour the mixture into a well-oiled mould, and keeii it in a cool place. If apricots are out of season, apricot marmalade may be used instead. Time to thicken the cream, ten to fifteen minutes. Probable cost, 4s. 6d, if made with milk, and with apricots at Id. each.

Apricot Custard. — Line a pie-dish with a good short crust. Spread smoothly at the bottom, a layer of apricot marmalade about an inch in thickness, and pour over it a custard made of a pint of new milk, two eggs, and a tea-spoonful of ground rice, a little sugar, and four drops of the essence of almonds. Bake in a quick oven. Time to bake, fifteen minutes. Probable cost, Is. 6d. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Apricot Drink. — Peel a dozen apricots, and, after taking out the stones, pour on them a quart of boiling water; allow them to stand for an hour, then strain off the clear liqiiid, and sweeten with a quarter of a pound of sugar. Probable cost. Is. 2d. Sufficient to make one quart.

Apricot Fritters. — Make a light batter by mixing a quarter of a pound of flour and a pinch of salt with a cupful of water, sturing briskly until it is quite smooth; then add a cupful of millv, and the whites of two eggs beaten to a froth, and put in at the last moment. Peel, halve, and stone a pound of apricots, draw them through the batter, and fry them in boiling oil or butter until they are nicely bro-svned. Drain them from the butter.

APR

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APR

pile them high on a folded napkin, and serve with sifted sugar. Time to fry, about ten minutes. Probable cost, Is. 2d. Suflficient for four or five persons.

Apricot Ice Cream. — Take half a pound of apricot jam: mix with it a pint of cream, the juice of a lemon, half a doaen ahnonds blanched and pounded, and two table-spoonfuls of noyeau. i\Iix and strain thoroughly. Freeze, and serve either in a mould or glasses. Time to freeze, about half an hour. Sufficient for a pint and a half. Probable cost. Is. 6d.

Apricot Ice Cream (another way).— Rub through a fine sieve half a pound of apricot jam with a pint of cream, the strained juice of a lemon, half a dozen bitter almonds poxmded, and a glass of noyeau. Freeze twenty-five minutes. Or, take a dozen fine rij^e apricots. Skin, stone, and pulp them through a sieve with a pint of hot cream and five or six ounces of the finest sifted sugar. Mould and freeze. The apricots may be scalded before they are pulped. Sufficient for six or more persons.

Apricot Jam. — Pare three pounds of fresh sound apricots, halve them, and take out the stones. They should be ripe enough to halve Avith the fingers. Place them in a deep cHsh, and strew over them one pound of finely-sifted sugar. Let them remain for eight hours. Then pla.ce them with the sjTup that will have oozed from them in a preserving-pan ; add a few of the kei-nels blanched and sliced, and another pound and a half of sugar. Let them boil very gently, and, when done, put them into jars and cover closely with gmnmed paper. Time to boil, half an hoiu-. Probable cost, 3s. 6d.

Apricot Jam, Green. — Take two poimds ซf yoimg apricots: place them in a jar, and pour a little boiling water over them. Let them remain in this for one minute; remove them and rub off the down. Place them in a preserving-pan with a cupful of thick sjTup, aad let them simmer very gently tmtil the fruit is quite tender. Take them out and put them on an inverted sieve to drain. Make a syrup of two pounds of sugar and two cupfulซ of water. Put the apricots into this, and boil for twentjr minutes ; then put them into jars, and cover the fruit tn each jar with a piece of pajDcr dipped in oil, and cover with thin paper brushed with white of an egg or a little giim-water. Probable cost, 2s. 6d.

Apricot Jelly. — Pare, core, and halve about thirty ripe apricots. Blanch and pound a few of the kernels, mixing with them the juice of a lemon. Weigh the apricots, put them into a, saucepan with an equal weight of sugar and the pounded kernels ; let them boil gently, stirring continually, imtil they fonn a thick marmalade. Then pour it into a mould which has been filled with cold water. Let it remain until quite stiff, and turn out on a glass dish. This is an excellent dish for invalids.

Apricot Jumbles. — Pom- boiling water ovsi" the apricots and let them remain until they are soft, then remove the stones, and day the fruit in a pan over the fire, or in

an oven. Then beat it into a stiff paste with an equal weight of sugar, roU it into lengths, tie the lengths into knots, and preserve for use in a diy jjlace. If it is mshcd, these jumbles may be coloured red by the addition of a Uttle cochineal to the fruit pulp.

Apricot Marmalade. — Peel, quarter, and stone foui' pounds of ripe apricots, and put them into a preserving-pan, without either water or sugar, and let them boil gently, stirring continually, until the fruit is reduced to a pulp. Then add three pounds of sugar, and a few of the kernels blanched and halved, and boil once more. Put into jars, cover the fruit ฆ^\'ith an oiled paper, and fasten over each jar a piece of thin paper dipped in gum-water. When dry it \iill be tight and hard. Time to boil with the sugar, twenty minutes. Sufficient for foiu- or five jars. Probable cost, 4s.

Apricot Marmalade (another way).— Take five pountls of ripe apricots — so ripe that they can be halved with the fingers : pare, stone, and sUce them, and strew over them five poimds of sifted sugar. Let them remain twelve hours. Then boil sugar, jmce, and fruit very gently, and when done, place in jars, which must be made perfectly air-tight. Time to boil, half an hour. Probable cost, os. 6d. Sufficient for five or six one-pound jars.

Apricot Paste. — Peel and stone some apricots, and put them into a dish in a warm oven; cover the fruit with another dish, and let them, remain until they are tender ; then take them out and let them get cold. \\Tien this is done, take the same weight of powdered loaf sugar as there was fruit, and moisten it -with a small quantity of water ; boil it until ready to candy, and then mix the apricots with it; stir the syrup continually, and boil it until it becomes of the consistency of marmalade. Make this paste into the shape of apricots, and put it in a warm place. When diy it will be found veiy transparent. Time to boil the sugar and fruit, half an hour.

Apricot Paste (another way). — Spread apricot marmalade on shallow tins, and dry it gradually in a slow oven. When nearly dry, cut it into slips or ornamental shapes.

Apricot Paste (another way). — Peel the apricots, boil them gently until tender; drain them, and beat them into a pulp. Boii the pulp with half its weight of crushed loaf sugar, until it becomes thick and clear. Take the same quantity of sugar, boil it with a little water until ready to candy, and mix it A^dth the pulp, but take care not to allow it to boil. Poui' this paste into jars, and place them in a warm oven until it candies; then take out the candied pulp and dry it on plates. Time to boil, about half an hour.

Apricot Paste, Green. — Scald the apricots, beat them up, and strain the soft pulp. Mix it -with syrup containing twice the weight of the fruit in loaf sugar, and let it boil for a short time , then remove it from the fire, and when cold pour it into moulds. Time to boil, twenty minutes.

Apricot Pie.— Pare, stone, and halve the apricots. Place them in a pie-dish, piling them

I

r •t

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APE,

iiigh in the middle. Strew over them a little sifted 'sugar, and a few of the kernels blanched and chopped small. Cover them with a good light crust, and bake in a moderate oven. Time to bake, three-quarters of an houx. Probable cost, 2s. for a moderate-sized dish. Sufficient for foiu' or five persons.

Apricot Preserve. — Peel and stone some moderately ripe apricots ; put them at night in a deep jar between layers of crushed loaf sugar. Next morning pour over them some white cun-ant juice, or white wine, and place the jar in a large saucepan of water, which must be kept boiling until the sugar is completely dissolved; then take the saucepan off the fire and let it get cold. Place the fruit and sp-up in a preserving-pan, and boil very gently untU the fruit is tender. Allow half a pint of juice and a pound and a half of sugar to every pound of frmt. Time to simmer, forty minutes.

Apricot Pudding. — Pour a' pint of new milk (boiling) over six table-spoonfids of breadcriunbs. Let them stand until cold. Then add the well-beaten yolks of thi-ee eggs, two tablespoonfuls of sherry, a sHght flavouriug of the essence of almonds, and four oimces of sifted sugar. Beat them thoroughly, then add to them twelve apricots which have been pared, stoned, and siimnered gently until they have been reduced to a pulp. Lastly, whisk the whites of two eggs to a th-m froth, and add them to the rest. Place the whole in a pie-dish which has been lined with good puif paste, and bake La a quick oven. Time to bake, half an hoiu-. Probable cost, 2s. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Apricot Puddixig, Baked. — Peel, stone, and halve a dozen fresh ripe apricots : place them in a saucepan with a glassful of white wine, and let them simmer very gentlj^ for a quarter of an hour-. Take them from the fire, and add four of the kernels blanched and pounded, and two table-spoonfuls of sifted sugar. Beat them with a fork ; then mix with them four sponge-cakes crumbled, a breakfast-cupful of new milk, and thi-ee eggs well beaten. Pour the mixtme into a well-oiled mould, and bake innnediately. This puddingmay be eaten hot or cold. If cold, turn it out into a glass dish, and pour round it a good custard. Time to bake, forty minutes. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cast, Is. lOd., with apricots, Id. each.

Apricot Ratafia. — Cover some sliced apricots ^\-ith white wine, and simmer them gently until they are reduced to a pulp ; then pour them into an earthen jar. Add to them a cupful of brandy, and a quarter of a pound of sugar to each quart of liquid. Put in with them tlu'ee or four- of the kernels of the fruit broken in pieces, vnth a little mace, cloves, and sinnamon. Let these materials macerate in the ratafia for a fortnight ; then strain the liquid, and preserve it in well-closed vessels. Time to sirmner the apricots, half an hour.

Apricot Souffle. — Pare, stone, and slice one dozen large ripe apricots. Place them in a saucepan with three table-spoonfuls of sifted J3ugar and three of water. Let them simmer

gently tmtil reduced to a pulp, then mix in very smoothly three table-spoonfuls of ground rice



ORNAMENTAL SOUil-Lli

or flour, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, and a breakfast-cupful of cream or new milk. ^Vhen the liquid boils pour it out and add to it the yolks of six eggs. WeU oil the soufflc

PLAIN SOUFFL]ฃ DISH

tin, and at the last moment add the whites of the eggs beaten to a firm froth. Bake in a quick oven, and let the souffle be served directly it is taken out, or it will be spoilt both in taste and appearance. Time to bake, half an hour. Prฎbable cost, 2s., if made wi^h milk ; apricots. Id. each. Sufficient for a moderate-sized tin.

Apricot Syrup. — Takeoff the skins from some ripe apricots, stone them, and cut them into small pieces; place them in a dish, and strew over them a thin layer of sifted sugar. Let them remain a couple of houi's ; place them in a saucepan with a Httle water, and let them simmer gently until they are soft. Strain the juice, and add to it sugar in the proportion of a poimd to a pint. Boil it gently, skimming thoroughly all the time ; let it get cold, then bottle it ; it will be foimd useful to flavour custards, cream ices, &c. The fruit ia the jelly-bag must not be squeezed. After the juice has rim from it, it will make very nice tartlets, with the addition of a httle sugar. Time to boil with the sugar, ten or twelve minutes, by which time it will become thick and clear. Probable cost. Is. 6d. per pint.

Apricot Tart, Green. — Take as many green apricots as may be requncd for the dish : put them into a saucepan with a Little water, to keep them from bm-ning, and half theii^ weight in sugar. "When they are soft through, put them, with the sjTup, Lato a pie-dish wliich has been lined at the edges with good puff paste. Pile them high in the middle, cover, and bake in a good oven. The dish will be much improved in appearance if it is iced before sending to the table. To do this, beat the whites of eggs to a stiff froth, lay on the tart, and shake sifted loaf sugar over it ; then put it into a moderate oven for five minutes to sot. It

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must not be uUowcd to colour. Wlicn apricots cannot be obtained, young apples taken from the tree before the cores are formed are an excellent substitute. Time to bake, half an hour. Probable cost, Is. 3d. Suificient for four or five persons.

Apricot "Water Ice. — Skin, divide, and stone, six large rijie apricots. Blanch, pound, and add the kernels to the fruit, with the juice of two lemons, half a pint of water, and two of clarified sugar. Then pass all through a fine sieve, and agaia strain before freezing. Time, twenty-five minutes to freeze. Probable cost of apricots. Id. each.

v Apricot Wine. — Boil twelve poimds of sliced ripe apricots and a pound of sugar in three gallons of water for half an hour, and strain the liquor into a pan. Put with them a few of the kernels of the fruit, mix all together, and having covered the vessel, leave the liquid to cool. Mix one table-spoonful of fresh brewer's yeast with it, and leave it for three or four days to ferment. Then pour off the clear liquid into a cask, which must be scrupulously clean, and let it remain until the fei-mentation is ended. A pint of Rhenish or other white wine should then be added, and the cask closed for six months. At the end of that time it should be decanted into bottles, and kept for a year longer before being used. Time to boil, half an hour; ferment, thi-ee or four days. Probable cost, 3s. a gallon. Sufficient to make three gallons.

Apricots (au Eiz). — Put a cupful of rice in a saucepan -^vith a quart of milk, a piece of butter the ^ize of a nut, two table-spoonfuls of sugar, and the rind of a lemon. Let all simmer gently, and when the milk is absorbed and the rice tender, add to it four well-beaten eggs. Boil up again, stii-ring all the time, to cook the eggs. Remove the lemon-rind. Put a gallipot in the middle of a large glass dish, and heap the rice round it ; smooth it -svith the back of a spoon, and let' it slope down to the edges of the dish. When it is cold, remove the gallipot, and place the apricots in the hollow, piling them pyramidically. They must be prepared thiis : Take two dozen ot^ the fresh fruit, sound and ripe : pare, stone, and slice them. IMalce a syrup of a breakfast-cupful of sugar and the juice of two lemons. AVhen it is boiling, throw in the slices, and fry them quickly. A few of the kernels may be blanched and chopped and strewed over the fruit. Place a layer of apricot mai-malade mixed with the syrup at the bottom of the hollow, and pile the fried fruit on that. Time to fry the slices, five minutes. Probable cost, 3s. 6d. Sufficient for six or eight persons.

Apricots, Compote of. — Take one dozen large sound apricots ; halve them, remove the stones, and blanch the kernels. Put threequarters of a pound of loaf sugar into an enamelled ste\vpan with a pint and a half of water. Let it boil ; then put in the apricots, and let them simmer very gently for a few minutes. Take them out, di'ain them, and arrange them in a dish. When the syrup is cold, pour it over the fruit. Put' half a kernel upon

each piece of apricot. Probable cost. Is. 3d. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Apricots, Compote of (another way). — Pai'c and scald eight or nine apiicots ; hfdve and stone them. Put into a saucepan half a pound of pounded loaf sugar and half a pint of water. When the scmn rises, put in the apricots, sliced, with three of the kernels. When done, j^ut them in a dish, and pour the syruj) round them. Time to simmer, twenty minutes. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient, one apricot for each person.

Apricots, Compote of Green.—

Remove, by rubbing with a dry cloth, the down fiom a pound of young green apricots. Put into a saucepan three-quarters of a j^int of water and half a pound of sugar ; let it boil for ten minutes or more, being careful to remove the scum as it rises. Put in the apricots; simmer thorn very gently. Lift them out one by one ^yiih a spoon to prevent them breaking, and place in a glass dish. When the sjTup is cool, pour it round them. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for half a dozen persons.

Apricots, Flanc of. — Make a good short crust with one poimd of floiu', six ounces of butter, a table-spoonful of sugar, the yolk of an egg, and enough milk to make the pastry of a projier consistence. Well butter a plain o'\'al mould, and line it with the crust about half an inch in thickness, pressing it well in to take the shape. Let it rise above the mould about half an inch, and pinch it at regular distances to ornament it. Fill it with flour, and balce it in a good oven for about half an hoiu-. Then empty out the floui-, take the case from the mould, being very careful not to break it, and put it back in the oven for another quarter of an hour. It is now ready for the apricots, which should be pared, stoned, and halved, then simmered gently in a sjTup made of half a pound of sugar boiled in half a pint of water, until they are quite tender but not broken. Lift them out, arrange them neatly in the crust ; boil the syrup until it is reduced to a jelly, and pour it over the fruit. Serve either hot or cold. Probable cost, 3s. Sufficient for thi'ce or four persons.

Apricots, Frosted. — Choose twelve sound apricots: put them into a saucepan with cold water to cover them and a piece of alum the size of a nut. Let them stew a few minutes very gently, imtil the skin can be dra-wTi oif . Remove the skin, dip the apricฎts in tlarified butter, and strew thickly over them sugar coarsely crushed. Put them into a moderate oven imtil the sugar sparkles; but take care that the fruit is not broken. Pile them on a dish, and serve cold. Time to bake, a quarter of an horn. Probable cost, 9d. Siifficient for five or six: persons.

Apricots in White Jelly.— Take half a

dc^en apiicots : scald them and draw off the skin; then place them in a saucepan with a cupful of water and half a pound of sugar boiled to a syrup; let them simmer gently until they are tender, but not broken ; place them in a mould, which must be filled with white

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currant jelly. If there is any doubt about the stii&iess, a little isinglass might be added. When quite firm, it may be turned out. Time to sinmier the apricots, twenty minutes. Probable cost, 2s. Half a dozen apricots sufficient for a pint mould.

Apricots Preserved in Jelly,— Tal^e

t-ซ'o 250imds of sound and not ovcr-ripc apricots, and four of jjowdered loaf sugar : pour a Kttle boning watei' upon the fruit ; then ckaw off the skin, and take out the stones by making a slit with a knife at one end, and pushing them gently out. Strew half of the sugar ixpon a dish, jjlace the fruit upon it, and cover with the rest. Let it remain thus for two or three hours, then put the whole carefully into a preservingpan ; let it boil very gently until the apricots are tender, turning them frequently to prevent them burning, and taking off the scimi as it lises. Put the apricots into the glasses in which they are to be kept, then add to the syrup half a pint of- apple- juice, and half a poimd of sugar: let it boil until it will jelly, which it should do in a few minutes, then pour it over the fruit.

Apricpts, To Bottle (for Tarts in Winter time). — Choose some ripe apiicots : pare, stone, and quarter them. Lay them on a dish with powdered sugar strewn over them in the proportion of two ounces of sugar to every pound of fruit. Let them remain thus for two or three houi-s ; then put them into wide-mouthed bottles, cover them and place them up to their necks in a saucepan of cold water. Keep them there until the water lioils. Cork the bottles and wax them secm-ely. Time to boU, half an horn-.

Apricots, To Candy.— Slit the fruit on one side and take out the stone, dry them separately on a dish, and cover them with crushed lump sugai'. Bake them in a hot oven, and then cb-y them in a warm place for a few days.

Apricots, To Dry (a quick and easy method). — Pare, stone, and halve the fruit, then place it in a deep stone jar. Put the jar in a saucepan of boiling water over a good tire, and keep boiling until the fruit is quite tender. Lay the apricots on a sieve, that the juice may di-ain away, and afterwards put them on plates. Strew sifted sugar thickly over them, and put them in a warm place to di-y, before storing them away. Time to boil the fridt, about half an houi\

Apricots, To Dry.— The apricots should be taken before they are quite ripe. Scald them, draw off the skin, divide and stone them. Place them in a dish, with their weight in sugar strewn over them, and let them remain twentyfour hours. Then put the whole into a pre•ser^dng-pan, and simmer them very gently until they are clear. They must remain in the s;sTup for two days. It must then be drained from them, boiled, and poured over them, and they must remain in it two days more. It must ! then be di-a-ซ-n off, and used for flavonring or | other purposes, and the apricots dusted with i sugar and placed a little apart from each other I

in a cool oven to dry. They keep best in a tin box with writing-paper between the layers. The apricot syrup mixed with an equal quantity of brandy also makes an agreeable liquor. Time to make, six days.

Apricots, To Dry (another way).— Wipe gently, stone, and halve some fine apricots, which must be sound and not very ripe. Weigh them, place them in a single layer in a large dish, strew their- weight in sifted white sugar thickly over them, and leave them untU the following day. Then put them carefully into a preser\'ing-pan over a moderate fire ; let them heat very gradually until tender. Take them out gently, so' as not to break them, and let them stand in the syrup for two days, after which, take them out of it singly, place them on dishes to tU-y. They must be kept in a dry place.

Apricots, To Dry (French method).— Take some sound Init not over-rijDO apricots : wipe them and weigh them ; make a hole with a knife at one end, and remove the stone without di\-iding the fruit. Put them into cold water, and simmer until they are quite tender. Take equal quantities, by weight, of sugar and fruit, and boil it in water, allowing a cupful to each poimd. When the scum rises, put in the apricots, and let them remain until they look cpiite clear; then put all into a jar, and let it remain until the next day, when the syrup must be di-ained off, boiled for five or ten minutes, and poui-ed again over the fruit, to remain another twenty -four hours. This process must be repeated three times. Then the liquor must be drawn from them for the last time, and the apricots placed separately on dishes, and di'ied very slowly. Time to make, five days.

Apricots, To Preserve (AVhole or in Halves). — Take four jjounds of fine apricots which are not fully ripe. Let them be gathered, if possible, in the morning, when the sun is on them, as the flavour is then much the best; make a small slit with a knife at the end where the stalk has been, and push the stone gently out. If they are to be preserved in halves, the stone can be easily removed. Throw them into cold water, and simmer them gently until they feel soft when a pin is pushed through them. Take them out and put them in fresh cold water. Put into a preserving-pan one quart of water and four pounds of loaf sugar. Put it on a moderate fire, and stir it until the sugar is dissolved. When it boils, put in a tablespoonful of cold water ; when it boils up again, take it off the fire and let it stand for a few minutes to settle. Talce off the scum, and boil it again. Drain the fruit, and put it into the syrup ; let it boil xip four or five times, eveiy time taking it off to cool, when it must be well skimmed. The last time, let it remain until the fruit is quite clear, which will be in about fifteen minutes. Just before it is taken from the fire, blanch and shce a few of the kernels and add them to it ; or they may be blanched, and put into a little spuit tmtil the jars are ready to be tied up, and then a few strewn at the top of each. This plan may be followed in preserving whole many of the better kinds of

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fruit— such as pcachea, nectarines, greengages, jioai's, itc.

Apricots with Bavarian Blancmange. — Put an oimcc of isinglass in a cupful of Avatcr. Let it soak twenty minutes, then boil it until dissolved in a saucepan with, a pint of cream or new milk. Squeeze the juice of a lemon over a tea-cupful of apricot jam, and mix with it very gradually four table-spoonfuls of milk. Stir all together for a few minutes ; strain through coarse muslin, and when nearly cold, put it into a mould which has been j)re\dously soaked in water. Let it stand twelve hours in a cool place. Time to boU the mixture, five minutes.

Apricots with Rice. — Simmer very gently a small tea-cupf id of rice with a quart of milk. When the milk is absorbed and the rice thoroughly cooked, put it iato a bowl and beat it, for five or ten minutes, with two tablespoonfuls of sugar and six drops of almond flavouring. Press it into a mould which has been previously soaked in water, and when it is quite cold turn it into a glass dish, and poiuround it apricots steAved in halves in a syrup made of a pound of sugar, the juice of three lemons, and three or four- spoonfids of water. A few drops of prepared cochineal put into the sji'up will improve the appearance of the dish. Apples or pears may be used instead of apricots. Time to boil the rice, three-quarters of an hour: Probable cost, 2s. Sufficient for six persons.

Arabian Coffee. — All travellers agree in then- account of the delicacy and delicious flavour of the coffee used in the East. It is prepared thus : Pound thoroughly in a mortar some coffee-berries that have been freshly and quickly roasted. Pass them through a fine sieve two or three times, until at last you have a bro-^Ti flour. Mix two tea-spoonfids of this flom-, and a small piece of cinnamon, with two cupfuls of water. Boil it gently, then draw it back for a moment, and repeat this several times, until a cream rises to the top ; then add half a cupful more boiling water, and it is ready to serve. Neither sugar nor mili; are required.

Arabian Pilau. — Cut iato pieces, about two inches long, four pounds of the neck or breast of mutton, with sufficient stock for it to swim in. Add salt, pepper, and a blade of mace, and simmer it gently for nearly two hours. Have ready a pound of Patna rice which has been boiled as if for curry — that is, put into cold water and boiled up ; then drained and cold water again added ; boiled and drained once more ; then put bj' the side of the fire with a piece of butter in it the size of an egg, and allowed to remain until tender. The pan must be shaken occasionally to prevent it sticking. Take out the pieces of moat, fry them lightly in butter, and place them among the rice. Garnish with the yolks of eggs boiled hard, and sliced fried onion, or pieces of bacon. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost, 4s.

Aromatic Cordial. — Put two ounces of ground ginger, half an ounce of pepper, an ounce of cardamom seeds, half an ounce of

bruised cinnamon, half an ounce of mace, and half an ounce of orange-peel, in a quart of good Avhiskey. Let it stand for a fortnight, tightly corked; then strain and bottle it. It is good to take two or three tca-spoonfids in vrme or water when suffering fi'om indigestion or dobiUty.

Aromatic Seasoning of Herbs and Spices. — Take an ounce and a half of thpnc, one ounce of bay-leaves, an ounce of savoury, an oimce of basil, and an ounce and a half of marjoram. Dry them thorouglily, pick the leaves. Pound in a mortar a quarter of an oimce of cayenne pepper, with an ounce oi peppercorns, an ounce of cloves, a clove of garlic, the thinly-peeled rind of a lemon, half an ounce of mace, and one nutmeg grated. IMix all well together, pass them through a sieve, and keep stored in well-corked bottles. Time to prepare, one hour and a half. Probable cost. Is. 6d. for a pint bottle.

^Aromatic Wine.— Mix eighteen grains of the bisul[)]i:ite of quinine and fifteen grains of citric acid in a buttle of orange v.'ine. Shake it Avcll, then put it aside to settle.

Arroba Pudding. — Put a pint and a half of milk into a saucepan, -with two table-spoonfuls of ground rice, a pinch of salt, and a littlecinnamon ; stir it over the fire till it boils, let it cool, and then add foiu' eggs well beaten. Poui' the mixture into a Avell-oiled moidd, and steam it, being careful to cover the top of the mould. Boil it for two hoiu-s ; then take it out, and put it into the oven for a quarter of an hour to make it firm, but do not let it colom-. T\u-n it out, and servo with it a sauco made of a cupfid of milk, the yolk of an egg, and a little sugar, stirred over the fire till it thickens, and then two or three spoonfuls of sherry or brandy added. Probable cost, without the sauce, 9d. Sufficient for six persons.

Arrowroot Biscuits. — Beat a quarter of a poimd of butter to a cream: add gradually thi'ee well-beaten eggs, a quarter of a pound of flour, a quarter of a pound of sifted sugar, and three ounces of arrowroot, pounded to crush the limips. jMix all smoothly together. Have ready a well-oiled tin, and drop from a spoon in pieces about the size of a florin. Bake in a slow oven. Time to bake, a quarter of an hour-. Sufficient for two dozen biscmts. Probable cost, lOd.

Arrowroot Blancmange. — Mix two

ounces of arrowroot Avith a cupful of water, taking care to make it qiute smooth. Put a pint and a half of milk into a saucepan with the rind of a lemon and a table-spoonful of sugar, and when it boils, strain it, and pom- it over the arroA\Toot. Set it on the fire to thicken, and before pouring into the mould, which must be well oiled, add a little brandy. It is better to oil the mould than to soak it in water, as it gives the blancmange a glistening appearance. Garnish with bright red jolly or jam. Time, half an horn-. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost, 6d., Avithout the jam and brandy.

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Arrowroot Cream. — Mix a table-spoonful of arrowroot with two of cold water. Boil a pLat and a half of new milk with a bayleaf, or the thin rind of a lemon, and a dessert-spoonful of sugar. Strain it, and pour it, boiling, upon the arrowroot ; stir it frequently till it is cold, then pour it into a glass dish. This may be served with tarts or stewed fruits. Time to boil, ten minutes. Probable cost, 6d. for a pint and a half of cream.

Arrowroot Drops.— Put into a welloiled saucei^an a large cupful of arrowroot which has been previously rolled to crush the lumps, a piece of butter the size of an egg, a table-spoonful of pounded sugar, a tea-spoonful of finely-chopped lemon-peel, and a well-beaten egg, and boil them together, stii-riug briskly all the time until they are light and thick. Then drop them on a well-buttered tin in pieces about the size of a shilling, and bake in a good oven. They should look white and rather rough. Time to bake, a quarter of an hour-. Probable cost, Is.

Arrowroot Fritters. — Put a pint of new milk and a table-spoonful of sugar into a saucepan "v\-ith three or four laurel-leaves. AVlien it boils, stLr into it a quarter of a pound of arrowroot which has been smoothly mixed with a little cold water; then add the beaten yolks of four eggs. Stir it constantly until it is thick and smooth ; then pom- it into a welloUed pie-dish, and bake in a good oven. Allow the mixture to cool ; then stamp it out in rounds ; dip them in egg and bread-crumbs ; fry them in hot lard, and heap them in a dish. Serve with jam sauce. Time, twenty minutes to boil ; ten minutes to bake ; five minutes to fry. Sufficient for foiu" or five persons. Probable cost, Is., without the jam.

Arrowroot Jelly.— Soak the t^n rind of a lemon and a table-spoonful of sifted sugar in a cupful of cold water. Let it remain four houi-s ; then strain the liquid, and mix it with three table-spoonfuls of arrowroot, a tablespoonful of brandy, the juice of four lemons, and thi-ee di-ops of almond flavom-ing. Put it into a saucepan, and stir it until it is thick. Put it into a damp mould, or let it get cold ; then serve it in glasses. Time to boil, five minutes. Probable cost, 8d., exclusive of the brandy. Sufficient for a half -pint mould.

Arrowroot Jelly (another way).— Mix two table-spoonfuls of arrowroot with a little water, and pour upon the paste a pint of boihng water and white wine sweetened and flavoured with almond or lemon flavouring. Stir it well ; then put it again on the fire, still continuing to stu- it until it is quite thick. Pour it into a mould which has been soaked in cold water; tui-n it out the next day, and ser%-e it with cream-custard or jam. Time to boil -nath the an-o-^Toot, three or fo\u- minutes. Sufficient for a pint mould. Probable cost, 4d., ฆndthout the wine and cream, &c.

Arrowroot, Nourishing, for Invalids AND Sick Children. — Boil half an ounce of hartshorn shavings and a httle lemon-rind in a pint of water for fifteen minutes ; strain,

and pour the liquid upon two dessert-spoonfuls of aiTowi-oot which has been previously mixed with a httle cold water. Stir briskly, and boil for a few minutes ; then add a tea-spoonful of sugar and a glass of wine. Probable cost, 3d. per pint, without the wine. Sufficient for one person. Time to boil the shavings, a quarter of an hour.

Arrowroot Potato Flour.— Peel some fine mealy potatoes, and grate them into a pan filled ^-ith cold water. Let it settle, then strain through a fine sieve; pour on fresh water, stir it round, and let it settle again. Eepeat this five or six times, until the powder is quite white and the water clear. Spread the sediment upon a dish, and put it into a cool oven to di-y, stirring it frequently. Sift it, and put it into bottles, which must be kept well corked. Time, several hours.

Arrowroot Pudding.— Mix two dessertspoonfuls of arrowroot A\'ith half a cupful of milk. Place a pint and a half of milk in a saucepan with the grated rind of half a lemon and a table-spoonful of sugar. Boil it, and pour it upon the an-owroot. Stir it well, and when cool, add three well-beaten eggs and a l)iece of butter the size of a walnut. Line the edges of a well-buttered pie-dish with puff paste, spread a layer of preserved fruit at the bottom, then pour in the mixture, and bake in a good oven. Time to bake, half an houi-. Sufficient for five or six persons. Probable cost. Is.

Arrowroot Pudding, Plain.— Mix

two table-spoonfuls of arrowroot with a little water. Put into a saucepan a pint and a half of milk, with a little grated nutmeg and a tablespoonful of sugar. When it boils, pour it upon the arrowroot, stirring it well, and add a piece of butter the size of a walnut. Pour it into a weU-buttered pie-dish, and bake in a moderate oven for an hour or more. This is a wholesome pudding for the nursery. Sufficient for five or six persons. Probable cost, 6d.

Arrowroot Pudding, Steamed.—

Mix two table-spoonfids of aiio\^Toot with a cupful of milk. Flavom- a pint and a half of milk with cinnamon, lemon, orange, almonds, or whatever may be preferred ; put it on the fire, and when it boils, pour it upon the aiTowroot. Stii- well, and when it is cool add tkree wellbeaten eggs, a table -spoonful of sugar, and the same of brandy. Put it into a well-buttered mould, cover it over, and steam it. When ready to serve, turn out, and put jam round it in the dish. Time to steam, one horn- and a half. Probable cost, 8d. Sufficient for six persons.

Arrowroot Sauce.— Mis a de.ssert^spoonful of arrowroot with half a pint of water. Put it into a saucepan and let it boil gently, stirring all the time. Add two table-spoonfuls of sugar, and any flavouring that may be preferred. A table-spoonful of brandy will be an improvement. This sauce is suitable for rice, bread, or plum pudding. Time, ten to fifteen minutes. Probable cost, 4d. Sufficient for five or six

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Arrowroot Sauce, Clear.— Rub the

tliin rind of a lemon on largo lumps of sugar, and put them in a saucepan with a breakfast-cupful of raisin or gooseberry wine. Mix a heaped tea-spoonful of arrowroot with a little water, stir it graduaiiy :r..c^ die wine, and pomit round the pudding. Time to boil, ten minutes. Sufficient for four or five persons. Probable cost, 6d.

Arrowroot Souffle.— ^lix four tablespoonfuls of arrowroot with a cupful of milk. Stir it gradually into a pint of boiling milk, and add two table-spoonfuls of sugar on which the rind of a lemon has been rubbed. Let it boil for a quarter of an horn-, stirring all the time. Take it from the fire and let it cool, then stir in the well-beaten yolks of si.K eggs. Well oil a plain tin mould, and when everything is ready, whisk the whites to a solid froth, and add them to the rest. Fill the tin three-parts full, and bake for twenty minutes in a good oven. Serve inunediately. Sufficient for five or six persons. Probable cost, Is. 3d.

Arrowroot, To Prepare. — Mix a dessert-spoonful of arrowroot with a little cold water. Pour on it, very gradually, half a pint of water boiled with a little lemon-rind ; stir it briskly, and boil for a few minutes. Sweeten it, and add a little sherry or port wine. For infants, a drop of cinnamon-water, or of the essence of caraway-seeds, may be put in. Fresh milk may be substituted for the water, then the wine may bo omitted. If there is any fear that the milk is in the slightest degree adulterated, it will be much better to use preserved milk, if for invalids. In that case no sugar will be required. Probable cost, 2d. per pint without the wine. Sufficient for one person.

Arrowroot to thicken Sauces.—

Arrowroot may be used to thicken sauces for those who object to butter, as invalids often do. Mix a dessert-spoonful of arrowroot smoothly with a little cold water, and stir it into a pint of the boiling liquid. Time to boil, four or five minutes. Probable cost, Id. Sufficient for one pint of sauce.

Arrowroot Water. — A Drink for Invalids. — Boil the thinly-peeled rind of a small lemon in a quart of water. Pour it, when boiling, over a table-spoonful of arrowi-oot which has been mixed with two table-spoonfuls of -wdne or brandy, if these are allowed, if not, with a little cold water ; stir it well, sweeten it slightly, and let it boil again two or three minutes. A little lemon- juice is an improvement. Sufficient to make a quart of the liquid. Probable cost, without the wine, 3d.

Articlioke Bottoms.— Take a few artichoke bottoms, dried. Soak them, and boil them in sufficient clear stock to cover them. When tender, which may be ascertained by sticking a fork into them, take them out, let them drain, then put a little forcemeat into each one, and serve them in a napkin. Time to boil, if young, thi-ee-quarters of an horn- ; if fully grown, an hour and a half. Sufficient, one for each person. Probable cost, 3d. each.

Articlioke Bottoms, To Pickle.—

Parboil the artichokes; pull out the leaves, and do not remove the choke. Allow them to cool ; put them into pickle-bottles. Boil sufficient vinegar to fill up the bottles, adding to every quart of vinegar a dessert-spoonful of salt, a small tea-spoonful of white pepper, and a blade of mace. Simmer it for twenty minutes. Put it aside, and when cold pour it into the bottles, which must be corked closely. Probable cost. Is. for a pint bottle.

Artichoke Bottoms, Stewed.— Dried

artichoke bottoms should be soaked for two or three houi-s in wami water, then boiled in salt and water, and served with wliite sauce poured over them ; or stewed in gravy flavoured with ketchup, salt, and pepper, and thickened with flour. Time to boil, three-quarters of an hour.

Artichoke Salad. — Wash thoroughly and quarter some very young artichokes. Remove the chokes, and eat them like radishes, yvith iDejiper, salt, vinegar, and oil. They taste like nuts, and make a nice relish. Time to prepare, ten minutes. Probable cost, 2d. or 3d. each.

Artichoke Sauce. — Put a piece of butter the size of an egg into a saucepan ; let it melt ; put into it an onion sliced, half a head of celery, a table-spoonful of chopped ham, a pinch of powdered cinnamon, one salt-spoonful of salt, and a httle cayenne. Stir the ingredients constantly over a fire gently for a quarter of an hour, adding more butter, if necessary. Then add to them a pound of Jerusalem artichokes, boiled and beaten to a pulp, and a pint of milk. Boil all together until the sauce is rather thicker than cream. Strain, boil again, and serve hot. Time to boil the ingredients together, ten minutes. Probable cost. Is. 2d. per pint. Sufficient for rather more than a pint of sauce.

Artichokes (a la Barigoule). — Wash and trim three or four artichokes ; remove the chokes, and fry the top of the leaves and the bottom of the artichokes in hot lard or fat for three or four minutes. Fill the cavities with a forcemeat made with two ounces of finely-shred suet, two ounces of undressed veal free from fat or fibre, two ounces of bread-crumbs, two teaspoorifuls of chopped pai-sley, a quarter of a tea-spoonful each of marjoram and thyme, half a tea-spoonful of chopped shalot, two drachms of salt, one of pepper, one of powdered mace, and one of grated lemon-rind, ilix thoroughly; then work them together with the yolk of an egg. Fasten a piece of bacon on the top of each artichoke. Bind them with string or tape to keep them in their proper shape. JPut them in a stewpan with brown gravy sufficient to cover them. Let them stew gently till tender ; remove the strings; put them on a dish -^\'ith a little of the gra\'y, thickened, round them. Time to stew, half an hour. Probable cost, Is. 2d. Sufficient for four persons.

Artichokes, Pried (a la Gouffc).— Wash

and trim three young, freshly-cut artichokes. Cut them into thin slices, and as they are cut throw them into water with a cupful of vinegar in it; this is to preserve the colour. Drain.

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them, and season them with a pinch of salt and the same of pepper. Make a batter with tliree eggs, two table-spoonfuls of oil, and two of floiu-. When all are well mixed, put the slices of artichoke into it, and stii' it gently for three or four minutes, until every piece of artichoke is well covered. Fry gently in hot fat, being careful that the vegetable is cooked tkroughout as well as browned. Drain off the fat, pile the shccs on a napkin, and garnish Avith a little fried parsley. Time to fry, a quarter of an hour. Probable cost, 2d. or 3d. per pound. Sufficient for two or thi-ee

Artichokes (a la Italienne). — Well wash, trim, and quarter the artichokes, and boil them in salt and water until tender. Remove the chokes, ch-ain thoroughly, and arrange them on a dish with the leaves outwards, and intersperse them with watcrcresses. Pour good wliite sauce, ilavoured ^\ath stewed mushrooms, over them. Time .to boil the artichokes, half an hour. Probable cost, 2d. to 4d. each. Allow one artichoke for each person.

Artichokes (il la Lyonnaisc). — Wash, blanch, and trim four artichokes ; then place thcin in a stewpan with two ounces of butter, the juice of a lomon, a pinch of salt, and a pinch of pepper. Siuuuer them gently until they are sufficiently cooked, then drain them from the fat, and put them iiito the oven to brown hghtly. Put a cupful of good stock into the saucepan in which the artichokes were stewed. Stir gently for a few minutes, add a glass of white wine, and serve. Time, thi-eecpiarters of an hour. Probable cost, 2d. to 4d. each. .Sufficient for thi-ee persons.

Artichokes (a, la Poi\'rade). — Take four or live young artichokes: trim them, remove the chokes, cut off the lower leaves, divide them into four-, and throw them iato \-inegar and cold water to preserve the colour. A\nien wanted, di-ain them from the vinegar and water, put them into a tiish, and serve like radishes. Pe])por, salt, oil, and %-inegar should be sent to table with them. Probable cost, 2d. to 4d. each. Sufficient for a small side-dish.

Artichokes, Boiled.— Soak the artiฆchokes, and wash them in several waters to

expel the insects. Cut the stalks even, and trim away the lower leaves and the ends from the upper one. Boil them in plenty of salted water with the tops downwards, and let them remain until the leaves can be easily drawn out. Before dishing them, remove the chokes. Fill as many cups as there are artichokes with good melted' butter, and place them roimd the dish. Time, if young, from half to threequarters of an hour; if fully grown, an hoiuand a half. Allow three for foiu- persons. Probable cost, from 2d. to 4d. each.

Artichokes, Dried.— Wash the artichokes in two or three waters. Put them for a quarter of an hour in plenty of fast-boihng water. Drain, and place them in a moderate oven for an hour. Allow them to cool. Piepeat this several times, until they are quite di-y. They should be kept in a dry place, well covered. Time to prepaie, three or four hours. Probable cost, 2d. to 4d. each.

Artichokes, Pried. —Wash, trini, and boil the artichokes as directed in the recipe for

ARTICHOKE IN SECT. OX.

A The Leaves, b Tlie Clioke. c The Bottom.

boiling. Remove the chokes and the outer leaves, leaving only the most tender. Cut them into about a dozen pieces, then dip them in batter, fry in hot oil or di-ipping imtil they are lightly bro\\Tied, drain, and serve with fried parsley. Time to fry, five or six minutes. Probable cost, 2d. to 4d. each. Allow three for four persons.

Artichokes, Fried (another way).— Pare some artichokes, and boil tliem in salt and water for about a quarter of an hour. Drain, and cut them into slices about a quarter of an inch in thickness, dip them into the white of egg well beaten, and afterwards sti'ew finely-grated bread 0.1 them. Fry in boiling oil or lard till they are nicely browned, and serve piled high on a dish. Time to fry, eight minutes.

Artichokes, Jerusalem, Boiled.—

Peel the artichokes, and throw each root into cold water and vinegar immediately, to preserve the colom*. Put them into l)oiling water, %vith a little salt, until sufficiently tender for a fork to pass through them easily, then pile them on a dish, and serve as hot as possible with melted butter or white sauce poured over. Soyer

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shaped them lite a pear, then stewed them gently in three pints of water with two or three onions thinly sliced, one ounce of salt, and one oimce of butter. He then placed a border of mashed potatoes round a dish, stuck the artichokes in it points upwards, poured over them either white sauce or melted butter, and put a fine brussels sprout between each. It made a pretty inviting dish. Time to boil, about twenty "minutes. They should be tried with a fork frequently after a quarter of an hour, as they will become black and tasteless if allowed to remain on the fire longer than necessary. Allow two pounds for a tureen. Probable cost, 2d. or 3d. per pound.

Articliokes, Jerusalem, Fricasseed.

— Boil some artichokes according to the preceding recipe. Take them out of the water and di-ain them. Put a breakfast - cupful of milk into a saucepan, flavom- it ^^^th salt, pepper, and powdered cinnamon, and thicken it Avith a small piece of butter roUed in flour. Turn the artichokes into this, and let all stew together gently for a few minutes. Time to stew, five or six minutes. Probable cost, 2d. or 3d. per pound. Allow two pounds for a tureen.

Articliokes, Jerusalem, Pried, — Pare and cut the artichokes in slices about the eighth of an inch in thickness, and fry them in sufficient boiling oil or lard for them to swim in until they are a rich brown. Strew a little salt over them, i)ile high on a dish, and send to table hot. Time to fry, eight or ten minutes. iSufficicnt, two pounds for a moderate-sized dish. Probable cost, 2d. or 3d. per poimd.

Artichokes, Jerusalem, in White

Sauce. — Wash and pare the artichokes, and throw each root as it is pared into cold water, to preserve the colour. Cut a little jjiece ofl: one end, so that each one wiU stand, and taper the other end. Boil them in milk and water, and when tender ari-ange them in a dish with the points uppermost, and pour over them a good white sauce. Time to boil, about half an horn-. Probable cost, 2d. or 3d. per pound. Allow two poimds for a tureen.

Artichokes, Jerusalem., Mashed. —

Wash and pare some artichokes ; boil them in salt and water until quite tender, then drain and press the water thoroughly from them. Put them into a saucepan, and beat to a pulp ; adding salt, pepper, and a Httle cream. Serve quite hot. Time to boil, twenty minutes; to mash, five minutes. Probable cost, 2d. or 3d. per poimd. Allow two pounds for four or five per.sons.

Artichokes, Jerusalem, Soup, or Puree of. — Put a piece of biitter the size of an egg into a saucepan: let it molt; then fry in it one sliced turnip, one sliced onion, three pounds of Jerusalem artichokes washed, pared, and sliced, and half a pound of bacon in rashers. Keep these well stirred in the boiUng butter for about ten minutes; then add to them, gradually, one pint of stock. Let all boil up together until the vegetables are thoroughly cooked; then add thi-ee pints more stock, stir it well, add pepper and salt

to taste, press it through a sieve, and add one pint of boiling milk. Boil five minutes more, and serve with toasted bread cut in dice. Time to boil, about one hour a"nd a half. Probable cost, lOd. per pint. Sufficient for six persons.

Artichokes Stewed in Gravy.— Strip ofl: the leaves from the artichokes, remove the chokes, and soak them in lukewarm water for three hours, changing the water three or four times. Place them in a saucepan with enough gravy to cover them, a table-spoonful of mushroom ketchup, the juice of a lemon, and a piece of butter, the size of a walnut, roUed in floui-. Let them stew gently imtil tender, then serve mth the sauce poured over them, and as hot as possible. Time to stew, half an houi'. Allow one for each person. Probable cost, 2d. to 4d. each.

Artichokes, Stuffed. — Thoroughly wash the artichokes. Boil them until they are nearly tender, drain them, remove the middle leaves and the chokes, and lay in each a httle good forcemeat, and put them in a moderate oven until the meat is sufficiently cooked. Make a little good melted butter to serve with them. Time to bake, half an hour. Allow one for each person. Probable cost, 6d. each.

Ashantee Pudding. — Shred finely, with a Uttlo floiu-, haU a poimd of suet ; mix with it an equal weight of flnely-grated bread-crimibs, three oimces of ground rice, a tea-sj)Oonful of baking-powder, and the rind of a lemon, finely chopped. Stir all together; then add thi-ee eggs, and if it is too stiff, a little milk may be put in. Place the mixture in a well-oiled basin ; steam it, and serve hot, -with melted butter and a little sherry. Time to steam, two hours. Probable cost. Is. Sufficient for six person-s.

Ashberry Jelly. — This fruit is not often for sale, but must bo gathered from the Mountain Ash. Wash the fruit thoroughly, and put it into a preser-\-ing-pan with water siifficient to cover it. Let it simmer gently until the water is red and has a bitter taste; then strain but do not squeeze the fruit. Put a poimd of sugar to every jiint of liquor, and boil it over a good fire until it jellies. Pour it into jars, and when cold cover with tissue paper dipped in gum water. The fruit should be gathered when it is red, but before the frost has touched it. It should be placed on the table with venison. Time to boil, about forty minutes.

Asparagus, Boiled.— Choose bunches of asparagus which have the cut fresh and the heads straight. If the cut end is brown and dry, and the heads bent on one side, the asparagus is stale. It may be kept a day or two with the stalks in cold water, but is much better fresh. Scrape off the white skin from the lower end, and cut the stalks of equal length. Let them lie in cold water until it is time to cook them. Put a handful of salt into a gallon of water ; and let it boil. Tie the asparagus in bimdles and put them into it. Toast a shoe of bread bro-v^Ti on each side, dip it in the water, and lay it on a dish. When the asparagus is sufficiently cooked, dish it on the toast, leaving

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the white ends outwards each way. Send melted butter to table ^ith it. Time to cook, about twenty minutes. Fresh asparagus cooks more quickly than stale. Probable cost, 2s. 6d. a hundi'ed. Sufficient, one hundi-ed for eight persons.

Asparagus, Fricasseed. — Wash a quarter of a hundi'ed heads of asparagus, cut off the tender portion, and lay them into cold water until they are required. Dixiin them, and chop them -with a young lettuce, half a head of endive, and a small onion. Put a piece of butter the size of an egg into a saucepan, melt it, then mix with it smoothly a dessert-spoonful of floui- and half a pint of stock. Add the chopped vegetables, with jjepper and salt, and let all stew gently until the sauce is thick and good. Serve hot. Time to stew, half an hour. Probable cost for this quantity, Is.

Asparagus, Preneh Method of Cooking. — AYash and boil the asparagus about t\\-enty minutes ; then ch-ain them, and cut off the heads and about two inches of the tender part of the stalks; mince them small, and mix with them an onion also choiDped small. Add the weU-beaten yolk of an egg, salt and i^ei^i^er. Slake it hot, put a slice of toast upon it, and pour a good sauce over all, or sijipets of toasted bread may be placed under it. Probable cost, 2s. 6d. -pev hundi-ed, when fullj' ,in season. Allow one hundi-ed for six persons.

Asparagus Heads as Peas.— Take off about two inches of the head-ends of the asparagus ; cut them into pieces about the size of peas, and put them into a saucepan with some cold salt and water. Let them boil about ten minutes; then take them out, di-ain them, melt a piece of butter the size of an egg in a saucepan, and place them in it. Shake the saucepan over the fire for a few minutes : then sprinkle a dessert-spoonful of flour OA-er it, and a small tea-cupful of boiling water, pepper and salt to taste, and pom- over the asparagus the beaten yolks of two eggs, mixed with f om- tablespoonfuls of new milk. Let all simmer gently for five or ten minutes; then scire. Time, half an hour. Probable cost, 2s. 6d. Allow a hnndi-ed for a tureen full. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Asparagus Omelet.— Boil in the usual way twenty-five heads of asparagus, and cut the green ends, when tender, into pieces the size of peas. Asparagus that has been previously cooked may be used in this way, first heating it in a little boihng water. Mix -wdth them four well-beaten eggs, and add a little pepper and salt. Melt a piece of butter the size of an egg in an omelet pan, -pova' in the mixture, stir still it thickens, fold it nicely over, and sen-e with sauce and vinegar. Time to fiy, six minutes. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for three persons.

Asparagus Pudding.— Take half a hundred young asparagus, and cut up the green part into pieces as small as peas. Beat a piece of butter the size of an egg to a cream ; add to it a cupful of flour, two tea-spoonfuls of iinelychopped ham, four eggs well beaten, the

asparagus, and a little pepper and salt. Mix aU well together, and add sufficient milk to make it into a stiff batter. Put it into a welloiled mould, wi-ap it in a floured cloth, and place in a saucepan of boiling water. "WTien sufficiently cooked, turn it on a hot dish, and pour good melted butter round it. This is a very nice way of cooking asparagus. Time to boil, two hours. Probable cost, 2s. for a pint mould. Sufficient for half a dozen pei'sons.

Asparagus Sauce. — Cut the green ends off a quarter of a hundred of asparagus, and boil them in salt and water until they are tender. Drain well, make a little good melted butter, using stock instead of water, putting ฆttdth it a lump of sugar and the juice of a lemon. Fry the asparagus points in a little boiling butter, press them through a sieve, then add them to the melted butter, and let all boU up together. If the colour is not very good, a few leaves of young spinach mixed in a mortar with pounded sugar will improve it. Time to boil the asparagus, ten minutes. To fry it, six or seven. Sufficient, a quarter of a hundi-ed of asparagus for half a pint of melted butter. Probable cost, lOd. per half pint.

Asparagus Soup. — Take a hundred heads of asparagus. Cut away the hard, tough part, and boil the rest till tender. Drain them, tkrow half into cold water until the soup is nearly ready, and press the other half through a hail- sieve. Stir the pressed asparagus into three pints of stock, wliich has not been flavoured with any other vegetable. BoU it, and add salt, pepper, and a small lump of sugar. Cut the remaining heads of asparagus into pieces the size of peas. Put them into the soup for a few minutes and serve. If necessary, colour- -R-ith a little spinach green. Time, about an hour. Probable cost of asparagus, 2s. 6d. a himdi-ed in full season. Sufficient for four or five persons. ,

Asparagus Soup (another way).— Take the tops from half a hundred heads of asparagus, and soak them in water for some time. Then put them into three pints of nicely-flavoirred stock to which has been added a cupful of new milk, and let them boil for ten minutes. If necessary, colour with a little spinach green. Time to make, one hoiu-. Sufficient for four- or flve persons. Probable cost, 6d. jaer pint.

Asparagus Soup, AUemand.— Lay

three rashers of bacon at the bottom of a saucepan. Place on them four pounds of lean beef cut into pieces and rolled in flom-. Cover the jmn closely, and put it over a gentle fire to draw out the gravy, taking care it does not bum. Pour over it a breakfast-cupful of ale and three pints of water. Let it simmer gently for two hours. Strain the liquor, and take off the fat. Add salt and pepper to taste. Probable cost, Is. 4d. per pint.

Or, boil gently for two hours half a pound of fresh meat cut small and rolled in flour, with a cupful of ale and two quarts of water. Lot the water be cold at fii-st, brought to a boil, then drawn on one side, and simmered slowly but constantly. A table-spoonful of ground rice may be added, if not quite

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thick enough. Strain, and while boiling hot add two tea-spoonfuls of Liebig's extract of meat. 'Add pepper, and a liberal supply of salt. Then chop and pound together a cal . xge lettuce, a tea-spoonful of chopped mint, a leaspoonful of sorrel, the same of marjoram, live or six leaves of beetroot, and the same of spinach. Put them into the liquid, and let aU boil together. Thi-ow in a pint of asparagus tops, cut small, and boil till they are tender. Poui- hot over a French roU. Time, three hours. Sufficient for half a dozen persons. Probable cost, lOd. per pint.

Asparagus Stewed in Fi'eneh Rolls.

— Talce two or tlnvc French rolls, out a, piece off the top straight, so that it can be fixed on again, and scoop out all the criunb. ]\Iake a mixtiu-e of a pint of new milk, the yolks of five eggs, a little salt, pepper, and powdered cinnamon. Put it into a saucepan and let it simmer gently, stirring constantly until it thickens. Boil a hundred young asparagus, cut about two inches from the tops, and chop them small, leaving about a dozen and a half of the tops imtouchcd. Fill the hollow rolls with the hot mixture ; make some holes in the lids of the rolls, stick the green ends that were not chopped into them, to look as if the asparagus were growing through the roUs, lay the tops on, and fry in boiling oil or lard. It will take from twenty to twenty-five minutes to boil the aspai-agus. Probable cost of asparagus, 2s. Cd. a hundi-ed, when in full season. Sufficient for six persons.

Aspic Game or Poultry.— Cut up

what is left of game or poultry into neat joints. Poiu' some aspic jelly into the bottom of a mould which has been soaked in cold water ; next a layer of stars or diamonds cut out of cold boiled white of egg ; a few leaves of parsley, and the red part of cold boiled tongue dotted here and there. Let it become nearly stiff, then arrange the cold game or poultry, taking care to leave room for the jelly to run in between. Fill the moidd ฆ\\-ith jelly, which should be cool when it is pom-ed in. When quite stiff, turn on a mould and garnish with parsley. Time to stiffen, about twelve hours.

Aspic Jelly. — Put a knuckle-bone of veal, a knuckle-bone of ham, a calf's foot, four cloves stuck into one large onion, one large carrot, and a bunch of savoTuy herbs, in two quarts of water, and boil gently until it is reduced rather more than half. Strain, and put it aside to cool. Very carefully remove every particle of fat or sediment, and place the jelly in a saucepan with a glass of white wine, a table-spoonful of tan^agon vinegar, salt and pepper to taste, and the whites of two eggs. Keep stirring until it nearly boils, which may be known by its becoming white, then draw it to the side of the fire, and sinuner gently for a quarter of an hour. Put on the cover, let it stand to settle, and sti-ain through a jelly-bag two or three times if necessary, until it is quite clear. Put it into a mould which has- been soaked in cold water. Time, four or five hours.

Sufficient for two and a IiaK pints of jelly. Probable cost, 2s. (id.

Aspic Jelly (a quick way of making). ^Take a pint of nicely-flavoured, clear stock, put it into a saucepan with a glass of white wine, and a desert-spoonful of tarragon vinegar. Put a large table-spoonful of gelatine with two of water, let it swell, then stu- it in with the stock till it is dissolved ; add the whites of two eggs, di-aw the liquid to the side of the fire, and let it sinmier for ten minutes ; strain tkrough a jelly-bag till clear, and pour it into a mould that has been soaked in cold water. Time to make, about half an horn-. Sufficient for a pint and a half of jcUy. Probable cost, lOd.

Aspic Jelly for Garnishing.— Take

two pints of nicely-flavoured stock, of a clear and Ann jeUy ; put this into a saucepan with a blade of mace, a table-spoonful of tarragon vinegar, and a glass of sheriy. Let it boil, then stir into it an ounce of the best gelatine which has been soaked in a little cold water. Wlien again cool add the whisked whites of two eggs, let it boil, then draw it on one side to settle, strain thi'ough a jeUybag until quite clear, and pour it on a dish which has been standing in cold water. Cut it into dice for garnishing. Time to make, about an hour. Sufficient for two and a half pints of jeUy. Probable cost, lOd. without the wine.

Asses' Milk, Artificial.— Boil an ounce

of pearl barley and an ounce of eringo ฆ root in a quart of water until it is reduced one half. Stir into it half an ounce of gelatine dissolved in a little water, a pint of new milk, and tAvo lumps of sugar. Time, one hom\ Sufficient for one quart. Probable cost, 8d.

Asses' Milk, Artificial (a quick way of making). — Take a tea-spoonful of prepared barley. Mix it smootlily with a table-spoonful of water, and stir it into half a pint of boiling water. Put with it a lumj") of sugar-candy. Let it simmer, stirring all the time, for five minutes. Strain it, then mix with it half a pint of new milk, and a well-beaten new-laid egg. This is a wholesome and agreeable drink for invalids. Time to prepare, ten minutes. Probable cost, 3d. Sufficient for a pint and a half.

Athole Cakes (very good).— Mix two table-spoonfuls of finely-sifted sugar, with half a pound of Maizena, and a heaped tea-spoonful of the best baking-powder. Shi-ed finely the thin rind of a lemon and a small piece of candied peel. Stir in another bowl six ounces of butter to a cream, mix with it the above ingredients, and last of all, add two well-boatoa eggs. Well oil patty-pans, put a piece about the size of a walnut into each, and bake in a good oven for five or six minutes. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for two dozen cakes.

Aunt Alice's Pudding^.— Place a little jam at the bottom of a pic-dish. J\lix three table-spoonfuls of bread-crimil)s, one tablespoonful of sugar, a little chopped lemoni-ind, the juice of half a lemon with two eggs, and a tea-cupful of milk. Poiu- it over the jam, and bake in a good oven. A very nice pudding may be made by substituting pieces of stale

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bread for the hread-crumts. Soak two or three pieces in the milk, beat well -sWth a fork, and add the other ingredients. Time to bake, throe-quarters of an hour. Sufficient for five or six persons. Probable cost, 8d.

Aunt Edward's Christmas Cake

(Economical). — Blend thoroughly one pound of flour, a jiinch of salt, one heaped tea-spoonful of baking powder, two ounces of butter, and two ounces of lard, a quarter of a pound of sugar, half a pound of currants, candied lemon-peel and spices to taste. Mix rather lightly -u-ith new milk. Bake in a good oven. Time to bake, an hour and a half. Sufficient for two moderate-sized cakes. Probable cost, 9d. for this quantity.

PUDDING MOULDS.

Aunt Elizabeth's Pudding.— Take a

breakfast-cupful of stale bread finely grated, and poiu' over it a pint of milk. Let it soak for haK an hour, then beat it well with a fork. Next add a piece of butter the size of a walmit, a heaped table-spoonful of sifted sugar, J;he grated rind of a lemon, and the yolks of two well-beaten eggs. Bake in a good oven, and when sufficiently cooked, spread a little applejam over it, and pile over that some acid ice. lieturn it to the oven for a few minutes. Time to bake, half an hour. Probable cost, 8d. Sufficient for fom- or five persons.

Aunt Mary's Pudding.— Well butter a plain mould, and stick alternate layers of raisins and sliced almonds round it. Pour a breakfast-cupful of warm fresh milk over a tea-cupful of finely-grated bread-crumbs. Let them soak for a little while, then add a small piece of butter, a dessert-spoonful of sugar, a little thinly-grated lemon-rind, and two eggs. Beat all well together, pour the mixture into the mould, cover it closely, and allow it to steam for three hours. Probable cost, 6d. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Aunt Susie's Pudding.— Boat a quarter of a poimd of butter to a cream. Stir gradually into it two talilc-spoonfids of ground rice, and the same of fine flour, sugar to taste, the thin rind of half a lemon chopped small, 'two ounces of candied orange or citron-peel, a breakfastcupfiu of new milk, and two well-beaten eggs. Flavoxu- with a few drops of essence of almonds, pour the mixture into a well-oUed mould, tie in a cloth, and boU it. Tima out, and serve with sweet sauce. A little brandy wiU be an improvement. Time to boil, two hours. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Aurelian Cake.— Mix half a pound of

ground rice and half a pound of loaf sugar well together. Add to them the well- whisked yolks of twelve and the whites of seven eggs, with a little brandy and a few di-ops of essence of almonds. Stii- the whole well together for quite twenty minutes. Pour the mixture into a well-oUed mcJiild, and bake in a quick oven. Time to bake, half an hour. Probable cost, Is. 8d. Sufficient for a medium-sized mould.

Aurora Sauce.— Pound the spawn of a freshly-boiled lobster in a mortar, -vrith a piece of butter the size of an egg, until it is quite smooth, and season liberally with cayenne and salt. Put into a saucepan a breakfast-cu^jf ul of good white sauce, and add a table-spoonful of lemon- j idee. Press the spawn through a fine sieve into the sauce; place it on the fire, and let it sinuner gently, taking care to lift it off tlie fire before it boils. Sufficient for a pair of soles. Probable cost, lOd. Time to simmer, two minutes.

If the spawn is not at hand, the yolks of tliree eggs may be boiled quite hard, pressed through a colander, and substituted for it.

RING DISH FOR AUSTRALIAN MEAT.

Australian Meat.— The persistently high price of butchei-'smeat having greatly increased the demand for, and turned the attention of the public to the beef, mutton, and other meats imported from Australia and South America, wo propose to give a few recipes for Preserved Meat Cookeiy. As the appearance of this meat is one of the chief objections to it, it should, when used cold, be served in the New Patent King Dish, the use of which is sufficiently explained in the above illustration, and in which the meat can be handled most convenicntl}-.

Australian Beef (a la Mode).— Take two pounds of Australian beef, cut into pieces about the size of a walnut, and roll in flom-. IMelt the drij^ping which is with it in the tin, and mix with it very smoothly two tablespoonfuls of ground rice, and one pint and a half of nicely-flavoured stock. Add two bayleaves, seven black peppercorns, a salt-spoonful of salt, a dessert-spoonful of mushroom ketchup, and an onion with foui- cloves stuck in it. Let all boil \ip together; then simmer gently for twenty minutes. Strain the liquid, return it to the saucepan, and coloiu- it with a little browning; or if this is not at hand, put

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two or three lumps of sugar into an iron spoon, and melt them over the fire until the sugar is a dark brown — not black. Dissolve this in a little boiling water, and add it to the gravy, which ought to be a rich bro'W'n coloui" and as thick as cream. Put in the pieces of meat, let them simmer for three or foui- minutes, and serve on a hot dish. Time, one hour. Probable cost. Is. 6d. Suiiicient for four persons.

Australian Beef, Cold.— The bull'shead knife is the best for opening the tins of Australian meat. Make a hole -Rith the sharp point about half an inch from the top. Put the sharp end of the knife into the hole and work round until the top of the tin is taken completely off. Turn the meat out firm into the dish. Remove every particle of di'ipping and jeUy, and serve with salad, pickles, and mashed potatoes. The dripping may be clarified, and used for frjdng or making plain pastry, and the jelly is a viiluable addition to stock or beef -tea. Sufficient, one two-pound tin for four persons. Probable cost. Is. to Is. 4d.

Aiistralian Beef CoUops.— Mince finely one pound of Australian beef. Place a iDiece of butter the size of an egg in a saucepan, and when melted fry in it one onion chopped small, till it is lightly browned. Then add a cupful of nicely-flavoured stock, the juice of a lemon, a tea-spoonful of mushi-oom ketchup, and pepper and- salt to taste. Let all simmer together for a few minutes, then serve in a hot dish -w-ith .sippets of toast. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for three or foiu- persons.

Australian Beef, Curried.— Melt a

l^iecc of butter the size of a large egg in a saucepan, and place in it half a Spanish onion .sliced. Fry it to a light brown; then add a soui' apple, finely minced, and a cupful of nicely-tiavourcd stock. Work in very smoothly a table-spoonful of curry paste. Let all boil together, stining all the time, for three or four minutes, press the sauce through a sieve, and add square pieces of Australian beef dredged with flour. Simmer five nunutes longer, during which time the meat must be covered with the gi'avy. Serve -^-ith a border of boiled rice round the flish, and the meat and gravy in the middle. Time to prepare, ten minutes. Allow the contents of a two-pound tin for six people. Probable cost. Is. 8d.

Australian Beef Mould.— Prepare one pound of beef in the same way as for rissoles, omitting the egg and bread-crumbs. Put it into a well-oiled mould, tie it in a cloth, and steam it for an hour. Turn out on a hot dish, and pour good gravy round it. Probable cost, lOd. Sufficient for four persons.

Australian Beef Pie.— Cut the meat into pieces about the size of a walnut and j Lay them in a pie-dish, with pepper, salt, and a little nicely-flavoured stock. Cover the whole with mashed potatoes about an inch and a half in thiclvness, and brown in a good oven. Time to brown, twenty minutes. A pie made -n-ith two pounds of meat is sufficient for four or five persons. Probable cost. Is. 6d.

Australian Beef Pie (another way).— Stew a pound of fresh meat until tender. Place it in a pie-dish with the gravy in which it was stewed, a pound of Australian beef, and the contents of a tin of oysters. Place them in layers, cover with a light crust, and bake in a quick oven. Time to bake, half an hour. Sufficient for five or six persons. Probable cost, 2s. 4d.

Australian Beef Bissoles. — Mince finely one pound of Australian beef and half a pound of bread-crumbs. Mix thoroughly with it a quarter of a pound of di-ipping, a little salt, a rather plentiful supply of pepper, and one egg well beaten. Roll into pats, dip them in egg and bread, and fry in boiling oil or lard until they are nicely browned. SerA-e in a dish with a little good gravj round them. Time to fry, ten minutes. Probable cost, lOd. Sufficient for foiu' persons.

Australian Beef, Roast.— Take off

the fat and gravy, tie the solid meat from a four-pound tin tightly together with tapes, flour it well, and hang it befoi'e a brisk fire for half an horn-, basting it well with the fat and gravy wliich was taken from it. Poui- off the dripping, and make gravy in the usual way. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost, 2s. -id.

Australian Beef and Jelly. (Imitation calf's head.) — Soak an ounce of the best gelatine in half a pint of cold water for twenty minutes. Add to this half a pint of nicelyflavom-ed stock, a dessert-spoonful of tarragon vinegar and a glass of white v,-ine. Put it on the fire, stir it until the gelatine is dissolved, and clear off with wliite of egg (see Aspic Jelly). Place a little of the jelly at the bottom of a damp mould. Let it set, then cut two hard-boiled eggs into rings, tUamonds, or any ornamental devices ; place them on the jelly, and nearly fill the mould -with pieces of Australian beef or mutton. Do not pack it tightly, but leave space for the jelly to run in between. Sprinkle a little chopped parsley over it, then fill up the mould -with the remainder of the jelly. Tmn it out when cold. This is a nice breakfast or supper dish. Tinie, five or six hours.

Australian Beef and Macaroni.—

Put four ounces of macaroni into sufficient boiling water, and let it stew until tender. Mince finely two pounds of Australian beef, flavour it with salt, pepper, and a little powdered cinnamon. Make it quite hot, moistening it with a cupful of nicely-flavoured stock; lay it on a roimd of toast, with the macaroni over it, and serve with hot mashed potatoes. Time to boil the macaroni, one hour and a half. Probable cost. Is. 8d. Sufficient for six persons.

Australian Beef and Mushrooms

(delicious). — Take half a pint of mushroom buttons, pare them, cut the ends off the stalks, and place them in cold water. Melt a piece of butter in a stewpan, put the mushrooms into it, with a little pepper and salt, and the juice of a lemon. Let them simmer gently until tender ; then add a cupful of nicelyflavoured stock, and put with them one pound of Australian beef, cut into square pieces about

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the size of a walnut, and thickly dredged with flour. Let it simmer slowly, being- careful that it does not burn, and serve as hot as possible, with sippets round the dish. Time to stew the mut^hrooms, twenty-live minutes ; -^dth the meat, ten minutes. Probable cost, Is. 2d. Sufficient for four or live persons.

Australian Haricot Beef. — Put a pint of haricot beans into sufficient cold water to cover them, and let them soak until the next day. Drain them, and boil them in two quarts of water for a couple of hours; then poui- the water from them, and place them by the side of the fire, with the lid of the saucepan off, to dry. Shake in with them a lump of butter, and a little pepper and salt. Put a piece of butter the size of an egg into a saucepan, let it melt, then fry in it two onions thinly sliced until nicely and lightly browned. Work in very smootlily a table- spoonful of ground rice, a breakfast-cupful of good stock, one scraped carrot, one tui-nip chopped small, one table-spoonful of Harvey's sauce, a -waneglassful of port wine, and a little pepper and salt. Let all simmer gently for half an horn-. Take one pound of nice square pieces of Australian beef, di-edge them with flour, and put them into the gravy for a few minutes. Put the hot haricot beans round the dish, the beef and gravy in the middle, and serve. Time, forty minutes. Probable cost. Is. 3d., without the wine. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Australian Irish Stew.— Simmer three large onions in. a pint and a half of nicelyflavoured stock until neai-ly tender ; add pepper and salt, then put with them two dozen large potatoes. Let these stew softly imtil nearly cooked, when the contents of a two-pound tin of Australian mutton, cut into square pieces, may be added. Let it simmer five minutes longer, and serve on a hot dish. Time, altogether about one hour. Sufficient for four or five persons. Probable cost, 2s.

Australian Meat and Tomatoes.— Scald a dozen tomatoes and place them in a stewpan with a little salt and three ounces of butter. Let them stew very gently till tender. Then heat the contents of a two-pound tin of Australian beef. Place it on a hot dish, and the tomatoes round it, and serve with mashed potatoes. Probable cost, 2s. 4d. Sufficient for four persons. Time to stew the tomatoes, half an hour ; to wann the meat, ten minutes.

Australian Mutton.— Nearly all the

recipes which have been given for Australian beef will apply to Australian mutton.

Australian Mutton, Boiled, and Caper Sauce.— Make half a pint of caper sauce. Take the top off a tia of mutton, and place it in a saucepan with boilingwater, but do not_ let the water be high enough for any to enter the tin. Let it become thoroughly heated, then titm it on a dish, and serve it -with turnips, caiTots, potatoes, and the sauce. Time, quarter of an hour to heat the mutton. Probable cost, 2s. Sufficient for four or five persons. Australian Mutton and Stewed •Carrots. — Scrape half a dozen carrots, boU

them imtil tender, draiu and choj) them into small pieces. Melt a piece of butter the size of an egg iu a saucepan, stir smoothly into it a table-spoonful of fioiu- ; add a cupful of milk, a table-spoonful of boiled and chopped parsley, the carrots, a little grated nutmeg, salt, and pepper. Let all simmer together for a few minutes. Put ra one pound of mutton, let it get hot, then servo in a hot dish. Time, half an houi". Probable cost, lOd. Sufficient for thi-ee persons.

Australian Potted Meat. — Mince very finely the lean part of the meat, remove the skinny parts, and flavour rather highly with pepper, salt, and a little powdered allspice. Pound it in a mortar, adding- from time to time a little oiled butter, until It is quite smooth. Press it iuto pots, and pom- a little clarified butter over the top of each pot. Time to prepare, twenty minutes. Allow one pound for five persons. Probable cost, 9d.

Austrian Pudding.— Mix one poimd of flour with, a quarter of a pound of finely-shred suet. Add a pinch of salt, a heaped teaspoonful of baking-powder, a table -spoonful of chopped lemon-rind, and a table-spoonful of moist sugar. Mix a large breakfast-cupfid of lukcwai-m milk with a cupful of good treacle ; stir it into the floui-, poui- all iato a well-oiled mould, and tie it in a floured cloth. Serve with sweet sauce. Time to boil, three hours. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost, 8d.

Austrian Puffs.- Pound tliree ounces of almonds in a mortar, with a little rose-water. When reduced to a paste, add thi-ee tablespoonfuls of finely-sifted sugar, thi-ee ounces of butter melted, .but not hot, thi-ee table- spoonfuls of floui-, and a cupful of new milk or cream. Beat all thoroughly together, well oil the pattypans, and half fill them. Bake in a moderate oven. Time to bake, twenty minutes. Probable cost, lOd. Sufficient for a dozen puffs.

B

Baba with Raisins. — Mix half an ounce of German yeast and four ounces of sifted flour with warm water to a soft dough, and piit it near the fire to rise. Rub twelve ounces of butter into twelve ounces of flour, work it fnto a smooth paste with eight well-beaten eggs, one ounce of pounded sugar, and a little salt. When the i^aste is ready and the sponge s\ifficiently risen, blend them well together aiMi mix in two ounces of finely -minced candied citronpeel, two ounces of well-dried cuiTants, and three ounces of stoned raisins. Butter a mould — fill it about half full, and allow it to rise until it is nearly at the top, when it may be baked at once in a moderate oven. Time to bake, one hour and a half. Probable cost, 2s. 4d. Sufficient for a three-pint mould.

Bachelor's Beef {see Beef, Bachelor's).

Bachelor's Broiler. — This pan, which

was intended by the inventor, Captain Warren, for the use of bachelors v^-ho are occasionally compelled to cook their o-wn meat,

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it not only admirably adapted for its special purpose, but may also be used with advantage in domestic cookery. In appearance it resembles a sort of double saute pan, one pai-t of which acts as a lid to the other. The inside is fluted, so that there is little danger of the meat sticking to the bottom, and as there is a handle to each part, and the two can be fixed securely together, the meat can bo tiu-ned to either side without its being necessary to remove the lid, and so allow the heat to escape. The advantages which may be gained from using this pan are obvious. There is little danger that the meat will either be burned or smoked, and the closely-fitting lid so economises the heat that even with a moderate amount of fuel despatch is easily attained. Chops, steaks, omelets, and fish may aU be cooked in this pan. Price 3s. 6d. and 4s. 6d.

Bachelor's Pudding. — Beat up three eggs and add them, \\'ith a flavouring of essence of lemon and grated nutmeg, to four ounces each of finely-minced apples, cuiTants, grated bread-crumbs, and two ounces of sugar. Mix thoroughly and boil in a buttered mould for three hours. Probable cost, 9d. Sufiicient for four persons.

Bacon, Boiled. — Put the piece of bacon to be boiled into the pot with sufficient cold water to cover it. AUow it very gradually to come to a boil, removing all scum as it arises, and di-aw it aside to simmer until thoroughly done ; then pull off the skin and serve with bread-crumbs over. the top. Time to boil two pounds, one hour and a half. Probable cost, lOd. to Is. per pound.

Bacon, Boiled, To Warm. — Many people think that bacon once boiled must be eaten cold, but the following mode will showthat ;t is easy to make it an agreeable and also an economical breakfast dish. Cut it into thin slices, sprinkle each slice with fine bread-crumbs, with which a very little cayenne has been mixed, and toast quickly before the fire. A common wire toaster that can be turned without dL placing the bacon answers best.

Bacon Broiled. — Cut streaked bacon into thin slices and lay tlacm on a gi'idiron over the fire ; turn repeatedly until of a light brown colour, and serve hot. Time to boil, three to four minutes. Probable cost, lOd. to Is. per pound.

Bacon Gheeks, To Pickle.— To about sixteen pounds of meat, take of salt and sugar each one pound, and one ounce of saltpetre thoroughly blended together; sprinkle the cheeks well with salt, let'them lie till next day, then di-ain well, and rub in t^ie above ingredients. Turn and rub often, and in three weeks or a month, or less, they will be fit for use. Probable cost of pickle, 4^d.

Bacon Sauce. — Make a mixture of a spoonful of flour and a little water ; add to it vinegar and water in equal parts (one teacupful) , and the yolks of three eggs well beaten. Cut a quarter of a pound of rather fat bacon into pieces the size of large peas, and fry them in a stewpan till they are of a pale brown colour. Add salt and jDcpper to taste, pour the mixture over them, and stir till thick. As this

sauce is to be used cold allow for it, and do not make it too thick to pour. Probable cost, 6d.

Bacon, Toasted. — Take thin slices of bacon, place them on the pins of an ordinary toaster; turn as requii-ed. They are more delicate if held on a fork before the fire, and if placed between the common wire toasters they can be easily tui-ncd when one side is browned. Fat bacon should be cut tolerably thick for toasting or grilling, lean bacon somewhat thinner. Sei-^-e on a hot dish. Probable cost, lOd. to Is. per pound.

Bacon, To Gure and Keep free from Rust (CoiiBETT's Eecipe). — William Cobbett, in his Rural Economy, gives the following method of curing bacon. Practical persons highly recommend it: — Take two sides or flitches of bacon, i-ub the insides ฆwith salt, then place one on the other, the flesh-side uppermost, in a salting-trough which has a gutter round its edges to drain away the brine ; for to have sweet and flne bacon the flitches must not be sopping in brine, which gives it the objectionable taste that barrel and sea-pork have. Every one knows how dift'erent is the taste of fresh di-y salt from that of salt in a dissolved state ; therefore, change the salt often — once in fom- or five days — let it melt and sink in, but not lie too long ; change the flitches every ten days ; put that at bottom which was flrst on the top. This mode will cost a great deal more in salt than the sopping mode, but without it the bacon will not be so sweet and fine, nor keep so well. The time required in making the flitches suificiently salt depends on circumstances. It takes a longer time for a thick than a tliin flitch, and longer in dry than in damp weather, or in a dry than in a damp place ; but for the flitches of a hog of seven or eight stones, in weather not veiy diy or damp, about six weeks may do ; and as the flitches should be fat, it receives little injury from over salting.

Bacon, To Gut up a Pig for.— In a pig of fair size, the chine, which is excellent for roasting or boiling, is cut from between the sides or flitches as showTi in the diagram ; but if the pig is small the flitches should be di\'ided do'^Ti

SECTIONAL DIAGRAM OP BACON PIG.

The Chine. b The Head. c The Leg.

D The FUtch. '.: .e The Shoulder.

the chine. The shordders may be left attached to the sides, or separated according to the size of the pig. The legs are made into hams, and the sides form what is bacon proper. The head or cheek is either boiled, collared, or pickled. The inner fat is melted for lard ; aad the pieces cut off in trimming the joints are used for sausages, pies, brawn, '.and other purposes {^ce Bra-^^Ti, Ham, Lard, Pig's Cheek, &c., Pork).

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Bacon, To Smoke.— Bacon and hams may be smoked at home by being hung np in the chimney of a fire in which wood only is burnt. Fir or deal must not be used. The best is oak, and its sawdust, if it can be procured. But the operation is best — because moi'e slowly and uniformly — performed in buildings specially constructed for the pui-pose. The Westphalian hams, principally cm'ed at Hamburg, are smoked in extensive chambers in the upper storeys of high buildings. The smoke is conveyed to these rooms through tubes from fires in the cellar. The vapour is condensed and the heat absorbed ; so that the smoke, when it reaches the meat, is ilry and cool, and communicates a flavour far superior to that obtained by the common method.

Bacon and Beans. — Put two poimds of good tender bacon into a pan with cold water, nearly full. When it has boiled over one hour add a quart of shelled broad beans, and boil till tender. Take off the skin from the bacon, sprinkle bread-crumbs over the top of it, and serve with the beans imder, and fried parsley as a garnish round the dish. Smoked bacon should be di'essed separately and placed on the beans when ready. Probable cost of bacon, lOd. to Is. per pound. Sufiicient for four or five persons.

Bacon and. Beans (another way). — Windsor, or broad beans, are rather indigestible if old. Throw some young beans, freshly shelled, into boiling water with a little salt. When the skin begins to shrivel drain them through a colander, and serve with parsley and butter. Allien the beans are old the outside skins will come off easily if boiled for half an hour. The bacon should bo boiled separately {see Boiled Bacon), and placed on the top of the beans. Time to boil the beans, fifteen to twenty minutes. Probable cost, 6d. to 8d. i^er peck.

Bacon and Bread Fricadelle.— Lay

half a pound of bacon in rashers between slices of crumb of bread of the same size, press them together and dip them into a batter of egg, milk, and flour, and fry them from eight to ten minutes over a moderate fire. Garnish with parsley or serve with a sharp sauce. Proliable cost, 8d. or 9d. Sufficient for two or three persons.

Bacon and Calf's Liver.— The most economical way to prepare this is to fry the bacon first and make the fat^ serve for the "liver, which, as well as the bacon, should be cut into thin slices. Fry the bacon, and remove it as soon as it is done enough to a hot dish before the fire ; flour and pepper, the liver, and place it in the pan; turn f^qucntly until done, then placs a slice of bacon on each slice of liver. I-ฑr.ke a gravj- by pouring off the fat and crcdging a little flour into the pan, pour in enough water to supply the quantity of gravy desired, add a table-spoonful of lemon- juice, Ijoil and pour upon the dish. Garnish with forcemeat or slices of lemon. Time, from five to ten minutes. Cc.st, bacon. Is., liver, 1 Od. per pound.

Bacon and. Eggs. — Place nicoly-cut slices ot streaked bacon, fron.v hich uhcrind has been cut off to prevent it from cuiding up, into a cold pan over a slow fire ; turn frequently and serve with eggs, which may he poached or fried, and laid on the bacon. "Time, three or four 1 minutes. Bacon, Is. per pound.

Bacon and Eggs, or Ham or Sausage and Eggs. — This may be called a " country I dish." In Devonshire and Cornwall it is the ^ standing one when all others fail. A nice dish of bacon and eggs is to be had at every waysdc house. It too often happens that this very plain repast "is indifferently cooked, ^^1^en the Ijacon or ham is fried see that the fat be quite free from biim before the eggs are slipped into it ; baste them with the fat, trim them and drain the grease before dishing. Sausages should b3 slowly dressed, or they are apt to burst, and so spoil the appearance of a savoury meal. Serve with mashed potatoes round the dish. Time, about five minutes. Probable cost of bacon, lOd. to Is. per pound; sausages, lOd, per pound.

Bacon or Ham Omelet. — Beat six eggs, and add a small tea-spoonful of flour mixed Avith a table-spoonful of milk or water, and pepper and salt to taste. Mince half a pound of cold boiled bacon or ham, and stir it in wdth the egg. Dissolve a good piece of butter or fat in the omelet-pan and pour in the omelet.

OMELET-PAN.

Shake the pan while dressing. In three or four minutes the sides may be folded over, and the o'.^elet turned out on a hot dish, or taken up with a flat spoon. Some cooks prefer to put the bacon or ham in the middle and fold the sides over it. This kind of omelet may be made with a variety of ingredients : cold meat, kidney, green-peas, asparagus tops, small mushrooms, oysters, and lobster. Time, from three to four minutes. Probable cost, about Is. with bacon. Sufficient for three or four persons.

Bacon or Ham, To Cure (Devonshire way) . — Draw away all the slime and blood from two hams by rubbing them well with salt for twฎ days before they are put into the pickle. Drain them, lay them in a pan, and pour over them boiling hot the following ingredients : — two pounds of treacle, two ounces of saltpetre, one pound of common sait, and one pint of good vinegar; turn and baste them every day for a month, then drain and smoke. Time to salt, one month. Probable cost of pickle. Is. Suflicient for a ham of sixteen poimds weight.

Bacon or Ham, To Cure (Wiltshire way). — The excellence of bacon depends to a great dcgi-ec upon the care with which

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the meat is drained from blood and slime before it is salted. The amount of salt used is not so important if this be well attended to, as ฆs\ill be seen by the Wiltshire mode. The quantity of salt for a whole pig is one pound and a half of bay salt, and one pound of common salt to six ounces of saltpetre, and one pound and a half of the coarsest brown sugar or treacle. Strew common salt over the bacon, and let it drain a day and night. Powder the bay salt and saltpetre, and mix them thoroughly with the other salt and sugar. AVhen well blended, rub each piece of bacon and lay them together in a trough. Turn every alternate day for a month. Smoke nine days. Sufficient for the flitches of one i)ig of ten or twelve stones.

Bain Marie Pan. — The Bain Marie is a shallow vessel generally made of copper, which is used for keeping sauces, stews, &c., hot when they are already sufficietitly cooked, and it is not convenient that they should be immediately served. It will be found most valuable in those families where regularity and punctuality in meals cannot be depended upon, as it affords

the best means of keeping dishes hot without destroying their flavour or burning them. "When it is to be used the Bain Marie should be filled with boiling water, and the pans containing the sar.oes or entrees should be put into it closely covered. It should then be put upon a hot plate or by the side of the fire, to keep up the heat of the water without allowing it to boil, and should there remain until the dishes are wanted. The principle of the Bain Jlarie may be adopted for keeping sauces and gravies warm when a proj^er pan is not at hand. Instead of retaining the compounds slowly simmering by the side of the fire in the pan in which it was made, by which means it would in all probability be either smoked, burnt, or rendered flavourless, put it into a basin or jar, cover it closely and place it in a pan of boiling water. If the water is allowed to boil the sauce or grcLvj will become too thick. Price of the Bain jMarie : Block tin, with copper pan, soup pot, and glaze pot stewpans, ฃ2 15s. Strong copper from ฃ7 10s. to ฃ10 5s.

Bake, To. — Baking is a most convenient, economical, and satisfactory mode of cooking certain dishes to which it is suited, otherwise it is most unsatisfactory and unprofitable. For jjastry, cakes, and various puddings an oven is indispensable, and many meat dishes are as well cooked in it as before the fire. Amongst these may be mentioned the following : a hare, a leg

of pork, a breast or fillet of veal, a goose, a duck, a sucking- j)ig, a shoxilder of mutton and potatoes, and many kinds of fish. Gravies, too, soups, beef-tea, and stock for calf's foot jelly may be advantageously cooked in a slow oven, if put into a jar with a closely-fitting lid, tod ฆ allowed to remain long enough. There is, however, no doubt that ordinary joints of meat, if baked in the oven, have a peculiar taste which is not palatable, and which is doubtless caused by the fact that the fmnes v hich arise in cooking are not carried off as they are when the meat is roasted. It has been said that meat loses less in weight and more in flavour by baking than by any other mode. A little extra seasoning should therefore be added if a dish is to be cooked in this way. A baking-dish ought to be deep enough to cover the joint to the extent of an inch, and thus keep the juices from drying up. If the oven be very hot, cover the meat vnth a piece of white paper well greased, and take it off in time to let the outside brown before serving. It is well to adopt this plan with large pies and cakes also, so that they may not be browned before they are suiEciently cooked, remembering only to let the pastry in pies set before the paper is put on. Pastry requu'cs a tolerably quick oven to prevent its becoming heavy. If too quick, however, the steam cannot escape. All largo cakes should bo baked in a moderate oven, or the outside will be hard before the middle is ready. In order to ascertain whether these are sufficiently cooked put a skewer or knitting-needle into the middle, and if when this is drawn out any moistm-e adheres to it the cake must be baked longer. All light cakes, such as sponge-cakes, cheesecakes, &c., should be put into a brisk oven until they have risen. The heat may then go do\^^l a little. Never open the door of an oven in which anything is being cooked in order to lessen the heat ; rather decrease the fire.

Baker's B-oIIs, American.— Well diy

two pounds of flour. Add two spoonfuls of yeast, a little salt, and a piece of saleratus, about the size of a bean, dissolved in water. Mix all lightly together with a pint of milk and water; knead it well and set it on the hearth to rise, covering the bowl in which the dough is placed with a towsl. Then make it up into about twelve rolls. Bake in a quick oven. Time to bake, quarter of a hour. Sufficient for twelve rolls. Probable cost, 6d.

Bakewell Pudding.— Mix a pint of milk with the yolks and whites of four eggs beaten separately. Add three ounces of finely-sifted sugar, three ounces of butter, which should be first melted, and one ounce of well-pounded almonds. Lay three-quarters of a pint of breadcrumbs in a dish with a little preserved fruit over, and fill up with the mixture. Bake one hcur in a moderate oven. Probable cost, about Is. ed. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Bakewell Pudding (another way).— Line a dish with puft'-paste, and lay the preserve as in the previous BakeweU pudding. Then mix equal weights (three ounces) of pounded ahnonds, bread-crumbs, sugar, and melted butter, with the yolks of three eggs well beaten, and a little nutmeg and lemon.

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v- tir all together, and place it over the preSoi've. Bake in a quick oven for twenty minutes. Probable cost, Is. 6d. Sufficient for c!. small dish.

Bakeweil Pudding, Ricli.— Line a tart tlish with puff-paste, lay on it any land of jjreserved fruit ; get ready a quartc: of a pound of melted butter, six ounces of fineiy-sifted sugar, ^Cad one ounce of almonds ; add these ingredients to five yolks and two wliites of eggs which have been thoroughly well beaten. Mix all together and fill up the dish. Bake carefully for one hour in a moderate oven. Probable cost. Is. 6d. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Baking Powders are now so wcU and frequently prepared by good makers, and can be bonght readily in large or small packets, that it is almost needless to give instructions for making them. For the benefit of those, however, who prefer home-made preparations, the following recipe is given, and will be found both excellent and economic : — Crush two ounces of tartaric acid to a fine powder, and mix with it two ounces of carbonate of soda, and a quarter •of a pound of gTound rice. Put the mixture into a tin box and store it in a dry place. When wanted, use a heaped tea-spoonful of the powder vi-ith each pound of material. Probable cost, lOd. per pound.

Balnamoon Skink {see Irish Soup) .

Banbury Cakes. — These rich well-known cakes axe prepared from a mince called Banbuiy meat, made with the following ingredients : half a pound of butter beaten to a cream, half •a pound of lemon and orange-peel ciit up fine, one pound of cuiTants, half an ounce of cinnamon, two and a half ounces of allspice. Mix all thoroughly, and keep it in a covered jar for use. The paste for these buns shoidd be tolerably rich, rolled out thin, and cut into rounds or squares. To a layer of the mince, put on one round, cover over with another. Flatten with the hand, and moisten the edges with white of egg to make them adhere. Before putting into the oven brush the cakes over with the froth of eggs and sugar. They will take fifteen minutes to bake, and may be eaten hot or cold.

Barbel. — This fish deserves very little notice. When cooked it is poor and woolly. The best method is to score and soak it in oil for half an horn-, sprinlcle with salt and pepper, and broil each side from eight to ten minutes over a moderate fire. Serve on a hot dish with Maitre d'llotel butter.

Barberries, To Candy. — Take some preserved barberries, wash them in wai-m water to cleanse them from the syrup, and cover with dry finely-powdered sugar. Put them quickly into a moderately-heated oven, keeping them well sprinkled with sugar, and turning frequently.

Barberries, To Dry, in Bunches.—

Take fine bimches and hang them for a quarter of an hour in a vessel of boiling water ; remove them carefully without bruising, and simmer ten minutes in a boiling syrup made with two pounds of sugar and a pint of water ; then draw

the syrup from the fire, and let the bunches stay in it for several hours. Then hang them up to drain and dry. Kemove when sufficiently dry and put away with care. Barberries may be had without stones, but should there be any they must be removed before commencing to dry them. Cost of berries, 4d. to 5d. per pint.

Barberries, To Pickle, for Garnishing. — Gather the clusters before they are fully ripe ; carefully pick off any unsound or very ripe berries, and lay the remainder in bottles. Cover them with a strong brine, made by boiling a quarter of a pound of salt with each pint of water, and add a small nut of alum to the whole. The brine must not be put over the fruit until it is quite cold. Store the bottle in a cool, diy place, and examine them occasionally. If at any time a scum should be observed on the surface, pour off the liquid, and put freshly-boiled brine in its place, made not qidtc so salt. Keep the jars closely covered. Tune to boil the brine, ten minutes. Probable cost of barberries, 4d. to od. per pint.

' Barberries, To Preserve.— To every two pounds of fruit take four- and a half poimds of powdered loaf sugar, throw some of it over the barberries to be preserved, and with the remainder make a strong sp'up in the proportion of a pint of water to a pound of sugar. Put the barberries into it, and make them boil as quickly as possible, that they may not lose colour ; then fill the jars for use. Probable cost, 4d. to 5d. per pint.

Barberry Cream. — Tliis pleasant sharp cream is made by mixing one pint of cream, half a pint of barberry jelly, and half an ounce of isinglass. Stir over a slow fire imtil the isinglass is dissolved. When removed from the fii-e add a Little cochineal, if required. Sweeten to taste, beat to a froth, and pour into a mould to set. Probable cost, 3s. Sufficient for a large mould.

Barberry Jam. — Take equal quantities of barberries and good finely-pounded sugar; heat gently and boil together ten minutes. Take off the scum, and put it into pots, tied down with thick paper. Probable cost of barberries, from 4d. to 5d. per pint.

Barberry Jelly. — The fruit should be quite ripe. Strip the berries, wash them in clear spring water, and put them into a jar with only the water that clings to them. Place the jar in a vessel of boiling water ; cover the top of the jar, and in one hour they will be fit to strain. To every pound of juice put one pound and a quarter of sugar; boil quickly five minutes. Probable cost of barberries, 4d. to 5d. per pint.

Barberry Marmalade. — Take one pound of nice ripe barberries ; boil, but do not crush them, in a quarter of a pint of cold water. "WTien they are sufficiently soft remove them from the pan, and use the water, with enough fresh, to make a pint of syrup. Boil it with a pound and a half of sugar ; then put in the fruit and boil for fifteen miButes. Probable cost, 4d. to 5d. per pint.

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Barberry Syrup for lee. — ^lako a

syrup with uue pound of good sugar and a pint of water, boiling it and removing the sciun, for twenty minutes. Put in half a pound of fine ripe barberries and boil ten minutes. Let it get cold, and bottle to use when i e ^uii-ed. Probable cost, 4d. to 6d. per pint.

Barberry Water lee. — Squeeze the juice from half a dozen lemons and an orange. Eub off the rind of three lemons on lumps of sugar. Mix these with a pint of clarified sugar, a half pint of water, and enough barbeiTy syrup to flavour. Strain and freeze, or use lemon water ice, and add sja-up and coloiir to taste. Time, twenty-five minutes to freeze. Sufficient for one quart.

Barley Gruel. — The colour and taste of gruel is much improved by washing the seeds and throwing off the first water after it has boiled a few minutes. Boil three ounces of pearl barley in a pint of water for ten minutes, then throw it off and put to it two quarts of boiling water. When reduced one half it will be sufficiently boiled. Strain, add sugar, lemonpeel, or wine to taste, and simmer for a few. minutes.

Barley Meal Seones. — The preparation of these wholesome cakes is a very simple process. The barley meal, with the addition of salt to taste, should be mixed with hot milk till it forms a thick paste. EoU out thin and cut into scones. Bake in a quick oven or on a griddle over a bright fire. They should be buttered and eaten hot.

Barley Soup or Broth.— Put two

sheeps' heads, or two or three pounds of shin of beef, in a gallon of water. Add a tea-cupful of pearl barley, thi-ee large onions cut small, a small bunch of parsley, a few potatoes sliced, a little thjrme, and pepper and salt to taste. Simmer gently for three or four hours, and frequently stir it to prevent the meat from burning. It should not be allowed to boil. Probable cost, 6d. per quart.

Barley Sugar. — Dissolve lump sugar, boil and skim it until it is crisp and clear, and no scum rises ; test the crispness by di-opping some into cold water. Flavour with lemon- juice or essence of lemon. Pour the sugar on a slate, stone, or marble slab, which has been rubbed over with butter or salad-oil ; cut it into strips before it is cold, and twist. If marked wdth a knife it will break easily, and may be made into any form. Time, ten to fifteen minutes. Sugar, 4d. per pound.

Barley Sugar Drops.— Prepare as directed for barley sugar in preceding recipe, but let the syrup fall in drops on the marble slab, and when cold throw pounded sugar over tlicm to dry up any moisture.

Barley Water.— Take two ounces of pearl barley, wash it well, and boil for ten minutes in a httle water to clear it. When drained put to it five pints of boiling water, and let it boil until reduced to one half. Then strain for use. An excellent pectoral drink is made by boiling the barley as above, and adding tlie followingingredients : half an ounce of licorice root,

sliced and well bruised; two ounces of f;g.3, the same of raisins, stoned ; distilled water, (me pint, to one quart of the prepared barley water. Let aU boil till the liquid is reduced to two pints, then strain for use. If used freely thispreparation will be found very efficacious in cases of inflammatory attacks of the chest, coughs, &c. Probable cost, 4d. per pint.

Barm, To Make. — To an oiance of isinglass dissolved in warm water mix half a pound of the best flour. Take two ounces of hops, and boil in a quart of water till it is reduced one half, then stii- altogether in a gallon and a half of warm water and a very small quantity of barm, as made by brewers of it, and put in a warm place for two days. Probable cost. Is.

fef. Basket, Chantilly. — This basket is pretty for the supper table, and very easily put together. Make a cement of sugar boiled to crackhng height, or a syrup boiled with white of egg ; dip the edge of sc me macaroons int?

CHANTILLY BASKET

it, and line a mould with them, taking carethat the edges of the macaroons touch each other. When wanted take it out of the mould, fill it with whipped cream, and it is then ready for table. Time, two or thi-ee hours to set. Cost for quart mould, exclusive of cream. Is. 6d. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Bath Buns. — Put one pound of flour into a pan, and make a hole in the centre, into which pour one table-spoonful of yeast and 'one cupful of milk, slightly warmed. Mix these together with a httle of the flour, and leave it near the fire to rise. Dissolve six ounces of butter, and beat up four eggs ; add this to the remaining flour, and mix all together. It must be again allowed to rise ; and when it has ivell risen, which -will be in about an hour, put small balls of this mixture on a well-greased tin cake plate two or three inches apart. Tliis dough being light, it will fall ifeto the required shape. Sprinkle loaf sugar on the top, or brush them over with a mixture of egg and milk. Five or six caraway comfits and lemon or citron-peel may be added. Bake in a moderate oven.

Bath Chap, To Cook. — The excellence of tliis well-prepared meat depends greatly on the soaking and boiliugk If this be not properly attended to, it will be hard and unsatisfactory. Lay it in a pail of cold water, skin do-wnwards, and let it remain one night. Scrub the chap with a small brush to cleanse it ; put

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li into plenty of cold water to boil; make it iiuc to a boil quickly, and then di-aw the pan ;:sidc to simmer, tliice hours for a small chap, lour for a large one. Sldn, and garnish with any boiled green vegetable. Probable cost, 9d. per pound.

Bath Cream Cheese. — To any quantity ฆof milk, warm from the cow, add a third of the ฆquantity of warm water, a jiint of cream, and about two table-spoonfuls of rennet to each three gallons of milk ; cover it over and let it stand. When turned, break the curd -with the hand, and put it in a cheese-cloth on a sieve to drain off the whey ; take it out, wash it in cold springwater, and again drain. This must be done three times ; the third and last time, in order to get rid of the whey effectually, hot water should be used, and the curd should then be drained and put into the press for six or eight hours. Probable cost of the milk and cream, 2s. per gallon.

Batley Pudding. — JMix three ounces of iinely-powdered sugar with the yolks of three oggs and the white of one, well beaten. Blanch and pound fifteen aknonds, and add them to the •eggs with a table-spoonful of brandy. Boil two ounces of groirnd rice with half a pint of cream; let it stand to cool, then stir in two ounces of ฆclarified butter, and mix all together. Bake in a moderate oven for thirty minutes. Probable cost, Is. 6d. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Batter. — This signifies a mixture of flouitind milk or water. The addition of eggs, yeast, spirits, &c., depends on the various uses to which it is applied. Many novel, well- flavoured batters maybe made by the introduction of liqueurs, .such as ratafia, noyeau, maraschino, or brandy; ibut they should lie used -^-ith judg-mcnt, and only enough to gi^•e the desired ilavoiu-. Small slices of meat, cold cooked vegetables, such as carrots and celery, joints of fowl, &c., are all excellent fried in butter, and many seemingly useless remnants may be dressed again in this } - way, in a pleasing shape, and used to ornament and accompany other dishes.

Batter Cakes of Indian Meal.— Make

o, batter by mixing gradually one quart of boiling water with the same quantity of meal ; add a little salt and leave it until nearly cold. Add a little yeast, form into cakes, and prepare in the usual way, that is to say, fried over a clear quick fire. The yolk of an egg is a great improvement to the cakes. Time to fry each cake, five or six nunutes. Probable cost, 8d. per pound. -Sufficient for six or seven persons.

Batter, French. — Take twelve ounces of the best flour, and two ounces of butter, and mix them together, after the butter is melted, by pouring over it about a quarter of a pint of boiling water, and agaia cool it by means of three-quarters of a pint of cold water. jNIix it i:radually and smoothly. A very little pinch if salt must be put if for fruit, iDut it will reijuire more if the fritters jare savourj' ones. If 'lie batter be too thick, put a little more water, I nd when aU is ready beat up the whites of two ggs to a froth, and stir into the batter. This forms an excellent batter for apple, peach, or orange fritters. Probable cost, 6d.

Batter for Frying Vegetables. —

To four oimces of flour add as much milk or water as v ill make a thick batter. Stir into it half a wine-glassful of br:indy and an egg, white and j'olk, beaten to a froth. Let it rest in a warm place for an houi', when it will be fit for use.

Batter Fritters.— Make a batter according to recipe given for batter pudding. When ready, peel, core, and mince some apples, or if preferred, a few currants may be picked and thrown into the batter. The addition of a little suet to the apples is an impi-ovement, but it must be very judiciously used, as too much will make the fritters greasy. They should be made small. A large table-spoonful of batter is sufficient. Fry in boiling dripping, and serve with powdered sugar over them. Probable cost, 9d. Time to frv, eight to ten minutes. Sufficient for six persons.

Batter, Italian, Fried.— Mix and boat up two eggs with haH a pint of French wine or cider and a little orange-flower water. Add this, with two table-spoonfuls of the best Lucca oil, to three-quarters of a pound of flour and a teaspoonful of salt. Blend the batter with a spoon until it is like a smooth cream. It shoidd be made an hour or two before wanted, and the frothed whites of two or three eggs should be lightly added to it at the time of use.

Batter Pudding, Baked, — Separate the yolks from the whites of four eggs, beat them well separately, and throw them in a basin together ; then mix them very gradually with six or eight oimces of flour, and a pinch or two of salt. Make the batter of the proper consistency by adding little more than a pint of good milk. Bake in a buttered dish for three-qu;iitci-s of an hour in a quick oven. This pudding is much improved by careful mixing. If the eggs, flour, and milk are not well blended together the pudding is often a failure. Probable cost, 7d. or 8d. Sufiieient for foui' or five persons.

Batter Pudding, Baked, and Apples.

— Put one pound of apples peeled, quai'tered, and cored into a well-buttered dish, and throw over them enough sweet batter to fill it. Add a little pounded clove or grated lemon, and bake in a tolerably brisk oven. The apples will rise to the surface. When quite done, but before removing it from the oven, put on some small bits of butter, and sjjrinkle sugar thickly over the top. Any kind of fruit may be used for these puddings. Time to bake, one hour or more. Probable cost, 8d. Sufficient for six or seven persons.

Batter Pudding, Boiled, — Get one

ounce of melted butter. JMix three table-spoonfuls of flom- with a little milk, and thin it to a proper consistency with the rest of a pint, using it very gradually, that the batter may be quite smooth. Stu- in the butter in its dissolved state, and keep mo^ang the batter while tkree eggs, which ha^-e been well beaten, are added. A pinch of salt must not be omitted. Put the mixture into a well-buttered basin ; tie a cloth o\er it, and put it to boil at once, or the batter will settle at the bottom. It wiU take one hoiu

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and a quarter, and should be moved in the saucepan for a few minutes after it is put to hoiL Prohahle cost, 7d. Sufficient for hve or six persons.

Beans, Broad or Windsor (a la Poulette). — Boil one quart of young broad beans over a quick hi'e until nearly done; then put them into a stewpan with sweet herbs very finely cut, a little sugar, half a pint of stock ; pepper and salt at discretion. Before beginning to stew see that the beans are well di-ained from the water in which they were boiled. Stew until half the liquor is absorbed, and just as they are on the point of simmering beat up the yollv of an egg with a quarter of a pint of cream, and add it to them. Time, ten minutes to boil ; fifteen to stew. Probable cost, from Gd. to 8d. per peck. Sufiicient for five or six persons.

Beans, Broad or Windsor, Mashed.

— This is the only way in which old beans may be cooked to advantage. They should be first boiled in the ordinary way fully half an hour, by which time the skins will have burst, and they may be easily removed. Mash them with the back of a wooden spoon until quite smooth, then put them back into the stewpan with a little sugar, butter, pepper, and salt. Warm up, and then press them into a buttered mould. The mould should be hot and kept hot until ready to serve ; tlien turn out. Probable cost, 6d. per peck. Sufficient for six or seven persons. Beans, Broad or Windsor, To Stew.

— Have ready a good rich brown gravy. Cut up some small onions, cliives, and parsley; throw them into the gravy and simmer for ten minutes before the beans are put in. Sprinkle a quart of beans with two tea-spoonfuls of salt, one of pepper, and one of sugar, mix together and put them into the gravy. Stir the beans gently over a slow fire tiU the gravy is absorbed by them. In ten minutes serve tliem up. Probable cost, 6d. a peck. Sufficient for a dish.

Beans, Broad or Windsor, with

Ham or Bacon. — This is a very popular dish. The beans must be boiled separately an-d not with the ham. They should be young, and only shelled just before cooking. Put them into boiling- water with a , little salt, boU very quickly, and when di-ained pour melted butter over them. Place the ham on the beans. Time, fifteen to twenty minutes to boil. Probable cost, 6d. to 8d. per peck. Sufficient for six or seven persons.

Beans, French or Kidney.— Choose fine young beans, and be careful that they are the right sort. 'The best kind are the caseknife, because they have no strings, and are consequently all eatable, and need only be bro-ken in two, not cut. Should these not be obtainable, take the youngest that can be procured : remove the tlu-ead or string that runs along the back of the pod, then cut them in a slanting direction lengthways in very thin slices, throw them into boiling water well salted, and to preserve their colour boil without the lid of the saucepan. ^V^len tender, drain in a colander, put a small jjiece of butter and a. dash of

pepper, and give the whole a shake. Somecooks add a tea-spoonful of chopped parsley, but we do not think this an improvement. This dish may be varied in a great many ways, and v ith great success. Cold French beans with dil and vinegar make an excellent and refresliing salad. They may also, Avhen cooked and drained, be mixed with some good brown gravy, and served alone as a coui'se after the meat.

Beans, Fi^Slllch (a la Fran9aise) . — Cut and boil one pound of French beans ; drain -well and put them into a stewpan over the fire to dry or absorb the moisture ; shake the pan that they may not burn. When quite free from the water add tliree ounces of fresh butter, the juice of half a lemon, pepper, salt, and a tablespoonful of good gravy. Keep shaking the ste-wpan until the beans are quite hot, and serve quickly. Time, quarter of an hoirr to boil ; ten minutes to stew. Probable cost, from 2d. to 4d. per pound. Sufficient for two persons.

Beans, French (a la Maitre d'HGtel). — Prepare and boil one pound of beans in the usual manner ; see that they are well drained from the water. Keep them hot, and when dry put them into a stewpan with two ounces ol" melted butter, half a tea-spoonful of chopijed parsley, a Uttle salt, and a tea-spoonful of lemonjuice. Shake the pan over a brisk fire, mb: well, and serve hot in eight minutes. Sufficient for two persohs.

Beans, French (a la Proven^ale) . — Bro-wn, some slices of onion with oil instead of butter : make them of a light bro-wn, and add some French beans that have been prepared and boiled in the ordinary way, with chopped parsley, thyme, chives, and bay-leaf. As soon as the vegetables are done, remove them on to a dish : ]3ut a httle vinegar into the pan, boil up and thi'ow over the beans. If oil be dishked, fry the onions in butter, and add a gra-s^ instead of vinegar. The juice of a lemon is sometimespreferred.

Beans, French, Boiled.— Only the ends and stalks require to be tsiken ofl: when the beans are very young, and no mode of cooking can make very old ones eatable. Put them ac they are prepared into cold water. They are cut according to taste leng-thwise into thin strips or obliquely into a lozenge form. The strings should be drawn off with the tops and stalks when they are come to theu- proper growth. Put them into a large saucepan of boiling water, some salt and a little soda, and keep boiling very fast until tender. Time, fifteen minutes if young ; twenty to twenty-five minutes if old. Proba'^lo cost, 2d. to 4(i. ]x;r pound.

Beans, French (Haricots verts). — Boil and drain the beans in the usual way, and put. them into a stewpan with some butter thickened with flour. Add chopped parsley, thjTne, chives, &c., and a small cupful of stock ; season to taste with salt and pepper. Stew for some time, then thicken with two eggs well beaten up -ndth a little milk or cream, and serve quickly. A little lemon- juice may also be added. Time to

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stew, ten minutes. ProLablo cost, from 2(1. to •Id. per pound. Beans, French, Omelet of. — Cut up

two table-spoonfuls of French beans into small pieces, and stir them into four eggs wliich have been previously beaten ; next add two tablespoonfuls of grated Parmesan, or any other mild cheese, and pepper and salt to taste. When thorouglily mixed, put the whole into a delicately clean omelet-pan with two (dunces of butter, and fry a pale brown. Probable cost, 9d. Time, three to five minutes. Sufficient for three or four i^ersons.

Beans, French, Pickled.— Beans are seldom piclded alone, but are classed under the head of mixed pickles. They may be put into a jar with gherkins, cauliilowers, radish-pods, capsicums, onions, &c. As they are gathei-ed young, the strings, a bit of the stalk, and the pointed ends are left on. Cover them with a strong brine of salt and water for two days, then wipe and put them into a jar. Boil one quart of ^'inegar with two ounces of peppercorns and half an ounce of mace ; pour it over hot, and when quite cold cover. The pickle will be the better if the vinegar bo re-boiled in twentyfour hom-s, and again thi'own boiling over it. Probable cost of vinegar and spice, Is.

Beans, French, Pickled (another way). ^Thc beans should be gathered young. Place them in a strong brine of salt and water. When turning yellow, which will be in a day or two, remove them and wipe dry. Boil the vinegar ฆsvith a little mace, whole pepper, and ginger (two ounces of pepjDer and half an ounce each of ginger and mace to each quart of vinegar) ; pour this over the beans. A small bit of alum, or a tea-spoonful of carbonate of potash, will biing back their colour. Cover them to keep in the steam and re-boil the vinegar the next day; tlu'ow over hot as before. Cover, but do not tie down until quite cold. Probable cost. Is. Sd. per quart.

Beans, French , Puddingof .— Slip ofE the outer shell fi'om French beans, either before or after they are boiled, and poirnd them in a mortar with pepper and salt to taste. Boil them in a buttered and well-floured cloth for half an hour. The cloth should be tied lightly to give them room to swell. This pudding loolcs better when put in a mould. Squeeze out all the v ater from the cloth, return the contents, tie and place the pudding into any shape required, press it dovv-n and let it stand a few minutes. Put a hot dish over the mould and turn out. Average cost, 6d. per peck. Time, fifteen to twenty minutes to boil. Probable cost, 2d. to 4d. per pound. Sufficient for six or seven persons.

Beans, French, Salad of.— Take cold beans which have been well di-ained from the water. Saturate them with vinegar, and let them lie in it for twenty minutes. Drain again, and add some oil, if liked, and a httle pepper and salt. Beans may be eaten with any salad sauce.

Beans, French, To Stew.— This is an excellent accompaniment to venison, veal, or any other cutlets. The beans should be cut, boiled.

and drained according to recipe given for boiled beans. Then take a rich brown gravy, well flavoui-ed with pepper and salt, put it into a stewpan, and when hot add the beans and simmer over a slow fire. Shake the pan to prevent them from burning, and serve in fifteen minutes. The cutlets may be put in the centre, or they may be served on the beans and gravy. Probable cost, 2d. to 4d. per pound.

Beans, French, with Gravy.— Dissolve four ounces of butter in a pan, and stir into it three ounces of flour till it becomes brown and quite smooth. Mix a little gravy and season with salt, pepper, and nutmeg. Take any quantity of this; souse and sirnxmer the beans, previously b(,)iled, for twenty minutes. Probable cost, 2d. tcr 4d. per pound. Allov,one quart, for six or seven j)ersons.

Beans, Haricot (a la Bretonne). — Put some butter into a stev pan with chopped onion and a little flour. Brown, but do not blacken the butter ; pour in a little broth, or water. Stir till it is slightly thick, and season with salt and pepper. Put in the haiicots already cooked and boiled ; simmer them about twenty minutes in the broth and serve hot. Probable cost, 4d. to 6d. per quart. Allow one quart for six or seven porsons.

Beans, Haricot, Dried.— Soak the beans for twelve hom-s in soft water. Put them, when drained, into a saucepan of cold water without salt, and when half cooked change the water and replace it with wami water and a little salt. When done remove the lid to allow the beans to dry. Time to boil, about two hoiu-s. Probable cost, 4d. to 6d. per quart. Allow one quart for six ar seven persons.

Beans, Haricot, Dried (another way). — Soak one quart of haricot beans for two hours in cold water. Poirr ofi: the soaldng water; put them into two quarts of v ater with a large table-spoonful of salt. Let them simmer until soft and mealy, then drain. Put them back into the saucepan with two ounces of butter, and seasoning of pepper and salt. Shake them until the butter is well melted and the beans hot through, and serve I quickly. Time, from two to two and a half { hours. Probable cost, 4d. to 6d. per quai-t. Sufficient for six or seven persons.

I Beans, Haricot, Plain Boiled. —

i Sprinkle over one quart of haricot beans, preI viously boiled, two table-spoonfuls of chopped I ]3arslcy, and put them with two ounces of butter 1 into a stewpan. Let them get thoroughly heated ; shake the pan, and in about fifteen minutes serve in a hot vegetable dish. Probable cost, 4d. to 6d. per quart. Sufficient for six or seven persons.

Bechamel, Maigre. — Lse milk and water instead of the stock made with animal juices. Blend one ounce of flour with one ounce of butter. Simmer for twenty minutes the following ingredients in one pint of milk v ith half the quantity of water and a little salt : two or three small mushrooms, a few sprigs of par.slcy, two onions, and a blade of mace. AVhen it haH

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ฆboiled long enough to give the desired flavour, strain and put it again into the stewpan with the flour and butter, keeping it stiir^d until perfectly smooth. This should be again strained, and about half the juice of a lemon added to it. Then beat up the yolks of two eggs with two table-spoonfuls of milk, pour it gradually with the rest, and stu- it over the fire. It must not boil or it will curcJ.c. Time, three-quarters o"; an hour. Cost, aboul; 6d. per pint. 1

Bechamel, or French White Sauce, j

— As white stock is the foundation for this | Bauce it must be jjrepared first. Boil down an old fowl, two or three pounds of the knuckle of veal, and three of very lean ham, with the white parts of four carrots, two onions, one blade of mace, some wlute peppeix'orns, two table-spoonfuls of salt, and an ounce of butter, in four or five quarts of water. Cut up the fowl and veal, and put them with the ham to simmer, in a small quantity of water, till the juices are extracted ; then throw in the full quantity of v.^ater, about thi-ee and a haU" quarts to the other ingredients. Let the liquid simmer from four to five hours. Skim and strain tiU clear, when it is ready for the bechamel. Mix a table-spoonful of arrowroot with a jjint of cream, and when well blended let it simmer in a carefully-cleaned pan for foiu- or five minutes. Make one pint of the stock hot and pour it to the cream ; simmer slowly for ten minutes or until it thickens. If two thick add a little stock. Time, two hours. Probable cost, Is. per pint.

Bechamel, or French White Sauce

(another way). — Take one quart of good white stock, put it into a stew,pan with an onion, a few mushrooms, a sprig of thyme, parsley, ii, blade of mace, and a little salt ; boil till | it has extracted the flavour of the herbs, and the stock is reduced to about half — then strain. Put one pint of thick or double cream into a clean stewpan, mi.x the reduced stock very gradually with it, and stir all the time until it thickens over a slow fire. If the ordinary thin cream be used mix a tablebpoonful of arro-wTOot very smoothly into it, and simmer slowly five minutes before adding it to the stock. Time, about two hours. Probable cost, about Is. 2d. per pint.

Bechamel, or French White Sauce

(another way). — To any quantity of bechamel, prepared according to pcceding recipe, add a little parsley-juice, made by pounding it in a mortar. Bring it to a boil and then simmer for a few minutes. Take it off the fire, stir in a little lemon-juice, and serve immediately, to prevent the sauce from becoming discoloured. This sauce is a valuable foundation for other sauces. Probable cost, from 4d. to 6d. for half a pint.

Beef. — Beef is considered by many the best and most wholesome, as it is certainly the most economical meat that can be purchased for family use. It is in season all the year round, though it can be had in perfection in winter only, because then the joints can be hung until the meat is quite tender. The heart, head, sweetbreads, and kidneys should always be used fresh. Ox beef is the best : the fiesh is smoothly

grained and rather open ; if the animal is young it rises when pressed with the finger. The lean is of a bright red colour, and the fat v.-hit;' rather than yellow. {See Frontispiece.) Tary loan beef is always of inferior quality, whilfct very fat beef is objectionable because it is so wasteful. Heifer beef is the best for small families : the grain is closer, the colour paler,

SECTIONAL DIAGRAM OF THE OX.

A Enmp.

B Mouse Buttock.

c Leg, or Hock.

D Buttock, or Kound.

E Aitshboue, or Top.

F Sirloin.

G Fore Eibs.

H Middle Kibs.

I CliuckKibs.

J Neck, Clod, or Sticking Piece.

E Shin.

L Sboulder, or Leg of Mutton Piece.

M Brisket.

N Thin Flank.

o Thick Flank.

p Veiny Piece.

and the fat whiter than ox beef. Bull beef is dark in colour, with a coarse grain, very little fat, and a strong, meaty smell. It should never be chosen. If beef is to be tender the joints should be hung as long as the weather will permit. In summer time they shoidd b3 examined every day, and any moisttire that may arise should be scraped off. Beef tha': 's to be roasted should not be washed unless it Js quite necessary. If any part has been touched with flies it may be :;i\ubed with a cloth which has been dipjjed in vinegar, then dried quickly. Powdered charcoal rubbed over the meat will restore it if slightly tainted. Before hanging the joints care should be taken to remove the soft cord which runs down the bone of the sirloin and ribs, and to trim oft' all

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superfluous fut. An o5c iซ usually out up and

dressed as follows : —

SiitLOi.v. Prime roasting- joint. The clunnp end is the finest part, as it contains the largot portion of the undercut or fillet. Excellent steaks may bo cut from thl;:; fillet, and aie considered hy some superior to rump steak. The sirloin should be hung- as long as possible before it is cooked. Two sirloins cut together form a baron of beef. Price i)er pound. Is. to Is. Id.

EuMi". Upper part or chump end roasted. Lower or silver side salted and boiled. Middle part cut into steaks. Pi-ice per pound, lid. to Is. ; steak. Is. 3d. to Is. 6d.

Aitchbone. Salted and boiled or stewed, sometimes roasted. Price per pound, 7od. to 8Ad.

Buttock oh Round. Boiled, stewed, or cut into steaks. The upper side if hung for a few days makes an excellent and economical roasting joint. Price per pound, lOd. to lid.

lilousE Hound. Boiled or stewed. Price per pound, lOd. to lid.

Veiny Piece. Steaks. Inferior in (puility to the rump. Price per pound, Ud. to ll^d.

Thick Fl.vnk. Fine boiling piece. Price per pound, lOd. to lid.

Thin Flank. Boiled. This part is excellent when boned, rolled, and pressed. Price per pound, 8d.

Leg. Stewed, and g-ood for soup. Price per pound, 4d. to 9d.

Fore Ribs (five ribs). Roasted. Prime roasting part. Price per pound, lOd. to Is.

Middle Ribs (four ribs). Economical roasting part. Price per pound, lOd.

CiucK Ribs (three ribs). Steaks. Second quahty. Price per pound, lOd.

SnouLDEU OR Lecj of Mutton Piece. Boiled or stewed. Price per pound, lOd. to lid.

Brisket. Boiled or stewed. E.xcellent when salted and pressed. Price per pound, 7d. to 8d.

Clod. Boiled or stewed. Used in making gravy. Price per pound, 6d. to 9d.

Neck. Soups, gravies, &c. Price per pound, yd. to 8d.

Smu,-. Soups and gravies. Also for stewing. I'rice per pound, 4d. to 9d.

Cheeks. Brawn, soup, S:c. Price per jiound, Hd.

Tail. "Soup. Stewed. Each, Is. 3d. to. 2s. 9d.

Tongue. Salted and boiled. Each, 5s. to 6s.

Heels. Stewed for jelly and stock. Each, 9d. to Is.

I-tvER. Stewed and fried. Price per pound, 5d.

Besides these there is the Pal.vte, which is stewed or fried ; the Heaut, which is stuffed and roasted ; the Sweetbiieads and I Tripe, which is cooked in various ways; and the Skiut, which makes rich gravy.

Purchase the best meat and the best joints, they are the most economical in the end. The quality of beef depends on so many circumstances that the surest way to get it good is to j buy of one respectable butcher whose word i may be depended on. I'le following direc- i tions are given for the benefit of those who require them; they do not belong to any |

particular meats, those will be treated on in then- pi-oper places: — While cooking, keep a good fire, and place the meat at some distance; from it at first. If the outside be too suddenly dried it prevents the heat penetrating, so that the inside of the joint will be uncooked. Baste often; a great deal depends on this. Inexperienced cooks think they have done all that is necessary when they have put it before the fire, and given it the prescribed time ; but witnout fiequent basting the meat will be diy and indigestible. Although the greatest caic has been taken to give coirectly the time required for cooking the various dishes, it must be remembered that it is impossible to give it exactly to suit each case, because so many circumstances tend to vary it, such as the age of the animal, the time the meat has been kept after beingkilled, the state of the weather, the cooking apparatus used, and the quality of the fuel. The average only has been taken, and this beingunderstood, common sense must make allowance for the rest. It will be an assistance to rememIjcr that freshly-killed meat requires more time than that which has been kept, and also that meat needs cooking rather longer in cold weather than in hot.

Beef, Aitchbone of, Salted.— Most

persons roast this joint, but we think it far superior salted and boiled according to the foUoTftang recipe: — Take a i)iece of beef, say ten poimds, and rub into it a mixture compound of throe-quarters of a pound of salt, one ounce of dark moist sugar, and half an ounce of saltpetre. Turn the meat each day, and ruT) the pickle well in every time. Keep it in this condition four or fi\-c days, when it will be found salt enough for most people, ^''hcn wanted for use, put it into a large saucepan, with enough water to cover, bring it gradually to a boil, and simmer gently for two hours and a half. "If," says Dr. Kitchener, "it bods too quickly at first, no art can make it tender afterwards; the slower it boils the better." Carrots, turnips, and suet-dmnplings are the proper accompaniments to this dish. The soft, marrow-like fat at the back of the joint should be eaten when it is hot, the hard fat left until the joint is served cold. The liquor in which the beef is boiled should not be thrown away, it will make excellent pcasoup. Probable cost, 7|d. to S.^d. per pound. Sufficient for eight or nine persons.

Beef, Aitchbone of. To Carve.— In carving an aitchbone of beef it is necessary that it should be cut across the grain. In order to

aitchbone of beef.

do this the knife should follow the line from A to b in the above illustration. The meat should

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"he cut of a moderate thickness, and very evenly. Cut the lean and the fat in one slice, and if more fat is desired it should he taken horizontally from the side. Before proceeding to serve, a slice of about a quarter of an inch in thickness should be cut from the top, so that the juicy part of the meat may be obtained at once. Beef (a la Braise). — Hang a rump of beef for hve or six days ; remove the bone, and lard it freely with small pieces of ham or bacon, rolled in a seasoning comjDosed of an onion minced very fine, a little garlic, thyme, parsley, peppei-, and salt. After the ham or bacon has been rolled in the seasoning, add to what is left of the latter a pint of vinegar, a pint of port wine, and a tea-spoonful of salad-oil. yteep the beef in this mixture for one night. Before cooking, wrap it in paper, and roast it on a cradle spit, basting it well all the time it is before the fii-e. Serve with brovvoi gravy thickened, and garnish with horse-radish scraped, and boiled carrots. Some cooks also add a little lemon- juice, and slices of pickled cucumber. Probable cost of beef, lid. to Is. per pound.

Beef (a I'Ecarlate). — Prepare a pickle according to the following instructions: — Take a small quantity of sweet herbs, crushed juniperberries, basil, pepper, cloves, and saltpetre (the latter in proportion to the quantity of meat, say one ounce to every four or five pounds of beef), six ounces of salt, and two ounces of sugar. Pub this mixtiu'o into a jjiece of rump of beef, weighing five or six pounds, and put it into a salting-pan, where it should remain eight days, during which time it must be frequently turned. Soak the meat for two hours in cold water before using. Tie it up in a clean cloth, and pixt it into a stewpan, in which has been previously placed equal parts of Bui-gundy and water, with a few carrots, onions, parsley, and chives. Simmer for five or six houi-s. When cold, pour a little of the liquor it has been stev ed in round the dish, and serve. Probable cost for five pounds, 7s. 6d. Sufficient for seven or eight persons.

Beef (a la Houssard). — Eemove all bones and gristle from a piece of beef, of about four pounds weight, beat it with a rollingpin, and lard it with ham or bacon. Lay it, with a seasoning of chopped onion, pepper, and salt, into a stewpan with a tight-fitting cover, and put it into an oven, or by the side of the fire, and let it steam in its o-wti gravy. Take care that it does not burn, because, as there is no water it will be liable to do so unless carefully attended to. With a strong heat it will be ready in two or thi-ee hours, and will be found excellent. To be served with the gravy from the meat. Cost of meat, 1 Od. per pound. Sufficient for six or seven persons.

Beef (a la Mode), iso. 1. — Any fleshy part of beef or veal will do for this dish; but, of course, the finer the meat is the better vrill be the stew. A piece of the nmijj or buttock of beef we should consider most suitable ; of veal, either the fillet or the gristly part of the breast. About six or seven pounds is the usual quantity prepared. Eub the meat well with some mixed spice, salt, and a little

flour, and put it in a stewpan, into which has been previously jjlaced some thin slices of streaked bacon. As it is desirable that the bacon should not touch the bottom of the stewpan, it would be better to place a few skewers in it for the bacon to rest on. Cover the meat also with slices of bacon, some good gi'avy, about a pint and a half, and a little vinegar. Stew very gently for two hours, then add a seasoning of cloves, mace, i^epper, mushi-ooms, and a dozen small onions, half roasted. Cover the saucepan tightly down, and simmer until tender. Put the meat in a deep dish, strain the gravy over it, and seiwe very hot. Should veal be used, the mushrooms should be omitted, and lemon-peel substituted. Time to sim.mer, from three to four hours. Sufficient for seven or eight persons.

Beef (a la Mode), No. 2.— Take eight or ten pounds of beef (the rump or buttock), or the same weight of a breast of veal. Di\ide it into neat pieces of three or four ounces in weight. Put it into a large stewpan with four ounces of good beef dripping; but first make the dripping hot, and flour the meat. Add. a couple of large onions, minced very fine, . dredge flour, and stir with a wooden spoon for I about ten minutes, or until the contents of the ! pan be thick ; then pour in about one gallon of water. Do this gradually, stirring all together. Bring it to a boil; then skim, and add one drachm of ground black pepper, two of allspice, and two bay-leaves. Set the pan where it will stew gently for about three hours. When the meat is tender, serve. Sufficient for ten or twelvc persons.

Beef (a la Mode), No. 3.— Make a forcemeat of a French roll steeped in milk, half a pound of chopped veal, and six oysters. Remove the bone from a rump of beef, and fill up the holewith the forcemeat. Eoast the meat before a clear fire for an hour, take it ofl: the jack, insert in the top some dried and pickled mushrooms, adding mushroom powder to the forcemeat. Put it in a stewpan with two quarts of stoclc, a large onion stuck with cloves, and two carrots cut in slices. Stew until the beef is tender. Put the meat on a dish ; thicken and strain the sauce, add to it more mushrooms, a glass of sherry, oysters, and sippets of fried bread. Pour it over the beef; garnish with a few warmed gherkins, and serve. Time to stew a piece of beef weighing five pounds, five to six hours. Probable cost. Is. per pound. Sufficient for seven or eight persons.

Beef (a la Mode), No. 4. Bath Recipe.— Take three pounds of beef (any part will do, but the rump is the best), cut away aU fat, and trim nicely. Take a few cloves, a tea-spoonful of black pepper, a blade of mace, and a salt-spoonful of allspice. Pound them , thoroughly, and add half a small tea-spoonful of cayenne pepper, some minced sweet herbs, and shalot. Put these ingredients into a dish, previously rubbed with garlic, and cover them with vinegar. Cut fat bacon into long strips, and lard the beef, on both sides if necessary, first dipping each strip of bacon into the vinegar, and well covering them v ith the seasoning. Put

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the meat into a baking-pan, with the remainder of the herbs and spice, a bit of butter rolled in floui', and one pint of water. Cover the toj) of the pan, and bake in an oven. When tender, strain the gravy, and serve the beef with pickles on the top. It makes an cxoeUent cold dish, but should be served hot with the gravy at first. Probable cost. Is. per pound. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Beef (a la Mode), No. 5. French Eecipe. — Take a large, flat stewpan, and put into it two ounces of good butter. When the butter begins to froth, add a table-spoonful of flour, and stir until the two are well mixed and of a fine golden colour. Next lay in a piece of rump of beef, or any other tender part, three poimds in weight. Fry gently, being very careful that the meat does not stick to the pan. Add by degrees a pint of rich stock, well flavoured with carrots, savouiy herbs, onions, bay-leaves, salt, and pepper. When preferred, the vegetables may be put in whole, instead of merely flavouring the gravy with them, and they look very nice when used to garnish the meat. In France, they greatly increase the quantity of vegetables by adding tomatoes, when in season, small cucumbers, muslu-ooms, and green peas. Veal dressed this way, with the addition of nev.^ potatoes, is excellent, and is generally preferred to beef. Time to stew, foiu- or five hours. Probable cost, -Is. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Beef (a la Mode), or Brazilian Stew.

Dip some pieces of ' beef, cut from the shin, about three ounces in weight each, in vinegar, and place them in a stewpan (without any water) on a very slow fire. Let them gradually get hot. In about tkree hours it will be found that the meat has yielded sufficient gravy, and will be e.xcecdingly tender. Add a dessert-spoonful of musliroom ketchup, a tablespoonful of port or clayet, and half a tea-spoonful of brown thickening (or, failing this, a small piece of butter, about the size of a walnut, rolled in flour, with a little salt and cayenne). Simmer a few minutes longer, and serve. Probable cost, 7d. per pound. Sufficient for three or four persons.

Beef (a la Polonaise). — Mix some breadcrumbs with minced onion, a little butter, pepper, and salt. Get a piece of bsef, about four or five jDounds, beat well, and inseit the above stuffing into incisions made in the meat. These incisions should not be tlu-ough, or the forcemeat will fall out into the stewpan. Put the meat into a stewpan, with a little butter and very little water, and stew until tender. Thicken the gravy with a tea-spoonful of brown thickening ; or, failing this, %\ath a quarter of an ounce of butter rolled in flour. Time to stew, three hours. Probable cost, 4s. 6d.

Beef, Australian {sec Australian Beef).

_ Beef, Bachelor's.— Take a nice piece of ribs, fi'om eight to ten pounds, bone and tie it securely that it may not slip; pound about half a tea-spoonful of saltpetre, mix it with a little salt and rub it wcU into the meat. The next day pour over it a boiled pickle which has been allowed to get

cold. Keep it in this from six to eight days. Wash, tie in a cloth, and boil from an hour and a half to two hours, according to the weight. Bring it to the boil and then simmer only. Serve with carrots. Probable cost, Is. per pound. Sufifcient for eight or nine persons. Beef, Bachelor's, Stew.— Take a piece

of meat weighing from three to four pounds. If beef, from the rump, fillet, or buttock, or a fillet of veal of the same weight ; pepper and brown the meat in a stewpan, using a small quantity of good butter. Cut up two or three carrots into thick slices, remove the white parts of them with an apple-corer, and place them on the top of the meat. Then add thi-ee-quarters of a pint of water, and cover up tightly to simmer over a very slow fire. The main point to be observed is to keep the lid of the stewpan so closed that no steam may escape. In about three-quarters of an hour turn the meat over, but still keep the carrots on the top, and add four or five small onions, a little mushroom ketchup, and salt, and cover again tight as before. Simmer on the side of the fire for another hoiu' or more, but always observing to add a little boUing water if required. Veal may be served up with green peas, a little ham, and the juice and rind of a lemon. Time, from one hour and three-quarters to two hours. Sufficient for foxir persons. Average cost, 3s. 6d.

Beef, Baked.— Take about two pounds of thin slices of cold roast beef, sprinkle over them a little salt and a dust of flour ; roU them neatly up with a small portion of fat between each roU, and lay them in the bottom of a pie-dish. Slice two caiTots and a turnip and parboil them ; lay them with thinly-sliced onion and minced herbs over the meat, and proceed with another layer of beef as before till all is used up. The vegetables should be next to the paste, and should be dusted over with pepper and salt. Mix a tea- spoonful of flour with about half a pint of good gravy, free from grease, and two or three talsle-spoonf uls of ale ; put tliis into the dish and bake three-quarters of an hour, covered with mashed potatoes or a crust if preferred. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Beef, Baron of, consists of both sides of the back, or a double sti-loin, and weighing from tliirty to one hundred jjounds, according to the size of the animal. It is always roasted, but is now rarely prepared, except on particular festive occasions at the English Court, and at great public entertainments. It is generally accompanied by a boar's head and other substantial viands.

Beef, Boiled.— Put the beef into vorj' hot water, bring it to a boil quickly, and allow about three hours for a piece of from twelve tO' sixteen pounds. Much care is requii-ed and some judgment to boil meat well. If it is allowed to boil fast the meat -will be hard. Simmer from the time of boiling till it is served up. Sldm the pot thoroughly, and turn the meat twice during the simmering. If vegetables are hked, carrots or turnips may be "added, but they should only be put in long enough to get them properly cooked. The liquor wlQ serve for pea-soup, and is useful to the cook in

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various ways ; the vegetables boiled in it will have greatly improved the flavour. The following American recipe for boiling salted meat will be amusing and instructive : — Boiling Salted Meat. — A well known American writer says, " I was once informed by an old patron how he and his wife learned to cook corned beef." Hs :;aid, " that having to fm-nish a hasty meal for hhnself and his men, he decided upon cooking a piece of corned beef. He procured a good-sized piece, and it was late before it began to boil. Having to watch the pot himself, after a hard day's work, he resolved to have a nap, leaving the pot over a slow fire, and thinking he would be sure to wake ujj before it was done. A\Tien he awoke he found that his beef must have simmered slowly until the fire went out. Expecting to find it in pieces, or else sodden and tasteless, he lifted the meat from the pot, and finding it almost cold, cut and tasted it. It was the most delicious piece he had ever eaten, and so thought all who tasted it. Since that time," ho adds, " my corned beef, hams, tongues, or any kind of salted meat intended for boiling, is put over the fire early and left to boil slowly or simmer a long time, and after it is done the pot is lifted ofl; the fire, and the meat is allowed to cool in the pot from twenty minutes to half an hour. Following this plan we always have specially good meat, and so say all our friends who sit at our table to partake of it."

Beef, Boiled, Italian Sauce for.—

Dissolve one ounce of butter in a stewpan and ปtii- into it one ounce of flour till it becomes a rich brown, then add one-eighth of an ounce of salt, the same of pepjier, and half a gill of white French wine, previously reduced from one gill by boiling, and three-quarters of a pint of bouillon or broth. Boil fifteen minutes, and add three table-spoonfuls of fine herb sauce. Skim and serve. Sufficient for one pound and a half of beef.

Beef Bones, Broiled. — There are fendishes more ajjpetisiug than broiled bones, whether of beef, mutton, or poultry. Great attention should be given to the fire. If not clear the bones will be blackened and lose their nice delicate flavour. Divide them, if necessary, rub them with a little clarified butter, then with pepper, salt, and mustard, and broil over the fire for about five minutes. Serve alone or with sliced potatoes fried and very hot.

Beef Brains {ฆฆ^le Bullock's Braias).

Beef, Braised, Rump (a la Jardiniere). — Remove the bone from a piece of nmip weighing about sixteen pounds , and trim and tie it into a nice shape. Sim-air it for three hours in the stock-pot, and after well di-aining put it into a braising - pan, with a gravy made in fhe following manner : — Put tkree carrots, three onions, three shaiots, three bayleaves, and a sjirig of thyme into a stewpan with a pint and a half of good rich gra^y. Slice the vegetables and simmer until the flavour is extracted and the gra^-y reduced to about one pint, then strain and add the best part of a pint of jMarsala. Pour this gravy into ฆthe braising-pan over the meat, simmer and

baste c of Esi: tureen -with b]

o hours. Add half a pint slvim and strain into a ปith the beef. Garnish •arrots, and cauliflowers ;

the latter is best placed at the ends and sides of the dish, with carrots on each side of the cauliflowers and the brussels sj^routs to fill up the spaces between. Time to simmer, tlrree hours ; to braise, two hours. Probable cost, lid. to Is. per pound. Sufficient for a remove.

Beef, Braised, Rump, with Macaroni. — Cook the beef as before directed, am. boil some blanched macaroni in veal brot:i. Drain it, and add some Espagnolo caucc and grated Parmesan cheese. Mix well and servo round the meat. Tomato sauce may be sent to table on a tureen. Time to boil the macaroni fi-om fifteen to tAventy minutes.

Beef, Breslau. — Take three or four ounces of bread-crumbs, beat up three eggs and add them to the crumbs and a small cupful of good bro-vNTi gra^y; break three ounces of butter into small pieces, and mix all together with half a tea-spoonful of salt, one tea-spoonful of grated lemon-peel, two tablespoonfuls of minced thyme and parslej^, and a little cayenne. When these ingredients are thoroughly mixed, take of roast beef, rather undercooked, from a half to three-quarters of a pound, mince it very finely, mix well with the forcemeat, and bake "for half an hour in buttered coffee-cups. Turn out, and serve with egg-balls round the dish and gra^y if liked. Probable cost, exclusive of meat, 8d. Sufficient for a small dish.

Beef, Brisket of. Stewed.— Take six pounds of beef, and, before dressing it, rub it ov6r with vinegar and salt ; place it in a stewpan with stock or water sufficient to co^-er it. Allow it to simmer for an hour, skimming it well all the time. Put in (six each) carrots, tm-nips, and small onions ; and allow all to simmer until the meat is quite tender, which will be in about other two hours. As soon as it is ready the bones should be removed. Boil for a few minutes as much of the gravy as wiU be required with flour and a little butter, and season it with ketchup, allspice, and mace. Pour a little of it over the brislcet, and send the remainder to table in a sej^arate dish. Sufficient for six or seven persons. Probable cost, 7d. to 8d. per pound.

Beef, Brisket of, Stewed (another way). — Take about seven pounds of nicelytrimmed brisket. Any bone should be taken out, get it without if jjossible ; put it into a stewpan with water or stock to cover, a layer of bacon under, and over a few cloves, whole allspice, a bunch of sweet herbs, two small onions, two carrots, and salt and pepper at discretion. Simmer in a tightly-covered stewpan from four to four and a half hoirrs, then stivain oft' the liquid (there will not be much), reduce it to a glaze, keeping oui a little for sauce. Glaze the meat, and send up the sauce thickened round it. Garnish with carrot cut into slices, and glazed onions, which must bo coolced apart from the meat. Probable cost, 8d. per pound.

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Beef, Brisket of, To Carve.— The accompanying- engraving represents the appearance of a brisket of beef ready for table. There

BEISKET OF BEEF,

IS no difSculty in carving it. The only thing to observe is that it should be cut cleanly along the bones, in the direction indicated by the dotted line, witha fix-m hand, in moderately-thick slices. Cut it close down to the bones, so that they may not have a rough and jagged appearance when removed.

Beef, Brose. — Take the liquor from the boiling of a large joint of beef. After the meat has been removed make it come to the boil, and stir into it some oatmeal, which has previously been browned in an oven. Send it to table quite hot, but not too thick. A Httle of the liquor made to boil up will remedy tliis. Probable cost of oatmeal, 2 Jd. to 3d. per pound.

Beef Cakes. — Make a mincemeat of one pound of under-di-essed roast beef, a quarter of a pound of ham or bacon, a few sweet herbs, and a seasoning of salt and pepper. Add a large egg well beaten, and make up into square cakes of about half an inch thick. Fry quickly in good dripping, with bread-crumbs and a little more egg beaten up. Probable cost, Is. 6d. Time, from five to six minutes. Sufficient for thi'ee or four persons.

Beef Cannelon. — Beat a pound of moderately fat bacon or ham in a mortar ; add it to two poimds and a half of under-cooked beef ; mince together very finely along with the rind of a small lemon, a small bunch of sweet herbs, and nutmeg, pepper, and salt according to taste, binding all together with two eggs previously beaten. Form the mixtm-e into a roll, wrap it in buttered paper, and bake it in a moderate oven for twenty minutes or half an hour. When ready, remove the paper, dish it with a good gravy poured over it, and garnish with egg-balls and forcemeat-balls. Probable cost 3s. 6d. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Beef Cheese. — Take three parts of beef steak from any fleshy part of the animal, and one part equally composed of lean veal and uncooked ham ; chop them together as finely as possible ; cut a piece of white bacon into small dice, and mix it with the minced meat ; season with salt, pepper, allspice, chopped parsley, and chives or green onions, half a clove of garlic, bay-leaf, sprig of thyme, and half a wine-glassful of brandy. Line the bottom of an earthen pate-dish with thin slices of bacon ; on this place the seasoned mincemeat ; cover with more thin slices of bacon. Put the cover on the dish ; lute it down with paste made of

flour and vinegar, and send it to pass the night in a very slow baker's oven. Let the beef cheese cool and stiffen in the cellar for twenty -four hours before opening or cutting it up. This makes a useful, nutritious, and economical dish te help out a cold dinner, where there are many children or guests to serve in a hurry, and where bones are inconvenient, as in travelling, and on many occasions of an active and busy life. Probable cost, Is. per pound.

Beef, Cold, Scalloped. — Fill some scallop-shaj)es with a mince of beef, highlyseasoned with salt, pepper, and a little grated ham or tongue. Add to it as much stock with a little walnut pickle as the meat will absorb when heated gently over the fire. The mince must not be thin and watery. Fill the shapes and cover them with mashed potato or breadcrumbs. Warm in the oven with butter sliced over the top, which should be prettily marked and of a nice brown colour. Time to warm, about ten minutes. Probable cost, M-ithout themeat, 6d. or 8d.

Beef, Cold Roast, Minced.— ^Lnce

about tlii-ee-quarters of a pound of beef, and chop into it a seasoning of herbs and shalot. Bro-wn a lump of butter with a little flour in a frying-pan, add some stock broth, and simmer with the seasoning for two or three minutes. Put the mince into a stewpan, pour the gravy over, and simmer again till tender. Serve with mashed potatoes or sippets of bread. Time, fifteen minutes.

Beef, Collared. — Bone and skin about twelve poimds of thin flank beef, and rub it well with a mixture of common salt, saltpetre, and a httle sugar. Let it stand for five days, then wash ofl: the pickle ; drain and dry the beef with a cloth. Prepare some strips, of bacon, make notches in the meat, and lay them into the cuts ; then take two large tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped parsley, one oi sweet herbs, a dozen cloves well pounded, a drachm of cayenne, a quarter of an ounce of mace, and half a nutmeg grated. Mix well together and strew the mixture over the inside part of the meat, taking care that every part shall be equally covered. Poll up and tietightly; put it into a large saucepan of cold water well secured in a cloth, and allow it to simmer slowly for six hours. When ready take off the cloth and put the beef into a mould; Set a weight on the top and let it stand tiU cold. When sent to table garnish with parsley. Probable cost, 7d. to 8d. per pound.

"Beef Collops. — Take two pounds of thinlycut and tender rump steak, and di-\'ide it into small pieces. If there be any doubt about its tenderness, beat it gently with the blade of a kiiife, but do not spoil the form of the meat. Lay the p-ieces in a frj4ng-pan . for two or three minutes. AMien bro-^-n put them into a stewpan and pour a pint of gravy into it. Take a quarter of a poiind of butter rubbed into a little flour; add this to the gravy -sNath a seasoning of salt and pepper, one shalot finely shred, the best part of a pickled walmit, and a small tea-spoonful of (ฆupers. Let tlio wlioh? simmo-ifor about ten minutes. The steak may 1ซ

BEE

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stewed with water instead of gravy if prefeiTed. Serve in a covered dish, and send hot to table. Cost of beef, Is. 4d. per pound. Sufficient for three or foiu- xjersons.

Beef Collops, with Onions, — Make

some butter hot in a frying-pan ; get ready one pound of collops; they should be cut thinner than is usual for broiling, and cut two middlesized onions into rings. Dust a little pepper over them, and when they are bro^vned cover the pan closely up till done. This will be in about ten minutes. Servo hot v ith a littla oyster pickle or w-alnut ketchup added to the gravy in the pan. Time, tlirce minutes to fry, ten to simmer. Probable cost, Is. 4d. per pound. Sufficient for two persons.

Beef, Corned. — Lay a large round of beef into a good pickle. Let it remain for ten days or more, turning it every day. Put it into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover it, and let it boil very gently until it is thoroughly done. Corned beef is often smoked before it is boiled. Allow half an hour to the pound after it has come to a boil. Probable cost, Is. per pound.

Beef Croquettes (a la Mode).— Cut some cold roast or boiled beef into dice, three-quarters of an inch square, and prepare a batter according to recipe given for frying batter. Dip the dice into the batter, and then cover them with bread-crumbs ; an operation which may be repeated two or three times. Then put the dice into a well-buttered pan, and fry till they get a rich brown colour. They may be flattened with a spoon if preferred. Servo with fried parsley. Time to fry, ten minutes.

Beef, Curried. — Cut an onion and haK a baking apple, peeled and cored, into very small pieces, and fry them in a saucepan for two or thi'oe minutes. Add a pomid of cold roast or boiled beef cut into thin slices, fry the meat, and pour over it half a pint of water in which has been stirred a tea-spoonful of curry powder, and simmer for ten minutes. Serve with boiled rice in a separate dish.

Beef Dripping. — This should be removed from the pan as it drips from the meat, taking care to keep sufficient to baste with. When dripping remains in the pan during the whole process of cooking a joint it not only becomes discoloured and unfit for use, but it is wasteful in the highest degree to expose it to the action of a hot fire. Dripping should be placed in a basin and cleared from all impurities by means of boihng water thrown upon it. \Vhen cold, make a hole, pour out the water, and turn the dripping down side uppermost on a dish ; remove the dirt which will be found adhering to the bottom, and put the dripping by for use. Lf necessary, it may be returned to the basin to get another cleansing with boiling water. Clarify into jars for general use. It will b^' found good enough for any frying or stewing purpose to wliich butter is applied.

Beef, Dutetl. — Take ten pounds of the buttock of beef without fat, rub it well with broNvn sugar, and allow it to lie five or six hours, turning frequently during the time. Put the beef into an earthenware pan. Press into it

a small table-spoonful of saltpetre mixed with three table-spoonfuls of salt, and rub and turn every day for a fortnight. Then put it into a coarse cloth under a cheese-press for twentyfour hours, and dry in a chimney. When boiled it should be put into a cloth. Probable cost, lOd. to Is. per pound. Beef, Dutch, or Hung.— Rub into twelve

or fomtecu pounds of the round or rump of beef two ounces of saltpetre and two ounces of coarse sugar. Let the meat remain for two days, and add a pound of bay-salt, four ounces of common salt, and an ounce of ground black pepper. When these ingredients have been thoroughly rubbed in, let the beef again stay four days, when add one pound of treacle, and tm-n it every day for a fortnight. It may then be smoked. This liighly-fiavoured meat is mostly used to improve soups and gra^des. A small piece is cut off as it is wanted, but it may be stewed slowly in boihng v ater and pressed while hot. Should this pickle be thought too strong three-quarters of a pound of coarse sugar may be rubbed in and the treacle omitted. It may also be prepared as spiced beef by adding a few cloves and a little mace. Time in pickle, fourteen days. Probable cost of beef. Is. per pound. Sufficient for eight or ten persons.

Beef, Fillet of. Braised.— Take a fiUet and roll it together, so as to bring the fat into the centre. Place a few slices of ham and a little gravy into a braising or stewpan, on which place the meat ; cover it with chopped carrots, celery, small onions, a pickled chili, a gherkm sUced, sweet herbs, mace, a little allspice, and salt. Simmer imtil the meat is tender. Brown it before the fire, or with a salamander ; skim and season the saiice, and seive with vegetables and sauce on the same dish.

Beef, Fillet of, dressed on the Spit. — Soak from four to five jiounds of the fillet of beef for two days in vinegar, seasoned ^dth thyme, onions, parsley, salt, and pepper, or if preferred, oil may be used instead of vinegar. When drained wrap it in an oiled paper, and put it on the spit before a quick fire. Probable cost. Is. 4d. x)er pound. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Beef Foreemeat. — Take one pound of lean beef, quai-ter of a pound of beef suet, and half a pound of fat bacon ; cut them into small jjieces, and add half a tea-spoonful of powdered th;VTne and marjoram, the same of ground allspice, and half the quantity of poxmded mace. Put all into a mortar and pound them to a paste, with two well-beaten eggs. Season with pepper and salt. Probable cost. Is. 4d.

Beef, French, Stewed. — Beat two pounds of rump steak with a rolling-pin to j make it tender, and then lard it thoroughly v 'ith strips of bacon. Place it in a stewpan with some good stock, spice, salt, garlic, thyme, parsley, and haK a pint of white wine. Stew gently for four or five hours; take out the meat, glaze it, and put away to cool. Next reduce the stock imtil it jellies, clear it with white of egg, flavour with lemon, and strain thi-ough a jelly -bag into a pie-dish. Serve the meat

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BEE

cold, garnished -wath i^icces of the jelly and glycerine alternately. Probable cost, os. 6d. tsiiflicient for four or five persons.

Beef Frieadelles are best when made with beef, mutton, and pork in equal quantities, and cut A'ery fine, but either will do separately. If beef, take one pound and a half of nice lean meat, a quarter of a pound of butter, four eggs, six ounces of fine bread-crumbs, a cup of cold water, and salt and pepper to taste. JMi.x well together and tui-n out a round well-formed cake. Cover with raspings and cross over the top with a knife ; put it on a buttered plate and bake in a quick oven. It should have a nice rich brown appearance, or it may be half stewed and then completed in the oven. Time, about one hour. Probable cost, 2s. 2d. Sufificient for five or six persons.

Beef Pricadelles, Spiced,— Prepare the meat as in preceding recipe, adding a little more butter, some grated lemon, cinnamon, cloves, or spiced sauces to taste, and cook as already dii-ected. The fricadelle may also be formed into small b^Us, and fried over a clear fire. Time, one houi".

Beef, Prieandeau of.— Lard about three pounds of the rump or fillet of sirloin. Pound three or four cloves, six whole allspice, and two blades of mace. IMix a little pepper and salt with these ingredients, and sprinkle it over the meat. Put it into a stewpan with a pint of medium stock, a glass of white wine, a bunch of savoury herbs tied together, two shalots, and a little more pepper and salt. Stew the meat very slowly for two hours, when it will be done. Remove it from tlie stewpan and cover to keep hot. Skim all the fat from the gravy, strain, and set it over the fire to boil till it is reduced to a glaze. Then put it over the top, and send it to table ^vith sorrel round the dish. Sorrel, like spinach, requires good washing and piclcing; put it into a stewpan with only the water that clings to it. Stir well to pi'event sticldng or burning; drain out all the water; this must be done effectually ; add a little butter and some good gravy, and stew till done. A little sugar may be added if there is too much acidity. Time to stew the soitcI, one hour. Probable cost, 5s. 6d. Sufficient for six persons.

Beef Prieo (Charles X.'s favourite dish). — Beat and lard a juicy, tender steak of two pounds ; lay it into a close-fitting covered stewpan, with equal quantities of water and vinegar. Add a little vegetable, particularly onion, and stew gently for two hours, but do not allov it to bm-n or stick to the pan. When cold cut the meat into strips, smear it with beaten egg, and strew over bread-crumbs well-seasoned with pepper, shalot, and salt. Fiy till it is of a light brown colour, which will be in about ten minutes. Probable cost, 3s. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Beef, Pried Rump Steak.— Cut the

steak rather thinner than for broiling, and with a little fat. Put it into a hot pan of clarified butter or dripping, and turn frequently until done. Serve in about eight or ten minutes, seasoned with salt, pepper, and a little mushroom ketchup ; or with a gra^y made in the

frying-pan and seasoned with HarA-ey's sauce, or according to taste. Probable cost. Is. 4d. per pound.

Beef Pritters.— Scrape one pound of meat from a piece of cold roast beef, and season it with pepper and salt. Have ready a batter made with three-quarters of a pound of flour, and about half a pint of water. Blend these two well together, and stir in a piece of butter about the size of an egg, wliich has been melted before the fire. Whisk the whites of two eggs, and add it to the batter with the scraped meat. Stir well, and drop only a small quantity at a time into the pan, when the lard or dripping is boiling. Turn, that both sides may be bro'rni. From eight to ten minutes will be sufficient to cook them over a steady fire. Dry, and send to table on a napkin. Probable cost, about 6d. to 8d., without meat. Sufficient for two persons.

Beef Gobbets. — Cut two pounds of lean beef into small pieces, put it into a stewpan with water sufficient only to cover it, and allow it to simmer gently for an hour. Then add sliced carrots and turnips, a head of celery minced, and a small bunch of savoury hei-bs, with salt to taste, a crust of bread, and half a tea-cupful of rice. Enclose in a clean muslin bag a few peppercorns, three or fom- cloves, and a small blade of mace. Put the lid on the pan, and let the whole stew again for another half hour, or until the meat is quite tender. Take out the crust, spice, and herbs. Place the meat on slices of toasted bread, pour the liquid in which it was stewed over it, and serve quickly, as the dish is best hot. Probable cost of bcei', lOd. per pound. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Beef Gobbets (another way). — Fry some small pieces of beef brown in a little butter, but first season with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and grated lemon-peel. Then put them into a stewjDan with some parsley and shalot finely shred, and stew them till sufficiently tender in a rich brown gravy. When nearly done, add a teaspoonful of port wine and one of vinegar. Make a cover of grated bread-crumbs over the 1 dish in which they are served; season theni with pepper, salt, and a little butter, and brown with a salamander. Time, five minutes to fry; twenty miniites to stew. Probable cost, Is., without meat.

Beef, Gravy, To Keep in Store.— Put

foiu- or five pounds of gravy beef, free from fat, into a stewpan with one pint of water, a carrot sliced, a good-sized onion, a head of celery, a thick slice of cooked ham, and a couple of cloves. Close the lid of the pan and let it stew until the water has nearly dried up, taking care that neither meat or vegetables get bm-nt or even stick to the pan. Then add three quarts of boiling water. Remove the pan from the fire, but put it near enough to keep the liquid from boiling too fast. When well boiled and reduced to two quarts, strain thi-ough a sieve, and when cold take off the fat. This gravy will serve for game or poultry, and will keep good several days. Probable cost of beef, 8d. per poimd.

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Beef Griskins (of Cold ]Mcat, Eoast or Boiled). — The best of these are the thin part of the ribs, the breast, or other poitions of the bullock in which the fat and lean are equally mixed. Finely chop one or two onious or slialots, some parsley, and mbc them with popper, salt, grated nutmeg, and oiled butter, which last must be kept sufficiently wami to remain liquid. Cut the beef into slices about an inch thiclc ; steep them in the above, turning them over from time to time. WTien they are well soaked, press them on both sides in breadcrumbs mixed with a little grated cheese. Grill them over a gentle fire till they are thoroughly heated, and nicely browned on both sides. While they are broiling, put the butter, onions, &c., in which they were steeped, into ii saucepan, with a couple of table-spoonfuls of broth. Let it boil a few minutes, shaking it about ; add a tea-spoonful of vinegar and a table-spoonful of ketchup, and serve in a sauceboat with the •broiled griskins.

Beef, Hamburg (see Hambm-g Beef).

Beef Hams. — Take beer in quantity enough to mix tlie following ingredients: — Three ounces of treacle, one pound of coarse brown sugar, one pound of salt, one ounce of bay-salt, and one of saltpetre pounded together, and half an ounce of coarse black pepper. Get a leg of beef shaped like a ham, lay it in a dish and keep it basted with the pickle, which should be thrown over it, at first, four times a day ; during the second week it may be done only three times, and for the last fortnight twice a day, morning and evening, will be sufficient. In a month drain, dry, and roll it in bran ; then smoke for a fortnight or three weeks It should be secured in canvas, and well washed with lime. Hang in a dry store. Cost of ingredients, about Is. Sufficient for one gallon.

Beef, Hash (a la Fran^aisc) .— Put two ounces of butter and a little flour into a stewpan : tlissolve it, and tkrow in a little chopped onion and a dessert- spoonful of finely-minced parsley ; bro\vn, but do not burn the butter. When sufficiently brown, add three-quarters of a pint of good boiling broth, quite free from fat, and a little pepper, salt, and nutmeg. Put in slices of cold beef (two pounds), and allow it t^o heat gradually by the side of the fire. Thicken the sauce with a little more flour well mixed in a table-spoonful of water, or beat up thi-ee eggs mixed with a table -spoonful of lemon-juice ; the thickening must be put in when near the point of boiling. Time, fifteen minutes to stew. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Beef, Hash. (Norman method). — Put into a bowl a large cup of boiling stock or broth, a wine-glassful of red wine, a little salt and pepper or cayenne, and some lemon pickle ketchup. Fry about two dozen small silver onions in butter till they are of a pale brown colour ; mix in two dessert-spoonfuls of flour, and stir till it has become a beautiful amber colour. Pour the contents of the bowl into the pan, and boil the whole until the onions are done ; then put some small, wellcut sliees of roast or boiled beef into a clean stewpan, and pour the gi^avy and onions over them. Allow it to stand till the meat has

acquired the flavour of the gravy ; then mako it very hot, but do not allow it to boil. Serve quicldy. Time, twenty minutes. Probable cost, exclusive of meat, lOd.

Beef, Hash, with Croutons. — Take

a pint of good stock, a table- spoonful of lemon pickle, one of mushroom ketchup, a glass of claret, and about a dozen silver button onions, which have been previously fried in butter and well browned. Put the mixtui-e into a stewpan with the butter in which the onions were fried. Set it over a clear fire until the onions are tendei-, then pour it all over the slices of two i)Ounds of cold beef to be hashed. Let it stand about twenty minutes, well covered; then draw it nearer to the fire, but do not allow it to boil. Serve up with croutons. To prepare the croutons : take two rounds of bread cut very thin, mako them any desired shape, long strips, stars, or rounds ; fry them in boiling butteia nice brown colour, drain on a cloth, and serve. Probable cost, without meat, 7d. or 8d. Sufficient for foui- or five persons.

Beef Heart {see Bullock's Heart).

Beef, Hung. — This meat should be hung as long as is consistent with safety to make it tender. Rub into the meat weighing, say from twelve to fourteen pounds, one pound of baysalt, one pound of coarse brown sugar, and six ounces of saltpetre pounded and mixed togethei-. It should be rubbed every morning, and will then be ready for smoking in a fortnight. Probable cost of beef, lOd. per pound. Smoke the meat about three weeks.

Beef, Hung (another way). — This recipe can be used for beof either smoked or unsmoked. It may be salted dry, or put into a pickle made with the same ingredients. The beef must be hung for three or four days, then rubbed with bay-salt, brown sugar, saltpetre, and a little pepper and allspice ; afterwards hang it up in a Avarm but not a hot place, rolled tight in a cloth, for a fortnight or more till it has become sufficiently hard. It may bo hung in the corner of a chimney of a wood fire to get the flavour of smoke, or sent to a smoking-house. A small clove of garlic put in the pickle is considered an improvement. Time, two or three weeks to remain in brine. Probable cost, lOd. per pound.

Beef, Hunters'. — Get a nice round of beef, weighing about twenty-five pounds, and hang it for two or three days, according to the weather. When hung long enough, put it into a salting-pan, reduce the following ingredients to powder, and rub it into the meat every morning for eighteen or twenty days, turning it at every rubbing : — Three ounces of saltpetre, three ounces of coarse sugar, one ounce of cloves, one nutmeg, half an ounce of allspice, one pound of salt, and half a pound of bay-salt. AVhen salt enough, cleanse it from the brine, put a bandage round the whole extent of the meat to keep it in shape, and lay it in a pan with half a pint of water at the bottom, and some shred suet on the top of the beef. Cover all with a paste composed of flour and water, and bake it for about six hours. Do not remove the paste until the heat has quite

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gone off. The bandage round the meat should be clean and not quite new. The gravy left in the bottom of the pan should be preserved ; it will be found excellent for made dishes of any kind. The beef may be glazed and garnished with savoitry jelly. Average cost of beef, lOd. per pound.

Beef, Inky-pinky. — Good gravy should be used if it is to be had ; if not, boil down the bones from which the meat has been cut, as well as the outside trinimings; they will make a gravy sufficiently good, with the addition of sliced boiled carrots and an onion. When the bones have parted with jill their strength, strain the liquor, and add to it some slices of cold loast beef, about two pounds, and the carrots and onion. Sinmier slowly, and add a little vinegar, pejiper, and salt. Remove the onion ; it will have imparted a flavour, which is all tliat is necessary; but serve up the carrots with the sauce, thickened with a little butter and floui'. Put sippets of bread round the dish, or garnish as any other hash. Average cost, e.xclusive of meat, 6d. Time, twenty imnutes to stew. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Beef, Jerked. — This is a West Indian method of cui-iug beef. It is cut into thin slices, immersed in sea -water, and dried by exposm-e to the rays of the sun.

Beef Kidney {^ee Bullock's Kidney).

Beef Liver {nee Bullock's Liver).

Beef, Lumber, in Madeira Sauce.—

Eoast three pounds of beef, for half an hornonl}-. Prepare a sauce with brown stock or broth, some butter, flour, cayenne pepper, salt, l^epper, and a glass of Madeira. At the expiry of the half hoiu', lay it in a stewpan, with the sauce, and siimner, but do not boil, for the same time. Mushrooms and trifles add to the delicacy. Time, half an hour to simmer. Probable cost of lumber. Is. 4d. per pound.

Beef, Marinade. — A pickle should be made on the day i^revious to the marinade being r(, quired, that the meat may he in it the full time necessary. Extract, by stewing, all the flavour from the following ingredients, with vinegar and water in equal quantities : — One clove of garlic, some sliced carrots and onions, a few peppercorns, and a little salt. Strain, and let it become cold. Cut into slices one pound of beef from the inside of a sirloin, and lay them in the pickle for twentyfour hours. Have ready a little, nice, brown gravy, and simmer the slices in it till they are quite tender. Blend together a little butter and flour, add this to the gravy, with a glass of port wine, two dessert-spooiiiuls of mushroom ketchup, and a tea-spoonful of shalot vinegar. Serve with the sauce poured over it. Time to simmer, three-quarters of an hour. Probable cost, without meat, Is. Sufficient for three persons.

Beef Marrow Bones. — Saw the bones into short lengths, and mix some flour and water into a paste to secure both ends, which should also have a floured cloth tied over them. Put them into boiling water, and let them boil

from one and a half to two hours. Put small napkins round them, or a frill of paper, wluchever is most convenient, and remove the paste before they are sent to table. Serve them on a napkin, with hot dry toast. The marrow may be spread upon the toast, and well seasoned with pepper and salt. When not wanted for immediate use the bones, should be pai-boiled, as they will keep many days in this state. Probable cost for a large leg-bone, from 9d. to Is.

Beef, Minced (a la Bourgeoise).— Brown a piece of butter, the size of a walnut, rolled in flour, in a stewpan. Cut some roast beef into small pieces, and put them, with a little parsley, basil, thj-me, pepper, and nutmeg, into the brown butter. Shake the pan for some minutes over a slow fire, and add equal parts of wine and stock broth. Simmer imtil the meat is tender, and before sending to table add a table-spoonful of the best oil. Time to simmer, twenty minutes, or until tender. Two pounds of beef Avill be found sufficient for three or four persons.

Beef, Minced, Boiled.— Mince very fine three or four small onions, wdth a little thyme, parsley, chives, and tarragon, and put them into a stewpan, with an ounce of butter, over a gentle fire, until partially cooked. Mix with them haK a table-spoonful of flom', and let them become brown. Add pepper, salt, half a glass of white wine, and a glass of stock. When the onions and spices are quite ready, put them into the pan with a sufficient quantity of cold beef fineh' minced, and allow it to simmer at a gentle heat for half an hour. Before sending to table, mix Avith it a spoonful of mustard.

Beef, Miroton of.— Put three ounces of butter into a frying-pan, with three onions, thinly sliced, and a pound of cold roast beef, under-cooked, if possible, and cut into small slices. Turn the meat constantly, so that it will be evenly browned on both sides. When of a nice colour, put in about haK a pint of good gravy, with salt and pepper to taste. Allow it to simmer a few minutes, but do not boil, or the meat will be shrunken and hard. Serve hot. This is a very nice and cheap dish. Probable cost, about 6d., without the beef.

Beef Olives. — Cut two pounds of rump steak into thin slices, and beat well with a rolling-pin to make it tender. Lay o-\-er each a seasoning of chopped herbs, pepper, and salt ; roll up the pieces separately, and tie round with a narrow tape. Get a clean stewjjan, in which place one ounce of butter, half a pound of bacon, cut in thin slices, some chopped parsley, and enough stock to make gravy. Put the rolls of steak into the stewpan, pressing them closely together; cover with a piece of white paper, and stew gently from two to three hours. When sufficiently tender, thicken the gi'avy with a tea-spoonful of brown thickening, or half an ounce of butter rolled in flour, and servo. A few drops of mushroom ketchup, or Reading sauce, is considered bv some cooks to imi:)rove this dish. Probable " cost for steak,

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Is. 3d. to Is. 6d. per pound. Sufficient for six persons.

Beef Olives, (Au Eoi). — Take long, thin slices of beef, beat them till tender, and lay over them equal quantities of mushroom, parsley, and chopped onion. The vegetables must be carefully prepared ; a spoonful of each will be sufficient for six slices of meat. Mash two pounds of boiled potatoes. Mix a spoonful of flour to a quarter of a pint of cream, and the yolks of two eggs, well beaten, with a little pepper and salt, and add it to the mash. Spread the mixture over the olives ; roll them up, tie with a narrow tape, and fry, or put them into the oven for about half an hour. Serve with a good brown sauce, or they may have an edging of potatoes. Time, half an hour. Probable cost, without the meat, Is.

Beef Palates (au Gratin). — Beat up the yolks of two eggs, and mix them, when well beaten, with the following ingredients: — A Made of mace, pounded, with a little salt and pepper, an eschalot, and a sprig of parsley, minced, two or three button mushrooms, and a slice of ham, scraped finely. Cut ฆ thi-ee palates, which have been cleaned and boiled and the skin removed, into long slices ; spread this forcemeat over them, and roll each one round, fastening it with a skewer. Balce in a moderate oven for half an hour, with breadcrumbs, well seasoned, and thin slices of butter laid over them. Probable cost, 6d. each.

Beef Palates, Fricasseed. — Put six well-cleaned palates into a stewpan, with just water enough to cover them ; add a bunch of parsley, a glass of white wine, a tea-spoonful of salt and sugar, and a little pepper. Simmer three hours, and strain the liquor. Blend two ounces of good butter with a table-spoonful of flour; dissolve it over the fire, and stir in gradually half a pint of cream, with as much of the liquor in which the palates were boiled as will make it of the proper consistency. Lay the palates into the stewpan, in neat, round slices ; add a couple of small cucumbers (divide them into strips, and remove the seeds), two or three small onions, previously boiled, a little nutmeg, grated, with cayenne and salt to taste, and stew twenty minutes. AVhen ready to serve, add a table-spoonful of lemon- juice to the sauce. Probable cost of palates, 6d. each. Sufiicient for a dish to serve six or seven persons.

Beef Palates, Fried. — Blanch three

ox palates for ten minutes ; scrape them carefully, and boil slowly for three hoiirs. When tender, take off the skin, and slice them for frying. Dissolve a little butter, and shred up some onion and parsley. Dip each slice of palate into the butter ; then into the parsley and onion, which should be seasoned with salt and cayenne. Fry from five to eight minutes, a nice brown colour-, and serve with lemonjuice over the slices, and fried parsley as garnish. Probable cost, 6d. each. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Beef Palates, Stewed.— Cleanse, soak, and boil the palates, as before directed. Skin and cut four into slices of from one to two

inches broad, and let them stew in some rich gravy, well seasoned with salt, cayenne, and mace, a table-spoonful of grated ham or tongixe, and a couple of cloves. ^Vhen they have stewed from four to five hours, add two ounces of butter, a little fiour, a glass of sherry, and a table-spoonful of lemon-juice. Serve on a dish, in a circle, with croutons arranged alternately with the palate. Probable cost, 6d. each. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Beef Patties. — Shred one pound of undercooked beef, a little fat and lean together; season with pepper, or cayenne, salt, and a little onion, or shalot. Make half a i)Ound of puff-paste, not too rich, cut into shape, and cover up, with the minced meat inside. Secure the edges with a little white of egg, pinch round, and fry them a light brown. Time to fry, ten minutes. Probable cost, 2s. Sufficient for six patties.

Beef Patties (another way)'.— Take thick slices of bioad, a week old if it can be obtained, and make them of the desired form and size with a tin cutter. Scoojd out the middle to receive the mince, prepared as in the preceding recipe. Dip each piece of bread into cream, and when drained brush them with white of egg, and dredge bread -crumbs, or breadraspings, over them. Fry in good fresh butter, fill them with the miucc, made hot, and send to table on a napkin.

Beef Patties, Meat for.— Mince half a pound of good, fresh suet ; put it to one pound of beef and one pound of veal, cut into small pieces, but not chopped. Season it with pepper, salt, allspice, and a very little mace — the allspice and mace should be pounded. Mix all together ; and when wanted for patties, cut wp a little l^arsley, and shred one blade of shalot, very finely, to mix with it. Bake in ^Datty-pans, or buttered saucers for half an hour. They are also good cold, and may be warmed up at any time. Probable cost, 2s. 6d.

Beef, Pickle for. — This pickle is intended for diy-salting. The ingredients must be well pounded and mixed together before the meat is rubbed with it, and the beef, or hams, turned and well I'ubbed every day until salt enough. One i: ound of common salt, three ounces of saltpetre, four pounds of brown sugar, and one tea-spoonful of black pepper, will be found to impart a good, rich flavour to the meat. Cost of ini;i-i'(lients, about Is. 2d.

Beef, Pickle for (another way). — To two gallons of clear, spring water, take four pounds of salt, two pounds of sugar, and two ounces of saltpetre. Treacle may be used with sugar, l^art of each, if preferred. Boil all together until the scum has quite disappeared, and when cold throw it over the meat to be pickled. A piece of beef, weighing from fourteen to sixteen pounds, will take twelve, or even fourteen days, and a ham a fortnight or thi-ee weeks. Cost for two gallons, about 8d.

Beef Pie, Raised. — Cover the sides of a raised pie-mould with butter, and put a lining of paste, made in the following manner, neetly into it: — Chop a quarter of a pound of suet, put it into a stewpan -with a quarter of a pound

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of butter and a pint of water; when boiling, pass thom through a sieve into two pounds of iioui-, and stir it with a spoon until the heat has gone olf . Wlien the dough, or paste, is quite smooth, roll it out, and it is ready for the lining. Take two pounds of rump steak and cut them into small coUops ; season them with minced parsley, pepper, and salt ; dust them with flour, and lay them roTind . the mould ; fill it with alternate layers of potatoes, thinly sliced, and meat, ilake a lid for the moidd with some of the paste, brush it over with beaten egg, and bake about three hours and a half. Put an oi'namental centre to the cover, that it may be more easily raised to throw in some gravy as soon as it is baked. Probable cost, 3s. lOd.

Beef, Potted. — Have ready a saucepan of boiling water, and a covered jar that will hold about two pounds of beef ; let the meat be lean, and without bone or gristle. Place the jar containing the meat into the saucepan ; put two tea-spoonfuls of water into it, and close the lid tightly that no more may enter. The water in the saucepan must be about an inch and a half below the lid of the jar, and it should boil slowly until the meat is done, which will be in about tliree hours and a half. It should then be chopped with a knife, and afterwards pounded in a mortar ; adding some clarified butter, the meat-juice from the jar (if too much keep back a part), and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Fill into small pots, and pour some melted butter over the top ; this will preserve the meat good for a long time.

Beef, Pressed. — Dissolve a quarter of an ounce of saltpetre in a little water, and mix with it two pounds of common salt and half a pound of brown sugar. Rub this pickle into a piece of meat, weighing about ten or twelve pounds, every morning for eight days ; then remove it from the pan, and secure it in a nice round with a piece of broad tape or calico. Put it into hot water, and simmer for over five hoars; then put it into a pan of cold spring water for five or six minutes, drain, and put it on a flat surface with an even weight on the top. When cold take off the bandage, and serve. The top must be trimmed so as to look neat.

Beef, Preserved (-S'fc Australian Beef).

Beef, BagOUt. — Take equal quantities of good gravy and boiling water — a pint in all. Pour it into a stcwpan, in which two pounds of cold roast beef, sliced, have been put. Add five or six small onions, some mixed spices, pepper and salt to taste, and let the whole stew very gently until tender, which will be in about two hours. Before serving, add capers and pickled walnuts to the gxavy. Probable cost, exclusive of meat, 4d. or od. Sufiicient for four or five persons.

Beef, Bibs of (a la Fermiere) .— Take a rib of beef, and cover it with slices of bacon well seasoned with herbs. Put into a stewpan a little butter, and let it melt over the fire, and place the rib in it, with some salt and pepper. Expose the meat to the heat of a quick fire, and when sufficiently browned on both sides, set the stcwp::n farther from the fire, so that it may

continue to cook at a gentle heat. As soon as it is sufficiently done, remove the meat, and place it on a dish. Take some small cucumbers, slice, and cook them at a gentle heat in the gravy, and add to the meat before serving.

Beef, Ribs of (a la Marseillaise). — Brown a rib of beef over a quick fire, with four table-spoonfuls of good oil. When both sides are browned draw the stewpan aside, and let it cook gently until tender. Fry some sliced onions in oil until they are brown ; then add vinegar, mustard, and a little stock broth. Season with salt and pejoper, and pour it over the rib of beef.

Beef, Ribs of, To Carve.— The ribs should be cut in thin and even shces from the

RIBS OF BEEF.

thick end towards the thin, in the same manner as the sirloin ; this can be more readily and cleanly done, if the carving-knife is first run along between the meat and the end and ribbones.

Beef, Ribs of. To Roast,— The best j)iece to roast is the fore-rib, and it should be himg for two or three days before being cooked. The ends of the ribs should be sawn off, the outside fat fastened with skewers, and the strong sinew and chine bones removed. The joint should first be placed at some distance from the fire, and gradually brought closer until hot through, to prevent its being scorched while yet raw. Baste freely with clarified dripping at first, as there will not be sufficient gravy when first put down ; di-edge -svith flour a quarter of an hour- before taking it up. Care must be taken not to aUow it to burn, as it is very easily spoiled. Ser\-e with horse-radish sauce. Probable cost, lOd. to Is. per pound.

Beef, Rib ' Steaks (a la Bordelaise).— Cut out a thick steak from between the bones ; soak it in salad-oil, and season with salt and pepper. Broil on each side for five minutes. Boil a small young vegetable marrow, cut it into half -inch slices, glaze, and lay them, when made quite hot, over the steak. Pour some Bordelaise sauce over all, and serve very hot. Time to boil the marrow, ten to twenty minutes.

Beef, Rib Steaks (a la Maitre d'Hotel). — Prepare steaks as in preceding recipe ; put some Maitre d'Hotel butter on a hot dish ; lay

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the Bteaks upon it and glaze over the top. Time, ten minutes to broil. Probable cost, Is. per pound. Two pounds sufficient for four persons.

Beef Rissoles. — Mince one pound of cold roast beef, the leaner the better, very fine ; add pepper, salt, a few savory herbs chopped small, and half a tea-spoonful of minced lemonpeel ; mix all together with half the weight of the beef in bread-crumbs. Bind it with two eggs into a thick paste ; form into balls ; dip them in white of egg and bread-crumbs, and fry them a rich brown. Serve with a garnish of fried parsley, and with a brown gravy in a tureen, or without the parsley, round the rissoles on the dish. Time, from eight to ten m in utes. Probable cost, without meat, about 6d.

Beef, Boast. — For roasting, the sirloin of beef is considered the prime joint. Before it is put upon the spit, the meat must be washed, then dried with a clean cloth ; cover the fat with a piece of white paper fastened on with string. Make up a good strong fire, with plenty of coals put on at the back. When the joint is first put down, it should bo about ten inches from the fire, and then gradually drawn nearer. Baste continually all the time it is roasting, at first with a little butter or fresh dripping, afterwards its own fat will be sufficient. About ten minutes before it is to be taken up, sprinkle over it a Httle salt, dredge it with flour, and baste it until it is nicely frothed. The time it will take in roasting depends upon the thickness of the piece; a piece of sirloin weighing about fifteen pounds should be roasted for three hours and a half, while a thinner piece, though of the same weight, may be done in three houi-s. It must also be remembered that it takes longer to roast when newly killed than when it has been kept, and longer in cold weather than in warm.

Beef, Roast, Minced. — Place a spoonful of flour in a pan, and brown it with some butter. Add a pound of cold roast beef finely minced, some gravy, or stock broth, •s\dth a. glass of wine, and season with herbs chopped up, and salt and pepi^er. "When nearly ready, put in a little butter, and mix it -v^ath the other materials. This dish may be sent to table either with eggs ranged round the dish, or with piec3s of bread fried crisp in butter.

Beef, Roast, and Boiled Turkey

Soup. — Take the liquor in which a turkey has been boiled, and the bones of the tui-key and beef ; put them into a soup-pot ^vith two or three caiTots, turnips, and onions, haK a dozen cloves, pepper, salt, and tomatoes, if they can, be had; boil four hours, then strain all out. Put the soup back into the pot, mix two tablespoonfuls of flour in a little cold water ; stir it into the soup, and allow it to boil. Cut some bread in the fonu of dice, lay it in the bottom of the tureen, pour the soup on to it, and colour with a little soy.

Beef Roll. — Take four pounds of cold, roast, or boiled beef ; mince it well ; season it to taste with ordinary condiments and chopped

herbs, and put it into a roll of puff-paste. Bake for half an hour, or longer if the paste is thick. The French prepare a roll of meat in the above method, -s^Tup a buttered paper round it, and cover ^\ith a coarse paste of flour and water, and bake it in a moderate oven for a couple of hours, that is, if the meat weigh say four pounds. The paper and crust is then removed, and the roll served with a little brown gravy. As a rule, any meat baked in a coarse crust this way, will repay the cook for her trouble.

Beef RoUed as Hare.— Take any piece of tender lean beef — inside of a sirloin to be preferred. Allow it to soak for twenty-four hours in a little port wine and vinegar mixed, a glass of each. Make some foi'cemeat, let it be very good, and place it with a slice or two of bacon on the beef. EoU and tie it, and roast before a clear fire, basting frequently with a sauce of port wine and vinegar, of equal quantities, and pounded allspice. Serve with a rich gravy, and send red-currant jelly to table with it. Probable cost for two pounds of meat, 2s. 9d. Time, about three-quarters of an hour.

Beef, Round of. Boiled.— Few people di-ess a whole round, and hence this recipe is given for half a round, or, say twelve pounds, from the silver or tongue side of the round. Salt it for eight or ten days, then clean off the salt or brine, skewer it up tight, and tie a piece of wide tape round it to keep it well together. Put it into a saucepan of boiling water, remove the scum carefully as it rises, otherwise it will sink into the beef and gives it an unsightly appeai-ance. Do not let it boil fast at any time, or the meat ฆss'ill become hard and tough. When the scum is well removed, set the pan by the side of the fire, and let it simmer from ten to fifteen minutes for each pound of meat. Should any scum stick to the meat, remove it with a brush before serving. Eeplace the skewers by silver ones, trim the round, and throw over the meat some of the liquor it was boiled in. Garnish with carrots, parsnips, &c. Time to simmer, about three hours after it boils. Probable cost, about lOd. per pound.

Beef, Round of, Pickled.— Boil six

pounds of salt, two pounds of sugar, and three oimces of powdered saltpetre in three gallons of water (spring water is the best if it can be procured) , skim well, and when cold, pour it over the joint, which should previously have been rubbed during two or three days with a dry mixture of the same. Some housekeepers prefer this dry method throughout, rubbing regularly for twenty-one days, and using salt only during the last fortnight. If boiled in cold wator over a brisk fire at first, and then simmered slowly at the rate of fifteen minutes to every pound, the meat will be tender,, and of a good colour and flavour. Average cost of beef, iOd. per pound.

Beef, Round of, Red.— Salt a round

of licef in the ordinary way, but mix an ounce of allspice, the same of pepper, and two ounces of saltpetre with the salt, and rub and turn daily for a fortnight. At the end of this timepress well into the meat some minced onion ; put a thick coating of good beef suet over the

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top, and two glasses of Madeira, and a small quantity of mace into the pan and bake. Allow fifteen minutes for the baking of each pound of beef. Probable cost, lOd. per pound.

Beef, Salt. — Take a piece of beef weighing se^'en or eight pounds and cover it with brown sugar, well rubbed in, and allow it to remain for five or six hours ; then jiowder half an ounce of saltpetre and press this equally on all sides to give it a colour; next, cover it -with common salt and let it stay till the next day. Turn it, and rub with the salt in the pan for five or six days ; throwing the brine over it at the same time with a spoon or ladle. This mode of salting improves the flavour and prevents the meat becoming hard. Probable cost of beef, lOd. per pound. Sufiicient for a dozen persons.

Beef, Salt, Fried. — Season some thin slices, about one pound, of under-dressed beef, with pepper and salt ; put them into a clean frying-pan with a little butter, and fry until they become a light brown colour ; mash some potatoes, serve them very hot with the slices of beef laid on them, and garnish with slices of cucumber or pickled gherkins. Time, about five minutes for meat. Probable cost, 6d., exclusive of the cold meat. Sufficient for two persons.

Beef Sauce, Piquante.— Put one ounce of butter and four table-spoonfuls of vinegar into a stewpan ^\•ith four finely-chopped shalots, and stir over the fire with a wooden spoon till the butter becomes clear, then add one ounce of flour and stir three or four minutes ; take one pint of bouilli or common stock broth, a little colouring, and one-eighth of an ounce of pepper ; boil all together fifteen minutes, then add one table-spoonful of chopped gherkins and one of nunced parsley, boil up, skim, and serve with bouilli separately in a sauce tureen. Time, twenty minutes. Sufficient for one, or one and a half, pounds of boiulli.

Beef Sausages. — Clear the beef and suet from all skin, bone, and gristle; take two pounds of lean beef to one pound of suet, add salt, pepper, and mixed spice, and shalots, or any other tasty condiment, according to liking, choj) veiy fine and mix well together. Some cooks prefer to pound the whole in a mortar, but if the meat is well minced this is needless. Roll the meat into sausages and fry until it becomes a nice broN\Ti coloiir, and serve in the usual way, with mashed potatoes round the dish. They are more delicate if pressed into skins. It is worth notice that all meat cooked with the skin retains its original flavour, and is much prefen-ed by connoisseurs. Time to fry, ten to twelve minutes. Probable cost, 2s. 6d.

Beef Sausages (Home Made).— Remove all the skin and giistle from two pounds of lean beef, and mince it very finely with one pound and a half of good fresh suet ; add, as a seasoning, one tea-spoonful of powdered sagp, the same of thj-me and allspice, with salt and pepper to taste ; fill thoroughly clean skins, and boil as directed for black puddings. Time, half an hour to boil. Probable cost for this quantity, about 3s. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Beef, Shin of, Soup.— Take three or four pounds of shin of beef, cut the meat into two or three slices down to the bone, which should remain undivided and still enclosed in the flesh. Plug up each end of the bone with a stiff paste made of flour and water, to keep in the .marrow. Set it on the fire in a large pot of cold water, with six or eight peppercorns and three or foui- cloves. Remove the scum as it rises. Season slightly with salt ; othei-wise, by continued boiling and warming-up, the broth will be so reduced as to become too salt. Let it boil gently for four hours, then make it boil fast, and throw in a few peeled turnips, carrots, and onions, with a small bunch of thjTue and parsley. When the vegetables are tender, serve the soup with bits of toasted bread floating in it. When the soup has been served, take up the beef, remove the slices of meat from the bone, separate them, if needed, with a knife and fork, put them in the middle of a hot dish, and arrange the vegetables round them, t cutting the carrots and turnips into shapely bits. For sauce, fry chopped onions brown; stir in amongst them a dessert-spoonful of flour, diluted with a little of the soup, two dessert-spoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, pepper and salt, stir all together, and pour it over the slices of shin, and serve. For the marrow : toast a large round of bread, lay it on a hot plate, spread the marrow roughly on it, season with pepper, salt, and a little mustard, cut it into as man)' pieces as there are guests, and serve very hot.

Beef, Shin of, Stewed.— This meat ia best adapted to stewing. The liquor is used, when boiled in a quantity of water, for soups, with the addition of other meat and ingredients to improve it. For stewing, saw the bone into many pieces and put it into a stewpan, with sufficient water to ^cover it ; bring it to a boil and take ofl: the scum, this must be done thoroughly, and the meat drawn aside to simmer ; add to it some celery cut into pieces, one good-sized onion, twelve black peppercorns, a bunch of sweet herbs, three or four small carrots, and the same of cloves, or about half a tea-spoonful of allspice ; season with pepper and salt, and let the whole stew very gently for four hours ; boil some carrots and turnips separately, cut them into shapes, and serve with the meat. Probable cost, 7d. per lb. Sufficient for seven or eight persons.

Beef, Sirloin of, Eoast. — It is said by

some modem cooks that a joint of meat should be first put near the fire to harden the surface and keep in the juice, and then drawn back from it to roast very slowly. The old mode of cooking differs in this particular of beginning at a distance of aboivt twelve inches from the fire, and gradiially drawing it nearer as the joint approaches to being thoroughly cooked. There is so much to be said in favour of the latter mode, since a joint may be roasted M-ith half the fuel used for the former, that the recipe here given is for the old method. Make choice of a nico sirloin weighing from twelve to fourteen poimds ; dredge it over with flour, and place it on the spit, at a distance of eighteen inches, of cour.se supposing the fire to be large and bright ;

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liastc unsparingly and sprinkle over it a little suit. When half done draw it a little nearer ; continue to baste, and flour gently with a dredger. The meat should look frothy when served, and this can only be obtained by thorough basting. Give it the usual time — a quarter of an hour to a pound ; a little longer if liked very well done, or the weather is frosty and the meat solid. Time, quarter of an hour to each pound. Probable cost of sirloin. Is. per pound.

Beef, Sirloin of, Roast (a la St. Florentin). ฆ — Take out thij suet aud lay it thickly over the top of the fillet, secured down with a wellbuttered paper. First tie the flap under the fillet, and make all firm before it is put to the spit. About ten minutes before it is done take oft' the paper and froth the meat by di'edging it lightly with salt and dry floui', and basting it with butter. Serve with Robert Sauce in a tureen. Probable cost of beef, Is. per pound.

Beef, Sirloin of. To Carve.— A sirloin

should be cut with one good firm stroke from end to end of the joint, at the upper portion, making the cut very clean and even from a b to c. Then disengage it from the bone by a

SIRLOIN OF BEEF.

horizontal cut exactly to the bone, b to d, using the tip of the knife. Bad carving bears the hand away to the rind of the beef, eventually, after many cuts, peeling it back to the other side, leaving a portion of the best of the meat adhering to the bone. Every slice should be clean and even, and the sirloin should cut fairly to the very end. Many persons cut the under side whilst hot, not reckoning it so good cold ; but this is a matter of taste, and so is the mode of carving it. The best way is first of all to remove the fat, e, which chops up well to make puddings, if not eaten at table. Then ttie under part can be cut, as already described, from end to end, f to g, or downwards, as shown by the marks at h.

Beef Skirts.— These should be broiled— they are best so — but if liked may be stewed in , a little brown gravy seasoned with a table' spoonful of mushroom ketchup, and another of shalot vinegar, with a thickening of butter and flour. If broiled, serve over spinach or toasts fried and seasoned with pepper and salt. Time to broil, eight to ten minutes. Probable cost, lOd. to Is. per pound.

Beef, Spanish, Frico.— Cut up two

l^ounds of the fillet, rump, or round of beef into pieces weighing about an ounce each, and add cayenne pepper and salt to taste. Boil two l^ounds of potatoes and cut them into good thick slices ; place them with the meat and a small cup of grsLvy in a close-fitting stewpan in alternate layers. Add a quarter of a pound of butter and as much Spanish onion, previously boiled and sliced, as may be liked. Stew gently for an hour, and when nearly done throw a glass of Madeira or claret over all. Probable cost, 3s. 3d, Sufiicient for four or five persons.

Beef, Spiced.^A small round of about eighteen or twenty pounds will take a fortnight to cure. Prepare the following ingredients : one pound of common salt, one ounce of saltpetre, three ounces of allspice, one of black peppercorns, and half a pound of coarse sugar. Pound the saltpetre, allspice, and black peppercorns, and mix well together with the salt and sugar. Rub all into the meat ; do this every day and tm-n, for the time mentioned. Then wash off the brine, put it into an earthenware pan, with about a pint of water and a layer of suet over and under, with a common paste over all ; bake from six to eight hours, and allow it to cool thorouglily before using. Probable cost of meat, lOd. to lid. per pound.

Beef steak. — Let the steak bo about three-quarters of an inch thick (rump, for broiling, is the best) ; rub the gridiron with a little fat to prevent the meat from sticking, and place it with the steak over a sharp clear fire — no smoke, of course ; turn frequently with. a knife or steak tongs, but do not prick the meat with a fork, as the gravy will escape and the meat become hard. Serve in a hot dish with a little mushroom ketchup, or othersauce or gravy at discretion, taking care to put a little butter first, melted over the steak, should it be a lean one. In any case it makes the steak look better. Probable cost. Is. 3d. to Is. 6d. per pound. Time, eight to ten minutes to broil. Half a pound to each person is considered suificient. When purchasing steak it is well to remember that, when it can be afforded, rump steak or slices from the undercut of the ฆ sirloin is best for broiling, for pies, for stewing, for beef-tea, indeed, for almost every piu'pose. When these are not to be had, chuck steak is the best for stewing, buttock steak for broiling, and steak from the bladebone or shoulder-piece for pies. The roll of the bladebone is admirably adaj^ted for making beef-tea, and beef skirting j-ields very rich gravy.

Beef Steak (a la Frangaise). — They are best cut from the inner side of the siidoin, but any prime part will do. Place two pounds of steaks in a dish with a little of the best Lucca oil, and let them steep in it for eight or ten hours ; add to them pepper, salt, and a little finely -minced parsley, and fry them until they are brown ; what remains in the pan may be thrown over the steaks. Butter may be substituted for oil if preferred, and the steaks served up around the dish with olive sauce in. the centre. Average cost of beef, Is. 4d. per

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pound. Time to fry, from eight to teu minutes. Sufiicient for four or five persons.

Beef Steak and Kidney Pudding.—

Take one pound of rump steak, beat 'and cut it into long strips for rolling, or, if preferred, in pieces about half an inch square. Season well with pepijer and salt, and di'edge over it a little tioxu- ; cut half a pound of beef kidney into thin slices, season in the same way, and lay it with the beef into a basin Kned with a good suet paste, about half an inch thick ; throw in a little water and close over the top securely with paste. Let it boil three houi-s, and keep the saucepan well filled up all the time. A few mushi-ooms or oysters may be put into the pudding, and will be a very great improvement. Cost, rump steak. Is. 3d. to Is. 6d. per pound; kidney, lOd. Sufficient for three or -fouipersons.

Beef Steak and Cucumbers.—

When cucumbers are plentiful this makes an economical and pleasant dish. Peel and slice three or four large cucumbers, and as many onions. Brown them in a frying pan. Beat and fry two pounds of rump steak, then put it on a dish. Simmer the cucumbers and onions in half a pint of good gravy, and pour over the meat. Time, ten minutes to fry if thick. Probable cost of steak. Is. 4d. per pound. Sufficient for four persons.

Beef Steak (a la Mode).— Take two pounds of rump steak, beat it till it is tender, lard, and put it into a stewpan with some slices of lemon. Let it cook slowly, and when all the gravy is drawn from it, add a little stock and port wine in equal quantities. Boil slowly until the broth tliickens, and when ready to serve, squeeze the juice of a lemon over it. Time, three-quarters of an hour. Probable cost. Is. 3d. to Is. 6d. per jjoimd. Sufficient for three or four persons.

Beef Steak, Fried.- If no gridiron is at hand, put some butter or dripping in a frying-pan and let it boil ; then lay in a steak of half an inch thick and move it continually with the side of a knife or steak-tongs to prevent it from burning. When sufficiently well done on one side, which will be seen by the colour being well spread over the meat, turn it on the other, continuing to move it about with the tongs in a similar manner. If a fork must be used, do not stick it into the juicy part of the meat, but into the fat or edge. When done serve on a hot dish with a little butter (not melted) and some mushroom ketchup, tomato, Or other sauce or gravy as preferred. Probable cost. Is. 4d. per pound.

Beefsteak, Fried (another way). — Cut the steak as for broiling ; on being put into the pan, shift and turn it frequently. Let it be done brown all over, and placed in a hot dish when finished. Gravy may be made by pour- ' ing a little hot water into the pan (after the steak is out, and the fat poured away), with a little pepper, salt, ketchup, and flour; the gravy so formed is to be poured into the dish with the steak; send to table immediately. If onions are required, cut them in thin slices,

and fry till they are soft. They should be fried after the steak, and merely with jiart of the fat.

Beef Steak Pie. — Take a pie-dish according to the size required ; two pounds of fresh rump steak cut into long thin strips will make a good pic ; lay out the strips with a small piece of fat on each, a seasoning of salt and pepper, and a dust of flour ; two tea-spoonfuls of salt and one of pepper will be sufficient for the whole pie; roll up each sti-ip neatly and lay it in the dish, and between each layer sprinlde a little of the seasoning and flour; a shred onion or eschalot is sometimes liked, and' a few oysters will be a great improvement ; jDut an edging of paste round the dish, and throw in water enough to cover the rolls of meat, and lay a crust of about half an inch thick over all ; ornament the top tastefully, and bake for two houi's in a moderate oven. Cost of steak, Is. 3d. to Is. 6d. per pound. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Beef Steak Pie with Oysters.— Three pounds of rump steak will make an excellent pie. Get beef that has been hung for some days, so that the beating process may not be required. Make a seasoning with half a dozen shalots, half an ounce of pepper and salt mixed together, a very little cayenne and pounded cloves, and a table-spoonful of flour as a thickening for the gravy ; divide the meat into pieces of two and a half inches, put a layer in the dish with the seasoning equally distributed, and some large oysters, parboiled and bearded, in alternate layers, tiU aU is used up. Reduce the liquor of the oysters, take equal quantities of it and good gravy to make half a pint, pour it into the pie and cover with the paste. Bake for two hours. Sufficient for seven or eight j)ersons.

Beef Steak Pudding Baked.— Make a

batter with two eggs, three-quarters of a pint of milk, and half a pound of flour, mix smoothly, and pour a little of it into a pie-dish ; season one pound of steak and half a pound of kidney according to taste (they should be cut into smaU pieces) , and lay them on the top of the batter ; fill up the dish with the remainder and bake in a quick oven for about an hour and three-quarters. Probable cost, 2s. 6d. Sufficient for four or five persons. Beef Steak, Roasted, and Stuffed.—

Fry in a little butter the following ingredients, and make a forcemeat of them and two Frencl rolls, which have been previously soaked i;^ milk; see that the frying-pan is quite clean, and put into it one ounce of butter, a slice of lean ham, well scraped, a bay-leaf, a little minced parsley, two shalots, a clove, two blades of mace, and a few mushrooms. Put the rolls into a stewpan after having squeezed out all the milk, and add to them three or four tablespoonfuls of rich stock; then put half a pint of stock to the ingredients in the frpng-pan. boil for twenty minutes, and strain the liquid into the stewpan over the roUs, place it over the fire and stir in a little butter; when dry keep still stirring : then add the yolks of two eggs to bind it. Have ready two pounds of

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rump steak, cut thick, season it with, pepper and salt, and roll it up tight with the above forcemeat carefully enclosed, that it may not drop out. Eoast it for one hour and a half before a good, clear fire, basting constantly with butter, and serve with brown gravy. Probable cost, 2s. lOd. Sufficient for four persons.

Beef Steak, Rump.— A good rump steak should be about three-quarters of an inch thick, and cut from meat that has hung for a few days to make it tender. Beat it with a small rolling-pin, but do not mash the meat; season well with pepper, and put it on a heated gridii-on, the bars of which have been rubbed with good fat or suet to keep the steak from adhering to them. Be sure the fire is clear before commencing to broil ; turn the steak often. In from eight to ten minutes one of ordinary thickness will be done enough. Have ready a very hot dish on which a shalot, or onion, if preferred, has been rubbed soundly to extract the juice. Slightly warm a tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup or other beef sauce, and dish up the meat quickly with some butter on the top, and seasoned ฆv\ith pepper and salt. Use quite fresh butter, or it will spoil the flavour of the steak ; and garnish the dish with horse-radish grated. Oyster, onion, or any other sauce liked may be served with it. Probable cost. Is. 4d. per pound.

Beef Steak and Fried Potatoes.—

Get steak from the fillet of the siiioin, if possible, and broil it over a clear fire; the steak should be about a third of an inch thick, and turned frequently for five minutes, when it will be sufficiently cooked ; put a quarter of a pound of butter into a frying-pan, with se^-en or eight potatoes sliced long and thin, and fry till they become a good brown colour. The butter in which the potatoes were fried should be used to warm up the seasoning, and a tea-spoonful of minced herbs. When ready, put the herbs imder the steak and garnish with the potatoes. Allow half a pound of steak for each person.

Beef, Stewed, and Celery Sauce.—

Simmer three heads of celery and two onions in, in thick pieces, two pounds of cold boiled, or in a pint of good gravy till all is tender, then put roast beef, and stew gently for ten or twelve minutes. The celery should be cut evenlyin pieces of about two inches long. Serve with potatoes sliced and fried crisp. Average cost, 8d., exclusive of meat. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Beef, Stewed, as Hare.— ^^^len hare cannot be obtained, a good substitute for it will be found in a piece of rump of beef of suitable size. Take four or five pounds, which cut into pieces of about three ounces. Di\dde into slices half a pound of bacon, and another half pound into dice, without the skin. Prepare a seasoning of the following ingredients: — A few sprigs of parsley cut small, the rind of half a lemon minced, a blade of mace, half a nutmeg grated, and a good flavouring of salt and pepper. Dust some flour over the beef and fry in butter until it becomes light bro'wn; do this over a quick

fire that the meat may be only slightly cooked, then lay the slices of bacon, as a lining, round the stewpan ; put in the beef and diced bacon in layers, with the seasoning equally distributed, and add a large onion stuck with half a dozen cloves. Make a gravy with the butter in the pan, a little broth and half a pint of ale ; throw it over the meat, close the lid, and stew over a very gentle fire from three to four hours. Thicken the gravj' with flour and add a glass of Madeira. Probable cost of beef. Is. per pound. Sufficient for six or seven persons.

Beef, Stewed, and Oyster Sauce.—

Take two pounds of cold beef, cut into slices, and broil them over a clear fire. Put one dozen and a half oysters into a stewpan with their own liquor, remove them in about two minutes, and strain the liquor. Mix equal quantities of butter and floui- together, one ounce of each; take the liquor and milk, enough to make one pint, stii- aU together in a saucepan till it boils, then remove it and stir in another ounce of butter, and add the oysters. Warm them, but do not allow them to boil. Serve with the beef. Time, five minutes to warm. Probable cost of oysters, Is. 6d. to Is. 9d. per dozen. Sufficient for foiupersons.

Beef, stewed (French method). — Take two pounds of rump steak, beat it to make it tender, and lard it thi-oughout. Stew it for four or five hours over a slow fire with equal quantities of white wine and water, and some small pieces of a leg of veal. Season with spice, salt, garlic, thyme, and parsley. When the meat is tender, strain the broth, put it back into the pan, and boil till it becomes thick; then serve poured over the beef steak. Probable cost, Is. 4d. per pound. Sufficient for four persons.

Beef, Stewed (Irish method). — Divide two pounds of beef into small pieces — any part will do — and put them into an earthenware pan with a light-fitting cover, with a pint and a half of water, two or three onions, a carrot cut up, and a little salt and pepper. Stew all together in the oven for an hour or more. Lay on the top some peeled potatoes, cover up and put it back into the oven for an hour and a half more, when the potatoes will be reduced to a mash, and the stew will be, as all Irish stews are, excellent. Probable cost, 2s. Sufficient for four or five persons. {See Irish Stew).

Beef Stewed in Beer. —Take eight pounds of the silver-side of the round, hang it some days — as the weather will permit — to make it tender. Beat it with a rolling-pin, and then put it into a stewpan with a liquid composed of part mild beer and water, to nearly cover the meat. Add a few slices of bacon, two onions, some cloves, a bay-leaf, a small cup of ^-inegar, a tablcrspoonful of treacle, and the same of any sauce, according to taste. Let it simmer for three hours ; remove the scum as it rises, and when done, take out the beef on a dish, strain and thicken the gravy; add pepper and salt, and throw aU over the meat. Probable cost, 7s. 6d.

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Beef, Stewed, Leg of.— Make a forcemeat of one pound and a quarter of finely-shred suet, some siivoury and marjoram, a few cloves pounded, and a little pepper and salt, mixing all well together. Make several good -sized holes in a part of a leg of beef (about six or seven pounds will do) , that has had salt rubbed over it for two or three days previous, and fill them ^\dth the forcemeat. Put it into a deep baking- pan with some of the forcemeat over the top, and the pan more than half full of water. Keep the pan closely covered, and let the meat stew for four hours. The forcemeat from the top will serve to garnish, and may be cut into any form for the pui'pose. That pressed into the meat, if lightly put in, •will much improve the flavour. Probable cost, 7d. per poimd. iSuflicient for seven or eight persons.

Beef Stock. — Bone a rimip of beef and tie it neatly together ; break the bones and place both into a stewpan with two quarts of water to every three pounds of meat. Heat it very gradually and slowly b)'' the side of the fire, remo\'ing the scum before and after it boils. Add salt in proportion to the water, about two ounces to the gallon. When all the scum has been removed, thi'ow in thi'ce or four can-ots, and the same of turnips, a small head of celery, a few young leeks, an onion stuck -ndth eight cloves, a small tea-spoonful of peppercorns, and a bimch of savoui-y herbs. Let this stew for five hours verj' gently, when the beef will be done, but not overdone. It may be served with young cabbages, boiled in the usual way, pressed, and then stewed for seven or eight minutes in some of the beef stock or broth. This broth, in Fi-ance, is made the basis of all coups and gravies, and with the addition of a knuckle of veal, poultry trimmings, a calf's foot, and a little ham, it will make a strong rich stock. If wanted to be used at the same time with the meat, strain, remove the fat, and serve with toasted bread.

Beef Suet for Piecrust.— Shred some suet and clear it from all skin and fibre, put it into a basin, cover it with boiling water, and place it on a hot plate, or near the fire. AMien melted, pass it through a strainer into another vessel containing boiling water, and when cold, pierce the fat and let the water run out. If any sediment remain it will be found on the imderside of the caked fat, and can be scraped off with a knife. Suet thus prepared, with the addition of a little lard or oil, can be worked into the consistency of butter, and may be used with success in making crusts for meat pies. Dripping may be cleansed in the same manner. Its adaptation to many purposes v.dll depend on the management in clarif j-ing, &c.

Beef Tea. — Take a pound of lean, fleshy beef, put it into a basin containing one quart of cold water, first cutting it into very small bits ; let it soak in this water an hour or more, then put both water and beef into a clean saucepan and bring it to a boil ; put in a little salt and take off the scum as it appears ; simmer very gently, and strain for use in little less than an hour. WTien warmed up again, it should not be put into a saucepan, but heated by setting the cup of tea into boiling water. Cost, about Is. 4d. per quart.

Beef Tea (another way).— Use for this, not an iron saucepan, but an earthen pot with a well-fitting hd, which ^\'iU stand, without cracking, the heat of the iron plate on the top of the cooking-stove. Fill it from one-third to a quarter full of good lean beef, cut into shapely pieces the size of a small walnut, in order that they may be presentable afterwards in a ratatouille, or as potted beef, seasoning slightly with salt and a few whole peppercorns. Then poiu- on cold water nearly to the brim, and set it on the plate or top of a cooking-stove to simmer gently several hours, taking off any scum and fat that may rise. The beef is not to be overdone, but is to be left in the pot until all the strength from it has been extracted. Stir A\-ith a spoon before serv'ing a portion, in order to have the nutritious particles which have sunk to the bottom suspended in the tea. ^yhere there is no cooking-stove, the beef tea may be slowly cooked by setting the earthen pot containing it in a large iron vessel of boihng water, or, if the lid is luted do-\vn ฆซath paste, it may be made in a very slow oven.

Beef Tea from Fresh Meat (Baron LiEBiG s Eecipe). — Take one pound of lean beef, entirely free from fat and sinew ; mince it finely and mix it well with one pint of cold water. Put it on the hob, and let it remain heating very gradually for two hours. At the end of that time, add half a tea-spoonful of salt and boil gently for ten minutes. Eemove the scum as it rises. This is beef tea pure and simple. When a change of flavour is required, it is a good plan to take one pound of meat composed of equal parts of veal, mutton, and beef, and proceed as above. Or, instead of using water, boil a carrot, a turnip, an onion, and a clove, in a pint of water, and when the flavour is extracted strain the Hquid through a fine sieve ; let it get quite cold, and pour it upon the minced meat, soaking and boiling it for the same time Probable cost. Is. per pint. Sufficient for one pint of beef tea.

Beef Tea of Mixed Meat.— To some invalids the taste of beef tea is unwelcome ; the flavour is much improved by the following mixture : — Take equal quantities of beef, mutton, and veal, one pound of each, -without fat, put them, cut up in small pieces, to simmer four hours in three pints of water. "WTien boiling, skim thoroughly and draw the saucejjan aside, that it may only extract the juices without wasting the liquid. Strain and serve with dry toast in any form. Time, four hours. Cost of meat, about Is. per pound.

Beef Tea, Strong.— Allow two pounds of lean meat to one quart of water, put it into a jar and place it in a pan of boiling water. The meat should be well cut up, and the top of the jar secured so that no water may enter. Boil gently for four or five hours, strain and squeeze out all the tea. This may be flavoured with onion, clove, &c., according to the taste of the invalid and strength of the stomach. Sufficient to make a pint of tea.

Beef to imitate Venison.— Take three pounds of rump, sirloin, or mutton, without bone — the loin is best. Lay it in a pan and throw

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over it one glass of vinegar and a glass of port wine, having previously rubbed it with four ounces of sugar. Keep in a cool, di-y place, and turn it often. In five or six days it will be ready ; then make a raised crust, season with salt, cayenne, and mace, put some butter over the top of the cover, and bake four hours in a slow oven. Boil down the bones to make gravy, add a glass of port wine, strain, and pom- boiling into the pie. Probable cost of meat, Is. per pound. Sufficient for six persons.

Beef Tongue {^ee Bullock's Tongue ; Ox Tongue) .

Beef Tripe, To Boil.— Cvit the tripe into small pieces and put into hot milk and water, equal parts, sufficient to cover it, and boil imtil tender, which will be in about two hom'S. Get ready some onion sauce, prepared as given below, and when the tripe is dished throw it over. Peel some onions and let them remain a few minutes in salted water ; then boil them till tender, changing the water when haK done. If Spanish onions are used it will not be necessary. Drain them thoroughly, chop them, and add to them some sauce composed of two ounces of butter, three-quarters of a pint of milk, and a tea-spoonfiil of flour. Put the onions to the butter and boil for a minute before adding to the tripe. Cost, about 8d. per pound.

Beef Tripe, To Fricassee. — Stew

gently in milk and water, two pounds of tripe, cut into, strips of equal lengths, with a bunch of parsley and an onion. When it has simmered one hour add the peel of half a lemon, an ounce of butter rubbed in flour, and a quarter of a pint of cream. Season with grated nutmeg, salt, and pepper, and when it has simmered another hour serve with the sauce over, and an edging of rice round the dish. Probable cost, Is. 8d. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Beef Tripe, To Roast. — Boil two

pounds of tripe for an hour or more, and then cut into convenient-sized pieces. Spread them out, and lay over each a rich veal stuffing. Skewer and tie securely into roUs. Baste continually -wdth butter, and dredge flour over them. They may either be spitted or baked in an oven. Serve with sliced lemon and mimelted butter. Probable cost, 8d. per pound for the best tripe. Time to roast, three-quarters of an hour. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Beef, with. Sauce Espagnole. —

Lard a piece of the inside fillet (from four to five pounds ^vill be a nice size) and lay it — seasoned ^ath salt and pepper — in vinegar for ten or twelve hours. Put it immediately to roast before a quick fire, baste well with butter and the di-ippings from the meat. When done, glaze over the top, and serve with the above sauce, garnished with boiled Spanish onions. Time to roast, one hour.

Beef, witli Wine Sauce Tremtolant.

— Hang a piece of rump (it should not be a small piece), or part of a brisket, for some days ; then simmer it in a stewpan with some allspice, a carrot, two onions, two turnips, and salt to taste, for five or six honrs. Dissolve a piece of butter in a clean ste\vpan,

and mix into it a dessert-spoonful of flour. Add one quart of gravy, a glassful of white wine, and equal quantities of ketchup and browning. Then cut up two carrots and two turnips, flavour all with salt and pepjier, and stew until the vegetables are quite tender. Put the meat on a dish, and pom- all, first clearing it from any fat, over it. The meat may be glazed or browned with a salamander, before the sauce is poured over. Probable cost, Is. per pound.

Beef, with. Yorkshire Pudding.—

Take eggs, flour, and milk, according to the size of the pudding required. Allow an egg to every heaped table-spoonf id of flom-, and salt to taste. Trim it to a proper consistency with good new milk ; it should be thinner than for boiled batter. If this pudding be not required for a large family a separate compartment may be used for it, and the other part of the dripping-pan may receive the gravy required to throw over the meat. In. any case, place the di-ipping-pan and joint to the fire till the fat begins to flow, before the batter is put in, and stir it round in the basin that no sediment may remain. See that it cooks evenly and that the edges are not burned, and when done sufficiently turn if liked. Some prefer it browned on one side only. The usual thickness is about an inch when well bro^\^led on both sides. Divide into pieces sufficient for each person, and send it to table quickly. It should be put into the dripping just in time to get it done with the meat. Time, one and a half to two hours.

Beer, How to Treat "Foxed."—

"Foxed" beer has a rank unpleasant taste, and may be known by the white specks floating on its sm-face. To remedy this, infuse a handful of hops and a little salt of tartar in a pint of boiHng water, and, when cold, strain and pour into the cask, closing the bunghole at once.

Beer Soup (German method).— Simmer two quarts of mild beer (it should not be bitter) with the thin rind of a lemon, a few cloves, and a stick of cinnamon, sweeten with sugar, and add it thi'ough a sieve to the yolks of six wellbeaten eggs and half a pint of cream. Whilst pouring into the tureen, stir it to a froth with a wire whisk. The beer should be very hot, without boiling, before it is stirred with the eggs. Serve hot with toast. Time, about half an hour- to simmer. Probable cost, 9d. per quart. Sufficient for eight or ten persons.

Beer Soup with Caraway Seeds.—

Boil some brown bread in si little water until soft enough to be beaten to a smooth pulp ; put three pints of beer into the soup kettle with a httle lemon-peel, cinnamon, sugar, and a large tea-spoonful of caraway seeds ; mix the breadpulp to the beer, and boil aU together till the flavour is extracted from the seeds ; then beat up four eggs in the tureen, and pom- the soup upon them, stirring briskly all the time. Serve hot. Time to boil the beer, about twenty minutes. Probable cost, 4d. per pint. Sufficient for six or seven persons.

Beer Soup with Milk.— Take equal quantities of beer and milk (one quart of each) :*

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mix two table-spoonfuls of flour with a little of the beer, and add it to the remainder with the grated peel of half a lemon, half a tea-spoonful of powdered ginger, cinnamon, or nutmeg, and sugar to tf^te ; boil the milk separately and stir it rapidly with a whisk into four well-beaten eggs ; put the beer with the milk into a saucepan, bring it to the point of boiling, keeping it well stirred all the time, and turn it quiciily into a tm-een. Serve with toasted rolls. Time, about half an hour to prepare. Probable cost, 9d. per quart. Sufficient for twelve persons.

Beer Soup with Sago.— Wash two

ounces of sago in cold water, drain and boil it in three pints of ale that is not bitter, add a stick of cinnamon or a few cloves, the thin rind of haK a lemon, and sugar to taste ; boil twenty minutes, strain, and add, just before serving, the half of a thinly-sliced lemon and a glass of brandy or rum. Probable cost, lOd., without the spii-its. Sufficient for sLx or seven persons.

Beer, To remove acidity from.— Add

one pint of ground malt to about eighteen gallons of beer ; it should be enclosed in a bag and hung, not thrown, to lie at the bottom ; or, mix as much wheat or bean flour with a quart of brandy as will form a dough. Long pieces of this dough, put into the bunghole, will sink gently to the bottom and keep the beer mellow as well as improve its quality. Carbonate of soda will remove sourness from beer, but care should be taken not to add too much or it will have a dead insipid flavour.

Beetroot, Baked. — Cleanse the root carefully from •the mould about it, as du-ected for boiling, and bake in a moderate oven until tender. We do not, however, like the baking of this vegetable, as it is apt to shrivel if exposed to too great heat in an oven, and the colour becomes less bright. They are much better boiled. Probable cost, Id. to 2d. Bake till tender.

Beetroot, Boiled. This root is excellent as a salad, and, as a garnish for other salads, it is very important on account of its beautiful bright colour. In cleansing it before boiling, take care not to break the skin or it will lose its colour and become sickly looking. Remove it from the saucepan carefully, peel and trim nicely. Serve, cut in slices, with melted butter in a tureen, or if not over large it may be sent to table whole. A large one will take from two to three hours to boil. Probable cost from Id. to 2d. each.

Beetroot, Pickled. — Boilhalf an ounce of peppercorns, cloves, mace, and ginger, in a pint of vinegar, add another pint when cold. Take six beetroots, after they have been well cleansed, and boil them gently for two hours. ^Vhen cold, peel, slice, and put into a jar with the cold vinegar and spice. It is fit for use at once. Probable cost, 2s. 2d.

Beetroot Preserve. — Put into a presei-ving pan half a dozen nicely-peeled beetroots and a pint and a half of cold water, first cuting away the long tapering part, that they may lie better in the pan ; let them come to a boil, and then simmer and skim for twenty minutes ; add the following ingredients and boil

faster for an hour more. Four- pounds of good loaf sugar, well broken, the juice of half a dozen lemons (strained), and the peel of four, cut very small, some vanilla and cinnamon' about half a finger's length of eacli, and thi-ee or four cloves. When boiling, skim well, and when qmte tender put the beetroots into a jar, but leave the syrup to boil until it is tliick, when it may be strained over them. "\\Tien a beautiful colour is wanted for creams, jellies, ซfcc., this preserve and sjTup will be found valuable. Probable cost, 3s. 6d.

Beetroot Salad.— To some nicely-boiled and well-sUced beetroot, lay alternate rows of boiled onion also sliced, and pour ovej.- them any salad sauce, or simply oil and \dnegar, if preferred. Garnish with cixrled parsley. Probable cost of beetroot. Id. to 2d. Instead of the raw onions, cold boiled ones may be used, together with slices of egg, hard boiled.

Beetroot Salad (another way).— Parboil a beetroot, remove the skin, cut it into thin slices, and stew with small onions in a little gravy thickened with flour and cream. Add a dessertspoonful of vinegar, seasonings, and a little sugar. Spread the sliced beetroot on the dish, placing the onions between them. It is served cold with cheese, and with vinegar poured over.

Beetroot Soup.— Cleanse carefully, boil, and peel two ,fine beetroots ; boil also two onions and mince them together very finely. Take three or four table-spoonfuls of vinegar and one of brown sugar, with rather more than haK a gallon of good gravy soup ; add this to the mixture of beetroot and onion, and jDut it into a saucepan to boil, when some small pieces of cold veal or other meat, weU covered with floui', may be boiled and served up in it. Probable cost, without gravy, 6d. Time to boil, until the onions are tender.

Beetroot, Stewed.— Wash and boil, tni tender, a medium-sized beetroot. Remove the skin, and cut it into thin slices. Roll half an ounce of butter in flour, and melt it in rather more than haK a pint of water, adding a table spoonful of vinegar, and salt and pepi^er to taste. Put the slices of beet into the liquid, cover the saucepan closely, and allow all to stew for an hour and ten minutes. Care must be taken not to cut the beetroot before boiling, as the colour would be destroyed by so doing. Serve the stew with a garnish of boiled button onions.

Bermuda Pudding.— Reduce haK a pound of Brazil nuts to a paste, in a mortar; beat up six fresh eggs ; whip six ounces of butter to a cream, and mix the three ingredients together, with a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar and a wine-glassful of brandy. "VSTien this mixture has been beaten from fifteen to twenty minutes, make a paste as follows, and prepare a buttered mould to receive it : — Beat six ounces of fresh butter to a cream ; add to it two well-beaten eggs, four ounces of dried flour, and equal quantities of rice flour and finely-sKted sugar (one ounce of each) . When well kneaded, line the mould and put in the mixture. Bake in a moderate oven. It may

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be eaten either hot or cold. Time to bake, about one hour. Probable cost, 2s. 6d. SuiJicient for five or six persons.

Bermuda Witches. — Spread strawberry, raspliL'iiv, apple jelly, or pi-eserve of any kind witliout Ktones, over slices of Savoy or rice cake, which must be cut exceedingly thin and even. Spread unsparingly over the preserve finelj'-grated cocoa-nut ; cover over with a similar slice of cake, and after pressing all together, cut them into any fomi desii-ed. The square form is generally thought most suitable, and each slice of cake may be divided into the size desired before the preserve is put on, but they will always require some trimming. Send them to table arranged prettily on a napkin, and garnished with myrtle sprigs.

Bernese Pudding. — Beat up the yolks and whites of two eggs with a quarter of a pint of milk, and add two ounces of very fine bread-crumbs and the same quantity of flour ; take a quarter of a pound of suet, finely shred, tlie same of mixed candied peel, chopped, the rind and juice of a lemon, the quarter of a small nutmeg grated, and equal quantities of sugar and currants. Mix these ingredients for ten minutes, and put them aside for an hour. Stir all round, pour into a buttered pudding-dish, and lay a floured cloth over the top. Place it in boiling water and boil for three hours and a half. Serve with sugar over the top. Probable cost, Is. 3d. Sufiicient for three or four persons.

Beverages, Refreshing Summer.—

Peel, core, and quarter some apples, and boil them in water until they can be mashed through a colander ; one poimd of apples to a gallon of water -sN-ill bo an economical and pleasant drinlv, and when boiled up again, with the addition of half a pound of brown sugar, and well skimmed, may be bottled for use. The bottles should not be corked tight. A piece of bread very much toasted, and added to the above, is recommended for invalids. For a spring drink, having very cooling properties, rhubarb should be boiled as above, adding a little more sugar, or, one gallon of cold water added to three lemons, sliced and bruised, with half a pound of sugar. For a summer beverage, a mixture of red cuiTants and raspberries bruised, with half a pound of sugar and well stirred into a gallon of water, ^vill be found excellent to allay thirst ; and to render them more cooling, a little cream of tartar or citric acid may be added.

Biffins. — These apples are prepared by exposure to a very gentle heat, and the process is long. They require to be put into a cool oven many times, perhaps seven or eight, and to be pressed after each baking. If the oven be too hot at first, the biffins will waste, and the pressing must be slowly and gently done. The Red Biffin or ^Minshul Crab are the sorts selected for drying. They should be stewed either in milk or wine. ^^ Birch Wine. — This wine is sometimes made simply by boiling the sap of the birchtree with sugar and adding a little lemon-peel. Where other ingredients are added, the quantity of sugar is lessened. Allow throe pounds of sugar, one of raisins, and an ounce of ahnonds,

to each gallon of sap. Boil all together half an hour and skim ; put it into a tub with some fresh yeast as soon as it has become cold, and in four or five days after it has fennented strain off into a cask. Tie up some almonds in a muslin bag, put them with the wine until it has done fermenting, when they must be removed and the cask closed up for four or five months. It must then be racked off and bottled for use. Probable cost, 2s. 3d. a gallon.

Bird's Nest Pudding. — Make the foundation of the nest of blancmange, calf's foot jelly, or prepared com. Rasp the rinds of three lemons and lay it round and on the blancmange like the straw. Take out the contents of four eggs through a small hole, and fill the shells with hot blancmange, or prepared corn ; when cold, break off the shells, and lay the egg-shaped blancmange in the nest.

V Birthday Syllabub.— Take of port and

sherry each a pint, mix them with half a pint of brantly and a nutmeg grated ; squeeze and strain the juice of two lemons into a large bowl and over haK a pound of loaf sugar well broken into small pieces ; stir the wine mixture into the bowl with the lemon -juice and sugar, and add new milk to it, or, if possible, milE the cow iato it. This quantity of wine, &c., is sufficient for two quarts of milk. Probable cost, about Is. 3d., -wdthout the wine and brandy.

Biscuit Drops. — Beat up eight eggs with two pounds of finely-sifted sugar, and haK a pint of water, or sherry if preferred. Beat this mixture for half an hour, and then add it to two poiinds of the best flour and some powdered caraway seeds, beat another half hour and drop them on buttered paper. Bake in a moderate oven. Time, twelve to eighteen minutes. Probable cost. Is. 2d.

Biscuit Powder.— Biscuits may be reduced to a fine powder, by first drj-ing them in a cool oven, and then rolling them with a common rolling-pin on a clean board. This kind of powdered biscuit is much used for infants' food. It should be passed through a sieve after rolUng, and will then be fine enough for any pm-pose. Keej) dry in a tin with a tight cover.

Biscuits. — Recipes for preparing the following varieties of biscuits will be found under their respective headings : —

Abeknethy Dover

Albert Fixger

Almond Spice Fruit

American German

Arrowroot Ginger

Bread, Brown Ladies' Wine

Breakfast Leman's

Captains Lemon

Caraway Lemon Rock

Chocolate Macaroons

Cinnamon Majesty's

Cream Milan

Crisp Naples

Damascts Peach

De.ssert Potato

Devilled Pudding

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Raspbeury

Sugar

Ratafia

Swabian

ElCE

Sweet

Rock

Swiss

Russian

Tea

Savoy

Venetian

Sicilian

Victoria

SOUA

Vienna

Spanish

"Wafer

Spice Nuts

Water

Sponge

Wine.

Biscuits, Hard. — Warm half a pound of butter in as much skimmed milk as will make foxir pounds of flour into a very stiff paste. Beat it with a rolling-pin, and work it until it becomes perfectly smooth. Roll it very thin, and cut into biscuits with a tin shape or a large cup. Prick them freely with a fork, and bake for six or eight minutes in a moderate oven.

Biscuits, Plain. — Make one pound of flour into a stiff paste with the yolk of an egg well beaten in a httle milk. Too much milk will make the biscuits thin and heavy. Beat the paste and knead till smooth. Roll out thin, and with a round tin-cutter foim into biscuits. Bake in a slow oven. Time, twelve to eighteen minutes. Probable cost, 4d. per pound.

Bishop Oxford Nightcap.— Take two

drachms each of cloves, mace, ginger, cinnamon, and allspice, boil them for thirty nunutes in half a pint of water, and strain. Put part of a bottle of port in a saucepan over the fire, add the spiced infusion and a roasted lemon stuck with si.x cloves. Take four ounces of sugar in lumps and grate the outer rind of a small lemon, place them in a punch-bowl, and add the juice of the lemon, pour in the hot \\-ine, &c., then the remainder of the bottle of port, and serve. A Seville orange may be roasted instead of a lemon.

Blackberry Jam.— This will be found a cheap and wholesome preserve, and if mixed with apples wiU be greatly relieved of the insipid flatness fiequently complained of. Any sharp-flavoured apple will do, but the Wellington or Dumeloro's seedling is particularly recommended for this purpose. Blackberries alone require haK their weight in sugar, and three-quarters of an hour to boil, but when mixed with apples more sugar must be given.

Blackberry Syrup.— Press out the juice from very rijie blackberries, and to each pint add one pound of brown sugar boiled in a pint of water to a rich sjTup ; allow it to boil for fifteen or twenty minutes, stirring it well ; put a wine-glassful of brandy to each quart. When quite cold bottle for use. Probable cost, without brandy, Is. 6d. per quart. _

Blackberry Wine.— Put any quantity of blackberries into a jar or pan, cover them with boiling water, and allow them to stand in a cool oven all night to draw out the juice ; or they may be mashed with the hand. Strain through a sieve into a jar or cask, and let it ferment for fifteen days. Then add one pound

of sugar to every gallon of juice, with a quarter of a pint of gin or brandy. The berries should be gathered ripe and on a fine dry day. Probable cost of blackberries, from 8d. to Is. per gallon.

Black Cap Pudding.— Make a good batter pudding. Pick and wash a quarter of a pound of currants, which lay at the bottom of a mould previously well buttered; pour the batter in over them and boil two houi-s. When turned out the currants will be on the top ; this forms the black cap. Probable cost of custard per pint, 7d.

Black Caps {see Apj^le Black Caps).

Black Cock, Boasted.— This bird is hard, diy, and flavom'less, if not well hung; but the flavour is remarkably fine when it has been kept until it shows some little symptom of having been hung enough. Pick and draw, but do not wash the inside ; a dry cloth will be all that is necessary. Truss it like a fowl. Some like the head under the wing, but the foi-mer mode is most general. Place it before a biisk fire, and baste unsparingly with butter till done. It will take nearly one hour, if a fine male bird, but three-quarters of an hour will be enough for one of moderate size. Dip a piece of thick toast into a little lemon -juice, and lay it in the dripping-pan under the bird ten minutes before it is to be taken from the fire. Serve with the toast imder, and a rich brown gravy and bread sauce. Probable cost, 5s. 6d. to 6s. per brace.

Black Cock, Stewed.— Joint the black cock in the same way as an ordinary fowl, and fry in plenty of butter until nicely bro^vTied, with a clove of garlic, which should bo removed before the stewing is commenced. Put a small wine-glassful of stock and two of port wine, and a seasoning of salt and pepper into the frpngpan with the butter, make a nice gravy, then put the black cock into a stewpan, throw the gravy over, and simmer very gently about half an hour, or until tender. Serve the meat high on the dish, and the gravy with sippets of toast around it. Old birds are best done in this way ; they require more time. Probable cost, 5s. 6d. to 6s. per brace.

Black Currant Cheese.— Gather the

fruit on a dry day, and Avhen the sun is on it. See that it is quite ripe, and remove the stalks and tops. Take equal quantities, by weight, of good loaf sugar — the best is the cheapest — and of currants ; place them in a preserving-pan over a slow fire, or by the side of the fire, till the sugar has dissolved a little, then bring it gradually to a boil, stirring it carefully all the time, and remo^ang the scum. Simmer for an hour or more, when the currants may be passed through a hair sieve, and it is ready for putting into moulds for use. Probable cost, about Is. 3d. per pound.

Black Currant Geneva Liquor,—

Get a large stone jar, with a small mouth, break some sugar-candy into small pieces, and put one pound of candy to each quart of fruit into it. Add two or thi-ee cloves and a pint and a haK of gin; cork the jar tightly and

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shako it often for the first month or so. I be fit for use in about six weeks, and shou clear when poured off. The cm-rants shouia oe gathered after two successive dry days, and they ought to be thoroughly, but not over ripe. Probable cost of currants, about 8d. per quart.

Black Currant Jam. — The fruit should

be gathered on a fine day, and should be ripe and well freed from the stalks and tops. Put equal quantities of fine ripe currants and loaf or brown sugar into a preserving-pan, and allow it to stand near, or by the side of the fire, until the sugar has dissolved, then stir it and bring it to the boil. It must be well skimmed and will require greater attention on this head if brown sugar be used instead of loaf. Simmer for an hour, and put into pots for use. Probable cost, 8d. per ordinary jam pot.

Black Currant Jelly.— To every pint

of juice nljtaiuL'J, after prrs.sing and straining, from wcU-iiponed fruit, allow one poiind of loaf sugar. AVhen the juice has come to the boil, skim well and add the sugar; stir the jelly steadily till all the sugar has disappeared, and boil, not simmer, for thi-ee-quarters of an hour. If not thick enough, which may be ascertained by dropping some on a cold plate, boil a little longer. When cold put into jDots for use, and fasten do-mi with paper made to adhere to the pots Avith white of c^g. Probable cost, from 8d. to lOd. per half pound I)ot. Black Currant Lozenges.— Mix two

ounces of brown sugar with half a pint of black currant juice. Put the liquid into an enamelled saucepan, add a table-spoonful of dissolved isinglass, and let it simmer gently for threequarters of an hour. Pour it over small plates in layers about the eighth of an inch in thickness, and let these plates be kept in a screen, a cool oven, or any warm place until the mixture is dry and hard, then take it off, keej) it in a tin box with a sheet of paper between each layer, and stamp it into shapes as required. These lozenges are very palatable and excellent for coughs, colds, and sore thi-oats. Probable cost, 4d. per ounce.

Black Currant Pudding.— Butter a

basin and line it with pudding paste. To a pint and a half of fruit mix six ounces of sugar. The currants should be dry or they will make too much juice. Mix the sugar well up with the fruit before it is put iato the basm ; boil one hour and a half. Or a pudding may be baked in this way : — Stew for about quarter of an hour, in as much milk as will cover it, a tea-cupful of rice made sweet with two ounces of sugar. Take care it does not burn, and when done and nearly cool, stir in an ounce of butter and three well-beaten eggs with three table-spoonfuls of cream. Lay some currants in a pie-dish, add sugar (they require a good deal), and tlrrow the mixture over them. Bake at once for half an hour ; one hour to cook the friiit will be sufiicient. May be used hot or cold. Probable cost, Is. 3d. Sufficient for five or six persons.

k Currant Preserve. — Dry

hly, cut oft' the heads and stalks and puL Liic black currants into a preser\Tng-pan with some red cuixant juice, half a pint to a pound of the black currants, and a pound and a half of good sifted loaf sugar. Make it boil up, remove the scum, carefully scraping off the fruit from the sides of the pan. Shake it but do not mash the currants. Allow it to boil from ten to fifteen minutes. Put into jars, and when cool cover closely. It is fit for tarts or excellent with cream. Probable cost, Cd. to 8d. per haK pound pot.

Black Currant Tart. — Put a pint and a half of black currants and three ounces of brown sugar into a tart-dish, lay a deep saucer in the bottom to hold the juice, or it will run over and spoil the appearance of the tart ; put a neat edging of paste round the dish, and also cover it over the top. Ornament according to taste, and bake in a brisk oven. Wlien sent to table, powdered white sugar should be sprinkled thickly over the top. Time, thi-ee-quarters of an hour to bake. Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for five or six persons.

(^ Black Currant Wine. — Put equal quantities of currant juice and water into a cask Avith thi-ee pounds and a half of sugar to two gallons of the mixture, and place it in a warm place. When it has fermented, take off the refuse ; keep the cask filled up with juice, and add a quart of brandy to every six gallons directly the fermentation ceases. The cask must then be closed up for eight or nine months, when it may be bottled off ; but it will not be fit for use until it has been at least twelve months in bottle. Probable cost, 3s. 6d. per gallon.

Black Lozenges.— Take half a pound of gum tragacanth in powder ; add four ounces of powdered loaf sugar and five ounces of extract of liquorice. Make into a smooth paste with water, roll out thin, cut into diamond-shaped lozenges, and dry in a cool place.

Black Pudding. — Well cleanse and steep pigs' entrails in cold water, until they are required. To one pint of fresh-di-awn pigs' blood, take three pints of onions ; chop them very fine, and cook them till they are nearly or three-quarters done, in a saucepan, with the least drop of water at the bottom, stirring them all the while, to prevent them browning. Take two pounds of fresh pork, without bone, fat and lean in equal proportions ; chop it up fine. Mix well together the minced pork, the onions, and the pigs' blood, seasoning with salt, pepper, and allspice, or mixed spices ground together. Tie one end of a sausage-skin, and, by means of a funnel or sausage-stuffer, fill it at the other with the mixed ingredients. Fasten the upper end of the pudding, coil it into the desired shape, or tie it into short lengths, and throw it into boiling water, which must be kept boiling for twenty or twenty-five minutes, according to the thickness of the pudding. Take it out, and set it aside to cool ; keep in cold water until it is wanted for use. So prepared, it will keep good two or three days in

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summer, a week in -winter. When wanted to serve, broil gently over a slow fire ; but this requires great care, to prevent the skin from cracking. The best way is to set it for a few minutes in the oven of a cooking-stove, or in a Dutch or American oven, in front of an open kitchen-range.

Black Puddings (another way).— Boil and diy three-quarters of a pound of rice; cut away all the crust from a quartern loaf, and throw two quarts of new milk on it. When the milk is absorbed by the bread, mix it with the rice, and a quart of blood from a freshkilled pig. Have ready a seasoning of nutmeg, allspice, and ground ginger (a quarter of an ounce of each), a table-spoonful of onion and chopped thyme, the same of salt, half the quantity of black pepper, and a dozen cloves, all pounded ; add these, with two poimds of wellshred suet and five or six well-beaten eggs, to the rice. ]Mix all well together, and add about two pounds of the inner fat of a pig cut into dice. \Vhen the ingi-edients are sufficiently blended press into sausage-skins, which must be only partly filled, to allow the meat to swell, so as to i^revent birrsting. Straw is generally laid in the bottom of the boiler, and the puddings are pricked, tied into links, and boiled for at least one hour. When taken up they must be laid out on a cloth to dry, and then hung up for use. To warm, lay them in boiling water in a deep dish, and then toast before the fire or on a gridiron. Probable cost, 4s. Sufficient for twelve large puddings.

Black Puddings (a la Fran^aise).— Mince four large onions verj' finej and stew them in lard with a tea-spoonful of minced parsley, pepper, salt, and allspice to taste, and a quarter of a pound of pork fat, cut into small dice. Stir two pints of pigs' blood while hot, with a little vinegar, a table-spoonful to a quart to prevent clotting, and mix it well with the seasoning. Fill the skins and divide them by strings into the length wished ; they may be stewed for twenty minutes, or merely thrown into boiling water tiU tinn. To try if they are sufficiently done, a large needle is used : if only fat flows they may be hung up to dry; they should then be rubbed over with butter, and tied up in a muslin bag, to give them a glossy appearance. When used they should be boiled long enough to heat them through, or cut into slices and fried.

Blanch, To. — To blanch meat or vegetables is to plunge them into boiling water for a given length of time, generally two or three minutes ; then throw them into a bowl of spring water and leave them until cold. With meat this is done for the purpose of gi^-ing firmness to the flesh, and thus facilitating the operation of larding, and also to preserve the whiteness of certain meats, such as rabbits or fowls. With vegetables it is done to keep them green, and to take away their acrid flavour. Ox tongues, palates, and almonds, fruit kernels, &c., are said to be blanched, when through the action of hot water the skin can be easily peeled off; calves' heads and feet are blanched to soften them, and thus make them easier to trim and

prepare for cooking, and for this the cold water is not required.

Blancmange. — Blanch ten (only) bitter and two ounces of sweet almonds, and pound them to a paste, adding by degrees a third of a pint of cold water ; let it stand till settled, and strain off the liquid. Put into a pint ปf milk five ounces of loaf sugar, two inches of stick vanilla, and two of cinnamon, and pour it into an enamelled saucepan. Boil slowly till the sugar is dissolved, then stir in one ounce of isinglass, and strain all into a basin; add the liquid from the almonds, with a gill of cream. AVhen cold, pour the mixture into a mould and place it in a cool place till it is firmly set. Probable cost, about 2s. Sufficient to fill a quart mould.

Blancmange (another way). — Dissolve in-a saucepan, over a gentle fire, two ounces of the best isinglass in two pints of new milk. Add the rind of a lemon and a pint of cream ; boil for a quarter of an hour and take out the rind. Sweeten, and flavour either with cinnamon,

I rose, or orange-flower water, or vanilla. 'NVhile cooling, stir in a little white wine and brandy,

! pour into moulds, and allow it to become fixed

I in a cool place.

j Blancmange (another way). — Dissolve one ounce of isinglass, or gelatine, and pour over ! it a quart of boiling milk. Stir till quite disj solved. Take the whites of four eggs, well beaten, and sugar to taste ; two oimces of sweet and one ounce of bitter almonds, pounded; scald them in the jelly, allowing it to. simmer until reduced to haK. Strain into a mould, and turn out next day. Gramish with flowers and blanched sweet almonds.

I Blancmange, American.— Mix one

j ounce of arrowroot with a tea-cupful of cold I water, and let it stand somปe minutes, until the I arrowroot is settled. Pour oft' the water, and I substitute a little orange-flower or laurel water. I Boil with a pint of new milk, a stick of ciiuiaI mon, the thinly-cut rind of a lemon, or any j seasoning that may be prefen-ed. Pour it when ] boiling upon the arrowroot, stirring aU the time. Put it into a mould, set it in a cool I place, and it will be ready for use the following I day. Time to boil, a few minutes. Sufficient I for a pint mould. Probable cost, 6d.

Blancmange, American (another way). — Prepare a paste as directed in Blancmange, but with eight or ten pounded Brazil nuts instead of almonds. Beat up four eggs, and add gradually five tea-spoonfuls of Oswego or Indian corn-flour. Dissolve fom- ounces of loaf sugar in a pint of new milk, add the liquor of the nuts, and simmer for five minutes, and draw it off the fire for another five minutes ; then strain in the eggs, stin-ing quickly over a slow fire until it thickens. Pour the mixture into a mould, and let it stand in a cool place until it becomes firm. Probable cost. Is. Sufficient for a pint and a half mould.

Blancmange, Rice. — Blanch almonds and pound to a paste, as alrcadj^ directed for blancmange, using a little more cold water.

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Boil three ounces of rice, three ounces of loaf sugar, the rind of half a lemon, a piece of cinnamon, and a stick of vanilla, with a pint and a half of new milk. When the rice is boiled to a pulp, add the almond paste and liquid, and simmer ten minutes. Then put into it three-quarters of an ounce of isinglass, and when dissolved, pass the whole through a sieve into a mould, and stand in a cold place till firmly set. Serve with a cream over it. Probable cost. Is. 8d. Bloaters. — Open the bloaters down the back, and bone them. Lay the fish one on the other (insides together), and broil over a clear fire. When sent to table they are separated, laid on a hot dish, and rubbed over with a little butter; or, split up, take out the back bone, trim off the head, tail, and fins, double the fish over, and broil from five to six minutes over a clear fire.

Blonde Fish Sauce.— Put three tablespoonfuls of stock into a stowpan, and stew the following ingredients for half an hour over a slow fire : — An onion cut small, two mushrooms, a sprig of parsley, a lemon very thinly sliced, and a glass of white wine. AVhen nearly stewed, add, by degrees, a cupful of melted butter, and the yolks of three eggs well beaten ; keep stirring the pan over the fire for four or five minutes, but do not allow the contents to boil. Strain through a sieve, and use it for any kind of fish. Probable cost, lOd.

Boar's Head, Boiled. — Remove the

snout, hair, and bones, from a boar's head; cleanse it thoroughly, scald and put it into a boihng pot containing vinegar and water ; add two ounces of salt, a few peppercorns, some parsley, thyme, eschalot, and sage ; let it steep for three days, with the tongue and two pounds of the meat. AVhen drained, fill up the cavities made by the removal of bones, &c., with thin sUces of the meat and tongue rolled together ; fasten up the opening with strong thread

boar'

as soon as the head has been well filled and the form is good. Put it, tied up in a cloth, into a stewpan with the herbs, ซS:c., and add a pint of wine, four cloves, a can-ot, and an ounce of salt, to simmer from six to seven hours, when it may be taken out and allowed to cool. A^Hien quite cold, remove the cloth, undo the fastenings, ornament and glaze the head. Rei^lace the tusks, and insert eyes made of white of egg and beetroot. Serine with a folded napkin under.

Boar's Head Sa.uce.— Cut the rind from two oranges, and slice them. Pub two or three Imnps of sugar on two more oranges, put the sugar into a basin with six or seven tablespoonfuls of red currant jelly, a little white pepper, one shallot, one spoonful of mixed mustard, and enough port wine to make the sauce as thick as good cream; add the orange-rind slices, which should be cut very thin, and bottle for use. This sauce is useful for nearly every kind of cold meat. Probable cost. Is. 6d.

Bohemian Ice Cream. — The smaller varieties of ripe red fruit are used to make this cream ; they are pulped thiough a fine sieve, and to a pint of the juice thus procured, add an ounce and a half of the best isinglass, dissolved in half a pint of water. Sweeten to taste, and squeeze in lemon- juice if liked. Mix to this quantity a pint of sweetened whipt cream, and mould for freezing. These creams, where raspberries only are used, may be put into glasses, and made without isinglass — in the proportions of a pound of fruit juice to a pint of whipt cream. Time to freeze, about thirty minutes.

Boil, To. — Before boHing joints of meat, the cook shonld think for a moment, whether she desires the juices to go into the water, as in soups and gravies, or to be retained in the meat itself. If they are to be retained, put the meat into fast-boiling water, let it boil for about five minutes, to make the outside hard, and thus prevent the juice escaping; then add suflicient cold water to considerably reduce the temperatiu-e ; bring this gently to a boil ; when it is on the point of boiling, skim it carefully, or the appearance of the meat will be spoilt. Draw it a little to the side, and let it simmer very gently until ready. Care must be taken to remove the scum when the waier is on the point of boiling, or it will quickly sink, and cannot afterwards be removed. If it is desired to extract the juice from the meat, cover it with cold water, and simmer slowly as before. The practice of boiling meat quickly cannot be sufficiently deprecated. It only renders it hard and tasteless. At the same time the simmering should be continuous. Before boiling, all joints should be washed clean, neatly trimmed, and firmly skewered. It is a good plan to put a few pierces of wood under the meat to prevent it adliering to the pan. Salted meat requires longer boiling than fresh meat. Dried and smoked meat should be soaked for some hours before it is put into the water. As a very large quantity of water takes the goodness out of the meat, it is well to use a saucepan sufficiently large to contain the joint easily, and no more. Afterwards, if the meat is entirely covered with water, this is all that is required. The whiteness of meat or poultry is preserved by its being wrapped in a woU-fioured clothi whilst in the pan, but great care must be taken that this is perfectly sweet and clean before using, or the fiavour will be spoilt. From a quarter of an hour to twenty minutes should be allowed for each pound, counting from the time the water boils. Puddings should be plunged into plenty of boiling water, and kept boiling quickly until done.

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Boiling Pot. — Large ii-on stewpans in which hams, joints of meat, and soups can be cooked are g-enerally called boiling pots. They

BOILING POT.

are made of wi-ought-iron or cast-iron. The foraier are the more expensive of the two, but are at the same time more durable, as they are better able to withstand the heat of the fire.

DEEP BOILIKG POT.

These vessels should be washed out and dried as soon as they are done with, and when not in use should be kept without cover in a dry place. Probable cost of a pot to hold five and a half gallons, ฆv^TOught-iron, ฃ1; cast-iron, 7s.

Bologna Sausage.— Take equal quantities of beef and pork, pound it to a paste and .season it veiy highly with pepper, salt, mace, cloves, and a little garlic. When this mixture is put into the skins, add a strip or two of fat bacon; it maybe boiled for one hour, or smoked for two or three months, when it will be fit for use. The Italians cat it in its uncooked state. Probable cost of meat, lOd. to Is. per pound.

Bologna Sausage (another way).— Take a pound of lean beef or veal, a pound of bacon, rather fat, a pound of beef suet, and a pound of loan pork. Chop up very small all together, with a handful of sage leaves and a few sweet herbs ; season to taste with salt and pepper, and press into a large, clean sausageskin. Put the sausage into a saucepan of boiling water, and prick it over to i^revent bursting. Boil for an hour. Probable cost, lOd. to Is. per pound.

Bologna Sausage (another way).— Take two pounds of tender, streaky pork, chop it up with parsley and chives, and season with salt, pepper, and spices. Fill a large sausage-skin witli the mixture, tie the ends securely, and boil it for two or thiซe hours, pricking it frequently with a large needle to prevent the slcin from bursting. Probable cost, lOd. to Is. per pound. 6

Bologna Sausage with Onions.—

This is pi-epared in the same manner as the preceding ; some onions finely minced, and simmered in lard until three parts cooked, being added to the other materials.

Bonbons, Candied (ii la Gouffe).— Heat one jiovmd of sugar until it registers forty degxees, then cool it down to thirty-eight degrees, by the addition of some essence to flavom-, either aniseed cordial, cherry water, maraschino, or almond may be used. Let it cool, and beat it with a wooden spoon until it foi-ms a paste, when put it in a basin until wanted. Next, get a wooden tray about one foot square, and two inches deep, fill it with dry starch finely powdered, and stamp the starch all over -ซ-ith an ornamental cutter, leaving about half an inch between each interstice. Melt part of the paste in a sugar boiler, rub the spout with whiting, and fill the patterns in the starch with the sugar ; let it dry for two hours ; take them out, brush them to clear away the loose starch, place them in a candy pan, cover them with some syrup at about thirty-six degrees of heat, and cover with a sheet of paper. Allow the bonbons to stay fifteen horns in a drying closet, then break the top only of the sugar, throw off the syrup, put the bonbons on a wire strainer, and give them their finishing touch by letting them again di-y in the hot closet.

Bonbons, Liquor. — These articles of confectionery are preixared by boihng white sugar with water into a thick syruji, and then adding a little spirit and any flavoui-ing and colouiing ingredients that may be required. To make these, a tray is filled with finely -powdered starch. On the surface of this, impressions are made of the. shape and size of the bonbons desired. These hollow spaces are then filled with the syrup. More powdered starch is next sprinkled over the tray, so as to cover the syrup. The tray is then cai-efully placed in a warm place for the sugar to crystallise. The sugar in the syrup contained in the mould soon begins to form an outside ciust, which gradually increases in thickness, while the weak spirit, collecting together in the interior, forms the liquid portion of the bonbon.

Bone, To. — The art of boning meat or poultry, though by no means diflicult for those who have been taught it, cannot be acquired by veibal instruction only. It is necessary to take lessons from some one who understands it, and practice will do the rest. It is exceedingly useful, most of all, because joints, &c., when boned, are so much more easily carved than when served in the usual way, and also on account of the economy, as the bones taken may be stewed down for gravy, for which fresh meat would otherwise be needed. The family poulterer will generally do all that is required for a moderate charge. The only rules which c an be given are — to use a sharp-pointed knife, to work with this close to tlie bone, and to use every care to keep the outer skin as whole as possible.

Bones, Devilled. — Make a mixture of mustard, salt, cayenne popper, and a little

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mushroom ketcliup ; lay a coating of butter over the bones, then the mixture, and rub it well in, and broil rather brown over a clear fire. Bordelaise Sauce (a la Goufte).— Add

to half a pint of yauterne a table-spoonful of shallots, blanched and chopped, and a very small quantity of mignonette pepper. Reduce it, by boiling, to a quarter of a pint, then add a pint of I'Espagnole sauce, and boil for five minutes, with the addition of a table-spoonful of finelychopped parsley.

Bottle-Jack and Screen.— The usual

method employed for I'oasting meat is to hang the bottle-jack on the movable bar placed for its reception on tho front of the mantelshelf : to suspend the wheel from the jack and to hang the meat by a hook from the wheel. A screen, either entirely made of tin or lined with it, is then put in front of the fire to keep in the heat, and the jack is wound up two or tliree times whilst a joint is being roasted. By a modern improvement the bar can be altogether dispensed with, and the jack fastened above the screen, which is so made that the heat will be condensed as much as i^ossible. Those who do not wish to go to the expense of a bottle- jack, but who appreciate the difference between a roasted joint and a baked one, may find an economical substitute for the bottle- jack in the chimney

BOTTLE-JACK AND SCREEN.

screw-jack, which may be fastened ujion any mantelshelf when wanted, and unscrewed when done with. It requires a little more watching than the ordinary bottle-jack, but if a key be hung upon the hook with six or seven thicknesses of worsted wound round it, one end of which is fastened to the meat-hook, the twisting and untwisting of the worsted cord will cause a rotatory motion like that produced by the more expensive bottle-jack. Probable cost : Bottle-jack, from 7s. 6d. to 12s. 6d. ; screen,

from ฃ1 10s. to ฃ3 10s. ; bottle-jack and screen in one, r2s. 6d. to 2os. ; cliimney screw-jack. Is. 6d. to 2s.

Bouille a Baisse, or Bouillabesse.

— Any kind of fish may be used for tliis dish : gurnard, haddock, whiting, mackerel, carp, red and grey mullet, soles, plaice, or lobsters, all do admirably for a bouillabesse. Chop two onions and put them with a piece of butter in a stewpan, and let them brown without burning, then arrange the fish (which has been previously cut into small pieces) in the pan, allowing half a pound of fish for each person. Add a small quantity of the best ohvc-oil, a clove of garlic, two bay-leaves, a few slices of lemon, two or three tomatoes, or a little tomato sauce, as much powdered saffron as will go on the point of a table-knife, and, lastly, a glass of white wine or Madeira. Put in sufficient stock to cover the whole, and boil from ten to fifteen minutes, skimming carefully the whole time. When ready to serve, throw in a handful of chopped parsley. This quantity of fiavouring is intended for six pounds of fish. On the Continent it is usually sent to table in two sejiarate dishes, that is to say, the fish in one, and the sauce in a small deep dish, but we think the whole would look better served on a large or in a deep entree dish.

Brain Cakes. — Boil the brains of a calf for ten minutes, and blanch them in cold water; then poimd them to a paste ^^'ith a tea-spoonful of chopped sage, quarter of a tea-spoonful of mace and cayenne, salt, pepper, and two well-beaten eggs. ]\Iake the paste into balls about the size of a florin ; when flattened, dip them into egg and fine bread-ci'umb, and fry brown. They are appropriate as a garnish for calf's head a la tortue.

Braise, To. — To braise meat is to cook it in a braisicre, or closed stewpan, so formed tliat live embers can be held in the cover, and the heat necessary for cooking communicated from above as well as below. As there is

BRAISING-PAK.

no evaporation the meat imbilies the flavour of the vegetables, &c., with which it is cooked, and care should be taken that these are in accordance with the nature of the meat and added in proper quantities. Before putting the meat into the pan, either lard it or cover it with thick slices of fat bacon. When sufficiently cooked, take it out and keep it hot, strain the gravj- and free it entirely from fat (this is most effectually done by plunging the basin which contains

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it into cold water, and thus causing the fat to settle on the top). Boil it quickly until very thick, and serve it in the dish with the meat, or boil it longer until it is thick enough to adhere to it. As braisieres are not very usual in ordinary kitchens, we may say that almost as good an effect is produced, if the meat is bouud in slices of fat bacon, and gently stewed in rich gravy.

Bran Yeast. — A good serviceable yeast can be made from a pint of bran boiled in two quarts of water for ten minutes, with a handful of good hops. Strain the liquor, and when lukewarni, add three or four table-spoonfuls of beer yeast, and two of brown sugar or treacle ; put it into a jar or small wooden cask, and place it before the fire to ferment ; when well worked it may be bottled, tightly corked, and kej)t in a cool place.

Brandy, Lemon. — Take the thin or yellow rinds only of two small lemons, and cover them with half a pint of the best French brandy ; let them stand in a closed-up bottle for a fortnight, then strain off the spirit and keep it corked closely for use. A syrup of two ounces of loaf sugar, and a quarter of a pint of water may be added if a sweet brandy lemon is desired. Probable cost, 2s. 3d.

Brandy Mince for Pies.— Take one

pound each of fresh beef suet, sugar, currants, and apples ; wash, pick, and dry the cm-rants, and mince the suet and apples with a quarter of a poimd of citron, and the same of orange-peel, the juice of one lemon and the grated peel of two. ^Tien all these ingredients are well mixed, throw over them, by degrees, a quart of brandy.

Brandy, Raspberry.— Take four poimds of raspberries and steeji them in three quarts of brandy for one month ; add syrup to taste, and flavour with cinnamon and clove mixture. Some persons prefer it without any flavouring ingredients, but it is always better to have a little added.

Brawn. — Prepare a hog's head, by cutting off the ears, taking out the brains, and cleaning generally ; rub in plenty of salt, and let it drain a whole day and night. Pub in two ounces of saltj)etre and the same quantity of salt, and let it stand for three days. Next, put the head and salt into a pan and cover it with water for two days. Now, wash it well from the salt, and boil till the bones can be easily removed. Extract these and take off the skin of the head and tongue carefully. Chop up the meat into bits, but do not mince it, and season with pepper, salt, and shallot to taste. Place the skin of one-half of the head into a pan, closely fitting it, and press into it the chojjped head and tongue. WTicn this is done, take the other skin and lay it cleverly in place, or put the other skin in the pan and proceed as before, and turn out when cold. Should the head be too fat, add some lean pork. For a sauce, boil a pint of vinegar with a quart of the liquor in which the head was boiled, and two ovmces of salt, and pour over the brawn when the liquor is cold. The hair should be carefully removed from the ears, and thev must be boiled till tender.

then divided into long narrow pieces and mixed with the meat. Time to boil, from two to three hours. Probable cost for a pig's head, od. per pound.

Brawn (another M^ay). — Take three iiigs' heads, and two cheeks of salted pork, two sheeps' tongues, a piece or the whole of a bullock's tongue. Boil all together until the meat will separate from the bones . Put the meat on a pasteboard, cut it into small bits, and while cutting throw the following spices, well jDounded, over it : — one ounce and a half of white pepper, three-quarters of an ounce of allspice, eight cloves, and two blades of mace. The bullock's tongue to be skinned, sUced, and distributed in thin layers between the meat in the mould. Boil a cow-heel in one pint of water till reduced to half, throw this over and cover, putting a heavy weight on the top. Let it stay all night, and the next morning it will be finn in the mould.

Brawn (another way). — Take the fat, ears, and tongue, of a pig's head, and any pieces which may have been cut oft' in trimming, and soak in salt and water all night. Cleanse, and boil them for thi-ee hours, with onljenough water to keep them from burning, and the meat from getting drj'. The bones should then be taken out, the ears cut into strijis, and the tongue into sUces. Season the whole with pepper, salt, allspice, &c., as for Brawn {see Brawn), and boil it in the same liquor for an hour. A few minutes before it is quite ready, add a little carrot, minced parsley, or other herbs, scalded and cut fine. Boil again and pour into a brawn mould. When required the brawn may be separated from the moulds by dipping them into hot water, or by placing a hot towel around them for a few minutes.

Brawn, Mock. — Remove the bladebone from the shoulder of a large hog or boar, and boil the meat gently two hours or more, according to size. \\Tien cold rub in black pepper, salt, cayenne, allspice, shallot, and thyme to taste. Let it remain for twenty-four hours in this seasoning. Next day prepare a forcemeat of veal, ham, beef, suet, minced parsley, thyme, onion, lemon-peel, salt, nutmeg, white pepper, and bind it with beaten egg, and press it into the space left by the bladebone. Place it in a pan, brown side downwards, taking care, however, that it does not stick to the bottom, which may be prevented by placing a few twigs crossways in the pan. Then pour over the shoulder a quart of mild ale, and bake it six or seven hours in an oven. When nearh- done, take it out and clear oft' the fat ; add a bottle of wine and the juice of a large lemon ; return it to the oven, and when it is tender enough to be easily pierced with a wooden skewer or a strong straw, it is sufficiently done, and should be served hot. Probable cost of shoulder, 8d. or 9d. per pound.

Brawn Sauce. — Mix nicely together two tea-spoonfuls of moist sugar, one of mustard, and one of the best Lucc-a oil. ฆ^^^l6n quite smooth, add more vinegar and oil in equal proportions, though some prefer more of tlieone than of the other. Care must be taken

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to make tlic sauco quite smooth, and of a nice rich golden colour.

Brawn, Sussex.— Prepare a pig's head as directed in: the recipe for Brawn. .Strew tlie halves with' salt, and di-ain them. Cleanse the ears and feet. Kub in one ounce and a half of saltpetre vdth. six ounces of sugar, and shortly after six ounces of salt. Next day, pour a quarter of a pint of vinegar over all, and turn the meat in the pickle every twenty-four houi's for a week ; wash off the pickle and boil till all the bones may be easily removed, but the form of the head must be retained. Flatten the head on a board, cut some of the meat from the thickest part, and place it on the thinnest, to give an oven appearance. Season all thoroughly with nutmeg, mace, cayenne, cloves, &c. Intei-mix the head with pieces of the ears, feet, and tongue ; roU it up tightly and bind firmly, tpng a thin cloth closely round, and secui-ely fastening at both ends. Now place the head in a braising or other suitable pan, with the bones and trimmings of the feet and ears, a large bunch of savoury herbs, two onions, a small head of celery, some carrots, a tea-spoonful of black peppercorns, and sufficient cold water to cover all well. Boil for four hours, and allow it to remain in the liquor till nearly cold. Take off the cloth and put the bra^^^l between two dishes, and press with a heavy weight till next day. Before ser\dng take off the bands. Average cost of pig's head, 5d. per pound.

Bread {sec Derbyshire Bread).

Bread Brandy Cakes.— Separate the

yolks from the whites of eight eggs, beat up the yolks and five whites together. Dissolve six ounces of butter in a pint of milk, and pour it, while hot, over a pound of bread-crumbs. When cold, pour in the eggs and add equal quantities of sugar and well-washed cui-rants, with about a quarter of an ounce of nutmeg grated, and a glass of brandy. Line pattypans with short paste, and bake for about twenty minutes. Probable cost, 2s. 6d.

Bread, Broken, Pudding. — This

pudding will use up the crusts and remnants of bread to be found in eveiy household ; all will suit, no matter how dry they are, so that they are not mouldy. Gather all into a large bowl, and throw over it as much sweetened milk as the bread is likely to absorb, with two or three table- spoonfuls of finely-shred suet, and a little salt. Cover until well soaked, then beat the whole smooth, and add tws or three well-beaten eggs, a few currants and raisins, and some grated nutmeg. The addition of a ฆtable-spoonful of rum will be found an improve^nent. Bake in an ordinary pudding-dish for about an hour and a half.

Bread, Brown, Biscuits.— Take two

ounces of butter dissolved in half a pint of boiling water, and stir it into a pound of wheat meal ; knead it to a firm dough. Llix all well, roll out to a thickness of about half an inch, and cut with a biscuit-cutter or a sharp-edged teacup. Prick the biscuits with a fork, and bake in a quick oven. Average cost, 4d. Sufficient iot one pound of feiscuits.

Bread, Brown, Ice Cream.— Stale bread must be used for this cream, mixed ^vith an equal quantity of stale sponge cake. Take two sponge cakes and two thick slices of bread, grate them Into a jug, and pour over half a pint of milk and a pint of cream, made sweet with half a pound of sugar. Place the jug in a saucepan, and stir the contents over the fire until it gets thick. A few of the breadcrumbs sifted very finely may be added with a glass of any liquor liked to the mixture when quite cold, and just before being put to freeze. Freeze for about twenty- five minutes. Probable cost, 2s. 6d. per quart. Sufficient for eight persons.

Bread, Brown, Pudding.— Take equal

quantities of well- washed currants, brown breadcrumbs, and shred suet — half a pound of each — add six ounces of sugar, half a glass of brandy, and the same quantity of cream ; mix all together, with six eggs well beaten, leaving out the whites of two. Bake in a moderate oven for two hom-s. Serve with sweet sauce and sugar over the top. Probable cost, 2s. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Bread Cakes, Fried, American. —

To five tea-cupfuls of light dough, add half a cupful of butter, three of brown sugar, a teaspoonful of salt, four eggs, and a little grated nutmeg. Knead these well together with flour, and let them rise before the fii'O mitil very light. Knead the dough again after it rises ; cut it into diamond-shaped cakes ; let them rise ; and fry in lard or di-ipping, as soon as light. These calces must be served as soon as they arc ready.

Bread, Cobbett's Becipe for.— Take

one pint of good sweet yeast, and the same of slightly warm water; make a hollow in the centre of a bushel of floui- and thi-ow it in, and mix it up with the flour lying round it, till it has become a thin batter ; then throw some flouiover the batter, and a cloth over the pan ; draw it near the fire to leaven, and when sufficiently risen, which may be known by the cracks and flowing of the yeast, mix the whole, with the addition of more warm water or millv, and a little salt strewn over, into a stiff dough. Knead it well, shape it into loaves, in tins or otherwise, place them in a warm place for twenty minutes, and then bake in a moderate oven. If the oven is too hot, the bread will not rise well.

Bread Croustades. — Bread croustades are baked in a variety of shapes. The inside or crumb is scooped out, and the outer part or crust is fried, and then di-ied from the fat and filled with mincemeat or ragout. In Scotland croustades or moulds are made of mashed potatoes, and lined with gratin composed of the white parts of fowl or veal seasoned with salt, pepper, and herbs. Miinster loaves may be classed under the same head as a supper-dish. They are made thus: scrape three or four ounces of lean ham, and an ounce or two of veal, and mix it with a pound of well-mashed potatoes; add salt, pepper, and a couple of eggs to bind, and mould into any shapes desired. They may be fried and served with or without gravy.

Bread Crumbs, Fried.— Put some thin slices of bread into an o^'cn when the fire has

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gone low, and let them stay all night; roll them next morning into crumbs. Put into a frying-pan some butter or Lard, and when it is on the point of boiling, add the bread-crumbs. Stir them till they are of a clear bro-svn colour. Take them out with a slice, and put them on blotting-paper before the fire, to draw away all the fat ; or they may be browned in a gentle oven without butter. Bread-crumbs so prepared are useful for serving with game of any sort.

Bread Crusts, Grilled for Soup and Cheese. — Toast bread-crusts in front of a very snrall fire, and on a wire toaster. A little butter may be rubbed over them before they are put into the soup tureen. Untoasted bread swells, and is likely to spoil the appearance of the soup. Crusts for toasted cheese are pulled, rough pieces, from a fresh loaf, and then browned in the oven or in front of a fire.

Bread Custard Pudding.— Make a

custard according to the size of pudding required. A pint uf custard will fill a mediumsized dish. Cut slices of thin bread and butter, to suit the dish, and over each layer throw currants, sugar, and finely-cut candied lemon, and a little nutmeg. Pour the custard over by degrees so that the bread may be well •saturated, and let it stand an hour before putting it into the oven. Just before it is put in, throw over the last of the custard, and bake in a moderate oven for half an houi-. Probable cost, about Is. Sufficient for five or six people.

Bread, French.— Stir into four pounds of flom- flavoured with three ounces of salt, half a pint of good sweet yeast, the yolks of two eggs, and the whites of three beaten separately, and a pint of warm milk. Stir all till well mixed into a thin dough, and let it rise for a few minutes. Make the dough into loaves of the size required, and bake in a brisk oven with or without tins. Time to bake, from threequarters to one houi\ Probable cost, Is. Sufficient for three loaves.

Bread Fried for Soup.— Cut some slices of bread about half an inch thick, and, the crust being removed, shape into squares, ovals, or round pieces. These pieces of bread are to be about the size of a two-shilling piece, care being taken that they are all cut of the same thickness and size. Prepare twenty or thii-ty of such j^ieces, and put them into a jian with sufficient butter; place them over a quick fire, and turn them continually until the}' are bro-s\'ned. Remove the fried pieces of bread from the jian, let them drain on a piece of white calico, and then place them in a tureen. About ten minutes before sending them to table pour over them some thin boiling pio-ce. Any kind may be used for this purpose, either tliat of carrots, turnips, lentils, or peas. Add a small piece of sugar to the purve before using it.

Bread Grater .^ — A bread-grater is a tin cylinder perforated with holes upon each side, and as its name implies is used to crumble bread for forcemeats, &-c. Although many cooks dispense -with it entirely, and merely rub the bread between the palms of the hands, the

crumbs thus prepared are not nearly so smooth and even as when this little article is used. Probable cost. Is. to Is. 6d.

Bread, Home-made.— Make a cavity in

the middle of a quartern of flour, and stir into it a pint of warm milk or water, and four tablespoonfuls of good yeast mixed together. Cover it up and set it before the fire to rise. If set over night make up next morning, then add half a pint more milk or water, and knead it into a dough for ten minutes. Set it by the fire for one hour and a half, then make into loaves, and bake from one hour and a half to two hours, according to size. If equal quantities of meal and flour be used, this will make an excellent broAvn bread.

Bread, Household.— To ten pounds of flour in a kneading-trough put a small handful of salt. Stir into this about two quarts of water, more or less, as some flour absorbs more water than others. For very white bread, made with superfine flour, the dough should be softer than for seconds or brown bread. In summer the water may be lukewarm; in winter, considerably wai-mer, hut never hot enough to kill the yeast. After the water is mixed with the flour, add a cupful of good yeast, then knead the bread, and leave it to lise in a wann place, covered with a cloth. If all goes well, it will rise sufficiently in the course of an hour or an hour and a half. Then divide it into roUs, loaves, or tin-breads, as wanted, and bake. For a three-pound loaf, take three pounds and a half of dough ; for a four-pound loaf, four pounds eleven ounces ; for a six-pound loaf, six pounds and threequarters; and for an eight-pound loaf, nine pounds of dough.

Bread, Household (another way).— It often happens that household bread, from a little want of care, is found bitter and unpalatable. To remedy this, the yeast or bai-m should be put into water over night. Next day peel and boil three pounds of potatoes, beating them to a pulp, and pass through a colander, with a pint of cold water to haK a pint of good sweet yeast. Mix the potato pulp and yeast tlioioughly together, and then pour it into a hollo\v made in the middle of one peck of flour. Stir some of the flour into the mixture, till it is like a thick batter, then cover M-ith a little of the dry flour, throw a cloth over the pan, and set it near the fire to rise. In about an hour mix it with five pints of lukewarm water and two ounces of salt, to a dough. Cover it up again as before, and let it stand this time about two hours, then knead it into loaves, and bake for an houi' and a half in a good oven. Probable cost, about Tjd. per four-pound loaf.

Bread, Indian Corn.— Mix half a pint

of white Indian meal, coarsely ground, with one pint of fresh milk, one egg, and a pinch of salt. Get ready a tin of, say four inches diameter at the bottom, and three inches deep, grease it well, and pour in the batter which should only half fill the dish. Bake in a tolerably quick oven and serve very hot, on a white d'oyley, or, if preferred, halve it and butter it. Time, thirty to forty minutes. Probable cost, 6d. Sufficient for three or four persons.

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Bread Jelly (for Invalids). — Toast thin slices of a French roll till they are equally hrown on both sides, and of a pale colour, then hoil them in a quart of water till they hecome a jelly. Let some cool in a spoon as a test. Strain over some juices of lemon-peel, and sweeten with sugar. A little ^\ฆine may be added if preferred.

Bread Oraelet.— Mix equal quantities of bread-crumbs and cream, a tea-spoonful of each, break an ounce of butter into bits, and add with it salt, pepper, and nutmeg. AVhen the cream has been absorbed by the bread, beat it till smooth, with a fork, and mix it to three well-beaten eggs. Fry like an ordinary omelet. Time to fry, three to four minutes.

Bread Pudding.^ — To one pLat of milk add two or thixe well-beaten eggs ; stir- them into the milk, with sugar and nutmeg; into this put some very finely-grated bread-crumbs. Butter a dish, pour the pudding into it, and bake.

Bread Pudding (another way). — Take fine bread, grated small, and rich new milk. When the milk boils, put in the bread-crumbs ; for every table-spoonful of bread allow one egg, well beaten ; sweeten it with loaf sugar to taste, and grate in a little nutmeg. Put it into a buttered basin, and boil from twenty to thirty minutes, according to the size of the pudding. If baked, rather less time will do ; it only requires to be a light brown.

Bread Pudding, Boiled. — Soak half a pint of bread-crumbs with one pint of milk thrown on them while in a boiling state, and when the milk has become cold, add three well-beaten eggs, two ounces of currants, with sugar and nutmeg to taste. Mix all well together, butter a basin, pour in the mixture, and keep it boiling, with a cloth securely tied over the top, for rather more than one hour. Pieces of bread unfit for the table, on account of their staleness, may be used up in bread puddings, by carefully soaking them, and then pressing them di-y before they are added to the rest. Probable cost, 7d. Sufiicient for four or five persons.

Bread Pudding with Onions.— Mix

half a pound of bread-ci-umbs with a tea-spoonful of sage, two ounces of onions, and pepper and salt, Avith three-quarters of a pint of milk. Add two eggs well beaten, and bake in a quick oven.

Bread, Pulled. — Pull the soft portion of a new loaf into rough pieces ; let them be of equal size, say about two or three inches each way. Dry the pieces in a slow oven or before the fii'e, till they become a nice light brown colour, and \A-hen they are quite crisj) they will be ready for use.

Bread, Rice. — Allow one pound of rice to four jjounds of wheat flour. The rice must be first boiled in milk or water, and while warm added to the flour, bxit care must be taken to see thatjthe rice is thoroughly done. Mix all into a dough with a little yeast, a quarter of an ounce of salt, and sufiicient warm water for the required consistency. When it has risen before

the fire a proper time, make into loaves of any shape, and bake according to size. This bread is very delicious made with a mixture of milk. Probable cost, 8d. per four-pound loaf.

Bread Sauce. — Into a saucepan put as miich fresh milk as will nearly fin a pint sauceboat. Add to it a little salt, the same of grated nutmeg, a few peppercorns, a blade or two of mace, and a medium-sized white onion, chopped very fine. Let these boil together, but they must not be allowed to boil over. MHien the chopped onion is quite tender, the milk, &c., are fit for use. Grate into the sauceboat enough of stale bread-crumb to fill it about one-quarter full. Over this pour enough of the hot milk, peppercorns and all, to soak it. Let it stand for two or three minutes ; then, after stirring up the heated milk, pour the rest of it over the bread, and stir all together. Be careful not to use too much bread-crumb, or the sauce will become tliick.

Bread Sauce (another way). — Stew the head, neck, and legs of poultry with an onion, a little mace, peppercorns, and salt. Take ' one pint of the broth when strained, pour it hot over twelve ounces of bread-crumbs, boil for ten minutes, and add thi-ee table-spoonfuls of cream. Time to make the broth, two hours.

Bread Sauce (another way).— Cut a French roll, one day old, into thick slices. Put them into a clean saucepan ; add a few peppercorns, one whole onion, a little salt, and boilingmilk enough to cover it. Let it sinuner gently by the side of the fire till the bread soaks up the milk ; then add a little cream, take out the onions, and rub the whole thi'ough a sieve. Serve very hot.

Bread Sauce for Partridges.— Moisten

soft crumb of bread in millv, and simmer it for about three-quarters of an hour, until it becomes of the consistency of thick bouillon. Th-sn add some butter, and season with pepper and salt.

Bread, Short. — To one pound and a half of flour add the following ingredients :— a quarter of a pound of candied orange and lemonpeel, cut small ; the same of sweet almonds, blanched and cut ; loaf sugar ; and caraway comfits (some of the latter may be kept to j strew over the top of the bread). Dissolve a I pound of butter, and when it is getting cool pour it into the flour, and mix it quickly into I a dough, with half a pound more flour. Then pour it into a large round cake of an inch in thickness ; divide it into four parts, and pinch the edge of each piece neatly with the thumb and finger ; strew the caraway comfits over the top, with small devices of orange or citronpeel. Lay the cakes on floured paper, which is I again to be placed upon tins, and bake ir. a I moderate oven. Time to bake, twenty-fi\t: to 1 thirty minutes. Probable cost, 3s. 6d.

I Bread, Sippets of.— Cut slices of stale

] bread about the third of an inch thick, and trim into any form required. Fry them in I butter till some are dark, but not burnt, and I some a light bro-mi. "\ATien they are crisp, lay I them on a cloth to dry. When wanted to adhere to the edge of a dish, dip the end in a

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mixtui'e of white of egg and flour. If the dish be made very hot the sippets will not stay in theii- places.

Bread, Soda. — Mix one tea-spoonful of tartaric acid with two pounds of flour, and a to;:-spoonful of salt. Dissolve a tea-spooniul of carbonate of soda in a pint of milk, and whtai it is free from sediment add it to the flour, and mix the whole quickly into a light dough. Tliis quantity will make two loaves. They should l)e put into a brisk oven immediately, and baked for an hour. Probable cost, 6d.

Bread, Stale, How to use up.—

When bread has become so hard that it cannot be eaten, it should be grated into coarse powder, and preserved in wide-mouthed bottles or jars. Wlien kept well covered up, and in a dry place, it will remain good for a considerable time. Bread thus powdered will be found very useful for the prepai-ation of puddings, stuffings, and similar purposes.

Bread, Tipsy. — Cut a French roll into thin slices, and pare off the crusts, leaving it a nice round shape ; spread raspberry, strawberiy , or currant jam over each slice, and pile them one on the other in a glass dish. Pour over them as much sherry as the bread will absorb. Ornament it round with blanched almonds cut into very flnc strips, and stick them also on the top ; pour a custard round and serve. This is a quickly-prepared and cheap dish. Probable cost, Is. 3d. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Bread, TJnfermented.— Take two

ounces of carbonate of soda, one ounce and a quarter of tartaric acid, and a piece of sal- j ammoniac, about the size a hazel-nut, powdered, j Let these be well mixed in a perfectly dry | state. ฆ Then blend them with half a j^eck of wheaten flour — or one-thii-d of barley flour may be used — and about two ounces of salt. Make a deep hole in the middle of the flour so prepared, and pour in as much cold water as will make the dough somewhat less stiff than bread dough is usuallj- made. Mix it briskly and well. Make this quantity into three loaves. Put them immediately into a quick oven, and let them bake for one hour and ten minutes. The exact time will depend, of course, vipon the heat of the oven ; but a very little practice will determine this. Sweet palatable nutritious bread can be made cheaply by carefully following this recipe.

Bread witllOUt Yeast.— To every halfquartern of flour add one tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda and half a tea-spoonful of salt. Mix altogether; then to the water, sufficient to make a dough, add half atea-spoonfulof muriatic acid. Set into the oven at once. This makes delicious and wholesome bread. Some use tartaric acid ; in which case the bread will contain tartrate of soda, which, although not poisonous, is medicinal, being slightly purgative. On the other hand, muriatic acid neutralises soda just as well as tartaric acid, and the resulting compound is only common salt.

Bread and Fruit Fritters.— Take twelve slices of bread and butter, cut off the crust, and let them be of equal thickness ; spread them

over with jam — any sort that may be liked — and make a cover with another slice ; press thorn tightly together, and cut them into any dcsu-ed forms. Make a batter, as for apple fritters, dip them in and fry in boiling lard about ten minutes; dry them before the fire on a piece of blotting-paper, and serve on a napkin with sifted sugar sprinkled over. Probable cost, is. Sufficient for a small dish.

Bread and Meat Pudding, Portable. — Make a bread dough, roll out the jjaste thick, and put any kind of fat meat, seasoned according to taste, upon it; wrap it over, and bake or boil as may be most convenient. This mode of cooking is particularly adapted for travellers or colonial life. Any kind of game, poultry, or meat may be stuffed, and, if well skewered before the paste is put around it, will be a convenient dish of bread, meat, and sauce combined, as they may first be cooked at home, and afterwards warmed for use when required.

Bread and Parsley Fritters.— Pour

boiling water on six ounces of bread without crust, cover it up for an hour, and then beat it up with a fork until quite smooth ; add, and mix thoroughlj', an ounce of finely-chopped parsley, pepper and salt to taste, and four eggs, well beaten. Fry, in fritters, a nice brown, and serve with brown sauce. Time to fry, five minutes. Probable cost, about 6d.

Bread, Wheat and Rice.— Beat one

pound and a half of well-boiled rice to a paste, and mix it with seven pounds of fine wheaten flour while still warm ; take a pint and a half of warm milk and water, four ounces of salt, and four table-spoonfuls of yeast, put them into the centre of the flour, make a thin batter, cover the top with flour, and leave it to rise for an hour and a half; then make it into a dough with more milk and water, and after kneading and forming it into loaves, set it by the fire for another hour to rise before being put into the oven. Bake from one and a half to two hours. Probable cost, Is. lOd. Sufficient for four loaves.

Breakfast Biscuits.- Mix flom- with cream to a proper consistency, and salt to taste. One pound of flour to a quarter of a pint of thin cream will make a paste sufficiently stiff. Form into small biscuits, prick them, and bake in a hot oven for fifteen or twenty minutes. Probable cost, about 6d. Or, mix flour as stated with a small bit of butter, the size of a pigeon's egg, and moisten with a quarter of a pint of cold water; add a little salt, and bake in a hot oven for fifteen minutes. Probable cost, about 4d.

Breakfast Cakes or Rolls.— Take one

pound of fine fldur, and make it into a dough with an ounce of butter which has been warmed to melt it, half a pint of new milk, and half an ounce of good fresh German yeast dissolved in warm water; cover it well up, and leave it all night by the side of the fire. In the morning make up into rolls, and if they stand for half an hour before baking they will be all the better. Seven or eight rolls may be made with

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this quantity of dough. Time for baking, from fifteen to twenty minutes. Probable cost, 7(1.

Breakfast Cakes or Rolls (another way) . — Make a batter with two pounds of Hour, and as much warm milk and water, with about a quarter of a pint of fresh yeast, and a little salt, as will smooth it. Let it stand before the fire to rise for two hours. Have ready a little flour and butter well rubbed together, and make the batter with this, and as much more flour as may be required, into a light dough. Make it into rolls and bake on tins ; rasp, and keep them covered up warm till wanted. Time, fifteen to twenty minutes. Sufiicient for twelve ordinarysized rolls. Probable cost, 8d.

Breakfast Mufl3.ns.— Stir flour enough into a pint of hot milk, and about a quarter of a pint of yeast to make a thin batter, then put it in a waVm place to rise. liub two ounces of butter into a little flour, and with a little more milk and flour make the batter into a stiff dough. Put it aside well covered up in a wai-m place for half an hour, when the dough will be quite ready to shape into mufiins, but they should not be baked until they have stood for another quarter of an hour. They are easily baked in a frying-pan or on a griddle. Time to bake, twenty minutes to half an houi".

Bream, To Dress. — This handsome, but not very excellent fish, will eat best if broiled over a slow clear fire for half an hour. The inside must be thoroughly cleansed, but the scales should not be removed ; and it should be wiped perfectly dry before it is put on the fire. Turn it so that both sides may be browned, and dredge a little flour if any cracks appear. Serve with melted butter and ancho\'y' sauce. In carving, remove the scales and skin, and serve only what is underneath. Bream may be stuft'ed with a veal forcemeat, and baked — it will take longer than the broiling process — or wrapped in a buttered jiapor, and placed in a moderate oven for about half an houi-. It should be well basted in its own di-ipping and a little butter.

Bremen Cheesecakes. — Cheesecakes

from this recipe are quickly prepared and at little cost. Beat well, till white, the yolks of eight eggs, and add eight ounces of finely-sifted sugar and eight ounces of sweet almonds, powdered. Line the pans with a thin paste, and put in the mixture with a little fresh butter on the top of each just before 'they are placed in the oven. Take care that the oven is not too hot, or the c^ikes will fall in cooling. Bake for about a quarter of an hour. Probable cost, 2s.

Brentford Rolls.— Take two pounds of

flour, quarter of a pound of butter, two ounces of powdered sugar, two eggs, quarter of a pint of yeast, milk enough to fonn a dough, and salt according to taste. Rub the flour, butter, and sugar together ; beat the eggs, and add them to the other ingredients. When light, mould the dough out in rolls, let them rise, and bake on tins in a moderate oven.

Breslau Beef (see Beef, Breslau).

Bretonne Brandy Pudding.— Boil six

ounces of loaf sugar in half a pint of milk, allow it to cool for a little, and add to it six wellbeaten eggs ; then let it get quite cold. Prepare a quarter of a pound of thin slices of stale bread and saturate the half of them with two glasses of brandy. Lay some of the bread in a basin previously buttered, holding a pint and a half. Strew over it some chopped candied orange-peel and stoned raisins, and then some custard, till all is used up. Tie the basin over with a buttered paper. Let it stand to soak for ten minutes, and steam for an hour and threequarters. Turn out, and serve with a sauce of clarified sugar which has been seasoned with vanilla and brandy. Probable cost, 23. 6d. Suflicient for six or seven persons.

Bretonne Sauce (for Cold or Hot Beef).

— Mix a wine-glassful of vinegar with equal quantities of pounded sugar and mustard, a tea-spoonful of each, and about a table-spoonful of grated horse-radish. WTien pickles are preferred, this mixture will be found very agreeable; it combines the flavour of a sauce and pickle. Probable cost, 4d.

Bride Cake. — Commence operations by washing, picking, and putting two pounds of currants to dry before the fire, and then slicing thinly half a pound each (' "" ' peels,

orange, citron, and lemon. Next, bruise one

pound of sweet almonds with a little orange ower water, and pound quarter of an ounce

each of mace, cinnamon, cloves, and nutmegs to

j a powder. Wash four jjounds of butter, and

j whip it to a cream; beat up the yolks and

j whites, separately, of eighteen or twenty eggs —

1 the whites should be frothed. Get two pounds

I of sifted sugar, half a pint of brandy, and the

same of sherry. The ingredients being prepared,

pi-oceed as follows : — Put the creamed butter

into a large basin, and by degrees mix in the

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sugar, stirring it constantly. Next add the frothed whites of the eggs, and beat aU together with the yolks ; then the almonds, spices, and, very gradually, the tlour, till all are thoroughly blended. Beat well, andadd the currants, sprinkling them in very gradually, so as to distribute them equally, and finish by making all smooth with the brandy and sherry. Keep up the beating till all is ready for the baking. A double paper well buttered, must be put as a lining to the baking-tin, and the mixture should not fiU the hoop more than three parts, that it may have room to expand. Put a j^aper over the top, and bake for about five hours in a quick oven. Cover it with almond icing, allow it to drj^, and then add ornamented sugar-icing, threequarters of an inch in thickness. Average cost, 15s.

Bride Pie. — Parboil some veal sweetbreads and i ieces of lamb in water, and cut them into slices. Mix with them some slices of blanched ox palate, streaky bacon, a pint of 03'sters, and some roast chestnuts, and season with salt, mace, and nutmeg. \Vhen the pie-dish is full, lay slices of butter on the top of it, cover it with paste, and bake. When done, lift up the Hd, and put into the pie four raw eggs beaten up with a little butter, the juice of a lemon, and a glass of sherrj'.

Brighton Rock. — Blanch and pound to a paste tlrree ounces of sweet and one of bitter almonds, using a little rose-water to moisten. Add four ounces of clean currants, and mix one pound of dry flour with half a pound of sifted loaf sugar and the almond paste. Stir into this half a pound of fresh butter beaten to a cream, and mix all well together. The cakes may be baked in small pans or dropped in lumps on floured tins, and cooked for ten or fifteen minutes. Probable cost, Is. 6d.

Brill, To Boil.— This fish closely resembles the turbot, and is boiled in the same manner. Choose a thick fish, and see that it is quite fresh, which may be known by the yellowish hue of the flesh. Clean, cut oif the fins, and lay it in salt and water for one hour, or rub it over with the juice of a lemon and a little salt. Put it into a fish-kettle with water to cover, and salt in the proportion of thi-ee ounces to each gallon of water. Add a little vinegar, bring it to a boil, and continue to simmer gently until the fish is done. Lay it on a dish with the white side uy). Garnish with fried parslej', sliced lemon, and a sprinkling of lobster coral, and serve on a napkin. Time, fifteen to twenty minutes to boil.

Brioche, or French Paste. — To

make this excellent French paste, take two pounds of fine dry flour, and separate eight ounces of it to make the leaven. Place this last into a pan, and mix it with half a pint of yeast and a little warm water. Throw a cloth over the pan, and put it near the fire for about twenty minutes to rise. Jleanwhile make a hoUow space in the centre of the remaining flour, and put into it half an ounce of salt, half an ounce of finely-sifted sugar, and an eighth of a pint of cream, or some milk if there is no cream. Add a pound of good dry

fresh butter cut into small pieces ; put them into the flour, and pour over all six eggs well beaten. Work all this with the hand until the whole is quite smooth. If the flour will take one or two eggs more, add them ; but the paste must not be so soft as to adhere to the board or roller. When the leaven is well risen, spread the paste out and the leaven over it, and knead well together. Then cut into small portions and mix again, that the leaven may be thoroughly and equally incorporated with the other ingredients. Next, dust some floui- on a cloth and roll the brioche (for so it is now called) in it. Put it in a pan, and set it in a cool place in summer, and in a warm place in winter. Use it the early part of the following day ; then knead it afresh, and if the French form is desired, make into balls of uniform size. Hollow them at the top by pressing the thumb into them ; brush them over with eggs, and put a second much smaller ball into the hollow part of each. Glaze again Avith yolk of egg, and bake them for half an hour in a quick oven ; or the brioche may be formed into cakes and placed on a tin, and supported with pasteboard to prevent the flattening of the cakes. Brioche may also be used as a paste to enclose rissoles, or to make rolls for jams or jellies, or even for rol an vent ; but to many persons it is unpalatable on account of the large proportion of butter and eggs. Average cost, 2s. 6d.

Broad Beans {xce Beans, Broad).

I Brocoli, Boiled. — Trim off all leaves

j that are not required or liked, and place the

I brocoK in a pan of salted water to kill any

I insects, &c., that may have taken shelter under

i the stalks. Wash them well, and put them into

an uncovered saucepan of boiling water, with a

large table-spoonful of salt to every half gallon

of water. Keep them boiling till done, which

will be in about ten or fifteen minutes, according

to size. Drain them directly they are done, or

ฆ they will lose colour and become sodden.

I Brocoli, To Pickle. — Choose the finest, whitest, and closest vegetables before they arc ! quite ripe. Pare oft' all green leaves and the i outsides of the stalks. Parboil them in well; salted water. When drained and dry, pull of I the branches in convenient-sized pieces, and put I them into a jar of pickle prepared as for onions. j Time to parboil, four or five minutes. Probable I cost, from 2d. to 6d.

i Broil, To. — In broiling, the first consideraI tion is the gridiron. This should be kept most I scrupulously bright and clean. It should never \ be put away dirtj', but be polished and rul)bed i diy eveiy tinie it is used, and carefuUj- freed from ; grease, &c., between the bars, as well as on the , top of them. It should be placed over the fire ! for four or live minutes ifcHbe heated through j before being used, but not made so hot that it ' will burn the meat ; and after that it should be well rubbed with mutton suet if meat is to be cooked, and with chalk for fish ; and it is important that a separate gridiron should be kept for those two. The gridiron should be placed a little above the fire, and held in a slanting direction, so that the fat which flows from it

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may not dxop upon the cinders, and so cause a smoke oi' flame. If these should arise, the gridii-on may be lifted, away for a moment till they have subsided. The fire must be clear, bright, and tolerably strong, made of cinders mixed with a little coke or charcoal. A half burnt-out fire is the best. A little salt thrown over it will help to make the fire clear. Sprinkle a little pepper over the meat before it is put upon the bars, but no salt. Turn it frequently with a pair of steak tongs. If these are not at hand, and it is necessary to use a fork, put it into the fat part of the meat, never into the lean, or the juice will escape. If, before turning the meat, a little gravy has settled upon it, drop it carefully on the dish upon which the meat is to be served. Chops and steaks of beef and mutton are generally preferred rather underdone ; but lamb and pork chops must be well cooked. Sprinkle a little salt upon the dish before placing the meat upon it, and mix with it, if liked, a little ketchup ; but, generally speaking, the juice which runs from the meat is the only gravy required. Birds which are cut in halves before broiling should be laid with the inside first to the fire. Cutlets which have been egged and breaded should be dipped in clarified butter before being laid upon the gridiron. Fish should be wrapped in well-buttered paper before being broiled, or, if this is not done, it should be washed in vinegar, well dried, and dredged with flour. Broiling is by no means difficult if care and attention be given to it. It should always be done the last thing, as the meat should be taken quickly from the fire to the table, and the dishes and plates used should be made as hot as possible. With these — a clean gridiron, a clear fire, good material, and close watchfulness, and the exercise of a little judgment in taking the meat up at the right moment — small dainty pieces of meat and fish may be cooked by broiling in a manner superior to that which can be obtained by any other process of cookery.

BroS6 Boef {see Beef, Brose).

Broth, Strengthening,— Put into a

vessel one pfiuud ni the ni'ck of mutton, and the same (Quantity of fillet of veal, cut up into small pieces, with six pints of water. Afterwards add a handful of chervil, a little wild endive, and two small lettuces, all being previously cut small. Boil the whole for thi-ee hours over a gentle fire, strain, and salt the broth.

Brown Boux, or Thickening,— Melt

half a pdund of butter in a well-tinned saucepan ; dredge in flour till it becomes a paste, stirring it all the time. Put it, for a few minutes, over a quick fire, but be careful it does not burn; the colour should be a light brown. Draw it aside to simmer, and stir well; then put it into a jar for use. Close tightly, and it will keep good for some time.

Brown Sauce. — Melt two ounces of butter in a small saucepan, and add one ounce of flour, stirring until it is of a brown colour. Then add sufficient boiling water to render it of a cream-like consistency, and season to taste with salt and pepper.

i Brown Soup,— Cut into small pieces the j following vegetables : — One pound of tm-nips, the same of carrots, half a pound of celery, and six ounces of onions. Put these into a pan with fonr ounces of butter, and let them stew, with occasional stii-ring, till brown. Boil one pint and a half of peas, and using them with sufficient boiling watCi to make the entire quantity about three quarts. Add half a pound of toasted bread, season with black peppercorns, Jamaica pepper, and salt. Boil gently for three or four hours, then strain through a coarse sieve, and return it to the j^rnn. When it boils it is ready for the table.

Brown Soup (another way). — Slice and fry in butter half a dozen carrots, with the same quantity of turnips, four potatoes, four onions, and three heads of celery. Put them into a pan with five quarts of boiling water. Let them stew four or five hours, then strain through a sieve, season with pepper and salt, then boil and serve.

Brussels Sprouts, — Pick, trim, and wash a number of sprouts. Put them into plenty of fast-boiling water. The sudden immersion of the vegetables will check the boiling for some little time, but they must be brought to a boil as quickly as possible, that they maj hot lose their green colour ; add a table-spoonful of salt and a little piece of soda, and boil very fast for fifteen minutes. Lose no time in draining them when sufficiently done ; and serve plain, or with a little wliite sauce over the top. Cost, from 2d. to 3d. per pound, according to the season. Sufficient for a dish, one pound.

Brussels Sprouts, Saute,— Wash, and

drain one pound of sprouts; put them into boiling water for fifteen minutes, with half an ounce of salt to each gallon, and when done, chy them on a clean cloth. Dissolve half an ounce of butter in a pan, and shake the sprouts in it over the fire for a minute or two; season them with pepper, salt, and a little nutmeg, and serve very hot. Sprouts about the size of a walnut have the most delicate flavour. Sufficient for two or three persons. Probable cost, .3d. to 4d. per pound.

Bubble and Squeak.— Dissolve two or

three ounces of butter or beef di-ipping in a frying-pan. Cut some thin slices of cold boiled or roast meat, and fry them slightly, a nice brown. Mix some cold greens of any kind with a few mashed potatoes, shred onion, if liked, salt, and pepper, and fry, stirring all the time. Serve hot, with the vegetables round the dish, and the meat in the middle. Fry for about twenty minutes. Probable cost, from 4d. to 6d. without the meat.

Buckwheat ^ Cakes, American,—

These cakes are seen on most American breakfast-tables. Mode of making : — To a pint of buckwheat-flour add a large tea-spoonful of baking-powder and a little salt. jNIix to a thin batter, using lukewarm water in cold weather. The frying-pan requires to be only rubbed with grease, and the batter di'opped in in quantities sufficient to cover an ordinary breakfast-plate at one time. When done on one side, turn, and send to tabic very hot

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and well buttered, or they can be eaten with treacle or, syrup if preferred.

Buckwheat Cakes (another way) . — Put a large table-spoonful of yeast into a hollow made in tlie middle of one quart of buckwheat, and work it into a light dough with cold water ; cover it up warm by the fire to rise for three hours. When risen enough, the top will be cracked ; then get ready the griddle — it should be hot, and well buttered or greased. The cakes may then be proceeded with. Convey with a ladle as much batter as may be wanted, that is, according to the size of the cakes ; when done on one side tui-n, and, when quite baked, butter them as they are removed from the griddle. A fresh supply of butter is required for every cake, but it is sufficient if the griddle be well rubbed with it. Lay them one on the other and divide into quarters.

Buckwheat Cakes, Raised.— Warm a

quart of water. Stir into it a good tablespoonful of treacle aijd a tea-spoonful of salt. Mix in enough buckwheat-flour (or oatmeal or Indian corn-flour) to make a stiff batter, together with a table- spoonful of good yeast. Let it stand to rise before the fire. Then bake on a hot plate, in iron rings, like muffins, or in a slack oven. Toast and serve the cakes hot with butter.

BuUaces {see Damsons).

Bullock's Brains. — Lay some slices of bacon into a stewpan, with onions, carrots, chives, and parsley ; blanch the brains in luke-warm water, and put them in with equal quantities of white wine and stock broth, seasoned with pepper and salt. Stew gently for half an hour, and send to table with fried X)arsley.

Bullock's Brains with Tomato Sauce. — Stew the brains as directed in the preceding recipe, and when 'quite ready to serve, cover with tomato sauce.

Bullock's Heart (a la Mode ).— Split open the heart at its thinnest side, without cutting it in two ; take out the arterial cartilage and the coagulated blood left in it ; fll the inside with bacon cut into dice, seasoned with pepper, salt, and chopped parsleJ^ Tie it round with tape into its original shape. Stew it in a saucepan, covered with broth, and half as much cider, if to be had; add a bunch of sweet herbs, and as many onions and carrots as there is space for. When it has simmered gently for four hours, lay it on a dish, put the carrots and onions round it ; let the liquor boil a few minutes longer to thicken, then pour some of it over the heart, and serve the rest in a saiiceboat. If preferred, flavour the latter with mushi'oom ketchup and a little red wine, which will give to the heart the flavour of hare. Probable cost, Is. 6d. to 2s. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Bullock's Heart, To Roast.— AVash

the heart well, then fill all the openings at the top, or broad end, with a stuffing composed of crumb of bread, chopped suet, parsley, pepper, and salt, moistened with an egg and a little

milk ; suspend with the pointed end downwards. An hour and a half or two hours, according to the degree of heat, will cook the heart : it should be well done. Send to table with beef gravy. Probable cost, Is. 6d. to 23. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Bullock's Heart, To Roast (another way). — Boil the heart for one hour or more, before roasting; it will be less indigestible, and will take away, to some extent, the grease so generally complained of. Before boiling see that it is perfectly clean, and all the unnecessary parts cut off. Put it into hot water, bring it quickly to a boil, and then simmer one hour and a half. Prepare a veal stuffing ; fill up the cavities, fastening them with coarse strong thread. Baste unsparingly with butter, and roast before a moderate fire from one to two hours,- according to size. Serve with the gravy on a very hot dish. Probable cost. Is. 6d. to "is. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Bullock's Heart, with Onions.— Prepare a stuffiing of tln-ee ounces of bread-crumb, two ounces of onion, parboiled and finely cut, half an ounce of powdered sage, salt and pepper to taste. Fill the heart as directed in precedingrecipe. It should be served with good brown gravy and apple sauce. Time to boil, one hour ; to roast, from one and a half to two hours. Probable cost, Is. 6d. to 2s. Sufficient for five or six persons.

Bullock's Kidney, Fried.— Cut up a

biiUock's kidney into very thin slices, dust plentifully with flour, and season with pepper and salt. Place an ounce of butter into a saucepan ; as soon as it begins to melt, put the sliced and seasoned kidney to it ; add a little cold water, just enough to prevent birrning, or, if to be had, use cider instead. Add a table-spoonful of ketchup. Keep shaking and stii-ring over a gentle fire, but do not let it come to a boil ; if it does, the kidney will be hard and tasteless. The secret of success consists in not letting it cook too much, too fast, or too long. Lay bits of toasted bread round the edge of a dish; with a spoon put the kidney in the middle, give the gravy a boil up, and pour over it. Some cooks garnish with sliced lemon, and stew in port or champagne ; for the latter, the cider is not a bad substitute, and is more easily I obtained.

I Bullock's Kidney, Fried (another way).

I — Soak a bullock's kidney for an hour or more

I in warm water. Cut it into thin slices, drain,

I dry, and season with peiJi^er and salt, and dredge

i them lightly with flour. Fry in butter until

I they become a light-brown colour; put the

slices roimd a dish, doubling them a little one

over the other. Make a gravy with the butter

in the pan, and a small quantity of floiu- to

thicken. Add two dessert-spoonfuls of sauce

piquante, with a tea-spoonful of sugar, and

pour into the centre of the dish. Time to

fry, from eight to ten minutes. Probable cost.

Is. od. Sufficient for thi'ce persons.

Bullock's Kidney Rissoles. — Beat up the yolk of an egg with an ounce of butter melted before the fire. Take some slices of cold

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teef kidncj- and the same of bacon; dip the liacon into the egg-mixture and lay it on the kidney. Boil two eggs hard; cut them into sliuis "and lay them on the bacon ; the mixture Avill cement all three together. Proceed until all the kidney, bacon, and egg be used up. Strew bread-crumb over, fry a light-brown colour, and send to table with a good gi-avy. Time, ten minutes. Probable cost, without kidney or bacon, Gd.

Bullock's Kidney, Stewed.— Fry the

slices of a kidney in butter until they become a light-bro-wTi. Sprinkle them with pepper and salt. Make a gravy with the butter, a little flour, and warm water ; then put the slices into the stewpan with the gravy, and stew over a slow fire until quite tender. A little mushroom ketchup may be added. Time, about twenty minutes. Cost of kidney, lOd. per pound. Sufficient for two or three persons.

Bullock's Liver for Gravy. — This liver may be and is used by many fried with bacon, biit it is more generally used for gra\y in made dishes. It is excellent for this purpose prepared in the following manner : — After being well cbained, lay it in a dish with salt well spread over every side ; let it stay twentyfour hours, then drain, and hang it in a di-y place, to use when required.

Bullock's Tongue (a la Francjaise).— This is a very superior mode of cooking a tongue-. Get together all the trimmings from poultry-heads, necks, &c., some ham, bacon bones, or veal pairings. Put the tongue into a large stewpan with these remnants, add a small quantity of water, some pepper and salt, a few cloves, a bunch of sweet herbs, and a good-sized onion. "When it has been simmering one hour, throw in a little more water, enough to just cover the tongue ; simmer till done, then strain, and make a glaze of part of the gravy; lay it over the tongue, and send to table ornamented with fancily-made cuttings from boiled carrots and turnips. The remainder of the gravy will be of great use to the cook for sauces. Probable cost, 5s. to 6s.

Bullock's Tongue, Boiled.— A tongue for boiling is best fresh from the pickle ; but a di-y one should be soaked twelve hours. Wash

BULLOCK S TONGUE FOR TABLE.

it well from the salt, and trim off any objectionable part. Put it into a stewpan with plenty of water, and when it has once boiled, simmer very gently till done. It is excellent, though the plan is not economicalj if boiled, or

rather simmered, from six to seven hours, and allowed to cool in the liquor ; but, in the ordinary way, a large tongue takes from four to four and a half hours, and a small one from thi-ee to three and a half. Take off the skin and press the tongue into a round shape with a weight on the top, or fasten at each end to a board to keep it straight, if preferred. \Vhcn cold, put some glaze over it, and garnish with parsley. Probable cost, 5s. to 63.

Bullock's Tongue, Cured.— Mix well together equal quantities of salt and sugar — a large table-spoonful of each — and half a tablespoonful of saltpetre. liub the tongue with a good handful of common salt, and let it lie all night, then drain, and wipe before adding the above mixture. Lay it out on a board, and rub the mixture all over, not omitting to put some into the hole under the tongue. It must be turned and rubbed with a little extra salt for the first two or three days ; then, with a large spoon, moisten the tongue well every morning for a fortnight. A tongue thus pickled will not require any soaking. Probable cost, OS. to 6s.

Bullock's Tongue, Cured (another

way). — Procure a tongue, with as little root as possible, from the butcher; but if sent with much on, cut off before salting all that is not required to cook with the tongue, and put it into a slight pickle of salt and water to cleanse it from the slime. Next day drain and salt for a couple of days, when it will be fit for pea-soup. Prepare the' tongue by sprinkling it well with salt, and letting it drain; then rub in the following mixture : — A large spoonful of common salt, the same quantity of coarse sugar, half as much saltpetre, two cloves of garlic chopped very fine, and a tea-spoonful of ground pepper. The tongue should be rubbed every day for ten days, and turned as often. It may be dried or smoked. Probable cost, 5s. to 6s.

Bullock's Tongue, Cured (another

way). — To half an ounce of saltpetre, jjounded, two ounces of common salt, and an ounce and a half of coarse sugar, add a little bay salt, and rub it into a tongue for eight or nine days, turning it even' day. Remove it from the pickle, drain, and hang it in a wann but not hot place, to dry and harden. It may be cooked whole, or a small piece may be cut off as required, and when boiled, grated for gravy. Probable cost, OS. to 6s.

Bullock's Tongue, Fricasseed (German). — Boil a tongue as directed, put some butter into a stewpan, and when it is of a rich golden colour, add some finely-cut onion, cloves, a slice or two of lemon, a cupful of stock, in wliich a small spoonful of flour has been mixed, and a glass of sherry or Madeira. Place slices of tongue in the pan with this sauce, to which may be added sardines or mushrooms (the Germans like a mixture of tastes), and simmer in the usual way for ten minutes. Serve up the slices of tongue with the sauce poured over. Time, twenty minutes to stew. Probable costj from OS. to 6s.

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Bullock's Tongue, Larded (u la Berlin). — Wlit-n tho tongue has boiled for tliiee hours, remove it, but do not throw away the liquor. Peel ott' the skin, lard the tongue with bacon, and put it into a stewpan with a little of the liquor, a few wilver button onions, which have been first fried, a glass of wine, a little sugar, and Hour to thicken; stew the tongue in this for an hour, then add the juice of half a lemon, and servo. Probable cost, 5s. to 6s.

Bullock's Tongue, Miroton of.— Fry

some slices of onion, shallot, chives, and parsley, in butter ; they should be cut small, and fried a pale brown. Add a little Hour, mixed with a little good gravy, or jelly, and stir till thickish ; then lay in sUces of ox tongue, seasoned with spice and salt, and simmer for fifteen minutes. Pound some capers and an anchovy, with a little -sinegar ; make all hot, and pour over the tongue. Probable cost, Is. 2d. per pound. One pound suflicient for a dish.

Bullocks' Tongues, Pickled and Baked. — Prepare the following ingredients: — Two ounces of bay salt, one ounce of saltpetre, a few cloves, a blade of mace, and some allspice, all pounded together ; add them to six ounces of salt, and thi-ee ounces of course brown sugar; mix well, and rub it into the tongue, and turn it every day for fifteen days, then put it into the oven with some butter over it, in pieces, and a common crust over all. Bake until very tender ; try it with a wooden skewer — if it offers no resistance it is ready. Peel, and straighten it out on a board, and when cold, glaze and send to table with a ruffle round the root. Probable cost, os. to 6s.

Bullock's Tongue, with Piquante Sauce. — Many people forget, or do not, perhaps, know, that an ox tongue may be served in many different ways besides cold boiled. The following makes a handsome dish, and where people are accustomed to continental cookery will be sure to be appreciated: — Wash a fine tongue in cold and then throw it into boiling water. Let it boil for half an hour; take it out, drain, and put it into a clean pan covered with cold water. Simmer it for two hours, then add two or three carrots, turnips, a bunch of celery, and sweet herbs ; simmer another hour, remove the tongue and skin it. Next, get a stewpan, and put into it some small onions, two bay-leaves, a few cloves, peppercorns, a sprig of thj-mo, a slice of ham, and a scraped carrot, -n-ith about a quart of the liquor the tongue was boiled in. Place the tongue in last of all, cover down tightly, and stew two hours, ฆ^^^len done, put the tongue on a hot dish. Thicken the sauce with flour, mustard, and scraped horse-radish (a very small quantity) ; give it one boil, pour over the tongue, and serve. "When too large for a small party, cut the tongue in haK before stewing it. The one half may be served as directed, and the other half may be pressed into a mould, covered with a glaze, and served cold for breakfast, lunch, &c. Probable cost of a tongue, 5s. to 6s. One-half sufficient for five or six persons.

Buns. — Directions for compounding tho following buns will bo found under their respective headings : — ฆ

American Bri

AKl

AST

H.INOVER

Bath


Hot Cros

Chester


Madeira

Christmas (Scotch)

Plain

Devonshire


Pllm

Endcliffe



Scotch

Geneva


Spanish

Good Friday


Windsor.

Guernsey




Buns, Light Tea. — Take one pound of flour, half a tea-spoonful of tartaric acid, and the same quantity of carbonate of soda, and work all well together through. a sieve ; then rub two ounces of butter into the flour, being very careful to leave no lumps. \Vhen this is thoroughly mixed, add a quarter of a poimd of well-di'ied currants, two ouiijcs of sifted sugar, and a very few caraway-seeds. Next, mix half a pint of milk with one egg, make a hole in the middle of the flour, and pour in the milk, working it all lightly together. Do not touch the dough with the hand, or the buns ^^dll be heavy, but place it in lumps on the baking-tin with a fork. Probable cost for a dozen cakes. Is.

Bun Pudding.— Take as many stale buns as a dish will contain ^^^thout crowding ; mix a custard, allowing five eggs to a quart of milk ; season it Mith sugar and any kind of spices. Pour the custard over the buns, and let it stand and soak one or two hom-s. When it is all absorbed, bake it an hour and a half. This makes a very economical and pleasant pudding for a family where there are many children.

Burdwan, Indian. — This dish is much appreciated in India, and almost any kind of cold meat may be used for it. Venison, however, has the preference, but poultry may be so cooked as to ensure success. Take a tablespoonful of minced Spanish onion and half the quantity of shallot. To this put a pint of cold water, a mild seasoning of cayenne pepper, a table-spoonful of essence of anchovies, and an ounce of butter, mixed with a tea-spoonful of flour. Let this sauce simmer, after it has come to a boil, about a quarter of an hour, or until the onion is tender ; then add to it a tablespoonful of Chili vinegar and a glass or two of Madeira. Draw the stewpan near the fire, and place the meat into it — if a fowl, divide it into joints and strip oft' the skin — when hot through, draw still nearer to the fire, but it should not be allowed to boil. If the fowl has been roasted, it may be sent to table when just on the point of boiling; but if only partly cooked before, allow it to simmer from twenty to twenty-five minutes. Many additional sauces may be used, and the juice of a lime or Seville orange pressed into it before serving ; but care should be taken that no strong flavoui- of any particular sauce predominates. Sufficient for three or four persons.

Burdwan Stew. — Any cold roast or boiled lamb, poultry, or game wiU do well for this. Make a sjvuce as follows : — To half a pint of

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good gravy iii a stewpan add a tea-spoonful of soy and cayenne, and the same of lemon pickle, mushroom ketchup, and cucumher vinegar. A fowl previously cooked should be jointed, and it will only require to he heated thi-ough in the sauce. Pat it on the fire until it comes to a hoil, when it will he ready to serve. It must bo served hot. Suitable for an entree.

Burnt Almonds {see Almonds, Burnt) .

Butter (a I'Espagnol). — Put haK an ounce of isinglass, one glassful of rose-water, and six bitter almonds, blanched and sliced, into an enamelled saucepan, and let it stand near the fire for an hour, or until the isinglass is dissolved and the flavour extracted from the almonds. Add, by degrees and very carefully, half a pint of cream mixed with the yolks of three well-beaten eggs. Sweeten to taste, and stir it well over a slow fire until it thickens. Remove it from the fire, and continue to stir until nearly cold, and put it into a mould well wetted with rose-water. Time to thicken, about ten minutes. Probable cost for one pint mould, 2s.

Butter (a la Maitre d' Hotel). —Eub a very little flour into a quarter of -a pound of butter ; put it into a stewpan with a little parsley, scalded and minced, and salt and pepper. Work it well with a wooden spoon, and squeeze a little lemon juice into it. This should only be made for immediate use. Or, mix four ounces of butter with two spoonfuls of chopped parsley, salt, a salt-spoonful of white pepper, and the juice of two small lemons. Probable cost, 6d.

Butter (a la Maitre d' Hotel: another way). — Tie up a bunch of parsley and boU it for a short time ; drain, and chop it very fine, and add it to some melted butter so as to make a thick paste. Make it hot, and serve. This is a common sauce for boiled veal.

Butter, Black. — -Take raspberries, strawberries, gooseb.erries, currants, or any other fruit, and boil them with one pound of sugar to every two pounds of fruit. Boil well, and until the quantity is reduced to two-thirds, then put into pots. This forms a useful and agreeable preserve for children.

Butter, Brown. — Melt six ounces of butter in a stewpan over the fire untO. it becomes of a brown colour, and then allow it to become cold. Take another stewpan, and put into it a cupful of vinegar with pepper, which reduce one-third by boiling. When the butter is cold, add it to the vinegar and pepper, stir all up well, and wann it over the fire, care being taken that it is not allowed to boil. If the butter is not cool before adding it to the vinegar it will spurt over the sides of the vessel. As the usual taste of the batter is entirely destroyed by the heat to which it is subjected, it will be found that an article of the cheapest kind wiU answer for this purj^ose as weH as the best .

Butter, Brown (German method) . — Take any quantity of butter required to be browned, and j)ut it into an iron saucepan over a slow fire. Stir until it assumes the colour wanted, taking care that it does not bum. What is required to be dipped in this brown butter

should be prepared beforehand, and dipped just before serving. Time, about ten minutes. Butter, Burnt Sauce. — Brown two

ounces of batter in a frying-pan ; stir until it is of a good colour, then add a tea-spoonful of salt, a veiy little cayenne pepper, and two tablespoonfuls of hot vinegar. This sauce is recommended by Dr. Kitchener as excellent to serve over poached eggs or for broiled fish. Probable cost, 4d.

Butter, Clarified.— Melt some butter in a perfectly clean saucepan; remove the scum, &c., which will rise to the top, and let it stand by the side of the fire for all impurities to sink to the bottom. Strain it carefully through a sieve, leaving the sediment at the bottom of the saucepan. Butter should be clarified before it is used to cover potted meats, (fee. When it is hot it may be used instead of olive-oil, and is liked better than oil by many cooks, both for salads and for other pm-poscs. Time to melt, about three minutes.

Butter, Clarified (another way). — Dissolve the butter before the fire, and have ready a clean jar in which to pour it. There is much waste in straining clarified butter, and this is not necessarj^ if it be stirred once or twice whilst melting, then allowed to stand and carefully thrown into the jar, so as to leave the sediment behind. Tie it down securely to keep it from the air.

Butter, Creamed. —To reduce butter to cream beat it in a bowl with the hand in a contrary direction to that observed in making cream into butter. Any water or milk must be thrown off. Time, from fifteen to twenty minutes.

Butter, Fairy. — Blanch and pound two ounces of sweet almonds, adding a little orangeflower water. Wash a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, and beat it to a paste with six yolks of hard boiled eggs, a little grated lemonpeel, and sifted loaf sugar. Mix all together with a wooden spoon, and work it tlirough a colander. Serve it, on biscuit soaked in wine, piled up very high. Probable cost, without wine, Is. 6d.

^ Butter for Cold Dish.es.— Pound the

following ingredients in a mortar, and reduce them to a smooth paste : — One clove of garlic, six hard boiled yolks of eggs, a sj^oonful of capers, and a seasoning of mace and allspice ; moisten Tsdth a little tarragon -vinegar and a glassful of salad-oil, and then add eight ounces of butter, with spinach -juice enough to make the butter green. Pound all till very smooth, and set it on ice to get firm, when it may be used for the decoration of cold meats, fish, salads, &c. Probable cost, Is. 8d. to 2s., according to the price of butter.

Butter, Melted. — Mix a little flour with a quarter of a pound of butter. Put it, -wath a wine-glassful of water, into a saucepan, stir one way until melted, and when thick and only just boiled, it is ready. A superior melted butter may be made by using cream instead of water, and leaving out the floui\ It should not be allowed to boil.

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Butter, Melted (another way). — Take a piece of butter the size of a hen's egg, cut it into three or four slices, and work in as much of a dessert-spoonful of flour as the butter will take up. Put this into a saucepan with threequarters of a pint of cold water, keep stirring in one du-ection as the butter melts, and dust in what remains of the flour. When they are well mixed, smooth, and the sauce boils up, it is ready for serving. Or the lump of butter may be simply put in the saucepan with cold water, gradually dusting in the flour as it warms and melts. This rough-and-ready way requires careful management to prevent the flour from gathering into knots. Good melted butter, even if smooth, should not be too thick or past)'. It vnll acquire that condition by being kept waiting too long at the side of the stove. In that case it can easily be thinned by the addition of more butter and a little warm water.

Butter, Melted (for fish a la Hollandaise). — Put into a pan some butter, with salt, pepper, and lemon-juice. Simmer all gently, continually stining the butter with a wooden spoon, until it is half melted. Then remove the pan from the fire, and continue to stir it until it becomes quite liquid, care being taken not to allow the butter to remain on the fire for too long a time, other^\'ise its flavour will be impaired.

Butter, Melted, Prench.— Rub a tablespoonful of flour into a quarter of a pound of good fresh butter, put it into a clean stewpan, with a little salt, half a spoonful of white vinegar, a wine-glassful of water, and a httle nutmeg. Stir it over the fire till it thickens; but the flavour will not be so good if it boils. Or, melt a quarter of a poxmd of butter without flour ; keep the pan in motion till quite hot. The best butter should always be used for melting purposes. Probable cost, Is. 6d. to Is. lOd. per pound.

Buttered Mushrooms.— Rub the stems of young mushrooms with salt to cleanse them, then rinse in salted water, and dry in a cloth. Put two ounces of fresh butter into a ste'^Tpan, over a very slow fire, and when the butter is of a beautiful pale brown, put the stems in, and shake them about to prevent the butter from oiling and the stems from burning. When tender, serve them with their own gravy, arranged high on the dish. It is an excellent relish, and requires no sauce.

Buttered Toast.— Cut rather thick slices from a square stale loaf ; place them near the fire to keep soft, and brown both sides alike ; have a hot plate ready to put them oa, and butter according to taste. Some like it buttered on both sides. Pare oflE the crusts and serve, covered up hot. For dry toast the slices should be cut thin, and held at a distance from the fire to make it crisp. A little movement of the hand ฆ^\-ili help this.

Butter Preserved with Honey.— Wash and press the butter imtil it is quite free from milk. Put it into a jar, and place it into boiling water. When it is clarified, and

just before boiling, remove it from the water to a, cool place ; take off the scum, and work it up in the i^roportion of two ounces of honey to every two pounds of butter. This mode of preparation will be found very convenient where butter is eaten with sweet dishes. It will keep as long as salted butter if the air be properly excluded from it.

Butter, Ravigote (a la Gouffe).— This butter is composed of the following ingredients, pounded together in a mortar : — First, blanch fti boiling water for two minutes, one pound of herbs— tarragon, mixed chervil, burnet, chives, and cress — tlien press out the water by squeezing them in a cloth. Put them, with half a dozen well-washed anchovies, and the same of hard boiled eggs, into a mortar, add a piece of garlic (about the size of a pea), a seasoning of salt and pepper, two ounces of gherkins, and two ounces of capers ; these last should be well squeezed from the vinegar. 'WTien well pounded and smoothed through a sieve they are to be mixed with two pounds of butter, two table-spoonfuls of oil, and one of tarragon vinegar, and again pounded and mixed for use.

Butter, Salt (Scottish method).— Put the butter into a tub of clean water, press it thoroLighly with the hand or a broad butterbeater until the water is entirely removed. Lay it out on a board and spiiakle it with salt, an ounce to every three pounds of butter. Work and beat it well. Then make a brine strong enough to float an egg ; add two ounces of loaf sugar, and boil it ; when quite cold, put some of this prepared pickle to the butter, and press and squeeze ofi: the water. If it does not come off clear, repeat the washing in fresh pickle. The kit or tub for storing is filled up within two inches of the top with butter, the pickle thrown on it, and a clean linen cloth over aU. The lid of the kit must then be well secxrred.

Butter Sauce. — Season a cupful of flour with salt, pepper, nutmeg, and cloves. Mix it with some water into a paste, and work in a piece of butter about the size of an egg. Put the thin paste into a pan over the fire, and boil it for a quarter of an hour, then take it ofl:', and add some fresh butter in small poiiions at a time, continually stirring the contents to prevent the butter from I'ising to the surface. Afterwards add some vinegar and mix thoroughly. This sauce is used with fish and boiled vegetables.

Butter Sauce (another way). — Put a quarter of a pint of melted butter into an enamelled saucepan over a slow fire — see that it does not brown — and two well-whisked eggs, carefully stirring all the time till it thickens. Remove before it boils, and pour in a little lemon-juice. Time, about three or fom- minutes.

Butter Scones. — Take a pint of thin cream, salt it to taste, and stir it into flour enough to make a dough of the proper consistency. Knead well, roll out thin, and form into scones ; prick them vnth a fork, and bake over a clear fire on a griddle. Butter should be served with them ; they ai-e excellent for breakfast or tea.

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Butter Seasoned with. Pepper.—

Work up some butter with powdered pepper, and serve as soon as prepared. Butter and other spices may be prepared in a similar manner.

Butter, To Keep, in Summer.— Place

the butter-dish into a basin containing water, within two inches of the top. Thi-ow a piece of muslin, which has been well wetted, but wrung to prevent any moisture di'ipping into the butter, over it, and allow the ends to fall into the water. Or, turn a large Hower-pot, around which a woollen cloth has been tied, previously well soaked in water, over the butterdish, and stand it on a stone iloor. In this latter plan all that is needed is to keep the woollen cloth moist ; in the former, to change the water every day, and rinse the muslin.

Butter, To Preserve without Salt.—

Dissolve the butter very gently in a clean pan over the fire. All the watery particles will evaporate, and the curd — which is the cause of the butter becoming rancid — will fall to the bottom. It should not boil. Throw the butter into a clean vessel, keeping out the sediment and excluding the air by means of a bladder tied over the top. "When cool it resembles lard. It will also lose some of its flavour, but it is superior to salt butter for culinary uses, and esj)ecially for pastry.

Butter, Truffled.— To those who like the flavour of truffles, an economical method of procuring it is to dissolve a pound of butter, skim and simmer for four or five minutes, and when the sediment settles, pour the top into an enamelled saucepan over some small thick slices of French truffles. Add a seasoning of salt, l ounded mace, cayenne, and nutmeg. Heat the truffles slowly and shake the pan well round ; draw it aside, and stew twenty minutes, or until j the truffles are tender ; then remove them and ] pour the butter into pots for use. This butter will be an excellent addition to any mode of cooking a fowl or turkey, or for frying any light dish of veal, hard eggs, or similar preparations. The truffles thus prepared may be used for any sauce required for poultry, veal, tongue, sweet-breads, or other light dish ; or, warmed again, they will serve as a garnish.

Buttermilk Cakes. — Take one pint of buttermilk, and stir into it as much flour as will form a dough, with one table-spoonful of dissolved carbonate of ammonia. Roll the dough out in sheets, cut the cakes, and bake them in a moderate oven. The carbonate of ammonia maj' be obtained at any of the druggists ; it is the common smelling-salts, without any of the aromatic drugs. It never imparts any taste to the food, as the heat disengages the carbonic acid gas and the ammonia.

Buttermilk Scones or Bread.— To one

pound of flour add one tea-spoonful of salt; mi.x fifty gi-ains of carbonate of soda with a teaspoonful of powdered sugar, and rub them into the flour. When thoy are well blended together, mix the flour into a stiff: dough with some buttermilk — or milk will do — but no time should be lost in putting it into tho oven, or the bread will be heavy. It requires a well-heated oven.

but not a strong one. Time to bake, about three-quarters of an hour. Probable cost, from 3d. to 4d. Sufficient for a small loaf.

Cabbage (ala LiUoise). — Wash and drain a large cabbage, and, after removing the stalk, cut it into pieces about the size of a walnut. Melt two ounces of butter in a saucepan, and fry in it for a minute or two a small tea-spoonful of finely-chopped onion. Add the cabbage, with pepper, salt, and a little grated nutmeg. Cook it over a slow fire, and turn it frequently to prevent burning. Place on a hot dish and serve. Time to prepare, fifteen minutes. Probable cost, -Id. or od. Sufficient for four persons.

Cabbage, Boiled. — Cut off the stalk, remove the faded and outer leaves, and halve, or, if large, quarter the cabbages. Wash them thorouglily, and lay them for a few minutes in water, to which a table-spoonful of vinegar has been added, to draw out any insects that may be lodging under the leaves. Di-ain them in a colander. Have ready a large pan of boilingwater, with a table-spoonful of salt and a small piece of soda in it, and let the cabbages boil quickly tiU tender, leaving tho saucepan uncovered. Take them uj) as soon as they are done, drain them thoroughly, and serve. Time to boil : young summer cabbages, from ten to fifteen minutes ; large cabbages or savoys, half an hour or more. Probable cost, 2d. each. Sufficient, one moderate-sized cabbage for two persons.

Cabbages, Boiled (another way). — Cut off the stalk, remove the faded outer leaves, and halve, or, if large, quarter the cabbages. Wash them thoroughly, and lay them for a few minutes in water to which a table-spoonful of vinegar has been added for the purpose of destroying any insects that may be present. Drain them in a colander. Put them in a largo saucepan of boiling water, to which a tablespoonful of salt and a very small piece of soda have been added, and let them boil quickly for six minutes, pressing them doAvn two or three times to keep them well under the water. Then take them out and throw them into another saucepan prepared just like the first. Let them boil ten minutes, and repeat the process, letting them boil the third time until tender. Serve as hot as possible, with melted butter or white sauce pom-ed over them. Time : small summer cabbage, twenty minutes or more ; large cabbage, from half to threequarters of an hour. Sufficient, one small cabbage for two persons.

Cabbage Cake.— Boil a large cabbage tiU it is quite tender. Drain the water from it, and chop it small. Butter the inside of a piedish, and dust it with finely-grated breadcrumbs. Place on these a layer of chopped cabbage about an inch thick, then a layer of cold beef or mutton finely minced and flavoured ; repeat imtil the pie-dish is nearly full, making the top laver of the cabbage. Lay three or four

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ra )ver it, and put the dish in a

mi Vhen it is heated thoroughly,

an loked, tui-n it out as from a

mi good brown gravy round it.

Ti ilf an houi-. Probable cost,

w) :ieat, 2d. or 3d. Sufficient, a smau pie-oasn luii for thi-ee or four persons.

Cabbage and. Bacon. — Boil a piece of pickled pork until it is about three-cjuarters cooked. Then take it out of the water, drain it, and place two or three rashers of bacon in the saucepan. Lay on these a cabbage which has been thoroughly washed and cut into quarters, and put the pork over the cabbage. Cover the whole with lucely-flavoiux'd stock ; add pepper, nutmeg, and pai-sley, but no salt, as it will most hkely be found there is sufficient in the bacon and stock. Sinmicr gently until the cabbage is cooked. Place the vegetables on a hot dish with the pork in the midst of them ; thicken the gravy, and pour it over the whole. Time to boil the cabbage, twenty minutes. Sufficient for four or live persons.

Cabbage, Creamed..— Thoroughly

cleanse two young cabbages, and boil them until quite soft. Take them out, di'ain, and press them between two hot plates until they are di-y, when they may be slightly chopped. ]\relt a piece of butter the size of an egg in a stewpan, add pepper and salt, then put in the cabbage, and turn it about for two or three minutes. When it is thoroughly heated, dredge a tablespoonful of tiour over it, and mix with it very gradually a cupful of milk or cream. Serve on a hot dish. Time, half an hour. Probable cost, Id. or 2d. each. Sufficient for tlu-ee or four persons.

Cabbage Jelly.— Boil a cabbage imtil it is tender, place it in a colander, and drain the water thoroughly from it. Then chop it small, and mLx with it a little pepper, salt, and butter. Press it into a well-oiled mould, and bake in a moderate oven. Time to bake, half an hour. Probable cost, 2d. or 3d. Sufficient for four persons.

Cabbage, Bed, Pickled..- The cabbage should not be cut until it has been slightly frost-bitten. Choose a firm, hard cabbage. Eemove the outer leaves and cut it as finely as possible in cross slices. The finer it is cut ;ho nicer will be the pickle. Put it in a largo shallow dish with a layer of salt spread over it, and let it remain for twenty-four hoius ; then squeeze the purple juice thoroughly from it, and place it in pickle- jars, strewing between every handful a little black pepper and bruised ginger. Fill the jars with cold vinegar, or better still, vinegar which has been boiled and allowed to become cold, and cork securely. It is ready for use at once. The French vinegar is the best for pickling. Probable cost of a good-sized red cabbage, 4d. to 6d.

Cabbage, Bed, Stewed. — Prepare a large cabl)age as if it were going to be pickled. Melt two ounces of butter, or of good beef diipping, in a saucepan, lay the cabbage upon it, and cover it with a cupful of vinegar and a pint of nicely-flavoured stock. ^\^len it is quite tender, season it with salt and 7

pepper, di-ain it, and lay it on a hot dish, and arrange sausages round and over it. If preferred the cabbage may be pressed into a mould and poached eggs served with it. It will warm up again perfectly. Time, one hoxu-. Probable cost, 4d. or 6d. Sufficient, one large cabbage for four or five persons.

Cabbage, Savoy, and Brussels Sprouts. — Wash and pick off the outer leaves. Place the vegetables in a pan of boiling water, to which has been added a handful of salt and a veiy small piece of soda. Let them boil quickly until tender. Drain the water from them, and serve as hot as possible. Pepper slightly, and spi'ead a little butter over them. Send a little melted butter to the table with them, but not on them. Savoys should be drained from the water, and may be pressed into the dish, and cut in squares. The best way to keep greens a good coloiu' is to put them into the saucepan when the water is boiling ; keep them boiling fast all the time ; let them have plenty of room and plenty of water ; let them be uncovered, and take them up as soon as they are cooked. Time, ten minutes for sprouts, twenty minutes for savoys. Probable cost, 2d. or 3d. per pound. Two pounds wiU be sufficient for four or five persons.

Cabbage Soup. — Put two ounces of butter or good dripping into a stewpan, and fry in it two sliced onions ; brown the onions nicely. Poui- on them two quarts of flavoxired stock, and add two pounds of pickled pork, which must not be too salt. Simmer gently foihalf an hour, and skim well. Skred finely two small cabbages, two turnips, two carrots, and a head of celery, and throw them into the boiling liquor. When the vegetables are tender without falling to pieces, the soup will be ready. Time to prepare, two hours. Probable cost, Is. 2d. per quai-t. Sufficient for six or seven persons.

Cabbage, Stuffed. — Choose a goodsized firm young cabbage. Wash it thoroughly, and lay it in water, to which has been added a table-spoonful of vinegar. Let it remain for half an hour, then di-ain it, cut off the stalk, and scoop out the heart, so as to make a tpace for the stuffing, which may be made of sausagemeat, mixed with chestnuts cut small, or any flavoiu'ing that may be preferred. Press the forcemeat into the cabbage, cover it with leaves, which must be well tied on with tape to prevent escape. Place the cabbage in a saucepan with some slices of bacon above and below it, and cover the whole with nicely-flavoiu'ed stock. Let it stew gently for half an hour. Take out the cabbage, remove the tape, place it on a hot dish, and strain the gravy over it. Probable cost. Is. Sufficient for three or fom* persons.

Cabbage, To keep Fresh. — Have

the cabbages cut with two or three inches of stalk, of which the pith must be taken out v.'ithout injuring the rind. Hang the cabliages up by the stalk, and fill the hollow with a little fresh water every day. Cabbages will thus keep fresh for four or five weeks.

Cabbage, Turnip Tops, and G reens.

— Talrc seme cold greens or turnip tops, di-edge

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a littlo flour over them, and fry them in boiling butter or lard imtil they are slightly browned. Strew a littlo salt and pepper over them, and servo hot. Time to fry, five or six minutes.

Cabinet Pudding, Boiled. — Put a

pint of new milk into a saucejian with two table-spoonfuls of sugar and the rind of a lemon. Let it nearly boil, to extract the flavoui- of the lemon, then add to it three well-beaten eggs. Butter a mould rather thickly, and ornament it with stoned raisins, candied peel, lemon-rind, or in any other way; then fill it with alternate layers of sliced sj^onge cake, currants, and raisins. Sift a little sugar, and strew a little chopped lemon-rind over each layer of cake. When the mould is nearly full, pour the milk and eggs over the cake, and let it soak for an hour. Put a piece of buttered writing paper over it, tie in a cloth, and let it steam for an horn- and a haK. Serve with wine sauce. Probable cost, Is. 2d. Sufficient for six persons.

Cabinet Pudding, Cold.— Put half an ounce of gelatine, which has been previously soaked in two table -spoonfuls of water, into a saucepan A\-ith a pint of new mUk, the rind of a lomon, and two table-spoonfiils of sugar, and boil all together, stii-ring the liquid until the gelatine is dissolved. Well oil a plain round mould, and fill it ^vith alternate layers of candied fruits, three parts crimibled macaroons, and Savoy biscuits. Add a little brandy, fill the mould with the milk, and let it stand in a cool place until firm. Time to set, five or six hoiu-s. Probable cost, Is. 3d. Suflicient for foior or five persons.

— Cabinet Pudding, Plain.— Butter a

plain round mould ; then fill it with alternate layers of raisins, bread and butter without crust, sugar, and a little grated nutmeg. Pour over it a pint of new milk mixed with two wellbeaten eggs ; flavom- and sweeten. Allow it to soak for half an horn- ; then place a plate on the top, and steam it for one hour. Sufficient for four or five persons. Probable cost, lOd.

Cabinet Pudding, Rich. — Butter a plain round mould; fill it with alternate layers of di'ied apricots or candied fruits of any kind, and crumbled macaroon and Savoy biscuits. Pour a wine-glassful of sherry or brandy over this ; then make a custard of a pint of new milk and the well-beaten yolks of four eggs. Let the biscuits and other ingreaients soak in the custard for half an hour. Cover the top of the mould with buttered paper, tie it in a cloth, and allow it to steam for one hour. Sufiicient for four or five persons. Probable cost, 2s.

Cafe au Lait. — Make some strong clear coffee. Poiu- it into the cup Avith an equal quantity of boiling milk, and sweeten according to taste. This is the coft'ee which is served in France for breakfast, and it is both palatable and nutritious. Allow one breakfast - cupful for each person. Probable cost, 4d. per cup.

Cafe Noir.— This is the cofEee which is handed round in small cups after dessert in France. It is sweetened, but neither milk or cream is added. It should be made exceedingly strong, and will be found useful in wai'ding

ofi: the somnolency wliich is often the first result of a good dinner. It should be made in the same way as breakfast coft'ee, allowing a cupful of freshly-ground coft'ee for every fomcupfuls of boiling water. Probable cost, 4d. per cup. A small cupful wiU be sufiicient for each person.

Cakes, General Remarks on.— In

making cakes, great care should be taken that everything wliieh is used should be perfectly dry, as dampness in the materials is very likely to produce heaviness in the cake. It is always best to have each ingredient properly prepared before beginning to mix the cake.

Currants should be put into a colander and cold water poui-cd over them two or three times, then spread upon a dish and carefully looked over, so that any little pieces of stone or stalk may be removed. The dish should then be placed before the fire, and the currants turned over frequently until they are quite dry.

Butter should be laid in cold water before it is used, and, if salt, should be washed in several waters. It should be beaten with the hand in a bowl till it is reduced to a cream, pouring off the water until no more is left.

Flour. — The flour for cakes should be of the best quality. It should be weighed after it is sifted and dried.

Eggs. — Each egg should always be broken into a cup before it is put to the others, as this will j)r event a bad one spoiling the rest. The yolks and whites should be separated, the specks removed, and then all the yolks transferred to one bowl and the whites to another. The yolks may be beaten with a fork till they are light and frothy, but the whites must be whisked till they are one solid froth, and no liquor remains at the bottom of the bowl. The eggs should be put in a cool place till required for use. Wlien the whites only are to be used, the yolks, if unbroken, and kept covered, will keep good for three or foiu- days.

^ugar. — Loaf sugar is the best to use for cakes ; it should be pounded and sifted.

Lemon. — Peel should be cut very thin, as the white, or inner side, wiU impart a bitter flavour to the cakis.

Almonis^ for cakes should be blanched by being put into boiling water, and when they have been in for a few minutes the skin should be taken off and the almonds tlu-o^vn into cold water ts preserve the colour. If they are pounded, a few di-ops of water, rose-water, or white of egg should be added in every two or three minutes, to prevent them oiling. If they are not poimded they should be cut into thin slices or divided length^\ฆise.

Milli. — Swiss condensed milk will be found to be excellent for cakes when either cream or milk is wanted ; but when it is used less sugar will be required.

Yeast. — AMien yeast is used for cakes, less butter and eggs are required.

Baking Powder. — Nearly all plain cakes wiU be made lighter by the addition of a little baking powder.

Moulds for cakes should be thickly buttered, and it is a good plan to place some well-oiled paper between the mould and the cake.

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Bak'uig. — Small cakes require a quick oven when they arc first put in, to make them rise, but the heat should not be increased after they have begun to bake. Largo cakes should be put into a moderate oven, in order that they may bo well baked in the middle before they are overdone on the outside. In order to ascertain if a cake is sufficiently baked, insert a skewer or knitting-needle into the centre of it, and if it comes out perfectly clean, the cake is sufficieiซtly ready, but if anything is sticking to it, the cake must be put back into the oven at once. Cakes should be gently turned out of the mould when ready, placed on the top of the oven to dry, then laid on theu- sides to cool. They should be kept in a cool place, and in tin canisters, closely covered. A cake keeps better when made without yeast.

Cake, Cheap and Wholesome.—

When bread is made at home, it is easy to make a, good wholesome cake from the dough, of which a little must be taken out of the bowl after it has begun to rise. Allow one ounce of butter, a quai-ter of a pound of moist sugar, a little grated nutmeg, some chopped lemon-rind, or candied peel, and either a quarter of a pound of cui-rants or a few bruised caraway-seeds to every pound of dough. Mix these ingredients thoroughly together, di'edge a little flour over them, and place the bowl near the fire, covering it with a thick cloth. When weU risen, put it into buttered tins and bake immediately, for three-quarters of an hour. One pound of dough will bo enough for a cake.

Cake, Common. — Mix two and a half poimds of flour with half a pomid of brown sugar. ytir in a tea-cupful of good yeast and half a pint of lukewarm milk. Knead these well together, and set the dough near the fire to rise. SVhen it rises, add haK a pound of picked cuii-ants, or two tea-sjioonfuls of carawa j'-seeds, and half a pound of melted butter in another haU' jiint of milk. Knead again, and let the mixtui-e rise once moi-e. Put it into tins, ^and bake in a moderate oven. Time to bake, about an hoiu-. The above ingredients will be sufficient for two large cakes. Probable cost, 8d. eacla.

Cake, Diet Bread.— Beat four eggs,

then add to them a quarter of a pound of di-ied flour', and lialf a pound of loaf sugar, with six drops of almond flavouring. When these are well mixed together, place them near the fire to warm, then pour into a well-buttered mould, and bake in a moderate oven. Time to bake, half an hour. Sufficient for a small mould. Probable cost, 7d.

Cakes. — Directions for making the following cakes will be found under their respective headin"s : —

Aberi'rau

Ai,n.\NY

Almoni), or Maca ROOXS

Almond Cheese Almond, Icing for Almond, PlainAlmond, Rich Almond, Sponge

American Breakfast,

or Griddle American Velvet

Breakfast Americ^vn White Annie's Apple

Apple Tart or Athole

Aunt Edward's

Christmas aurelian Banburv Batter, of Indian

Meal Beef Brain

Bread, Fried Breakfast, or Rolls Bride Buckwheat Buttermilk Cabbage Canadian Cheap Children's Christmas Cinnamon Citron Cocoa-nut Cocoa-nut, Pound Cod-fish Corn-meal Corporation Cream

Cream of Eice Cream of Tartar Curd Cheese

CuRR.iNT

Date

Derwentwater

Dessert

Devonshire

Devonshire, Short

Dover

Egg Powder

Elecampane or C.\ndy

Fish

Flame

French

Frost, or Icing for

Genoa

Genoese

German

Ginger Cup

GiP.SY

Girdle

Glove

Gooseberry

Graham

Guernsey

Hare

Hazel-nut

Honey

Honey, German

Icing for

Imperial

Indian Griddle

Indi.\n Meal, Johnny

Irish

Irish Griddle

Irish Luncheon

Irish Sef.I)

Johnny, or Journey

Josephine

Kneaded

Lafayette

Lemon

Lemon, Rich

Loaf

Ijoaf, Indian Meal Loaf, Luncheon Love

LuncheonLuncheon, FROM

Dough Luncheon, Plain MacaroonMagdalen Malaprop Manx

Meat, Moulded Milk, Breakfast Modena Montrose My Own Neapolitan Nun's Oat

Oat, L.\ncashire Oat with Yeast Oatmeal Bannocks Orange Oswego ParisianParliament Passover Paste

Petticoat Tails Plain Plum

Plum, Common Polish Potato

Potato Cheese Pound Pudding QueenQueen's Cinnamon Quince Ratafia Rice

Rice Cheese Rusk

Sally Lunns Sand

Sausage Meat Savarin Savoy Scotch

Scotch, Christmas Scotch, Diet Scrap Seed

Seed, CommonSeed, Plain Seed, Superior Short

Shrewsbury Simple Sn - w Soda Spanish Sponge

Sponge, Small Sugar Suster Tea Tipsy Tunbridge Turin

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Twelfth Water

Veal a la Bordyke White

Venetian Yeast

Victoria Yorkshire

Vienna Yule

Caledonian Cream.— Mix thoroughly two ounces of raspberry jam, two ounces of red currant jelly, and two ounces of finely-powdered sugar, with the whites of two eggs which have been beaten to a firm froth. Beat them for three-quarters of an hour. This makes a very pretty cream, inexpensive and good. Probable cost, 8d. Sufficient for a small dish.

Calfs Brains (a la FraiKjaise).— Fry eighteen button onions to a light brown in butter, stir in a table-spoonful of flour, and then add equal quantities of broth and French red wine, a quarter of a pint or more of each, put in a little salt and pepper, and simmer half an hoiu-. Put the brains into this, remembering first to wash and skia them ; boil them in salted water mixed with a tea-spoonful of vinegar for ten minutes, and lay them in cold water until wanted. Add a dozen small mushrooms, and simmer eight or ten minutes until they are done. Serve with the sauce, and garnish Avith the onions and raushi-ooms. Time to boil the sauce, half an hour.

Calf's Brains (a la Maitre d' Hotel).— Remove the skin and the fibres from two sets of calves' brains. AVash them several times in cold water, then place them in boiling water, adding a table- spoonful of vinegar, a little salt, and a small piece of butter. Let them boil for a quarter of an hour, then remove and divide them. Cut some thin slices of stale bread into rounds, fry them in boiling butter or oil, place the brains on the bread, and pour over the whole Maitre d' Hotel sauce. Probable cost of the calf's head (the brain is not sold without), 5s. to 9s. Sufficient for three or foiu- persons.

Calf S Brains (en Matelote). — Wash the biains in several waters, remove the sldn, and boil them in salt and water, with a little vinegar in it, for ten minutes. Take them out and lay them in cold water until they are wanted. Put a piece of butter the size of a large egg into a saucepan, let it melt, mix smoothly with it a tea-spoonful of flonr. Put to this three small onions sliced, then add a table-spoonful of mushroom Icetchup, a clove, a bay-leaf, half a pint of stock, and a glass of white wine. When these are mixed thoroughly together, put the brains with them, and let them stew gently until they are done. Time to stew, a quarter of an horn-. Sufficient for two or thi'ee persons.

Calf S Brains, Fried. — Wash the brains in several waters, take off the sldn and remove the fibres, then boil them in salt and water, with a little vinegtir, for ten minutes. Cut the brains into slices, moisten them with ^dncgar, salt and pepper, dip them in a little batter, and fry in boiling oil or butter. Fry a bunch of parsley, dry it before the fire, and put it in the middle of a hot dish with the brains round it. Time to fry, four or five minutes. Sufficient for two persons.

Calf s Brains, Pried (another way). —

Skin and wash the brains in cold water, and cut them into slices. Soak them for one horn- in two quarts of boiling water salted lightly, and a quarter of a pint of vinegar. Drain and dip them into a batter made with two table-spoonfuls of baked fioui-, two eggs, and a quarter of a pint of cream ; this batter should be well beaten for fifteen minutes before it is used. Dissolve a good quantity of butter in a frying-pan, and fry each piece, well dipped in batter, till it is a pale brown colour. Send them to table with a bunch of fried parsley in the centre of the dish, and the slices of brains round it. They should be served very hot. Time, fifteen minutes to

j Calf s Brains and Green Sauce.—

i Wash the brains in several waters, remove the j skin, and cut each into foiu' pieces. Put theia ! into a saucepan with a little salt and water, I and let them simmer gently for three-quarters I of an horn-. Put into another saucepan a piece j of butter the size of a large egg ; let it melt, ! then mix smoothly with it a dessert-spoonful of I floui-, a cupful of stock, and a little salt and I pepper. Let these boil up, then stir into the i sauce a dessert-spoonful each of chopped mush1 room, chopped gherkins, and parsley boiled and I minced. Drain the brains, place them on a hot i dish, and pom- the sauce round them. Sufficient i for two persons. Probable cost of sauce, 6d. ! or 7d. the half pint.

i Calf s Brains and Parsley.— Bemove

j the skin and the fibres, and wash the Itrains in

i several waters. Boil them in salt and water, to

j which has been added a table-spoonful of vine : gar and a little butter. Drain and divide them.

i Then put a little fried parsley in the middle of

a hot dish, place the brains round them, and

pour browned butter over the whole. Time to

boil the brains, a quarter of an houi\ Sufficient

for two persons.

Calf s Brains and Tongue. — liemovc

the skin and the fibres, and wash the brains in

several waters. Boil them in salt and water,

and drain and chop them. Put them in a

saucepan with haK a cupful of melted butter, a

I tea-spoonful of parsley which has been boiled

: and chopped, a tea-spoonful of lemon-juice, and

! a little salt and cayenne pei^per. Skin and

j trim the boiled tongue, place it in the middle of

the dish, and pour the sauce round it. Time to

I boil the brains, a quarter of an hour. The brains

I of one head will serve for a tongue.

I Calf s Brains with Wine,— Wash and

j skin the brains, and blanch them in Ijoiling salt

I and water mi.xed with vinegar. Put two or

; three rashers of bacon into a stewpan, with two

; sliced carrots, two sliced onions, two cloves, one

i bay-leaf, a tea-spoonful of chopped parsley, a

I bimch of thj-me, a little pepper and salt, and a

j glass of white wine. Add the brains, and

I let all simmer gently. When done, strain the

j gravy, and pour it round the brains. Time,

I half an hour. Sufficient for two or three

I persons.

[ Calf s Chitterlings, Fraise, or Crow.

[ These are the different names given to the fat

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round the stomach of the calf, and in some parts they foiTii a favourite dish. ITiey may be served in two or three ways. First wash and cleanse them thoroughly. Lay them in salt and water for a night, place them in boilingwater for a quarter of an hour, then dip into cold water, and di-ain them. Cut them into small pieces, and put them into a saucepan with a little stock, two or thi-ee slices of bacon, an onion, a bay-leaf, and salt and pepper. Let them simmer gently, and when done place them in a hot dish, reduce the gravy, thicken it with a little flom-, add vinegar and sliced cucumber, and serve as a sauce. Or, prepare as above. After being boiled a quarter of an hour, dip the pieces into a little batter, and fry them in boiling drijiping until they are a light brown, then serve with fried parslej'. Or, prepare as above. After being boiled for a quarter of an hour rub them over with butter, and bake in a good oven.

Calf's Ears (a la Bechamel). Cut off four calves' ears rather deeply, trim them evenly, scald the hair off, and cleanse them thoroughly. }}oil them in milk and water till tender ; then drain them, and till the inside of each with a little veal forcemeat ; tie them with thread, and stew them in a pint of stock, seasoned with 2Jopper and salt, and an onion with three cloves stuck in it. "Wlien done, drain them. Add a dozen stewed mushrooms, and the yolk of an egg beaten in a cupful of cream, to the liquor in which they were boiled, first taking out the onion and cloves. Put the ears into a dish, pour the sauce round them, and garnish with forcemeat balls and sliced lemon. Time to stew, about half an hour. Sufficient for three •or four persons.

Calf's Ears (a la Xeapolitaine).— Prepare the ears as above. Place them in a saucepan with rashers of bacon under and over, sufticient stock to cover the whole, and simmer gently until sufficiently cooked. When done, h-ain and fill them with a forcemeat made of fom- ounces of crumbs, a cupful of milk, four •oimces of Parmesan cheese, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, and the yolks of two fggs. Tie them well with thread, then dip them in butter, cover them with bread-crumbs, and fry till they are a light brown. Time to fry, ten minutes. Sufficient for three or four persons.

Calf's Feet. — Calf's feet are generally |)repared for boiling by the butcher ; but if this is not done, they should be put into water just upon the point of boiling, and kept in it for two or three minutes, when the hair must be scraped off, the hoofs knocked off on the edge of the sink, the claws split, and the fat that is between them taken away. They must then be washed with scrupulous care and nicety. Probable cost, 4d. to 8d. each.

Calf's Feet and Sauce.— Thoroughly cleanse two calf's feet ; place them in a saucel^aiL, and pour over them three pints of cold water. Let them simmer gently for four hoiu-s, then split them in halves, and trim nicely, cut them into neat pieces, and drain the water from them. Take a cupful of finely-grated bread

crumbs, mix with them a small onion choppcc small, a Little grated nutmeg, a salt-spoonful oi salt, and a thii-d of a salt-spoonful of pepper. Dijj the pieces into egg, then into the crumbs, and fry them in boiling oil or butter until nicely browned. Put them in the middle of a hot disli, with a sauce round them made as follows : — Chop finely three large onions, three large muslirooms, and three tomatoes. Put these into a saucepan with a grain of powdered ginger, a quarter of a nutmeg grated, a salt-spoonful of salt, the same of mustard, a httle cayenne, a small piece of sugar, and a glassful of white wine. Simmer gently, stirring all the time, tiU the onions are tender. Time to stew the feet, four hours. Probable cost, 4d. to 8d. each. Sufficient for three or fom- persons.

Calfs Foot (a la Poulette).— Calf's feet which have been boiled for stock may (if not too much cooked) be made into an agreeable dish by serving them in a little Poulette sauce. Take out the bones, and cut the meat into neatly-shaped pieces. Put a piece of butter the size of an egg into a saucepan, let it melt, then add to it gradually a table-spoonful of flom-. Mix the paste thoroughly with a wooden spoon for two or three minutes, until it is quite smooth ; then dilute it bj' degrees with a pint ef nicelyflavoured stock, and keep on stii'iing it for ten or fifteen minutes. Draw the saucepan from the fire for a minute or two, thicken the soup with the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, and season with a little pepper and salt. Put the pieces of calf's feet into the sauce, let them become hot, without boiling, and serve. Time to make the sauce, twenty-five minutes. Sufficient for two feet.

Calf's Foot, Baked or Stewed.—

Wash a calf 's foot verj- carefully, and rub it over withpepi^er, salt, and a little powdei-ed cinnamon. Place it in a saucepan or dish, and cover it with a pint and a half of water. The knucklebone of a ham, the end of a di-ied tongue, or even a few pieces of beef may be added, with a little celery, an onion stuclc with four or five cloves, and a carrot. Let these simmer either in the oven or on the fire for three or four hours. In either case they must be closely covered. "VVTien quite tender, take out the bones, and cut the meat into neat pieces. Strain the gravj% skimming off the fat, add to it a table-spoonful of mushroom ketchup, and thicken it with a dessert-spoonful of ground rice. Let it boil up, then put in the pieces of meat, a squeeze of lemon- juice, a glass of white wine, and serve hot. Probable cost, 4d. to 8d. per foot. One foot will be found .sufficient for one or two persons.

Calfs Foot Boiled with Parsley

and Butter.— Thoroughly clean two calfs feet, divide them at the joint, and split the hoofs. Put three rashers of bacon into a stewpan, with a piece of butter the size of an egg, a large onion stuck with five or six cloves, the juice of a lemon, and a little salt and pepper. C'aie must be taken not to put too much salt, as the bacon will probably supply what is necessary. Tjiiy the feet on the bacon, and cover the whole with one pint of stock. Let them simmer

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very gently for two lieui-s or more ; then take out the feet, put them on a hot dish, and pour some parsley and butter over them {see Parsley and Butter).

Calf's Foot Broth.— Wash carefully one calf 's foot, and put it into a saucepan vith three pints of water, the rind of a lemon, a lump of sugar, and a salt-spoonful of salt. If a knucklehone of a ham can be put with it, it will be an improvement. Let these simmer gently together until the liquid is reduced one half, skimming it very carefully from time to time. Then pom- it out, and let it stand aside to got cold, so that the fat may be entirely removed. When this has been done, put it back into the saucepan, let it boil, add the beaten yolks of two eggs, and stir the liquid again over the fire for a few minutes until it thickens ; but on no account allow it to boil. This is a very nourishing broth. If it is preferred, the calf's foot may be boiled in milk and water. Time, three hours. Probable cost, one calf's foot, 4d. to 8d. Sufficient for a pint and a half of broth.

Calf's Foot Broth (another way).— Stew down a calf's foot in three pints of water till the Hquid is reduced one half, carefully removing all scum. Put it aside in a basin until quite cold, and take off the fat from the surface ; then warm up about half a pint of this jelly with a piece of butter the size of a pigeon's egg, and flavour it with sugar, nutmeg, and lemon-peel to taste ; beat well the yolk of an egg, and add it to the broth, stii-ring it all th€ time till it thickens, but do not let it boil or the broth ^vill bo curdled and spoiled. Probable cost, calf's foot, 4d. to 8d. Sufficient to make a pint and a half of broth.

Calf s Foot, Curried. — Prepare two feet as in the last recipe, remove the bones, and cut the meat into neatly-shaped pieces. Put a piece of butter the size of a large egg into a stewpan. Let it melt ; slice into it two large onions ; let them brown lightly on both sides ; then remove them for a littlo while, and stir an ounce of cui-ry powder into the butter, letting it remain until it is thoroughly cooked. Add, gradually, sufficient of the liquid in which the feet were boiled to moisten the whole without making it too thin, put in the meat, the onions, and pepper and salt to taste. Simmer all gently together for a few minutes ; then pile the ciu-ry in the centre of a hot dish with a border of rice round it. Time to boil the feet, four houi's ; to simmer, quarter ซ)f an hour. Probable cost. Is. Sufficient for three or four persons.

Cairs Foot, Fried. — A good dish may be made of two calf's feet which have been boiled for stock, and taken out while they are still firm. Remove the bones, and when the flesh is cold, cut it into small, nicely-shaped pieces, which must be placed for an horn- in a pickle made with two table-spoonfuls of tarragon vinegar, one table-spoonful of oil, one bay-leaf, two pinches of salt, and one of pepper. Turn them two or tlii'ee times. Take them out, drain them, dredge a little flom- over them, and fry them in boiling butter or oil till they are lightly browned. Put them on a hot dish, and

serve them with fried parsley. Probable cost, 4d.,, without the calf's feet. Sufficient for four or five i^ersons.

Calf's Foot Fritters.— Prepare the calf's feet as in the last recipe, but, before they are fried, lay each piece in a light batter made thus : — Pom- a cupful of boUing water over a piece of butter about the size of a walnut, and when it is melted, add to it half a pint of cold water. Stir this gradually into four tablespoonfuls of fine flour, and mix with it the yolks of two eggs and a little salt and pci^per. A few minutes before it is wanted, add the well- whisked whites of the eggs. Melt a little butter in a stewpan and, when it is boiling, fry the pieces of meat in it. Drain them from the fat, pile them on a hot dish,' and servo with pickled gherkins. Time to stand in the pickle, one hour; to fry, ten minutes. This quantity vdll suffice for fom- persons. Probable cost, 8d., without the calf's feet.

Calf S Foot Jelly. — In order to obtain calf's foot jelly quite clear, care should be taken, first, to mix the ingredients when they are cold ; and secondl}', not to stu- the jelly after it has begun to heat and the scum to rise. Take a pint and a half of calf's foot stock {see Calf's Foot Stock), and be very laarticular that it is free from every particle of fat and sediment. Put it into a saucepan with the strained juice and thinly-peeled rind of two large lemons, three table-spoonfuls of pounded loaf sugar, half a pint of sherry, the whites and shells of fom- eggs (the whites must be beaten, but not to a froth), and haK an ounce of clarified isinglass. Let these stand for a few minutes ; then put them on a slow fire, and stu- them a littlo until the sugar is dissolved, but as soon as the jelly begins to heat do not touch it again. Let it boil for twenty minutes ; the scum may be gently removed as it rises. Draw the jelly to the side of the fire, and let it stand to settle twenty minutes longer. Wring out the jelly-bag in hot water, and pom- the jelly through it. If it is not perfectly clear (which, however, it can scarcely fail to be, if attention has been paid to the dii-ections given), strain it two or three times until it is. Do not keep it in a metal mould — it will be likely to discolom- it. It should be kept in a cool place, and in summer will most likely require a little ice round it. If the stock bo very strong, the isinglass may be dispensed with, but it is always safer to put a little with the jelly. When all the liquid has run through the bag, an agreeable and refreshing beverage may be obtained by pom-ing a little boiling water through it. Sufficient for rather more than a quart. Probable cost, without the sherry. Is. per pint.

Calf s Foot Jelly, Apple.— Put a pint

of apple juice into a saucejjan with a pint of clear calf's foot stock {see Calf's T'oot Stock), the rind and juice of a lemon, a table-spoonful of sugar, a small glass of brandy, and the whites and pounded shells of three eggs, ilix these well together, and let them boil gently for fifteen minutes. Take the jellj' from the fire, let it stand to settle, and strain it through a jelly -bag imtil quite clear ; then pour it into a mould. If the stock is not very stiff, add alittlo

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isinglass. Sufficient for two and a liaK pints of jolly. Probable cost, Is. per pint.

Calf's Foot Jelly, Lemon.— Mix a quart of strong calf's foot stock, clear and free from fat and sediment, with a cupful of strained lemon-juice and three-quarters of a poimd of loaf sugar, which has been rubbed on the rind of two lemons. Put these into a saucepan with the well-beaten whites and crushed shells of iive eggs. Proceed as for calf's foot jolly. Time to boi\ by the side of the fire, twenty minutes. J^ obable cost. Is. 6d. per pint. Sufficient, one ^.mt and a half of jelly for five or six people.

CalPs Foot Jelly, Maraschino.—

Take one quart of clear calf's foot stock. Proceedacc&rdlng to the dii-ections given for making caK's foot jelly, remembering only to omit the sherry, and to rub the rind of two lemons on the sugar before it is added to the stock. When it has run through the jelly-bag and is quite clear, add half a pint of maraschino to it, and pour a little of the jelly into a mould ; let it set, then fill the mould with alternate layers of jelly, and either fresh strawberries or preserved peaches. Put it in a cool place, and when it has set, turn it out of the mould. Time to set, two hom-s with ice, ten or twelve without. Probable cost, Is. per pint, without the maraschino. A pint and half mould will be sufficient for five or six persons.

Calf's Foot Jelly of Four Fruits.—

Dissolve one pint of calf's foot apple jelly (see CaK's Foot Apple Jelly), and pour about a quarter of it into an earthenware mould ; let it nearly set, then arrange, as tastefully as possible, fine fresh bunches of white and red currants, strawbeiTics, cherries, raspberries, or any fruit that can be had. If fresh fruits are not in season, any fruits which have been preserved whole may be used instead, such as peaches, plums, or apricots. Add the jelly and the fruit gradually before more is put in. Set it in a cool place, and when stiff, it may be tinned out. Probable cost, lOd. per pint mould. Time to set, twelve hours.

Calfs Foot Jelly of Four Fruits

(another way). — Put two pounds of fresh fruit (made up half of red currants and the other lialf of mixed chemes, strawberries and raspberries) into an earthenware jar, cover it closely, then place it in a saucepan, filled three parts with cold water ; let it simmer very gently over a moderate fire for half an hour ; then poui- the contents into a jelly-bag, and let the juice droj) from it, but do not squeeze it. Proceed as for calf's foot apple jelly, substituting the juice of the four fruits for apple juice, and omitting the brandy. Time to set, twelve hours. Probable cost. Is. per pint. Sufficient, a pint and a half of jelly for five or six persons.

Calf's Foot Jelly, Orange.— Put a

C[uai't of strong calf's feet stock into a saucepan with a pint of the strained juice of oranges, the juice of two lemons, a quarter of a pound of sugar, on which the rinds of the lemons have been rubbed, half an ounce of melted isinglass, and the whites and crushed shells

of five eggs. Proceed as for calf's foot jelly, Three or four- grains of saffron will improve the appearance of the dish. If it is preferred, the mould may be filled with alternate layers of jelly and quartered oranges, as directed in a previous recipe. Time to set, two hom-s with ice, ten or twelve without it. Probable cost. Is. per pint. Sufficient, a pint and half mould for five or six persons.

Calf's Foot Mould.— A relishing breakfast dish may be made of the meat of calf's feet after they have been boiled for jelly, broth, stock, &c. Take out all the bones, and cut the meat of one foot into small ijieces, mixing with it the juice and rind of a lemon, a small onion finely minced, and fiavouji-ing it with salt, cayenne, and powdered cinnamon. Put it into a saucepan with a piece of butter the size of an egg, stir it over the fire for about ten minutes, and pour it into a mould. Probable cost of a calf's foot, 4d. to 8d. Sufficient for a small breakfast dish.

Calfs Foot, Roasted.— Boil two caK's feet for one hour- and a half, then take them out of the saucepan, drain the water from them, tie them together, and fasten them on a spit. Baste freely with a little broth, which has not been cleared from fat, and when they have been before the fire about half an horn-, dredge them with flour, baste with butter, and allow them to remain until they are nicely browned. When sufficiently cooked, place them on a hot dish, and pour round them a little brown sauce flavoured with port. Time, two hours and a haK. Probable cost, calf's feet, 4d. to 8d. each. Sufficient for three or four persons.

Calf's Foot Soup.— Cut two caK's feet into about twelve pieces, and put them into a saucepan, with half a head of celery, a bunch of l^arsley, a small sprig of thyme, an onion with five or six cloves stuck into it, and two quarts of nicely-flavoured stock. Simmer all gently together, skinuning the liquid carefully, for two hours. Take out the feet, strain the liquor, return it to the saucepan, and thicken it with two dessert-spoonfuls of finely-sifted rice flour. A few minutes before the soup is wanted, add pepper and salt, and stir gradually into it a cupful of milk or cream, mixed with the yolks of two eggs and a glass of white wine. Stir it over the fire for two or three minutes, but on no accoimt allow it to boil. Serve, with the pieces of calf's feet, in the tureen. Probable cost, 7d. per pint, K made with milk, and exclusive of the wine. Sufficient for three pints of soup.

Calfs Foot, Stewed.— Wash and clean two caK's feet verj- carefully. Cut them into pieces, and put them into a saucepan with a pound and a half of beefsteak, cut in pieces and rolled in flour, a head of celery, and an onion stuck with cloves. Cover them with stock, or water if the stock is not at hand, and let them simmer gently for thi-ec hours. Take them off the fire, strain the gravy, and skim off the fat ; then boil the gravy up again with a cupful of new milk and a little salt and pepper. Put in the pieces of meat to heat, but do not allow them to boil. Serv-e with the meat

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in the middle of the dish, and the gra^y poured round. Two feet will ho sufficient for throe or four persons.

Calf's Foot Stewed with Herbs.—

Wash a calf's foot. When it is thoroughly clean, boil it in a quart of water until the Hesh can be easily taken from the bone. Kemove the bones, and cut the Hesh into small, evenlyshaped pieces. Put a piece of butter the size of a large egg into a stewpan, let it melt, then put into it the pieces of meat, ha%ang previously salted, peppered, and rolled them in Hour. Lot them remain in the boiling butter until they are nicely browned ; j^ut with them two small onions, a dozen mushrooms chopped finely, and a bunch of savoury herbs ; mix the stock in by degrees, and let them simmer gently for half an hour or so ; then add the juice of a lemon, and three woU-beaten eggs. Do not allow the liquid to boil again after the eggs have been added. If the sauce is not sufficiently thick, a little more flour may be mixed in before the eggs and vinegar. If any of the liquor in which the meat was boiled is not required for the sauce, it will bo found very useful for gravies, &c.

Cairs Foot Stock, Cheap Substitutes for. — Ox lieels may be used instead of calf's feet for stock. They should be bought before they are boiled at all. They are frequently offered for sale when they are partially dressed, and must be very carefully cleansed. They may bo bought for 4d. or od. each, and as two calf's feet will produce a quart of stock, and two cow's heels three pints, it is a decided saving to use the latter. Ton shank bones of mutton, which may be bought for a mere trifle, will yield as much jelly as a calf's foot.

Calf's Foot Stock for Jelly.— Take

four calf's feet properly dressed and cleansed. Put a gallon of water into a saucepan with the feet, and let them boil very gently but continuously until the liquid is reduced to half. Strain it, and let it stand until stiff. Then remove every particle of fat from it, pouring a cupful of boiling water over it, and placing a piece of blotting paper on the top after you have taken it off to insm-e its being quite free from grease. Eemember to leave the sediment behind when you use the stock. Time to boil the feet, six or seven hours.

Calf's Head. — It is better to order a calf's head a day or two before wanted, especially if only half a one is required, and a half is sufficient for a dinner for a small family. The heads are sold by butchers either skinned or unskinned, and if they are sent home unskinned great care must be taken to scrape the haii- off as closely as possible. To do this the head must be put into water which is just upon the point of boiling, and remain there for a few minutes after it does so, then taken out and the hair scraped off with a blunt knife, the head divided, and the brains and tongue taken out. The head must be most carefully washed. The first thing to do, on receiving a calf's head, is to remove the brains, tlrrow them into cold water for an hour, drain them, and boil them in salt and water for a quarter of an

hour, and put them on one side. Put the head into cold water and wash it well, clearing the cavities inside with the fingers, lay it in fresh cold water, and leave it there to draw out the blood, &c. One of the choice bits of a calf's head lies deep in the socket of the eye. It is always best to cook a calf's head as soon as possible, and while it should be thoroughly cooked, it should not be overdone. It ought to be served in slices ; and to secure this it should be bound with a little broad tape. When it is to be ser\ซd, lay it, cheek upwards, on the dish as it "Jomes from the water, or brush it over with beaten egg, dust bread-crumbs over it, and bro^^^l it. The Ijrains and tongue should be sent to table, with it on a separate dish ; and a dish of ham or bacon is considered by many persons an improvement. Calf's head is usually garnished with sliced lemon. Probable cost, 5s. to 9s.

Calf's Head (a la Poulette). — Take a dozen good-sized mushrooms, cut oft" the end of the stalks, and rub the tops with a piece of flannel dipped in salt. Put a piece of butter the size of a large egg into a stewpan, let it melt, and put in the mushi'ooms. Shake them over a hot fire for a few minutes, turn them into a basin, and keep them covered until they are wanted for use. Cut the remains of a cold calf's head into nicely-shaped slices, and lay them on one side. Put a piece of butter the size of an egg into a saucepan, let it melt, mix with it very smoothly a dessert-spoonful of flour. iStir it until it is lightly browned ; add to it very gradually, stirring all the time, a large breakfast-cupful of boiling stock, and a little pepper and cayenne. Let this boil up, add the mushrooms, and boil the sauce gently for a quarter of an hour. Put in the meat, and let it boil for one minute ; draw the sauce pan to the side of the fire, let it cool for two minutes, when the beaten yolks of two eggs may be mixed with it. Stir the preparation over the fire till it thickens, but on no account allow it to boil, and at the last squeeze in the juice of half a lemon. Serve on a hot dish. Time, half an hour. Probable cost, without the cold meat, Is. 3d. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Cairs Head (a la Maitre d'Hotel).— Take the remains of a cold calf's head, and cut it into neat slices, leaving out the bones, &c. Make some Maitre d'Hotel sauce, consisting of half a pint of good melted butter, mixed with two dessert-spoonfuls of parsley boiled and chopped, the juice of a small lemon, and a little salt and pepper. Let this boil, then put in the pieces of calf's head, let them become quite heated, without boiling, and serve on a hot dish, garnished with sippets of toast.

Cairs Head (a la Maitre d'Hotel), another way. — Take the remains of a cold calf's head, and cut it into neat slices, leaving out the bones, &c. IMake a sauce consisting of half a pint of good melted butter, mixed with half a pint of stock, a little salt and cayenne, a table-spoonful of vinegar, a dessert-spoonful of mushroom ketchup, or, if they can be got, a dozen small stewed mushrooms. Let these boil together, then draw the sauce from the fire for a couple of minutes, and add, very gradually, the yolks of

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two eggs mixed with a cupful of cream or milk, ytir the mixture over the tire for a minute or two, but on no account allow it to boil, put in the pieces of cold calf's head, and serve on a hot dish. Time, to make the sauce, twenty minutes. Probable cost of sauce, if made with milk, 9d. Sufficient for a pint and a half of sauce.

Calf S Head (a la Sainte Menehould). — Take the remains of a calf's head boiled in the usual way. Cut them into slices, and pour over these a sauce prepared as follows : — Dissolve an ounce of butter over the fire, and mix smoothly ฆ\vith it half a desseit-spoonful of flour ; add a little salt and pepper, a table-spoonful of strained lemon -juice, and as much nicely-flavom-ed stock as \vill make the sauce as thick as cream. Simmer this sauce over the tire for a few minutes. Draw the saucej^an to the side, let its contents cool for half a minute, and stir into these the well-beaten yolks of three eggs. Cover the calf's head and the sauce with a thick layer of bread-crumbs. Pour over these a little claiified butter, and more bread-crumbs. Place the dish in a Dutch oven, brown the surface before the fire, and serve with sauce piquante. Time to make the sauce half an hour. Sufficient for six or eight persons.

Calfs Head (a la Tortue).— This dish, which is elaborate and apparently difficult, will not be found to be beyond the power of any one who can please the eye as well as the palate, and, after having flavom-od a dish judiciously, can arrange it elegantly. Procure a large calf's head, properly prepared. Scald it mth the skin on. Remove the brains, which must be boiled, chopped, and made into cakes, with bread-crumbs, chopped parsley, pepper, salt, and egg. They can then be put on one side and fried in a little hot butter just before they are wanted. Boil the head in the usual way [see Calf's Head, Boiled) till it is sufficiently tender to allow the bones to be taken away without altering the shape of the head. Do not take away the tongue, as it will help to preserve the fonn. Take a large stewpan, melt three ounces of butter in it, and when it is broMoi, mix smoothly with it two table-spoonfuls of rice floui'. Add just enough of the liquor in which the head was boiled to cover the meat, but before putting the head in, season the sauce with salt, cayenne, nutmeg, foiir large tomatoes stewed, and two glasses of sherry. Let it boil up, then put in the calf's head, and when this is hot it is ready to serve. Jfow comes the arrangement of the dish, and for this no clear directions can be given ; it must be left to the taste of the cook, and depend greatly on the materials at command. The brain cakes, of course, must be used, and they may be heated in the sauce, as also may button mushrooms, forcemeat balls, the yolks of eggs boiled hard, sliced truffles, cock's-combs, real or artificial. On and aboiit the head may be placed fried eggs, crayfish, prawns, gherkins, cut into baUs and soaked in cold water a little before they are wanted. The ears may be scored and curled, and little stars or diamonds of puff paste fried in butter may be dotted about the dish. The truffles, prawns, &c., may be fastened on with silver skewers. It is generally found

better to boil and bone this dish the day before it is wanted. Time to stew in the gravy, three-quarters of an hour. Sufficient for ton or twelve i^ersons.

Calf's Head (a la Tortue), another way.— The remains of a cold calf's head may be cut into small squares, warmed in a little good gravy, and ornamented in the same way as the last dish. Make the sauce rather thick, put the meat in the middle of the dish, and garnish as prettily as possible with forcemeat balls, the yolks of hard boiled eggs, and the whites cut into rings, gherkins, olives, and stewed mushrooms. Time to simmer the meat in the gravy, a quarter of an hour.

Calfs Head, Baked.— Take half a calf's head. Prepare it as if for boiling, removing the brains and tongue. Let it simmer gently for half an hour, then take it out of the water, drain it, and fold it in a cloth to dry. Prepare abreakfast-cupful of finely-grated bread-crumbs, mix -wath them two salt-spoonfuls of salt, half a salt-spoonful of cayenne pepper, two dessertspoonfuls of finely-shred sage, and the same of parsley. Brush the head over with beaten e^^, and strew the bread-crumbs, &c., over it ; let it get dry, then repeat, the second time pouring hot butter over instead of brushing with Q^^. Fill the hollows of the eyes with crumbs. Bake the head in a good oven, basting it frequently with a cupful of sauce mixed -with a dessertspoonful of vinegar. The tongue and brains must be boiled separately, and cut into pieces, and a little time before the head is sufficiently baked, must be strewed with the crumbs and put into the oven to brown. Serve in a hot dish, with a little gravy round the meat, and oyster sauce in a tureen. Time to bake, two hours. Sufficient, half a head for four persons.

Calf's Head, Baked (another way).— Boil half a calf's head in the usual way until tender ; then drain it, pour a little hot butter over it, and strew over it rather thickly some grated Parmesan cheese, and put it in a good oven until it is nicely browned, which will be in about three-quarters of an hour. Sufficient for four persons.

Calf's Head, Boiled (with or ฆv\-ithout the Skin). — Thoroughly cleanse a calf's head, remove the brains, and put it into boiling water for ten minutes, to blanch it. Take it out, and lay it in a deep saucepan with sufficient water to cover it ; let it boil up, remove the scum veiy carefully as it rises, draw the pan to the side of the fire, and let it simmer very gently until ready. Wash the brains in two or three waters, remove the skin and the fibres which hang about them, and let them soak for an hour in cold salt and water ; pour that away, and put them into a saucepan with some fresh water to which a table-spoonful of vinegar has been added. Take the scum off as it rises, and boil them for a quai-ter of an hour. Chop them rather coarsely, and put them into a saucepan -svith a cupful of good melted butter, a table-spoonful of sage leaves chopped small, the same of scalded and finely-miaced parsley, a little salt and pepper, and the juice of half a lemon. Take out the

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tongue, skin it, trim it about the roots, and lay it in the middle of a hot dish with the brain sauce round it ; keep it hot. The appearance of the calf's head will be improved if after it is taken up it is brushed over with egg, covered with finely-grated bread-crumbs, and browned. Slices of cut lemon are usually placed round the dish. A little boiled bacon or pickled pork is sent to table with it, as well as either parsley and butter, tomato or mushroom sauce, in a tureen. Time to boil, ^vdth the skin on, two and a half or three hours, according to the size ; -without, one and a half or two hours. Sufiicient for seven or eight persons. The liquor in which it is boiled should be carefully preserved ; for though a calf's head is insipid if eaten cold, it is excellent warmed, and for this the liquor would be needed.

Calf's Head Brawn, — Take half a large calf's head with the skin on. "Wash it well, take out the brains and the soft bone, and lay it in a pickle made of one pound of salt, a quarter of a pound of bay salt, half a pound of moist sugar, and one ounce of saltpetre, boiled in three quarts of water for twenty minutes, skimmed, and put aside until cold. Let it stand in this for eight days, turning it every day. Take it out, wash it well, and boil it gently until tender. Eemove the bones, and put the meat while hot into a brawn-tin, flavouring it with salt, pepper, pounded mace, and a little cayenne. Put a heavy weight on it, and let it stand until firm. Turn it out and garnish with parsley. Time, three or four hours. Sufficient for six or seven persons.

Calf's Head Cheese. — Take the remains of a cold calf's head, remove the bones, and chop all the meat — lean, fat, skin, and tongue — into small pieces. Put these into a stewpan with a little salt and pepper, the rind and juice of a lemon, a little powdered cinnamon, and all the brain-sauce that is left. Cover the whole barely with some of the liquor in which the head was boiled, and simmer it gently, stirring it every now and then, for twenty minutes. Remove the rind, and put the rest into a mould which has been soaked in cold water ; put a plate and weight over it, and when it is cold, turn out. It will make a nice breakfast or supper dish, or can be used for sandwiches. Probable cost, 2d., without the cold meat, &c. Sufficient, a small mould for a breakfast dish.

Calf s Head, Collared (to serve cold). — Take a caK's head, properly prepared, re- i move the brains, and put it into boiling water i for a quarter of an hour to blanch it ; wash it j thoroughly, put it into cold water, and boil it j until the bones can be removed. Bone and lay it flat on the table, and sprinkle over it, in alternate layers, six table- spoonfuls of chopped parsley, some ground pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg, pink ham cut into slices, and the yolks of six eggs boiled hard, sliced, and dotted here and there. Roll the head as tightly as possible, tie it in a cloth, and boil it gently for four hours. Take it out, drain, and put it under a weight, and do not remove the cloth and bandages imtil it is cold.

I Calfs Head, Collared (to serve hot). ' — Take a calf's head, properly prepared, blanch j and boil it until it is sufficiently tender to j remove the bones. When they are taken out, i lay the head on the table, and spread on it a { forcemeat made of the brain, the tongue, and ! some of the meat cut from where it is thickest, : mixed with a table-si^oonf ul of chopped parsley, a tea-spoonful of thyme, a tea-spoonful of marjoram, the pounded yolks of three eggs boiled hard, two spoonfuls of brandy, and a little salt, pepper, and nutmeg. Roll the head as tightly I as possible, and tie it in a cloth, binding it with tape. Put it into a saucepan with sufficient stock to cover it, and add a carrot, a j^arsnip, j two or three onions, some slices of lemon, a i little thyme, four bay -leaves, and salt and pepper. Let it boil gently for three hours, then take it out of the cloth, and pour round ! it a sauce made of a pint of the liquid in which I it was boiled, mixed with a table-spoonful of I chopjDed mushrooms, a table-spoonful of chopped j ghei'kins, and a little lemon-juice. Sufficient j for seven or eight persons.

j Calf's Head Collops. — Cut a cold calf's head into small neat slices about the third of an inch in thickness. Strew over these a large dessert-spoonful of minced parsley and a little salt and cayenne. Make some good thick batter, dip each piece of meat into it, and fry it in boiling butter or oil until nicely browned. Serve the collops very hot, piled high in a dish, and accompanied with lemonjuice and cayenne. Time to fry, ten minutes. Probable cost, 6d., wthout the cold meat. Sufficient, allow two or three collops for each person.

j Calf's Head, Curried.— Cut up the

remains of a calf's head into pieces about an inch square, and lay them on one side. Put a piece of butter about the size of a large egg into a saucepan ; let it melt, then slice into it two large onions, and fry them until lightly browned on both sides ; take them out, and stir a dessert-spoonful of curry powder gradually and smoothly into the butter, and afterwards a small cupful of good stock, ^^^len the sauce is quite smooth, add the cold calf's head and onions ; let the mixture boil ten minutes, and just at the last squeeze in the juice of half a lemon. Put it into the centre of a dish, with a border of rice round it, boiled as for other curries. If necessary, a little more stock may be added, but curries should not be watery. Probable cost, exclusive of the cold meat, 6d. Sufficient for four persons.

Calf's Head, Dappled.— Boil a calf's head until the bones come out easily ; take them out, and lay the flesh on a dish, with another dish over it, and a weight on that, so that the head may be oval and flat. When cold, divide it into halves. Brush it over with wellbeaten eggs, and over one half strew finelygrated bread-crumbs mixed with salt and cayenne, and over the other, finely-grated bread-crumbs with an equal quantity of finelychopped parsley and sage. Bake it in a good oven until it is lightlj^ browned, basting it frequently Avith a little stock. Serve it on a hot

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ilisli, and send it to tabic with two tureens of sauce — one of parsley and butter; and the other made of half a pint of good gravy mixed with the brains boiled and chopped small, a flavouring of salt and cayenne and a squeeze of lemon-juice. Time to bake, thi-cequarters of an hour. Sufficient for six or eight persons.

Calfs Head, Fricasseed.— Cut the remains of a cold calf's head into sKces about a quarter of an inch thiclc, and lay them aside until wanted. Put a pint and a half of the liquid in which the head was boiled into a saucepan with a salt-spoonful of salt, half a salt-spoonful of pepper, a bunch of savoury herbs, and an onion stuck with four cloves. Let these simmer gently for three-quarters of an hour-; then strain the liquid, and pour it into a jar until wanted. Put a piece of butter the size of a large egg into a saucepan ; let it melt, then mix with it very smoothly a tablespoonful of floui", and afterwards, very gradually, the strained liquid. Put the meat in, let it boil, draw it from the iire for a minute or two, and mix with it the beaten yolks of two eggs. Stir it over the iire till it thickens, but do not allow it to boil. Before serving, squeeze in the juice of half a lemon. Time, one hour and a half. Probable cost, exclusive of the cold calf's head, 6d. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Calf's Head, Fried.— Cut the remains of a cold calf's head into pieces about an inch and a half wide. Lay them for thi-ee hom-s in a pickle made of two table-spoonfuls of lemonjuice, the same of white wine, salt, pepper, and powdered cinnamon. Take them out, drain them, and dip each piece into a batter. Fry them in boiling oil till they are a bright bro^vn, and pile them in a pyramid on a hot dish. Time, ten minutes to fry. Probable cost, 6d. or 8d., without the \\ane.

Calf S Head, Hashed. — Cut the remains of a cold calf's head into nice slices about a quarter of an inch thick and thi-ee or four inches long, and set them aside until wanted. Take the remains of the brains and beat them up with a dessert-spoonful of chopped parsley, a salt-spoonful of finely-shred lemon-rind, and a little salt and pepper. Make this into cakes, and fry them in boiling butter until nicely browned. Put a piece of butter the size of a large egg into a saucepan; melt it, then mix with it very smoothly a table-spoonful of flour, a pint of nicely-flavoured stock, a little pepper and salt, and cayenne, and the liquor from a score of oysters, or, what will be very good, though not as good, a table-spoonful of the liquor fi'om a tin of oysters ; let this boil up, add the pieces of head, a table-spoonful of mushroom ketchup, and a score of oysters, fresh or tinned. Let all simmer until quite hot, but the preparation must not boil again. Serve the meat in the middle. Poui- the gravy over, and arrange, alternately, fried bacon and the brain cakes round it. Time altogether, half an hour. Probable cost, exclusive of the meat, with fresh oysters, 4s. ; with tinned oysters. Is. 4d. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Cairs Head Hashed (another Avay)._

Cut the remains of a cold cult's head into neat slices about a quarter of an inch in thickness and thi-ee or four inches square. Put two ounces of butter into a saucepan ; let it melt, then fry two large onions in it cut into dice, and when they are lightly browned take them out, and mix very smoothly with the butter, one tablespoonful of flom-, and a pint of the liquor in which the head was boiled. Add the onion and two table-spoonfuls of pickled gherkins, chopped I small, then the pieces of cold ailf's head. Let ' all simmer gently for two or three minutes; serve as hot as possible. A glass of sherry is an improvement. Probable cost, exclusive of the cold meat, 6d. Sufficient for foiu- or" five persons.

Cairs Head, Hashed (another way).—

Cut the remains of a cold calf's head into neat slices, dijj them in egg and grated bread-crumbs, and put them aside until they are wanted. Place the bones, gristle, and trimmings into a saucepan with two pints of the liquor in which the head was boiled, and put with them an onion stuck with four cloves, a bunch of sweet herbs, and the thinly-peeled rind of half a lemon, with a little salt and cayenne. Let these simmer gently until reduced to half ; then strain the gravy, and mix it with any of the sauce or brains that may be left, and if these are not sufficient to thicken it, add a little rice flour. The addition of a little white wine is an improvement. Let these simmer gently together for ten minutes. Fry the pieces of meat which are already prepared, place them in the middle of the dish, and pour the gra-\y round them. The egg and bread-crumbs may be omitted, and the pieces of meat put in the sauce to warm, and little pieces of bacon wanned with it. Time, one hour to simmer the bones and gravy ; ten minutes to boil all together. Probable cost, 3d., exclusive of the cold meat. Sufficient for four or five persons.

. Calfs Head, Mock Turtle Soup of.

— Take half a calf's head with the skin on, remove the brains, wash it in two or three waters, and boil it gently for an hour and a half. Take off the skin, cut it and the flesh into pieces about an inch and a half square, and throw them into cold water. Drain, and j)ut them into a saucepan, cover with stock, and let them simmer gently for another hour and a half. Put three quarts of nicely-flavom-ed stock into a separate stewpan, and with it a tea-spoonful of minced thyme, a tea-spoonful of marjoram, fom- bay-leaves, three dessertspoonfuls of chopped parsley, half an ounce of whole pepper, half an ounce of salt, thi-ee onions with fom- cloves stuck in them, half a head of celeiy, and two table-spoonfuls of mushroom ketchup. Let these simmer slowly for two hom'S. Strain the liquor, thicken it with two table-spoonfuls of flour, mixed with a little cold water, and added gradually, then pour it into the same saucepan as the meat, add half a pint of sherrj', eight or nine forcemeat balls (one for each person), the hard-boiled yolks of five eggs, and the juice of a lemon. Let all simmer for a few minutes, and serve. The forcemeat balls should be made by mixing

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well together the brains, a hreakfast-cupful of finely-grated bread-crumbs, a little salt, pepper, nutmeg, finely-chopped parsley, three ounces of butter, and two eggs. Mal^e them up about the size of an egg, fry them in boiling oil or dripping, and di-ain them from the fat before they are added to the soup. Time, four hours. Probable cost, Is. 6d. per quart, without the wine. Sufficient for ten or twelve persons.

Cairs Head Mould.— Cut the remains of a cold caK's head into neat slices. Make some clear savoury jeUy with gelatine (aw Aspic Jelly, Economical). Put a little of the jelly at the bottom of a plain mould which has been soaked in cold water. Let it set a little, then arrange the pieces of meat in the mould, making them look as nice as possible with a little parsley, pieces of ham or tongue, rings of hardboiled egg. Leave space between the pieces of meat for the jelly to run through. Nearly fill the mould with the meat, pour the jelly over it, and put it in a cool place till stiff enough to turn out. Time, twelve hours to set. Suflicient for a breakfast dish. Probable cost. Is. for a moderate-sized mould, exclusive of the meat.

Calf S Head Pie. — An excellent pie may be made of Cixlf's head. Take one properly prepared, and boil it until the bones can be taken out. Line the edge of a large pie-dish %vith .a good, light crust, put in the pieces of meat, the tongue at the top, season it with salt, pepper, and a little nutmeg, pour over it a cupful of the liquor in which the head was boiled, cover it with a thick crust, and bake in a good oven until nicely browned. ฆ\Vhile it is baking put the bones of the head into a saucepan, with a quart of the liquor, a tea-spoonful of powdered mace, an onion chojiped small, and half a salt-spoonful of cayenne pepper. Let it simmer gently until it is reduced to half, then strain it, and add two table-spoonfuls of mushroom ketchup and a glass of port. Mix the brains with eight or nine sage-leaves, chopped small, half a nutmeg grated, and an egg. Make them up into little cakes, and fiy them in boiling butter until they are nicely browned. Put them in the oven to keep wann, with a sheet of blotting paper under them to drain off the fat. Have ready also four or five hai-dboiled eggs. AVhen the pie is sufficiently cooked, take off the crust, and lay the brain cakes and the eggs, cut into rings, on the top ; pour the boiling gravy over all, and fasten the crust on again with the white of an egg before sending the dish to table. Time to bake, an hour and a half or more. Sufficient for eight or nine persons. Probable cost, from 6s. to lis.

Calf's Head Ragout.— Boil a calf's head, and while the tiesh is still firm, take it up, cut it into niec slices, about half an inch thick, and as large as possible. Dust these on both sides with flour, salt, and gTatcd nutmeg. Have a saucepan ready, melt two ounces of butter in it, and fry the pieces of meat, and as each piece is lightly browned, put it into a stcwpan. Wlien all the pieces are fried, mi.x a

table-spoonful of flour very smootlily with the butter left in tlie pan, and add gradually to this a breakfast-cupful of the liquid in which the head was first boiled, and a wine-glassful of sherry or Madeira. Season the liqour with the juice of half a lemon, and a little cayenne. When this sauce is quite smooth, pour it over the meat, and let all simmer together for about ten minutes. Arrange the meat nicely on a hot dish, and pour the sauce round it. Garnish either with brain cakes or toasted sippets. Time, to boil calf's head, one hour and a half. Sufficient for eight or nine persons.

Calfs Head Ragout (another way).— Wash half a calf's head thoroughly, and boil it for about three hours. Take it up, drain it, and score the outside skin in diamonds. Brush it over with well -beaten egg, and strew over that a cupful of finely -grated bread-criunbs, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, a tea-spoonful of powdered thyme, a tea-sjjoonful of salt, and half a salt- spoonful of cayenne. Put it in ;t hot oven, or place it before the fii-o to brown, and, before sending it to table, squeeze over it the juice of a large lemon, and cover completely with melted butter. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Calf's Head, Roasted.— Wash a calf's head, remove the brains and the tongue, and simmer it gently for three-quai'ters of an houi-. Take it out of the saucepan, and fill it with good veal forcemeat. Sew it up, or fasten it securely with skewers, bind it with tape, and put it down to roast. Baste it constantly, serve good gravy with it, and, before sending it to table, squeeze the juice of a lemon over it. Boil the tongue and brains, and serve them on a separate dish, with a few rashers of bacon round them. Time to roast, two hom-s. Sufficient for eight or nine persons.

Cairs Head Soup.— Take half a calf's head, properly prepared, and as fresh as it can be got. Wash well, and soak it in cold water for a couple of hom-s. Take it out, drain it, and put it in a saucepan with three quarts of cold water, and let it simmer gently for three hours, when it may be taken out, and set on one side until wanted. Put two leeks, two carrots, two turnips, all peeled and sliced, two onions with foui- cloves stuck in them, a bunch of parsley, a sjjrig of thyme, half a dozen peppercorns, and a little salt into the liquor. Let these stew gently for another hour, and keep skimming all the time. Strain the soup, and remove the fat, which must be put into a frpngpan, melted, and two large onions sliced into it. Let these brown, add a little of the liquor, and mix with them, gradually and very smootlily, three 'table-spoonfuls of rice flour, and a saltspoonful of the essence of anchovies. Add the rest of the liquor, little by little, and the calf's head cut into pieces about an inch and a half square, and let all boil together for five or six minutes. Serve with toasted sippets. Probable cost. Is. 8d. per quart. Sufficient for seven or eight persons.

Cairs Head, To Carve.— Commence by making long slices from end to end of the

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cheek, cutting quite through, to the bone, according to the dotted lines from a to k. Y ith each of these slices serve a cut of what

CALFS HEAD FOR CARVING.

is called the throat sweetbread, which lies at the fleshy part of the neck end. Cut also slices from c to u ; they are gelatinous and delicate, and serve small pieces with the meat. A little of the tongue and a spoonful of the brains are usually placed on each plate. The tongue is served on a separate plate, surrounded by the irains, and is cut across in rather thin slices. Some persons prefer the eye. It is removed by a circular cut marked by dotted lines at e. First put the knife in skmting at f, inserting the ijoint at the part of the dotted line, and di-iving it into the centre under the eye ; then turn the hand round, kee2)ing the circle of the (lotted lino with the blade of the knife, the point still in the centre. The eye will come out entire, cone-shaped at the under part, when the circle is completed by the knife. The lower jaw must next be renewed, beginning at g ; and to do this properlj' the dish must be turned. The palate is also considered a dainty, and a little of it should always be offered to each guest.

Calfs Head with Mushrooms. — Take half a calf's head with the skin on, wash it in two or three waters, and boil it about an hoiir, or until the bones can be removed without ver\' • ;ucli difficulty. Remove the bones, replace the brain, and put the head into a stewpan with the skin downwards, and just cover it with good brown gravy, season it with salt and cayenne, and let it simmer for half an hour. Rub two dozen button mushi-ooms 'vith a flannel and a little salt, cut the ends off : the stalks, which must be separated from the f • mushi-ooms, and then put them into a stewpan ; with a little hot butter, and boil them in it for ', five minutes, taking care that they do not stick ; ฆ to the pan. Drain them, and put them into ;'ฆฆฆ the gravy, which may be thickened ^\'ith a little ฆ ground rice, and stew all together for another hour. Serve with veal forcemeat balls, and a few rashers of fried bacon. Time, two and a half hours. Probable cost, 5s. 6d. Sufficient for six persons.

Calf's Head, with Oysters.— Boil half a caK's head in the usual way, remove the

brains, and only just cover it with water, flavouring it with two onions stuck with five or six cloves, two bay-leaves, a bunch of parsley, a sprig of marjoram and thyme, and a little salt and cayenne. When the head is tender, take it out, strain the liquor, thicken a large breakfast-cupful of it with a dessert-spoonful of floui-, and add the liquor from two dozen oysters, and a breakfast-cupful of milk. Put in the head and siimner again for half an hour. Just before serving, put in the oysters ; let them get hot, but do not allow them to boil or they will be hard. Serve with the oysters round the dish. Time, two hours. Probable cost, with fresh oysters, 9s. 6d.; with tinned oysters, 5s. 6d. Sufficient for six or seven persons.

Calfs Heart, Roasted. — Wash the

heart thoroughly in several waters, then leave it to soak for half an hour. Wipe it dry, and fill it with good veal stuffing, tie a piece of oiled jDaper round it, and roast it before a good fire for an horn- and a half. A few minutes before it is wanted take off the paper, sprinkle some flour over it, and baste it well. Send it to table with plenty of good bro^wn gravy, and some fried bacon on a separate dish.

Calf's Kidney. — The kidney of a calf may be made into balls, fried in hot butter or oil, and served with good brown gravy and toasted sippets. They must be chopped and made up with bread-crxmibs, cho23ped onions, butter, salt, cayenne, and a beaten egg. Time to fry, ten minutes. They are generally sold with the loin. Probable cost, kidneys, 6d. or 8d. Sufficient for two or three persons.

Calf's Liver (Mock Pate de Foie Gras). —Soak some calf's liver for half an hour, then di y it in a cloth, and cut it into thin slices, each of which must be dipped in egg, and minced herbs, salt, and pepper strewn over it. Place a layer of these at the bottom of the dish, then a layer of bacon, and over these some sliced truffles and hard-boiled eggs. Repeat until the dish is full. Pour some good gravy over the whole, cover with a light crust, and bake in a moderate oven. Do not overcrowd the meat in the dish, as there should be jilcnty of jelly. It must be eaten cold. Time to bake, one hour and a half. One pound of calf's liver will suffice for fom- or five i:iersons.

Calf's Liver, Stewed.— Take two oi three pounds of liver, soak it in cold water for about twenty minutes, then put it into a stewpan with a little melted butter, and let it biown lightly ; pour off the fat, and cover it with some nicely-flavoured stock, and let it stew A-ery gently for a couple of houi's or more. Thicken the gravy, and put a couple of glasses of jiort into it, and the juice of a lemon, or, if preferred, white wine. It is an improvement to lard the liver before putting it into the stewpan, or finely-minced herbs may be strewn over it after browning. Time, two hoiu-s and a half. Probable cost, lOd. per pound. Sufficient, two pounds for four or five persons.

Calfs Pluck. — stuff the heart with a veal forcemeat to which a little bacon has been

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added, and fasten the liver and lights securely round it. Put it before a moderate fire, and baste it well while it is roasting. When it is cooked enough, put it on a hot dish with melted butter, which has been flavoured with a glass of port and the juice of a lemon, roimd it. Time to bake, one hour and a half. Probable cost, lOd. per poimd. Sufficient for six persons.

Calf's Pluck (another way).— Stuff the ieart as in the last recipe, and bake it in a moderate oven ^vith a little boiled vermicelli laid over it. When it is sufficiently cooked, put it on a hot dish, slice and fry the liver, lights, and a few rashers of bacon, and place them roimd, and pom- a good brown gravy over the whole. Time to bake, one hour and a half. Probable cost, lOd. per pound. Sufficient for six persons.

Calfs Sweetbreads.— Calf's sweet"breads should always be soaked for an homer two in cold water, which must be changed once or twice, then put into boiling water for about ten minutes, till they are firm and round but not hard; take them out and put into cold water again until they are wanted to be dressed. This should be done whether they are intended to be stewed, fried, roasted, baked, or cooked in any other way.

Calf's Sweetbreads, Baked.— Prepare the sweetbreads as above. Dry them, dip thein in egg and bread-crumbs, place two or three lumps of butter or nice beef dripping on and around them, and bake them in a moderate oven for three-quarters of an hour, basting them frequently dm-ing the process. Serv-e them on a slice of toast, and pour a good brown gravy round them. Sufficient, two sweetbreads for three persons.

Calf s Sweetbreads, Stewed.— Put

two sweetbreads, prepared as above, into a stcwpan with some nicely-flavoured stock, and let them simmer gently for three-quai-ters of an hour or more. Take them out and place them on a hot dish. Draw the gra\y from the fire for a minute or two, and add to it very gradually the yolk of an egg and four tablespoonfuls of cream. Put this over a gentle fire until the sauce thickens, but do not allow it to boil. Just before serving, squeeze into it the juice of a lempn. Sufficient for thi-ee jjcrsons.

Calfs Sweetbreads, Stewed (another

way). — Prepare the sweetbre;ids as above. Take them from the cold water, wipe them dry, dip them in egg and bread-crumbs, and fry them in plenty of boiling dripping or butter till they are nicely browned on both sides. Drain them from the fat, serve them on a hot dish, put under them a slice of bread toasted, and jjour over them some maitre d'hotel sauce, made with a cupful of bechamel, a cupful of stock, two table-spoonfuls of chopped parsley, and the juice of a lemon. Pepper and salt to taste. Time to fiy, a quarter of an horn. Sufficient, two sweetbreads for three persons.

Calf S Tails. — Cut four calf's tails in pieces an inch and a half long, fry them in

I boiling fat till they are lightly brownied, then I stew them in good gravy till they are quite tender. Serve them wdth thick biown sauce roimd them, and some stewed muslirooms on a separate dish. When muskrooms cannot be obtained, put a table-spoonful of ketchui into the gravy. Time to stew, two hours. Probable cost, 9d. each. Sufficient for six persons.

Cambridge Drink.^This agreeable and

I refieshing beverage is made by mixing equal

quantities of home-brewed ale and soda-water.

I Ginger beer may be used instead of soda I water.

Cambridge Milk Puncli.— Put the

thin rind of lialf a small lemon into a pint of new milk, with twelve or fourteen good-sized lumps of sugar (if the Swiss milk is used, the sugar must be omitted) . Let it boil very slowly to di-aw out the flavom- of the lemon, then take it from the fire, remove the rind, and stii- into it the yolk of an egg mixed with a table-spoonful of cold milk, two table-spoonfuls of brandy, and foirr of rum. Whisk these thoroughly together, and when the mixture is frothed, it is ready to serve. Time to prepare, half an hour. Probable cost, Sd., exclusive of the brandy and rum. Sufficient for a pint and a haK of punch.

Cam.om.ile Tea. — Pour a pint of boilingwater over five drachms of camomile flowers. Let them soak for ten minutes, and then strain. If taken warm, camomile tea acts as a gentle emetic. When taken cold it is often beneficial in cases of dyspepsia, hysteria, and head-ache.

Cam.p Vinegar. — Chop small two cloves

of garlic, and put them into a quart bottle with f om- tea-spoonfuls of soy, six of walnut ketchup, and half an ounce of cayenne. Fill the bottle with vinegar, and let it remain for thi-ee weeks; then strain and bottle it for use, being careful to seal the corks. Probable cost, 7d. per pint. Sufficient for a quart.

Cam.p Yeast. — Boil four quarts of water with two ounces of hops and half a pound of flom- for twenty minutes, stirring it all the time. Strain the liquid, and mix with it half a pound of sugar, and, when it is lukewarm, half a pint of fresh yeast. Put it in a warm place to ferment. Pour off the thin liquor from the top, and bottle it for use. Time to ferment, eight hom-s. Probable cost, 3d. per pint. A cupful of yeast will be sufficient for four quartern loaves.

Canadian Cakes. — Mix thoroughly one

pound of the best flour, qiiarter of a jjound of maizena, thi-ee-quarters of a pound of sugar, and a pinch of salt. Eub in three-quarters of a pound of butter, and add eight eggs well beaten, half an ounce of candied peel chopped very small, a wine-glassful of brandy, and half a pound of currants. Beat these ingi-edients well together, and put the mixture into shallow tins, which must be lined with paper dipped in oil or butter, and bake in a good oven. Time to bake, haK an hour. Probable cost, 2s. 6d. Sufficient for fom- cakes.

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Canadian ; Cobbler.— Half fill a sodawater glass with pounded ice, and add half a small lemon sliced, a dessert-si^oonful of sugar, and two glasses of sherry. Mix well together, and di-ink through a straw. Time to make, a few minutes. Probable cost, 3d., exclusive of the sherry. Sufficient for one person.

Canadian Pudding.— Mix six tablespoonfuls of maizena or Indian corn-tiour, one quart of milk, and the thin rind of half a lemon, in a saucepan, and let it boil, stirring all the I time. Let it cool ; then mix with it four eggs I well beaten, and a little sugar, and pour it into | a well-buttered mould which has been garnished with raisins placed in rows. Steam it for two hours, and serve with wine sauce. Probable cost. Is. 3d. Sufficient for six persons.

Canapes. — Take slices* of the crumb of bread about half an inch thick, and stamp them out in rounds, ovals, or diamonds, then fry them in boiling oil or butter till they are lightly browned. These fonn the foundation of the canapes. Thej'' may be seasoned and garnished with anchovy, shrimp, or lobster paste, toasted cheese, hard-boiled eggs, cucumbers, beetroot, parsley, salad, cresses, celery, gherkins, pra-mis, craj-fish, or salmon. A combination of two or three tilings gives them a handsomer appearance. They should be dished on a napkin and garnished with parsley, &c. Time to fry, ten minutes.

Canard (aux Pois). — Take the remams of cold duck, and cut it into neat joints. Lay these in a stewpan with half a pound of the breast of bacon, cut into pieces about an inch square, and about two ounces of butter. "When lightly bro-wTied, cover the meat with nicely-flavoured stock, which must be thickened with a spoonful of flour, and add a bxinch of parsley, two or three green onions, pepper and salt to taste, and a small piece of sugar. Let these simmer gently for twenty minutes, add one quart of freshlygathered young green peas, which have been thoroughly washed in cold water, and simmer again until the peas are sufficiently cooked. Skim the fat from the gra\y, and serve the peas in the middle, the pieces of duck round them, and the gravy in a tureen. Time, one hour. Probable cost, about Is. 6d., exclusive of the cold duck. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Canard Farci. — Bone a duck, and fill it with a forcemeat made with three large onions j boiled and chopped, three small apples, finely I minced, a breakfast-cupful of bread-crumbs, a j table-spoonful of sage, a tea-spoonful each of j mustard, sugar, and salt, as much pepper and powdered mace as will stand on a sixpence, and a dessert-spoonful of lemon-juice. Secure it firmly. Tie it in a cloth, and stew it gently until sufficiently cooked in some good stock. Serve it with green peas or mashed turnips. Time to stew, one hour. Probable cost, from 2s. to 3s. each. Sufficient for thi-ee persons.

Canary Cream. — Put a quart of milk into a saucepan^ with a Little sugar, the thin rind of

a lemon, the well-beaten yolks of three eggs, and a glass of sherry or light wine. Heat it very gently, stiiTing all the time, till the eggs thicken, and be very careful that it does not curdle. Serve it ia custard glasses, and dust a little powdered cinnamon on the top of each glass. Time, twenty minutes. Probable cost, lOd., exclusive of the wine. Sufficient for six glasses.

Cannelon (a la Fran9aise).— Mince a pound of underdressed beef and half a pound of bacon, and mix them well together, season with a little pepper, salt, and nutmeg, a teaspoonful of chopped parsley, and the same of marjoram and thyme. Bind aU together with beaten egg, form the mince into a roll, tie some white oiled paper round it to keep it in shape, and bake it in a moderate oven. A\Tien sufficiently cooked, take off the paper, put the roll in a dish, and pour good brown gravy round it. Time to bake, three-quarters of an hour. Probable cost, 3d., exclusive of the cold meat.

Cannelons (see Beef Cannelons).

Cannelons (a la Poulette). — Take the remains of cold chicken and half the quantity of cold ham ; mince and mix them thoroughly with a little good white sauce. Poll out some good light paste about a quarter of an inch in thickness, cut it into pieces two inches long and one inch wide. Place a little of the mixture on half of these pieces, and with the others cover each one ; press the edges, and round them. Fry them in hot fat. Drain, and serve on a napkin. Time to fry, ten minutes. Allow thi'ee for each person. Probable cost, ^d. each, exclusive of the cold meat.

Cannelons, Glazed. — Cannelons may be baked instead of fried. They are made exactly in the same way, excepting that just before they are sent to the oven they must be brushed over with the white of an egg, and coarsely-pounded sugar stre'WTi over them. Time, ten minutes. Sufficient, one pound of pufl: paste for a large dish.

C annelons of Br io che Paste .— Briฎche paste may be substituted for puif paste in making cannelons. The paste must be rolled very thin, and they should be served hot and di'}'.

Cannelons, or Fried Puffs.— 5Iakc

some fine putt' paste {see Puff Paste). Poll it very thin, and cut it into pieces two inches wide and six inches long. Place a tea-spoonful of jam on each piece, and roll it over twice. Press the edges (which muct be brushed with

OANNELONS.

water or the white of egg), and fry the cannelons in hot lard, ^\^len they begin to bro"mi.

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draw them to the side of the fire, or the pastry will be sufficiently browned before it is cooked through. Drain them well by laying a piece of blotting paper on a dish before the fire, and placing them on it for a minute or two. Arrange them in a pile on a napkin. They may be made with any sort of jam, or with fresh fruit. Time to fry, ten minutes. Probable cost, 2s. Sufficient, one pound of puff paste for a large disli.

Canterbury Pudding.— Molt six ounces

of butter till it will run, and stu- into it the finely-chopped rind of a lemon, six ounces of sugar, four ounces of fioui-, and three weUbeaten eggs. Beat the mixture thorouglily with a wooden spoon, then pour it into a wellbuttered basin, and steam for one hovu- and a half. Serve with ^vine sauce. Probable cost. Is. Sufficient for four persons.

Capers. — The bottle in which capers are kept should never be left without the cork. They should also be kept covered with the liquor, or they will spoil, and on this account it is better to use a spoonful of white vinegar, instead of the liquor, in making sauce. The flavour cannot be fully extracted unless the capers are bruised. Probable cost. Is. per pint bottle.

Caper Sauce, a Substitute for.—

Pickled gherkins, pickled nasturtium pods, French beans, or green peas, cut small like capers, may be used as a substitute for them. The nasturtium pods are by many persons considered preferable. When none of these are at hand, parsley may be boiled slowly to take away its greenness, and cut up into pieces, not chopped small. Proceed in the same way as with capers. Time, one or two minutes to simmer. Probable cost, the same as for capers ; parsley will be cheaper. Sufficient, a pint of sauce for a leg of mutton.

Caper Sauce for Boiled Mutton.—

Take a quarter of a pint of good melted butter, and stir into it one table-spoonful and a haK of chopped capers and two tea-spoonfuls of vinegar. Stir the sauce over the fire, simmering it very gently for about a minute. Serve in a sauce tureen. Probable cost, 6d. for this quantity. Sufficient for three or four persons.

Caper Sauce for Pish. — Stir three dessert-spoonfuls of chopped capers and one dessert-spoonful of \'inegar into half a pint of melted butter ; put it on a gentle fire, and when the sauce is simmering, stir in a dessert-spoonful either of the essence of anchovy, mushroom or walnut ketchup, and season rather, highly with cayenne. Time, two minutes to simmer. Probable cost, 8d. Sufficient for two pounds of fish.

Capillaire. — Put two ounces of freshlygathered maidenhair {Adiantum capillus veneris) into a jug, and pour over it sufficient boiling water to cover it. Let it stand on the hob or liearth, to infuse like tea, for ^ome hours ; then strain it, and put it into a clear syrup made by boiling together throe pounds of sugar and tlrrce pints of water ; add two table-spoonfuls of orange-flower water, and stii* it over the

fire for a few minutes. Run the liquid through a jelly-bag till it is quite clear, and when cold bottle it for use. Cork it secui-ely, and seal the corks. Time to infuse the fern, ten hours. Probable cost, 8d. per quart, exclusive of the maidenhair. It makes an excellent and agxeeable fiavom-ing for all kinds of beverages.

Capillaire (another way). — Put two ounces of American capiUaii-e into a pint of boilingwater, add a pound of sugar, and when it has stood some time, the white of an egg, and boil it to a thick syrup. Strain it, and wlien it is cold, flavour it with a table- spoonful of oi-angcflower water. Bottle it and seal the corks. Time to infuse, one hour and a half. Probable cost, 5d. per pint, exclusive of the capillair-e.

C apillaire , Imitation .—Mix well a quart

of water with five pounds of sugar, two eggs beaten, and the shells put in. BoH all together, and skim the liquid thoroughly ; strain through a jelly-bag, and fiavoui- it with two tablespoonfuls of orange-flower water. Time to boil, twenty minutes. Probable cost, 2s. 4d. for this quantity.

Capillaire in Punch. — A small bottle of capillaire is a great improvement to a bowl of punch ; or a pleasant summer drink may be made by putting a -svine-glassful into a tumbler, with the juice of half a lemon, and filling up with water.

Capon, The. — Capons, to be tender, ought to be killed a day or two before they are dressed", and in cold weather, more than that time may be allowed to intervene between killing and cooking. When the feathers can be easily pulled out, the bird is ready for the spit. They should be managed precisely in the same way as turkeys, and the same sauces may be sent to table with them. They may be had all the year, but are cheapest about October and November, and largest at Christmas.

Capon, Boiled.— Draw and truss a fine capon, and tie a sheet of oiled or buttered paper over it. Lay it in a saucepan, with sufficient water or stock to cover it, and put with it an onion, a carrot, a bimch of sweet herbs, and a little salt. Stew it gently, and when done, take it up, and lay round the dish on which it is served four or five small cauliflowers. Pour a little bechamel over it. Time to boil, one hour. Probable cost, from 2s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Capon, Roast. — Truss a capon fimily for roasting. Faster some oiled paper over the breast, and roast it before a good fire. "NMien sufficiently cooked, take it down, place it on a hot dish with watercresses round it. Send some good gravy to table with it. Time, to roast, one hour. Probable cost, from 2s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Capon, Roasted with Cream Stuffing. — Truss a capon for roasting. Boil the liver, and mince it as finely as possible. Pour a little cream over a cupful of finely-grated bread-crumbs. Let them soak for half an hour. Shi-ed finelv four ounces of snrt. a tf^'i-""^ •"'""!

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of scalded parsley, and four or five button mushrooms cut small and fried. Mix these well together with a little pepper and salt, and add the yolks of two eggs. IStuff the capon with the mi.xture, and roast it before a clear Hre. Serve with sauce flavoured with chopped gherkins. Time to roast, one hour. Probable cost, 2s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for foiu^ or five persons.

Capon, Roasted with Trufles.—

Clean, wash, and peel some truffles, and cut them in slices about a quarter of an inch thick ; fry them in butter, and season with pepper, salt, and nutmeg. Put them inside the capon, fasten some buttered paper over it, and roast it before a clear fire. This dish is frequently served without any sauce, but, if liked, a little may be sent to table with it made of good molted butter, flavoiu-ed with a quarter of a pound of truffles, peeled, and pounded in a mortar, with half an ounce of butter, and pressed thiough a sieve. Time to roast, one hour or more. Sufficient for four or five persons. Probable cost, from 2s. 6d. to 4s. each.

Capon, Stewed. — Blanch and boil, as if for curry, three-quarters of a pound of Patna rice. AVliilc it is cooking, fry three sliced onions in thi'ee table-spoonfuls of butter or drijjping, and with them a fine capon cut into joints. When fried, put the fowl and the onions into a stewpan, with sufficient nicely-flavoured stock to cover them, and let them stew gently until tender. jMix a little of the gravy with the rice, season it, then spread it on a dish, and lay the stewed capon upon it. Thicken the gravy, and pour a little of it upon the dish, and send the rest to table in a tiueen. Time to stew, about an hour. Probable cost, from 2s. Gd. to 4s. Sufficient for foiir or five persons.

Capon, Stewed (a la Fran ,'aise) . — Draw, and truss for boiling, a fine capon. Itubit over with a little lemon- juice, and put it into a stewpan with some slices of bacon under and over it. Cover it with some Aicely-flavoured stock, salted and peppered, and additionallj^ flavoured with an onion stuck with three or four cloves. Let it stew gently for an hour, then take it up, strain the gravy, and thicken it with a little flour and butter, and add a glass of white wine. Pour the gravy round the dish, and serve. Sufficient for five or six persons. Probable cost, from 2s. Gd. to 4s.

Capon, Stuffed and Roasted.— Shred

four ounces of suet veiy finely, and mix w'ith it half the quantity of ham, half a poimd of breadcrumbs, a tea-spoonful of chopped parsley, and the same of marjoram and thyme, two or three grains of cayenne, a little salt and pounded mace, and the finely-chopped rind of a lemon. Allien these are thoroughly mixed, bind them together with two eggs, well beaten. Stuff the capon with this forcemeat, cover it with buttered paper, and roast it. Baste it frequently. Serve it, with some good brown gravy and bread-sauce in a tureen. Time to roast, one hour. Probable cost, from 2s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for foui- or five persons.

Capon, Stuffed with Chestnuts —

Pare a dozen large sound chestnuts, and blanch 8

them like almonds. Stew them very gently for twenty minutes. Dram and pound them ; them mix with them the liver of the capon boiled and finely minced, two table-spoonfuls of fine broadcrumbs, a piece of fresh butter the size of a small egg, a small tea-spoonful of lemon-iind, a tea-spoonful of chopped jmrsley, a salt-spoonful of salt and the same of pepper, and a little nutmeg. Bind the forcemeat together with the yolks of two eggs. Fill the capon with this mixture, cover it with oiled paper, and roast it before a good fire. When it is sufficiently cooked, brush it over with beaten egg, dredge fine bread-crumbs over it, and brown it. Serve with half a pint of good melted butter, to which has been added three chopped gherkins. Probable cost, 2s. Gd. to 4s. each. Time to roast, one hour. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Capon, To Truss for Boiling.— Pick

the capon very clean ; singe it if necessarj-. Cut oft' the neck and the claws, and draw the bird, being very careful not to break the gallbladder, as it would make anything that it touched A-ery bitter. Preserve the liver and the gizzard. Fasten back the skin of the neck with a skewer. Press the feet down closely, make a slit in the top of the skin of the legs, and put the legs under. Put the liver and the gizzard in the pinions, then pass a skewer through the first joint of the wing, the middle of the leg, and through the body, and fasten the wing and the leg on the other side with the same skewer. Turn the wings over the I back, fasten a string over the legs and the I skewer to keep everything in its proper place. j Slake a little slit in the apron of the fowl, and put the parson's nose through it.

j Capon, To Truss for Roasting.— Cut

oft' the claws and the first joint of the wings, 1 and make a slit at the back of the neck just ! large enough to admit of the bird being drawn. j Preserve the liver, and the gizzaid, and be care! ful not to break the gall-bladder. Tui-n the ! wings under, bring the legs close, twist the j head round with the bill to the breast, and pass I a strong skewer through the wing, the middle ! of the leg, the liver and gizzard, the body, the head, and the wing and leg on the other side. Tic the legs close to the apron with some strong thread. Truss the bird as firmly as possible, and place a piece of oiled paper over the breast before roasting. "When it is intended to stuft' the capon, the head may be cut right oft', and the skin of the neck skewered over.

Capsicum, Essence of. — To one pint of brandy or rectified spirits of wine add one ounce of the best cayenne pepper. Let it infuse for three weeks, then pour off the clear liquid, and bottle for use. It is very convenient to have this essence for the flavouring of sauces, &c., as the taste is equally and quickly diffused by stirring a little with some boiling sauce. Cayenne varies so much in strength, that the quantity to be put with each pint of sauce or gravy must be regulated by the taste of the cook.

Capsicums, Pickled.— Capsicums may be pickled either green or red. They are finest and ripest in September and October.

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If they can be obtained from the garden it is best to gather the pods with the stalks before they are red. Put the capsicums into a jar. Boil sufficient vinegar to cover them, allowing a heaped tea-spoonful of salt, and half an oimce of powdered mace, to every quart of vinegar. Pour this, while hot, upon the pods, and when cold, tie down closely with a bladder. They will be iit for use in five or six weeks. Probable cost, 4s. 6d. to 6s. per himdred.

Captain's Biscuits. — Put a iMneh of salt

with as much flwur as may be required, and make it into a paste with a little new milk. Knead it thoroughly till it is firm and stiff, then divide it into balls, and form into cakes about a quarter of an inch in thickness. Prick them with a fork, and bake for about fifteen minutes.

Carachi. — Pound a head of gai-lic, and put it into a jar with three table-spoonfuls each of wal- nut pickle, mushroom ketchup, and soy, and two tea-spoonfuls of cayenne pepper, two tea-spoonfuls of essence of anchovies, and one of pounded mace. Pour on these one pint of fresh vinegar ; let them remain in the liquid two or three days, then strain, and bottle it for use. Sufficient for one pint and a half. Probable cost, Is. 6d. per pint.

Caramel, or Burnt Sugar. — Put a

quarter of a pound of finely-sifted sugar into a preserving-pan, place it on a mederate fire, and stii' it with a wooden spoon till it becomes liquid ; then stir it constantly until it is a dark brown. Add one pint of cold water. Draw it to the side of the fire, and let it simmer very gently for a quarter of an hom* longer. Strain, and bottle for use. If the fire is too fierce, the caramel will be discoloured. This browning should be added to the sauce the last thing. Time, forty minutes. Probable cost, 2 id. per pint. When wanted, pour a few drops at a time into the tureen until the colour is what is required.

Caramel, or Burnt Sugar (another

way) . — Put one pound of sugar into a preservingpan Avith half a pint of cold water. Let it stand three or fom- minutes, then place it on the fire, and let it boil, skimming and stii-ring it constantly. It will be first a syrup, then begin to bubble and look white, when, if it is intended for caramel, it must have the juice of a lemon stu-red in with it, or it will turn to sugar again. Dip a stick into it, then plunge it into cold water, and when the sugar which ch'ops from the stick snaps like glass, it is ready. It must be poured out instantly. If it is to be used for sugar spinning, the pan must be placed in another of cold water. Have the moulds ready oiled, and throw the sugar over in threads with a fork or spoon.

Caraway Biscuits. — Rub a quarter of a pound of butter into a pound of flour, then add a quarter of a pound of sifted sugar, three eggs weU beaten, and a few caraway seeds. Make the mixture into a stiff paste, adding a little Avater if necessary. Roll it about a quarter of an inch thick, stamp it out in rounds, and prick these with a fork. Place the biscuits Oa flomed tins, or on a wire fi'ame, and bake

them in a quick oven about ten minutes. Probable cost, 8d. per pound.

Caraway, Brandy.— Dissolve half a

pound of finely-sifted ginger in one quait of brandy, and sprinkle on the top one ounce of whole caraway seeds. Let them remain for ten days in the jar, then strain the liquid and bottle it for use. This makes an excellent stomachic. Probable cost, 3d. per pint, exclusive of the brand}'.

Cardoons. — Cardoons have long been employed in French cookery, and arc now a good deal cultivated in England, but they require such rich seasoning that they are scarcely fit for domestic cookery. The stalks of the inner leaves are the parts which are eaten. They should be cut into strips about four inches long, and the prickles removed with a flannel. They are generally blanched for use.

Cardoons, Boiled. — Choose a few heads of sound white cardoons. Cut them into pieces about six inches long, remove the prickles, and blanch them in boiling water for a quarter of an horn-. Scrape off the skin and tie them in bundles. Cover them with nicely-flavoured stock, and boil till tender. Drain them, and serve on toast, with plenty of good melted butter. Sufficient, five or six heads for a dish.

Cardoons, Fried.— Proceed as above, and when the cardoons are tender, melt a little butter in a pan, drain the cardoons, dredge a little flour over, and fry them till they are nicely bro^wned. Send good melted butter to table with them. Time to fry, ten minutes. Sufficient, five or six heads for a dish.

Cardoons, Stewed. — Prepare the cardoons as above. Then put them into a stewpan ' and cover with a little good gravy, and stew very gently till tender. When sufficiently cooked, thicken the gravy with a little flour and butter, season with ca.yenne and salt, and add a glass of sherry. Put the cardoons on a dish, and pour the gravy over them. Sufficient, five or six for a dish.

Carp. — Carp is a pond rather than a river fish, and requii-es a thoroughly good sauce to be served with it. It is not often offered for sale, but is very useful for families residing in the country, as it may frequently be obtained when no other fish can be. The best carp are those of a medium size. They are better to be kept a day before they are used. From May to November they are not good for food. The head is considered the best part. Owing t6 their habit of burying themselves in mud, the flesh of these fish has often a disagreeable muddy taste ; in cleaning them, therefore, care should be taken to remove the gills, as they are always muddy, to rub a little salt down the back-bone, and to lay them in strong งalt and water for a couple of hours ; then wash them in clear spring water. A good plan also is to put a piece of the crumb of bread with the fish, and remove it before it is served. There is a small species of this fish called the Crucian cai'p which is good fot nothing.

Carp, Baked.— Clean and scale a carp. Make a forcemeat with eight ovsters, bearded

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and chopped, three boned anchovies, a teaspoonful of fine! J' - chopped j^^rsloy, half a shallot chopped small, a pinch of salt, a quarter of a salt-s^Doonful of cayenne, a jjinch of powdered allspice, and two table - spoonfuls of finely-grated bread-crumbs. Put these in a saucepan with a piece of butter the size of an egg, stir all well together with the yolk of an egg tiU it is stiff and smooth, then fill the fish, sew it up to prevent the forcemeat escaping, brush it over -ndth beaten egg, and strew breadcrumbs upon it. Pour oiled butter over it, cover it with stock, and bake for one hour. Place the carp on a hot dish, and thicken the gravy in which it was baked with a little floui- and butter, season it with cayenne, a teaspoonful of mustard, and a table-spoonful of Worcester sauce, and the last thing, squeeze in the juice of a lemon. Garnish with lemon and parsley, and serve the sauce in a tui'cen. Suflficient for two j^ersons.

Carp, Baked (anothorway).— Wash, scale, and draw the fish. Squeeze over it the juice of two lemons, and let it remain in this for an hour, turning it at the end of half an hour. Put it into a dish, pour uj^on it three ounces of oiled butter, and strew over it two minced shallots. Cover it mth oiled MTiting-paper, and bake it gentlj', basting it frequently. ^Vhen it is nearly baked, melt three ounces of butter in a stewpan, and stir smoothly into it a tablespoonful of flour and a cu^rf ul of boiling water, a small salt-spoonful of salt, and a little cayenne. Let the sauce boil ; then add to it gradually half a pint of new milk or cream, and, at the last moment, draw it from the fire and add the juice of a lemon. Mince finely four large gherkins, stir them into the sauce, and pour it over the fish. Time to bake, one hour. Sufficient for tw^o persons.

Carp, Boiled.— Wash, scale, and draw a carp, preserving the liver and roe. Put it into boiling salt and water, allowing a table-spoonful of salt to two quarts of water, and let it boil gently, till it is ready. Make a sauce with half a pint of the liquor in which the fish was boiled, a cupful of port, two shallots finely minced, two boned anchovies, a table-spoonful of soy, salt and cayenne. Let these boil gently till the anchovies are dissolved, then thicken the sauce with fiour and butter, and add the liver finely minced. Garnish with the roe fried, and slices of lemon. Time to boil, from twenty to thirty minutes. Sufficient for two persons.

Carp, Boiled (au bleu). — Clean and draw tlio carp. Cut it into convenient-sized pieces, put it in the fish-kettle with a large onion stuck with four cloves, some salt, pejDper, and scraped horse-radish, and two bay -leaves. Pour over it equal quantities of boiling vinegar, port, and water, allowing sufficient liquid only to cover the fish. Let it boil gently until sufficiently cooked, skim it well, let it get cold in the liquor, and serve on a napkin. Time to boil, from twenty to thirty minutes. Sufficient for two persons.

Carp (en Matelote). — Wash and prepare a carp, and if obtainable, an eel, and cut them into pieces about an inch and a half long. Put

three ounces of butter into a saucepan, let it melt, then fry in it one dozen small onions. Dredge in a table-spoonful of flour, and stii- in smoothly and very gradually a cupful of red wdne, and the same of broth. Add salt and cayenne, two bay-leaves, a bunch of savoury herbs, and a clove of garlic. Let all simmer gently for a few minutes, then put in the pieces of eel, and, ten minutes afterwards, the carp, ^\'ith the roe. Simmer for a quarter of an horn- more. Remove the herbs and the garlic, and pour the sauce hot over the fish. Time, threequarters of an hour. Probable cost of the eel, 6d. per pound. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Carp, Fried.— Clean and empty the fish, dry it well with a cloth, split it open and lay it flat, being careful to remove the gall-stone, which will be found in the head, or it may give a bitterness to the dish. Dredge it weU with flour, and sprinkle salt and cayenne over it, then fry it in plenty of hot butter or dripping till it is lightly browned. Lay it on some blotting paper to drain off the fat. Garnish with fried sippets, and the roes, also fried. Serve with anchovy sauce. Time, about twenty minutes. Sufficient for two persons.

Carp, Fried (another way). — Cut a carp into convenient-sized pieces or fillets; sprinkle over them a little salt, pepper, pounded mace, two small onions finely minced, a teaspoonful of parsley, and one of lemon and thyme. Put them into a stewpan, and squeeze the juice of two lemons over them. Place the carp on a gentle fire, and joartly cook it, moving it about constantly, until it has imbibed the flavouring. Take it out, di-ain it, dredge flour over it, and frj^ in hot lard or butter. Squeeze over it the juice of a lemon. Time, about forty minutes.

I Carp, Grilled.— Scale, gut, and clean the carp, liub them over with oil, -wrap them in weU- oiled writing paper, and broil. Serve with sorrel round them, and a little sauce in a dish. They are more tasty if some finelyminced herbs are put inside the paper, which may be either taken off or left on. A little lemon-juice should be squeezed over them. Grill for about a quarter of an hour.

Carp Pie. — Line the edges of a pie-dish with a good light crust. Stuff a medium-sized carp with oyster forcemeat, sew it up to prevent this escaping, and lay it in the middle of the dish. Put round it pieces of eel about an inch and a half in length, which have been already partly cooked. Take three-quarters of a pint of the liquor in which the eel was stewed, put with it a cupful of port, a little salt and cayenne, an onion stuck with four cloves, and a blade of mace. Let these simmer gently until they are reduced to half a pint of gra\y, which may be thickened with a little flom- and butter. Pour this over the fish, cover with crust, and bake in a moderate oven for one hour. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Carp Roe. — Put the roe of three or four carps into a stewpan, strew a little salt over them, and cover with ^inega^. Boil them for ten or fifteen minutes, then chop them up '\\dth

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half their bulk in bread-crumbs, the finelychopped rind of a lemon, a little salt and cayenne, and a little grated nutmeg. Make them up into cakes, and bake in a Dutch oven, with a little butter, till they ai-e hot. Time to bake, a few minutes.

Carp Roe, Fricasseed.— Take five or

six roes, strew over them a little salt and pepper, and two table-spoonfuls of finelychopped parsley. JMelt three ounces of butter in a stewpan, and put in the roes with a dozen small mushi'ooms, the juice of a small lemon, and a bundle of sweet herbs. Let them stew gently for ten minutes, then add a wine-glass of white wine, and a lump of butter the size of an egg rolled in flom-. Let these simmer for ten minutes more, draw the pan from the fire for a minute, and add half a cupful of cream or new miUc. Serve hot, with the sauce poured over the roes. Time, half an horn-. Sufiicient for two or three persons.

Carp, Sauce for. — Melt a quarter of a pound of butter in a saucepan, and stu* into it very smoothly a dessert-spoonful of flom-, a little gravy, a cupful of good cream, and two anchovies chopped finely. Let it boil, stir it well, then add a table-spoonful of soy, season with salt, and, just before serving, squeeze the juice of a lemon into the sauce.

Carp, Stewed. — Cleanse three or four fish thoroughly. Wash them well with a little vinegar in the water to di-aw out the blood. Split the fish, and cut them into good-sized pieces. Rub them well with a little salt, pepper, and powdered mace. Put them into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover them, a dessert - spoonful of finely -chopped parsley, a cupful of white wine, a bunch of sweet herbs, an onion stuck with two cloves, and a stick of horse-radish. Let them siuimer gently for an hour or more. Talce out the slices of fish, and strain the gravy. Add to it a cupful of cream or new milk, let it boil up, then draw it from the fire for a minute, or two, and add gradually the yolks of two eggs mixed with a little cream. Pour the boiling sauce over the slices of carp, and make a prominent display of the roe.

Carp, Stewed (another way). — Cleanse a carp thoroughly, and cut it into slices, then put it into a stewpan with a quarter of a pound of bacon and a quarter of a pound of veal cut into shces, foiu- small onions stuck with four cloves, two carrots, a sprig of thyme, a bunch of parsley, haK a dozen chives, and, if liked, half a clove of garlic. The vegetables must be sliced and the herbs chopped. Pour a glass- ful of white wine over the carp, and let it simmer for two or three minutes, then add equal parts of white wine and stock, sufficient to cover the fish and vegetables. Let them simmer gently for an hour, thicken the sauce with a little tiour and butter, add pepper, salt, and nutmeg, and boil it, stirring continually, until it is a proper consistency. Time to prepare, one hour and a half. Sufficient for one or two persons.

Carp, Stewed (another way). — Clean thoroughly two carps. Save the roes, and fry

the fish lightly in hot lard, lay them in a stewpan, and cover with a mixtui-e composed equally of wine and stock. Stew gently until sufficiently cooked, then strain the gravy, add salt and pepper, a table-spoonful of ketchup, the

I juice of half a lemon, and a small piece of butter rolled in flom-. Pour the sauce over the

j fish, and garnish with fried roes and toasted sippets. Time to stew, half an hour.

I Carrier Sauce. — Pour a breakfast-cupful of good blown gravy over a table-spoonful of finely-minced shallots. Add a little salt and cayenne, and a table-spoonful of chili vinegar. Simmer gently for about thirty minutes, till the shallots are sufficiently cooked, then strain the sauce, and serve with mutton. Probable cost, 6d. or 8d.

Carrot. — This vegetable is almost invariably sent to table with boiled beef. AVhen the carrots are young, they should be washed and brushed, not scraped, before coolving — and old carrots also are better prepared in this way — then rubbed with a clean coarse cloth after boiling. Young carrots require an hour for cooking, and fully-grown ones from one horn- and a half to two hours. The red is the best part. Li order to ascertain if the root is. sufficiently cooked, stick a foik into it. When they feel soft they are ready for serving. They are excellent for flavouring, and contain a great amount of nourishment.

Carrot Cheesecakes. — Boil a moderatesized carrot until tender. Pound it in a mortar, and pass the pulp through a fine hair sieve. Mix with it an ounce of oiled butter, two dessert-spoonfuls of washed currants, two tablespoonfuls of sugar, half a nutmeg grated, a table-spoonful of fresh curd, and a well-beaten egg. Line some patty-pans with good pufp paste, half fill them with the mixtm-e, and bake in a good oven for twenty minutes. Probable cost, about Id. each.

^ C Carrot Fritters. ^ — Boil a large carrot until it is quite tender. Beat it to a pulp, pass it through a sieve, and mix with it two table-spoonfuls of cream, the same of finelygrated bread-crumbs, and two eggs well beaten. Frj' the mixture in fritters in hot lard or dripping, and serve them with good brown sauce. Sufficient for two persons.

Carrot Jam (to imitate Apricot Jam). — Choose young, deep-coloured carrots ; wash and scrape them, then boil them until the}' are quite tender. Rub them through a colander, then through a sieve, and to every pound of pulp allow one pound of sifted white sugar, half a dozen bitter almonds chopped small, and the grated rind and juice of a lemon. Put these ingredients into a preserving-pan, and let them boil for a few minutes, stirring them constantly, and removing the scum as it rises. WTien cold, add a wine-glassful of brandy for every pound of pulp. Put the jam into jars, and tie it up carefully. With the addition of the brandy, it will keep for some time. Time, six or eight minutes to boil all together.

Carrot Pie. — This is a favourite dish with vegetarians. Wash and slice the carrots, and

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parhoil them. Put them into a dish edged with .1 lii :ht crust. Add pepper and salt, aud pour a little water over them. Cover them with crust, and bake the pie in a moderate oven. Time to hake, thi-ee-quarters of an hour. Probable cost of carrots, 6d. or 8d. per bunch. Sufficient, a moderate-sized pie for si.x persons.

Carrot Pudding, Baked or Boiled.

— Boil some large carrots till they are tender, pass them thi'ough a sieve, and mi.x one pound of the pulp with half a pound of finely-grated bread-crumbs, six ounces of finely-shi-ed suet, and a quarter of a pound each of stoned raisins, washed currants, and brown sugar. ]\Iix these ingredients well together, and add a little gi'ated nutmeg, a large pinch of salt, and three eggs well beaten, together with as much new milk as will make a thick batter. If baked, put the mixture into a buttered pie-dish, and bake it in a moderate oven ; if boiled, put it in a welloiled mould, tie it in a cloth, and boil or steam it. Sei-ve with sweet sauce. Time to bake, one hour and a half ; to boil, three hours. Sufficient for six persons. Probable cost. Is. 4d.

Ca,rrot Sauce. — Take half a pint of good melted butter. Bring it to a boil, then stir into it two table-spoonfuls of mashed carrots, and a little salt and pepper. Time, ten minutes. Probable cost, 4d. Sufficient for two jjounds of stewed cutlets. X^

Carrot Soup. — Put any bones that you may have into three quaiis o;f stock or water, mth three turnips, three onions, a head of celery, or half a tea-spoonful of celery seeds, two bay-leaves, and the red part of ten goodsized carrots, cut off in slices. Stew the vegetables till tender, then take out the carrots, pound them in a mortar, mix with them a little of the liquor, and pass them through a coarse sieve. Strain the rest of the liquid, and retirrn it to the saucepan : put with it the pulped (•aiTots, and let it boil till it is as thick as peasoup. Season with pepper and salt, and serve. Time, four hours. Probable cost, 3d. per quart. Sufficient for six peisons.

Carrot Soup (another way). — Put four 'lunces of fresh butter into a saucepan, allow it to melt, then put into it a large onion cut into thin slices, half a pound of lean ham, also sliced, and the red jiart of twelve caiTots grated. Let these remain over a moderate fire till thov are nicely coloured, stirring them occasionally to prevent them burning. A\Tien ready, add two quarts of nicely-flavoured stock. Simmer the soup for two hours. Remove the ham, strain the soup, and pass the carrot through a fine sieve, then return it to the soup; boil it again, season it with cayenne and salt, and serve. Time, three hours. Probable cost, 5d. per pint. Sufficient for six or eight persons.

Carrot Soup (maigre). — Take two large onions, with eight largo carrots (which have been washed and scraped, the red part cut into thin slices and the yellow part left out), one turnip, two heads of celery, or one tea-spoonful of celery seed, and six ounces of the crumb of bread. Put three quarts of water into a saucepan, with a piece of soda the size of a pea. Let this boil; then put in the above

ingredients, with a little cayenne pepper, salt, and mace. When they are soft, take out the. ^ฆegetables and rub them through a coarse sieve ; replace them, and add to the souji, when boiling, a large breakfast-cupful of cream or new milk. The soup should be as thick as cream. Time, two and a half hours. Probable cost, l|d. per pint. Sufficient for six persons.

Carrots (a la Flamandc).— Take a bunch of young carrots, which alone are suitable, wash them well, cut off the heads and points, and place them in boiling water for iive minutes. Take them out, drain, rub off the skin with a coarse cloth, cut them into very thin slices, and put them into a saucepan with a cupful of water, a little salt and pepper, and a piece of butter the size of a small egg. Cover them closeh', and simmer gently for twenty minutes, shaking the pan occasionally in order that they may be equally cooked. Mix the yolks of two eggswith a cupful of cream, and a desscrt-si^oonful of finely-chopped parsley. Draw the pan from the fire for a couple of minutes, taking oft' the cover, put a table-spoonful or two of the liquid with the eggs and cream, then pour the whole gradually into the saucepan. Stir the sauce until it thickens, and serve the carrots with the sauce poured over them. Time to stew the carrots, half an hour. Probable cost, 8d. per bunch. Sufficient for four or five persons.

Carrots (a la Flamande), another way. — Boil whole, six large carrots until they are quite tender; then stamp them out in stars, wheels, dice, or any other shaj^e, and stew them in a little good melted butter with five small onions, a table-spoonful of finely-chojji^ed parsley, and a little salt and i:)epper. Serve the carrots with the sauce poured over them. Time to boil, one hour and a half. Sufficient, six large carrots for eight persons.

Carrots (a la Peine). — Choose some fine large carrots and cut them into pieces about three inches long ; make them flat at one end and narrow and round at the other, so as to give them the form of cones. Boil them until nearly tender, then place them upright in a saucepan with some good gravy, leaving about an inch of the tops uncovered to prevent their being broken. Boil them until they are sufficiently cooked, take them out, and arrange them in a dish. Thicken the gravy with a little brown thickening, add a pinch of salt and a small piece of sugar to it, and pom- it OA'cr them. Time, one hour and a half.

Carrots, Boiled. — Wash and prepare the carrots. If they arc very large they should be halved and sliced. Tlirow them into plenty of boiling water with salt in it, keep them boiling,, and when a fork can be easily pushed into them they are ready. They may bo boiled in the same saucepan with beef, and a few should be placed round the dish and the rest sent to table in a tureen. Melted butter generally accompanies them. Many persons are fond of cold can-ots with cold beef. They may be easily warmed up by covering them closely and jjutting the dish in which they are x laccd into boilingwater. Time, young carrots, one hour ; f ullygro\vn, one and a half to two hours. Sufficient, four large carrots for six persons.

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Carrots, Fried. — Wash and partly boil the carrots whole; cut them into thin slices, diji them in egg and finely-grated bread-crumbs, and fry in hot butter or lard. Serve them piled high on a dish. Cold carrots may be warmed up this way. Time to f ly, ten minutes. Sufficient, six carrots for five persons.

Carrots in their own Gravy.— Wash,

scrape, and slice the carrots. Put them into boiling salt and water, only just enough to cover them, and when they are tender let them boil fast till only two or three spoonfuls of the liquid remains. Put with the gravy a piece of brown thickening the size of a nut. Shake the saucepan till the gravy is thickened, and serve very hot. Time, one hour and a half. Sufficient, six large carrots for five persons.

Carrots, Mashed.— Scrape off all the skin from some large carrots, and boil them till tender ; mash them smoothly, and return them to the saucepan, beat thoroughly for a few minutes, adding a small piece of butter and a little salt and pepper. Two or three spoonfuls of gravy or a cupful of milk may be added, but in either case let the vegetables remain over the fire, stii-ring them constantly till they are nearly dry. Time, one hour and a half to boil ; ten minutes to dry. Sufficient, six large carrots for five persons.

Carrots, Red Puree of. — Wash and

scrape some fine large carrots. Cut the red part off in thin slices, and boil these for about a quarter of an horn-. Take them out, drain, and put them into a saucepan with an onion stuck with two cloves, a little salt and pepper, a small piece of butter, and just enough stock to cover them. Let them boil gently till tender, then pass them through a coarse sieve. Place the pulp in a stewpan with a quarter of a pound of butter, a little grated nutmeg, a ^mall piece of sugar, and a cupful of stock, and stir until it is thick. The puree may be served with stowed mutton cutlets round it. Time, two hours and a half. Sufficient, eight large carrots for two pounds of cutlets.

Carrots, Sliced and Glazed.— Wash

and scrape some fine large carrots, and cut them into equal slices. Partly boil them in salt and water, drain, and put them into a saucepan with just sufficient stock to cover them, a piece of butter, a little salt, and a good-sized lump of sugar. Boil quickly until the gravy is reduced to glaze. Shake the saucepan over the fire for a few minutes, till all the gravy adheres to the carrots. Time, one hour and a half. Probable cost, 6d. or 8d. per bimch. Sufficient, six large carrots for five persons. Carrots, Stewed. — Wash and slice some large carrots, and simmer them in as much weak broth as -^all cover them till they are nearly tender, then add a cupful of milk, and thicken the sauce with fiour and butter. Season it with pepper and salt. Keep stirring the eontents of the saucepan to prevent them burning. Put the carrots into a hot vegetable dish, and powr the gravy over them. Time, one hour and a half. Sufficient, six large carrots for five persons.

Carrots, Sweet (for a second course). — Boil six or eight large carrots till tender, drain them, and pass them through a coarse hair sieve. Put the pulp into a saucepan, and dry it over a moderate fire for a few minutes, ' stirring it all the time. Mix with it two ounces i of good butter, a pinch of salt, and a tablespoonful of finely-sifted sugar. When this is thoroughly blended, add a cupful of cream or new milk. Serve with toasted sippets. Time, one hour and a half. Sufficient for six persons.

Carrots, To Dress in the German

way. — Melt two ounces of butter in a saucej jjan. Lay in it six carrots cut into thin slices, with a little salt, pepper, grated nutmeg, and a tea-spoonful of finely-minced onion. Let them remain until tender, adding every now and then as it is required a little water or stock. Thicken the sauce with a little flour, and about a quarter of an hour before serving, add one table-sjioonf ul of finely-minced parsley. Time, one hour. Sufficient for five or six persons. .

Cassell Pudding. — Take the weight ef a large egg in powdered sugar, butter, and florn-. Whisk the egg thoroughly. Gradually mix with it the sugar, which must be rubbed well on the rind of a lemon before it is pounded, then the floui-, and the butter partially melted ; add a pinch of salt. Well oil some cups, put a little apricot or other jam at the bottom of each, and fill them three parts with the mixture. Bake immediately in a good oven. Turn the puddings out, and serve them with wine sauce. Time to bake, half an hour. Probable cost for six puddings, 6d. Allow one for each person.

Casserole of Potatoes. — Peel and boil some good mealy potatoes, mash them with a little salt, butter, cream, and the yolk of one egg to every pint of potatoes. Beat them two or three minutes over the fire to dry them thoroughly, then place them on a shallow dish, and work them with the hands into the shape of a raised pie. Leave a hollow in the middle, ornament it with flutings, &c., brush it over with beaten egg, and brown it in a quick oven. Fill the inside with a ragoiit or mince, and serve hot.

Casserole of Rice (English method). —

Wash a pound of the best rice in two or three

waters, and boil it very gently until it is quite

tender but whole. Drain it and beat it well.

If for a sweet casserole, use milk, sugar, a little

butter, and lemon or other flavouring. If in j tended for meat or fish, stew the rice with water

i and fat, and season it with salt, pepper, and

[ nutmeg. When it is ready, put a bordering

about three inches high and three wide round

' the edge of a shallow dish, brush it over with

egg or clarified butter, and set it in the oven to

brown. Then -place in the middle the stew,

curry, or sweets which are jDrepared for it.

Time to boil the rice, three-quarters of an hour.

Probable cost, 6d., exclusi^-e of the interior.

Sufficient for five or six persons.

Casserole of Rice (French method). — Wash one pound of the best Carolina rice in two or three waters. Drain it, and put it into a stewpan with a quart of water, a large onion, a tea-spoonful of salt, and two ounces of fat.

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The skimmings of saucepans will answer for tliis purpose, or fat bacon, but if these are not at hand, use butter. Sinmier very gently till the rice is quite soft but whole. Then draui it, and pound it to a paste. Well butter a baking dish or casserole mould, and press the paste into it. Mark on the top a cover, making the mark rather deep. Pour a little butter over the whole, let it get cold, then turn it out of the mould, and bake it in a very hot oven till it is brightly browned, but not hard. The oven can scarcely be too hot for it. Take off the marked cover about an inch in depth. Scoop out the Eiiddle, and fill it with whatever is prepared for it. This may consist of mincemeat, Irish stew, rechauffed cui'iies, hashes, or macaroni. Pour in a suitable sauce, replace the cover, and before ser\dng, return it to the oven for a few minutes. Time to boU the rice, about thi-eequarters of an hour. Probable cost, exclusive of the mincemeat, 6d. Siifiicicnt for six persons.

Casserole of Eice, with Eggs.— Prepare the rice as in the preceding recii^e. When it has been worked into a stiff paste, line a welloiled mould with it ; a piece of bread may be put inside, shaped properly, to hฎld it up, but care must be taken to leave a compact wall all round. ^\Tien baked, remove the bread, put in the mince or fricassee, and cover the top vnth. poached eggs. Serve very hot. Time, threequarters of an hour to boil the rice. Probable cost, 6d., exclusive of the mixture. Sufficient for six persons.

Casserole, Sweet. — Prepare the rice as before, using milk instead of water, and butter instead of bacon or other fat. The flavouring may consist of lemon, vanilla, or almond, according to taste. "Wlien the pudding is browned, scooj) the rice from the middle, leaving, as before, a firm waU aU around, and fiU the hoUow with jam, or a compote of any fruit. The latter is, we think, much to be preferred. Sift a little pounded sugar over the whole before serving. Time to boil the rice, three-quarters of an horn-. Probable cost, 6d., exclusive of the fruit. Sufficient for a good and pretty dish.

Cassile. — Put a pint of cream &r new milk into a saucepan with the thin rind of a lemon, and three or four lumps of sugar. Let it stand near the fire for a few minutes to di-aw out the flavoiu- of the lemon, then boil it, and pour it, when boiling, over a large table-spoonful of arro^vroot mixed smoothly with two table-spoonfuls of cream. Return it to the saucepan, stir it over the fire for fom- minutes, pour ijito a damp mould, and when cold and finn, turn it into a glass dish, and serve with bright-coloured jam. Time, half an hour. Probable cost, 6d. Sufficient for a small dish.

Cassolettes of Rice.— Prepare the rice as for a casserole (see Casserole). Work it to a smooth paste, and fill some small jelly-pots with it. Mark in each one an inner circle about threequarters of an inch deep for the cover. AVhen cold, tm-n the rice out, brush it over with egg, and brown in a quick oven. Take out the centre, fiU it with a ragout or mince, replace the cover, and serve. Cassolettes are, in fact.

tiny casseroles. Some persons fry instead of baking them, but if this should be done, great care must be taken that they do not break in the process, and the butter or oil must be very hot. Time to fry, ten minutes. Probable cost, 2d. or 3d. each. Allow one for each person.

Caudle. — Caudle is oatmeal gruel, sweetened, with ale, brandy, or wine added to it. It may be made in several ways. The simplest is the following : — Mix a table-spoonful of oatmeal with a cupful of cold water. Pour a pint of boiling water or milk over it, return it to the saucepan, and let it boil for fom- or five minutes,, stirring it aU the time. Add wine, ale, or brandy, according to taste. Sweeten, and season with nutmeg or ginger. This wiU be thin caudle ; if it is wanted thick, two table-spoonfuls of oatmeal must be used. Or, mix two table-spoonfuls of oatmeal in a pint of water. Let it stand one houi-. Then strain, and boil it. Sweeten, and add wine, ale, or brandy, with seasoning to taste. Time to boil, twenty minutes. Caudle maj' be made with flour or ground rice instead of oatmeal. Probable cost, IJd. per pint, exclusive of the wine. Sufficient for one person.

Caudle (another way). — Make a pint of thin oatmeal gruel {see preceding recipe) . Let it boil, then stir into it, very gradually, the yolk of an egg mixed with a little cold water. Add a glass of sherry or port, a little grated nutmeg or lemon-rind, and three or four lumps of sugar. This caudle is wholesome and pleasant. Time, twenty minutes. Probable cost, 3d. per pint, exclusive of the wine. Sufficient for ene person.

Caudle, Cold.— Pour a pint of cold boiled water on the rind of a small lemon, and let it stand for an hour-. Take out the rind and mix in the yolk of an egg well beaten, a cupful of sweet wine, thi-ee or four lumps of sugar, and the lemon-juice. Probable cost, 2Jd., exclusive of the wine. Sufficient for one person.

Caudle, Old Fashioned Brown. —

Stii- two table-spoonfuls of oatmeal into a pint of water, and add the thin rind of a lemon, a blade of mace, and a table- spoonful of brown sugar. Let all boil together, then strain the liquid and add a pint of mild ale. Warm it for use. A little grated ginger is often put into this caudle. Or, make a little oatmeal gruel, sweeten and season it according to taste, and, just before serving, stir into it an equal quantity of fresh porter. Time, twenty minutes. Probable cost, 14d. per pint. Sufficient, one pint for each person.

Cauliflower. — This favourite vegetable should be cut early, while the dew is still upon it. Choose those that are close and white, and of medium size. Whiteness is a sign of quality and freshness. Great care should be tsiken that there are no caterpillars about the stalk, and, to ensui-e this, lay the vegetable with its head do^vnwards in cold water and salt for an hour before boiling it; or, better still, in cold water mixed -wTfth a little vinegar. Ti im away the outer leaves, and cut the stalk quite close. Cauliflowers are in season from the middle of June till the middle of November.

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Cauliflower (a la Fran(,-aise). — Cut away the stalk and the green leaves, and divide a cauliflower into quarters. Put the branches into a little vinegar and water, then put them .into a stewpan with some boilinu; water, with a table-spoonful of salt in it, and let them boil until they are done. This may be ascertained liy taking a little piece between the finger and thumb, and if, though still firm, it give away easily, it is sufficiently cooked. Drain the cauliflower and arrange it neatly in a dish. Pour over it a pint of good melted butter. Time to boil, about twelve minutes. Probable cost, 4d. for a medium-sized cauliflower. Sufiicient, one for two persons.

Cauliflower (a la Sauce Blanche). — Cut the stalks ofl: close, trim the leaves, and put the cauliflower into a little vinegar and water to draw out the insects. Put it head downwards in boiling salt and water, and boil it till it is done. As cauliflowers will continue to cook, though more slowly, if left in hot Avater, if they are a little too soon, they may be taken off the fire before they are quite ready. Take a little piece of the stalk between the finger and thumb, and if it yields easily it is done. Drain the vegetable and ai-range it in a hot dish, and jjour over it a little French white sauce {see Sauce Blanche) . Time, fifteen to twenty minutes. Sufiicient, one medium-sized cauliflower for two persons. Probable cost, 4d. or 6d.

Cauliflower, Boiled. — Cut the stalk

close to thi:! buttom, and pare away the tops of the leaves, leaving a circle of shortened leafstalks all round. Put the cauliflower iiead downwards into a little vinegar and water for a quarter of an hour, as this ฆwill be sure to di-aw out the insects. Put it into a pan of boUing water, with a table-spoonful of salt in it. Some persons prefer milk and water. Remove the scum carefully as it rises, or the cauliflower will be discoloured. Boil tiU tender. This may be ascertained by taking a little piece -of the stalk between the finger and thumb, and if it yields easily to pressure it is ready. Drain, and serve. Put a lump of butter the size of an egg into a saucepan with a breakfastcupful of cold water. Add gradually a heaped tea-spoonful of flour, mi.x smoothly, boil, and strain over the vegetable. Time: a large cauliflower, fifteen to twenty-five minutes ; a small one, twelve to fifteen minutes. As cauliflowers will continue cooking, though slowly, if left in the water in the stewpan, it is important that they should be taken oft" the fire before they are quite done, unless they can be served immediately. Sufiicient, a small one for one person. Probable cost, Sd. to 6d.

Cauliflower, Moulded, with Sauce.

— Boil four large white cauliflowers in a little thin flour and water until tender, then cut oft' the stalks and press them head downwards into a hot basin. Turn them into a tureen, and pour round them a little tomato or piquante sauce. Before serving, place the stalks neatly round them. They should look like one immense cauliflower. Time, fifteen to twenty-five minutes to boil. Sufficient for six or eight persons. Probable cost, 4d. or 6d. each.

Cauliflower, Pickled. — This pickle should be made about the beginning of August. Choose firm, fresh, white heads, and let them be cut on a dry day. Pare away the leaves and the stem, and place the flowers for five minvites in. boiling water, but do not let them boil up, Drain them, and cut them into convenient-sized pieces, and leave them on a sieve to diy. Half till the jars, and fill them with cold vinegar in which spices have been boiled, allowing a quart of vinegar to two ounces of peppercorns, a drachm of cayenne, an ounce of ginger, and lialf an ounce of mace. Cover closely. Probable cost, Is. per pint jar.

Cauliflower Sauce.— Make a pint of

good white sauce. Boil a cauliflower till tender, I drain, and chop it small, then stir it into the I boiling sauce, let it remain over the fire for a j minute or two, and serve. Time, from twenty to thirty minutes. Probable cost, from 4d. to 6d. per head. Sufficient for a pint and a half I of sauce.

I Cauliflower Soup (maigre). — Put a

I quarter of a pound of butter into a stewpan, let it melt, then stir into it very smoothly, three dessert-spoonfuls of curry powder, and a teaspoonful of celery seed. Slice into it a large

I cauliflower, a large onion, and a table-spoonful of French beans. Fry the vegetables gently for a few minutes, then add, gradually, three pints of boiling water, or the water in which cauliflowers have been boiled. Simmer gently till the vegetables are reduced to a pulp, then strain the soup, and return it to the saucepan. Add a little salt and pepper. Put in a few

i sprigs of boiled cauliflower before serving it. A glass of white wine will improve the soup. Serve with boiled rice, and lay a slice of the crumb of bread toasted at the bottom of the tureen. Time, two hours. Probable cost. Is. 2d. for this quantity. Sufficient for three or foiupersons.

Cauliflower, w;itli Stufiing.— Choose a

saucepan the exact size of the dish intended to be used. Cleanse a large, fii-m, white cauliflower, and cut it into sprigs ; throw these into boilingsalt and water for two minutes ; then take them out, drain, and pack them tightly with the heads downwards, in the saucepan, the ; bottom of which must have been previously I covered with thin slices of bacon Fill uj) the ] vacant spaces with a stuffing made of three i table-spoonfuls of finely-minced veal, the same of beef suet, four table-spoonfuls of breadcrumbs, a little popper and salt, a tea-spoonful of chopped parsley, a tea-spoonful of minced chives, and a dozen small mushrooms chopped small. Strew these ingredients over the cauliflowers in alternate layers, and pour over them three well-beaten eggs. When these are well soaked, add sufficient nicely-flavoured stock to cover the whole. Simmer gently till the cauliflowers are tender, and the sauce very much reduced ; then turn the contents of the saucepan upside down on a hot dish, and the cauliflowers will be found standing in a savoury mixture. Time, three-quarters of an hour. Probable cost, 4d. or 6d. for a large cauliflower. Sufficient for four or five persons.

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Cauliflowers (au Gratin). — Cleanse, trim, and qiiailcr one or two largo cauliflowers. Throw tLoai into boiling water, and let them remain for live minutes; drain and boil them in plenty of salted water until they are ready. Whilst they are boiling mis smoothly together in a stewpan an ounce of butter and an ounce of flour, add a pint and a quarter of water, and a little pepper and salt. Let the sauce boil, and stir it over the lire for ten minutes. Put in with it an ounce of grated Parmesan cheese and an ounce of Gruj^ere cheese, and boil it Ave minutes longer. Cut the cauliflov ers into neat pieces ; lay half of these in a tureen, pour a little of the sauce over them, and add the remainder of the vegetables and the !ฆ( .st of the sauce. Sprinkle a large table-spoonful C)l bread-raspings, and another of grated Parmesan over the top, and bake the preparation in a hot oven until it is nicely browned. Serve very hot. Time to brown, quarter of an hour. Probable cost, Is. 2d. Sufficient for four or five IKTSons.

Cauliflowers, with Parmesan

Cheese.— Chooso three or four young, firm, wjiite cauliflowers, cut off the stalks and the stems, making them flat, so that they will stand iiiccly in the dish. Cleanse them thoroughly, and boil them until tender, but not sufficiently so to run any risk ef their breaking. Dish them so as to make them look like one cauliflower, and powder them thickly with grated Parmesan cheese. Pour a good sauce over this. When it is firmly set, add another layer of cheese, and strew over this some finely - gi'ated breadcrumbs. The sauce may be made thus : — Rub a table-spoonful of flour into a quarter of a pound of butter, mix it smoothly over the fire, and add very gradually a breakfast-cupful of water, one pinch of salt, and a small pinch of pepper. Stir it constantly till it boils, then take it from the fire for a minute or two, and add slowly the yolk of an egg mixed with the juice of haH a lemon and a tea-spoonful of water. Stir until the whole is well mixed. Brown the cauliflower with a salamander or in a hot oven, pour a little sauce round, and serve hot, as a third eom-se dish. Time to boil the cauliflower, twelve to twenty minutes. Probal)le cost, 4d. or 6d. each. Sufficient for six persons.

Caveach Fish. — Clean some large fish, either cod, salmon, or mackerel, and cut them into slices. Rub each slice well with pepper, salt, and nutmeg ; and fry them in hot butter